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Sample records for acetate prasterone pregabalin

  1. Pregabalin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat certain types of seizures in people with epilepsy. Pregabalin is in a class of medications called ... you are taking pregabalin for the treatment of epilepsy, mental illness, or other conditions. A small number ...

  2. [Pregabalin Dependence: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Ebru; Alt?ntoprak, Ay?e Ender; Co?kunol, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin is a new generation antiepileptic that exerts its effect by decreasing the release of such neurotransmitters as glutamate, noradrenaline, and substance P. Pregabalin can be prescribed in Turkey at 150-600 mg to treat neuropathic pain, generalized anxiety disorder, and fibromyalgia, and as concomitant therapy in adult patients with partial epilepsy. Experimental studies have shown that pregabalin could be beneficial in the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence and withdrawal, as well as for relapse prevention in patients with alcohol dependence. Nonetheless, the number of case reports on the abuse potential of pregabalin has increased. Herein we present a patient with pregabalin dependence. The patient?s underlying alcohol and polysubstance dependence, and symptoms of generalized anxiety were thought to contribute to the development of pregabalin dependence. The patient reported that he had experienced severe withdrawal symptoms when he tried to stop using pregabalin. Bupropion and low-dose quetiapine were added to his paroxetine treatment, and pregabalin was discontinued gradually. Following this treatment the patient had not exhibited any signs of pregabalin dependence for one month. Although pregabalin is a promising drug for various psychiatric disorders, it should be used carefully in patients with a history of substance dependence. PMID:26364177

  3. Intravaginal prasterone (DHEA) provides local action without clinically significant changes in serum concentrations of estrogens or androgens.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Fernand; Martel, Céline; Bérubé, René; Côté, Isabelle; Labrie, Claude; Cusan, Leonello; Gomez, José-Luis

    2013-11-01

    In order to avoid the risks of non-physiological systemic exposure, serum concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (as measured by mass spectrometry-based assays) should remain below the 95th centiles measured at 9.3pg/ml and 0.26ng/ml for these respective sex steroids in normal postmenopausal women. To document the possibility of achieving this therapeutic objective, we have measured individual 24h serum E2 and testosterone concentrations in women with vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) receiving daily intravaginal administration of a clinically effective dose of 6.5mg prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). Serum E2 and testosterone, as well as DHEA and nine of its other metabolites, were assayed at ten time intervals over 24h on the first and seventh days of daily vaginal administration of 6.5mg prasterone. No significant change from baseline of average 24h serum E2 or testosterone concentrations was observed. Moreover, average 24h serum DHEA remained within the normal postmenopausal range. Estrone sulfate and the androgen metabolites androsterone glucuronide and androstane-3?, 17?-diol glucuronide did not change, thus confirming the absence of any biologically relevant systemic exposure to estrogens and androgens, respectively. Serum concentrations of metabolites of both estrogens and androgens remain within the normal postmenopausal range following daily intravaginal administration of 6.5mg prasterone. As other studies have shown, local formation of sex steroids in peripheral tissues without significant release of E2 or testosterone in the circulation can be achieved with intravaginal prasterone. Thus, prasterone is a promising physiological and attractive solution to treating VVA symptoms. PMID:23954500

  4. Pregabalin in acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Agarwal, Anil; Khanna, Puneet; Arora, Mahesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Pregabalin is a gamma-amino-butyric acid analog shown to be effective in several models of neuropathic pain, incisional injury, and inflammatory injury. In this review, the role of pregabalin in acute postoperative pain and in chronic pain syndromes has been discussed. Multimodal perioperative analgesia with the use of gabapentinoids has become common. Based on available evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis, the perioperative administration of pregabalin reduces opioid consumption and opioid-related adverse effects in the first 24 h following surgery. Postoperative pain intensity is however not consistently reduced by pregabalin. Adverse effects like visual disturbance, sedation, dizziness, and headache are associated with higher doses. The advantage of the perioperative use of pregabalin is so far limited to laparoscopic, gynecological, and daycare surgeries which are not very painful. The role of the perioperative administration of pregabalin in preventing chronic pain following surgery, its efficacy in more painful surgeries and surgeries done under regional anesthesia, and the optimal dosage and duration of perioperative pregabalin need to be studied. The efficacy of pregabalin in chronic pain conditions like painful diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, central neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia has been demonstrated. PMID:21897498

  5. Influence of treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy with intravaginal prasterone on the male partner.

    PubMed

    Labrie, F; Montesino, M; Archer, D F; Lavoie, L; Beauregard, A; Côté, I; Martel, C; Vaillancourt, M; Balser, J; Moyneur, E

    2015-12-01

    Objective The aim was to analyze the opinion of the male partner of women treated for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) with intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (prasterone), thus providing information on both members of the couple. Methods On a voluntary basis, in a prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled phase-III clinical trial, the male partner filled a questionnaire at baseline and at 12 weeks stating his observations related to his penis and intercourse before and after VVA treatment. Results Sixty-six men having a partner treated with intravaginal DHEA and 34 others having a partner treated with placebo answered the questionnaires. Concerning the feeling of vaginal dryness of their female partner, the severity score following DHEA treatment improved by 81% (0.76 units) over placebo (p?=?0.0347). Thirty-six percent of men having a partner treated with DHEA did not feel the vaginal dryness of the partner at the end of treatment compared to 7.8% in the placebo group. When analyzing the situation at 12 weeks compared to baseline, an improved score of 1.09 units was the difference found for the DHEA group compared to 0.76 for the placebo group (p?=?0.05 vs. placebo). In the DHEA group, 38% of men scored very improved compared to 18% in the placebo group. No adverse event has been reported. Conclusion The male partner had a very positive evaluation of the treatment received by his female partner. PMID:26517756

  6. Pregabalin in the management of partial epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Amir M

    2009-01-01

    Pregabalin is a new antiepileptic medication that works by binding to alpha 2 delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channels present in presynaptic neurons. Its pharmacokinetic advantages include rapid and almost complete absorption, lack of protein binding, linear kinetics, absence of enzyme induction, and absence of interactions with other drugs. Pregabalin was found effective as adjunctive therapy for refractory partial-onset seizures, with up to 51% responder at a dose of 600 mg/day. The lowest effective dose was 150 mg/day. Pregabalin is also approved for treatment of painful diabetic polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia and pain with fibromyalgia. Studies also suggest a beneficial effect on sleep and generalized anxiety disorders. Its main adverse effects in randomized adjunctive trials in adults have been mild to moderate. Most common side effects were dizziness, ataxia, somnolence and diplopia. Weight gain was not prominent in pivotal pregabalin trials, but was more problematic in long-term postmarketing analyses in epilepsy patients. Pregabalin, with its potent antiseizure effect, favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and effectiveness in common co-morbidities is an important addition to the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:19721720

  7. A review of the effects of pregabalin on sleep disturbance across multiple clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Arnold, Lesley M; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Resnick, Malca; Clair, Andrew G

    2014-06-01

    Pregabalin is approved for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions and its analgesic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties are well documented. Pregabalin's effects on sleep, however, are less well known. This review summarizes the published data on the effects of pregabalin on sleep disturbance associated with neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, restless legs syndrome, partial onset seizures and general anxiety disorder. The data demonstrate that pregabalin has a positive benefit on sleep disturbance associated with several different clinical conditions. Polysomnographic data reveal that pregabalin primarily affects sleep maintenance. The evidence indicates that pregabalin has a direct effect on sleep that is distinct from its analgesic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24119681

  8. The Efficacy of Preemptive Analgesia With Pregabalin in Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon Ho; Seo, Min Young; Hong, Sang Duk; Lee, Jungbok; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Hyo Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pregabalin is used to treat neuropathic pain and has shown analgesic properties in postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of pregabalin in reducing postoperative pain in patients after septoplasty. Methods Forty-seven patients scheduled for elective septoplasty were randomly assigned to groups that received either pregabalin (150 mg) or placebo, both one hour before surgery and 12 hours after the initial dose. Pain (verbal numerical rating scale, VNRS) and side effect assessments were performed at 6, 12, 12 to 24, and 24 to 48 hours postoperatively. Results From 1 to 12 hours postoperatively, VNRS scores for pain were lower in the pregabalin group (n=24) than in the placebo group (n=23; P<0.05). The number of patients who needed rescue analgesics was lower in the pregabalin group (P=0.042). The incidence of nausea and vomiting did not differ between groups (P=0.666), and the incidence of sedation was higher in the placebo groups (P=0.022). Conclusion The perioperative administration of oral pregabalin (150 mg twice) is an effective and safe way to reduce early postoperative pain in patients undergoing septoplasty. PMID:24917905

  9. Effects of pregabalin on sleep in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Prieto, Rita

    2013-05-01

    Sleep disturbance is a cardinal symptom in both DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This review summarizes the results of clinical trials and pooled analyses that provide data on pregabalin's effect on sleep disturbance in patients diagnosed with GAD. The hypothesized mechanism of action of pregabalin is distinctly different from other anxiolytics. Pregabalin binds to a membrane ?2? subunit protein to inhibit release in excited central nervous system neurons of neurotransmitters implicated in pathological anxiety. Treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across seven placebo-controlled clinical trials. Treatment with pregabalin is associated with improvement in all forms of insomnia and improvement in sleep has been found to be correlated with reduction in functional impairment and improvement in quality of life on subjective global measures. Results of a mediational analysis suggest that 53% of the effect of pregabalin on sleep disturbance was due to a direct effect and 47% was due to an indirect effect, mediated through prior reduction in anxiety symptom severity. In patients with GAD, improvement in sleep has been found to be associated with a reduction in daytime sleepiness. However, dose-related sedation is reported, typically in the first 2 wk of treatment, in approximately 10-30% of patients, depending on the dose used and the speed of titration. Insomnia is a common component of the clinical presentation of GAD and pregabalin appears to be an efficacious treatment for this often chronic and disabling symptom. PMID:23009881

  10. Milnacipran combined with pregabalin in fibromyalgia: a randomized, open-label study evaluating the safety and efficacy of adding milnacipran in patients with incomplete response to pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Mildred V.; Palmer, Robert H.; Gendreau, R. Michael; Trugman, Joel M.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adding milnacipran to pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia who have experienced an incomplete response to pregabalin. Methods: In this randomized, multicenter, open-label study, patients received pregabalin 300 or 450 mg/day during a 4- to 12-week run-in period. Patients with weekly recall visual analog scale (VAS) pain score of at least 40 and up to 90, Patient Global Impression of Severity score of at least 4, and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) score of at least 3 were classified as incomplete responders and randomized to continue pregabalin alone (n = 180) or receive milnacipran 100 mg/day added to pregabalin (n = 184). The primary efficacy parameter was responder status based on PGIC score of up to 2. The secondary efficacy parameter was change from randomization in weekly recall VAS pain score. Safety parameters included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, and clinical laboratory tests. Results: The percentage of PGIC responders was significantly higher with milnacipran added to pregabalin (46.4%) than with pregabalin alone (20.8%; p < 0.001). Mean improvement from randomization in weekly recall VAS pain scores was greater in patients receiving milnacipran added to pregabalin (?20.77) than in patients receiving pregabalin alone (?6.43; p < 0.001). During the run-in period, the most common treatment-emergent AEs with pregabalin were dizziness (22.8%), somnolence (17.3%), and fatigue (9.1%). During the randomized period, the most common treatment-emergent AEs with milnacipran added to pregabalin were nausea (12.5%), fatigue (10.3%), and constipation (9.8%). Conclusions: In this exploratory, open-label study, adding milnacipran to pregabalin improved global status, pain, and other symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia with an incomplete response to pregabalin treatment. PMID:23858335

  11. Effect of Pregabalin and Dexamethasone on Postoperative Analgesia after Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Demirhan, Abdullah; Akkaya, Akcan; Tekelioglu, Umit Yasar; Apuhan, Tayfun; Bilgi, Murat; Yurttas, Veysel; Bayir, Hakan; Yildiz, Isa; Gok, Uzeyir; Kocoglu, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to explore effect of a combination of pregabalin and dexamethasone on pain control after septoplasty operations. Methods. In this study, 90 patients who were scheduled for septoplasty under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into groups that received either placebo (Group C), pregabalin (Group P), or pregabalin and dexamethasone (Group PD). Preoperatively, patients received either pregabalin 300?mg one hour before surgery, dexamethasone 8?mg intravenously during induction, or placebo according to their allocation. Postoperative pain treatment included tramadol and diclofenac sodium 30 minutes before the end of the operation. Numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain assessment, side effects, and consumption of tramadol, pethidine, and ondansetron were recorded. Results. The median NRS score at the postoperative 0 and the 2nd?h was significantly higher in Group C than in Group P and Group PD (P ? 0.004 for both). The 24?h tramadol and pethidine, consumptions were significantly reduced in Groups P and PD compared to Group C (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). The incidence of blurred vision was significantly higher in Group PD compared to Group C within both 0–2?h and 0–24?h periods (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, resp.). Conclusions. We conclude that administration of 300 mg pregabalin preoperatively may be an adequate choice for pain control after septoplasty. Addition of dexamethasone does not significantly reduce pain in these patients. PMID:24876957

  12. A protocol for a systematic review for perioperative pregabalin use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Perioperative pain management has recently been revolutionized with the recognition of novel mechanisms and introduction of newer drugs. Many randomized trials have studied the use of the gabapentinoid anti-epileptic, pregabalin, in acute pain. Published systematic reviews suggest that using pregabalin for perioperative pain management may decrease analgesic requirements and pain scores, at the expense of troublesome side effects. A major limitation of the extant reviews is the lack of rigorous investigation of clinical characteristics that would maximize the benefit harms ratio in favor of surgical patients. We posit that effects of pregabalin for perioperative pain management vary by the type of surgical pain model and propose this systematic review protocol to update previous systematic reviews and investigate the heterogeneity in findings across subgroups of surgical pain models. Methods/Design Using a peer-reviewed search strategy, we will search key databases for clinical trials on perioperative pregabalin use in adults. The electronic searches will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies. No limits of language, country or year will be imposed. Outcomes will include pain; use of co-analgesia, particularly opioids; enhanced recovery; and drug-related harms. We will focus on the identification of surgical models and patient characteristics that have shown benefit and adverse effects from pregabalin. Two clinical experts will independently screen the studies for inclusion using eligibility criteria established a priori. Data extracted by the reviewers will then be verified. Publication bias will be assessed, as will risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Meta-analysis and meta-regression are planned if the studies are deemed statistically, methodologically and clinically homogenous. Evidence will be graded for its strength for a select number of outcomes. Discussion We will explore the findings of perioperative clinical trials studying the use of pregabalin for acute pain. We will comment on the implications of the findings and provide further direction for the appropriate use of pregabalin in acute pain. This protocol will attempt to bridge the growing gap between clinical experience and emerging evidence, and has the potential to aid future guideline development in the perioperative use of pregabalin. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number CRD42012002078 PMID:22974405

  13. Effect of Pregabalin in Preventing Secondary Damage in Traumatic Brain Injury: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Calikoglu, Cagatay; Aytekin, Hikmet; Akgül, Osman; Akgül, Mehmet Hüseyin; Gezen, Ahmet Ferruh; Akyuz, Feyzullah; Cakir, Murteza

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study we aimed to explore the effects of pregabalin on a traumatic brain injury model in rats. Material/Methods This study included 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats randomized into 4 groups, each of which contained equal numbers of animals. The control group had no head trauma and thus was not treated. The trauma group had head trauma but was not treated. The pregabalin group had no head trauma but was treated by pregabalin. The trauma + pregabalin group had head trauma treated with pregabalin. The biopsy samples taken from the study animals were histopathologically examined for the presence of edema, inflammation, and neuronal damage. Results All animals in the trauma group had edema, inflammation, and neuronal damage. Four subjects in the control group, 6 in the pregabalin group, and 4 in the trauma + pregabalin group had edema; inflammation was present in 1 subject in the control group, 3 subjects in the pregabalin group, and 3 subjects in the trauma + pregabalin group; neuronal damage existed in 1 subject in the control group, 1 subject in the pregabalin group, and 6 subjects in the trauma + pregabalin group. The trauma group had significantly higher edema and neuronal damage scores than the other groups. Similarly, inflammation was significantly more prevalent in the trauma group than the control and trauma + pregabalin groups. Conclusions The results of the present study indicated anti-edema, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of pregabalin in an experimental head trauma model in rats. Pregabalin may thus be beneficial in humans with acute TBI by relieving concomitant edema and inflammation. PMID:25785578

  14. Pregabalin for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: an update

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, David S; Ajel, Khalil; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Nowak, Magda; Rafiq, Rizwan

    2013-01-01

    A previous review summarized what was then known about the potential role of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in “over-excited” presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD. PMID:23836974

  15. Misuse and abuse of pregabalin and gabapentin: cause for concern?

    PubMed

    Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-06-01

    Gabapentinoids (e.g. pregabalin and gabapentin) are widely used in neurology, psychiatry and primary healthcare but are increasingly being reported as possessing a potential for misuse. In fact, increasing levels of both prescriptions and related fatalities, together with an anecdotally growing black market, have been reported from a range of countries. This article reviews the current evidence base of this potential, in an attempt to answer the question of whether there is cause for concern about these drugs. Potent binding of pregabalin/gabapentin at the calcium channel results in a reduction in the release of excitatory molecules. Furthermore, gabapentinoids are thought to possess GABA-mimetic properties whilst possibly presenting with direct/indirect effects on the dopaminergic 'reward' system. Overall, pregabalin is characterized by higher potency, quicker absorption rates and greater bioavailability levels than gabapentin. Although at therapeutic dosages gabapentinoids may present with low addictive liability levels, misusers' perceptions for these molecules to constitute a valid substitute for most common illicit drugs may be a reason of concern. Gabapentinoid experimenters are profiled here as individuals with a history of recreational polydrug misuse, who self-administer with dosages clearly in excess (e.g. up to 3-20 times) of those that are clinically advisable. Physicians considering prescribing gabapentinoids for neurological/psychiatric disorders should carefully evaluate a possible previous history of drug abuse, whilst being able to promptly identify signs of pregabalin/gabapentin misuse and provide possible assistance in tapering off the medication. PMID:24760436

  16. Two sisters with Reed's syndrome: treatment with pregabalin.

    PubMed

    Yaldiz, Mahizer; Metin, Murcan; Erdem, Mustafa Teoman; Dikicier, Bahar Sevimli; Kahyaoglu, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas, which originate in the arrector pili muscles of the skin are rarely seen benign cutaneous tumors. Sometimes familial cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis can occur together, an autosomal dominant genetic condition called Reed syndrome or familial leiomyomatosis cutis et uteri. This disorder can be accompanied by malignancies, particularly by renal carcinoma. In this paper, two sisters with Reed syndrome are presented in view of the rarity of the disorder and good response to pregabalin therapy. PMID:26437289

  17. Pregabalin in Neuropathic Pain: Evidences and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vivek; Singh, Nirmal; Singh Jaggi, Amteshwar

    2014-01-01

    Pregabalin is an antagonist of voltage gated Ca2+ channels and specifically binds to alpha-2-delta subunit to produce antiepileptic and analgesic actions. It successfully alleviates the symptoms of various types of neuropathic pain and presents itself as a first line therapeutic agent with remarkable safety and efficacy. Preclinical studies in various animal models of neuropathic pain have shown its effectiveness in treating the symptoms like allodynia and hyperalgesia. Clinical studies in different age groups and in different types of neuropathic pain (peripheral diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, cancer chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain) have projected it as the most effective agent either as monotherapy or in combined regimens in terms of cost effectiveness, tolerability and overall improvement in neuropathic pain states. Preclinical studies employing pregabalin in different neuropathic pain models have explored various molecular targets and the signaling systems including Ca2+ channel-mediated neurotransmitter release, activation of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), potassium channels and inhibition of pathways involving inflammatory mediators. The present review summarizes the important aspects of pregabalin as analgesic in preclinical and clinical studies as well as focuses on the possible mechanisms. PMID:24533015

  18. Safety of pregabalin among hemodialysis patients suffering from uremic pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Alhafez, Abdul Aziz; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Bin Chia, David Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and probability of adverse events associated with the use of 75 mg pregabalin post hemodialysis (pHD) among patients with UP. Methods: A cross-sectional study done among the hemodialysis patients suffering from uremic pruritus (UP) Aljaber Kidney Center (AJKC), Al-Ahsa, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Assessment for the safety profile of pregabalin was done using Naranjo’s algorithm. A predictive model was developed using binary multiple logistic regression to explore association of patients’ demographics and risk factors with the occurrence of AEs. Throughout statistical significance level was considered significant at 0.05. Key findings: Assessment of safety of pregabalin revealed that somnolence and dizziness were the two frequent adverse events followed by constipation, weight gain and edema. However, it was noticed that female patients aged less than 50 years were found to be at a higher risk in comparison with men. Moreover, those patients having one comorbid complication (i.e. hypertension or diabetes mellitus alone) were at a higher risk of somnolence, weight gain and dry mouth. Conclusion: Naranjo’s quantification for the possibility and probability of adverse events reflect that all the events were probable. Age, gender and comorbid medical conditions are some of the factors that might have clinical association with the occurrence of the AEs.

  19. The Role of NMDARs Ligands on Antinociceptive Effects of Pregabalin in the Tail Flick Test

    PubMed Central

    Meymandi, Manzumeh-Shamsi; Keyhanfar, Fariborz; Yazdanpanah, Omid; Heravi, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregabalin as a new anticonvulsant has been used in different pain treatments. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ligands in antinociceptive effect of pregabalin in mice using tail flick. Materials and Methods: NMDA (15 and 30 mg/kg) as an agonist or MK801 (0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg) as an antagonist were injected intraperitoneally either alone or 15 minutes before antinociceptive dose of pregabalin (100 mg/kg). Then the latency times and %MPE were measured in the tail flick assay during 75 minutes. Results: NMDA and MK801 had no effects alone. NMDA pretreatment significantly decreased the latency times of pregabalin till 75th minutes. In NMDA pretreated groups, %MPE30 unlike %MPE75 decreased significantly compared to those of pregabalin. MK801 delayed the latency times in pretreated groups, but %MPE30 and %MPE75 did not change significantly compared to pregabalin alone. Conclusions: Our findings support the role of NMDARs in pregabalin antinociception, because the NMDAR agonist, unlike the antagonist, decreased the antinociceptive effect of pregabalin, even if tail flick is not an adequate pain assessment method in this regard. PMID:26587404

  20. Pregabalin: latest safety evidence and clinical implications for the management of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Used mainly for the management of neuropathic pain, pregabalin is a gabapentinoid or anticonvulsant that was initially developed as an antiepileptic agent. After more than a decade of experience with pregabalin, experience and studies have shown that the adverse effect profile of pregabalin is well tolerated for the management of neuropathic pain and other conditions. Its use is associated with benign central nervous system and systemic adverse effects, and there are very limited metabolic, idiosyncratic or known teratogenic adverse effects. Along with its efficacy in particular neuropathic pain conditions, pregabalin’s safety led it to be one of the first pharmacotherapies considered for the management of neuropathic pain. This review discusses the use of pregabalin as well as its potential adverse effects, including the most commonly noted features of sedation, dizziness, peripheral edema and dry mouth. Although other adverse effects may occur, these appear to be uncommon. The review also discusses the clinical implications of pregabalin’s use for the clinician. PMID:25083261

  1. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in generalised anxiety disorder: A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; den Boer, Johan A; Lyndon, Gavin; Emir, Birol; Schweizer, Edward; Haswell, Hannah

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to summarise the literature on the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Of 241 literature citations, 13 clinical trials were identified that were specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in GAD, including 11 randomised double-blind trials and two open-label studies. Pregabalin efficacy has been consistently demonstrated across the licensed dose range of 150-600 mg/day. Efficacy has been reported for pregabalin monotherapy in elderly patients with GAD, patients with severe anxiety, and for adjunctive therapy when added to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor in patients who have failed to respond to an initial course of antidepressant therapy. The two most common adverse events with pregabalin are somnolence and dizziness, both of which appear to be dose-related. Pregabalin appears to have a low potential for causing withdrawal symptoms when long-term therapy is discontinued; however, tapering over the course of at least one week is recommended. A review of available evidence indicates that pregabalin is a well-tolerated and consistently effective treatment for GAD, with a unique mechanism of action that makes it a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:26259772

  2. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  3. Pregabalin for the treatment of postoperative pain: results from three controlled trials using different surgical models

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Neil K; Chelly, Jacques E; Lionberger, David R; Gimbel, Joseph; Sanin, Luis; Sporn, Jonathan; Yang, Ruoyong; Cheung, Raymond; Knapp, Lloyd; Parsons, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin (150 or 300 mg/d) as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of postoperative pain. Patients and methods This study reports findings from three separate, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of adjunctive pregabalin for the treatment of postoperative pain. Patients underwent one of three categories of surgical procedures (one procedure per study): elective inguinal hernia repair (post-IHR); elective total knee arthroplasty (post-TKA); or total abdominal hysterectomy (posthysterectomy). The primary endpoint in each trial, mean worst pain over the past 24 hours, was assessed 24 hours post-IHR and posthysterectomy, and 48 hours post-TKA. Patients rated their pain on a scale from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater pain severity. Results In total, 425 (post-IHR), 307 (post-TKA), and 501 (posthysterectomy) patients were randomized to treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between the pregabalin and placebo groups with respect to the primary endpoint in any of the three trials. The least squares mean difference in worst pain, between 300 mg/d pregabalin and placebo, was ?0.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] =?1.4, ?0.1; Hochberg adjusted P=0.067) post-IHR; ?0.34 (95% CI =?1.07, 0.39; P=0.362) post-TKA; and ?0.2 (95% CI =?0.66, 0.31; P=0.471) posthysterectomy. Conclusion There were no significant differences between pregabalin and placebo with respect to the primary pain intensity measure in each of the three clinical trials. These studies encompass a large dataset (1,233 patients in total), and their results should be considered when assessing pregabalin’s effectiveness in postoperative pain. Further studies are required to determine the potential pain-reducing benefit of pregabalin in the postoperative setting. PMID:25565885

  4. A randomized controlled trial to compare pregabalin with gabapentin for postoperative pain in abdominal hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Anju; Gupta, Monika; Hooda, Sarla; Singla, Dinesh; Wadhera, Raman

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregabalin is a potent ligand for alpha-2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels in the central nervous system, which exhibits potent anticonvulsant, analgesic and anxiolytic activity. The pharmacological activity of pregabalin is similar to that of gabapentin and shows possible advantages. Although it shows analgesic efficacy against neuropathic pain, very limited evidence supports its postoperative analgesic efficacy. We investigated its analgesic efficacy in patients experiencing acute pain after abdominal hysterectomy and compared it with gabapentin and placebo. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 90 women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy who were anaesthetized in a standardized fashion. Patients received 300 mg pregabalin, 900 mg gabapentin or placebo, 1–2 hours prior to surgery. Postoperative analgesia was administered at visual analogue scale (VAS) ?3. The primary outcome was analgesic consumption over 24 hours and patients were followed for pain scores, time to rescue analgesia and side effects as secondary outcomes. Results: The diclofenac consumption was statistically significant between pregabalin and control groups, and gabapentin and control groups; however, pregabalin and gabapentin groups were comparable. Moreover, the consumption of tramadol was statistically significant among all the groups. Patients in pregabalin and gabapentin groups had lower pain scores in the initial hour of recovery. However, pain scores were subsequently similar in all the groups. Time to first request for analgesia was longer in pregabalin group followed by gabapentin and control groups. Conclusion: A single dose of 300 mg pregabalin given 1–2 hours prior to surgery is superior to 900 mg gabapentin and placebo after abdominal hysterectomy. Both the drugs are better than placebo. PMID:21957402

  5. The Effectiveness of Pregabalin for Post-Tonsillectomy Pain Control: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Seog; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Nam, In-Chul; Lee, Il-Hwan; Hwang, Jae-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Background Although various analgesics have been used, postoperative pain remains one of the most troublesome aspects of tonsillectomy for patients. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of premedication using pregabalin compared with placebo (diazepam) on postoperative pain control in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Methods Forty-eight adult patients were randomly divided into a control group and a pregabalin group. Preoperatively, patients in the control group received 4 mg diazepam orally as placebo, whereas those in the pregabalin group received 300 mg pregabalin orally. All participants were provided with patient-controlled analgesia using fentanyl for 24 hours after surgery. Postoperative pain treatment included acetaminophen 650 mg three times daily for 8 postoperative days. The primary outcome measure was the total amount of patient-controlled fentanyl consumption after tonsillectomy. Secondary outcome measures were the number of injections of ketorolac tromethamine (each 30 mg) requested by patients, pain scores, overall satisfaction scores, drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, headache, and vomiting after the surgery. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The total amount of fentanyl demanded decreased significantly in the pregabalin group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the number of ketorolac tromethamine injections, pain scores, overall satisfaction scores, drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, headache, and vomiting between the two groups. Conclusion Administration of 300 mg pregabalin prior to tonsillectomy decreases fentanyl consumption compared with that after 4 mg diazepam, without an increased incidence of adverse effects. Trial Registration KCT0001215 PMID:25706948

  6. Neuropathic Pain in Elderly Patients with Chronic Low Back Painand Effects of Pregabalin: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenyu; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Sadayuki; Harada, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Preliminary study. Purpose To assess the association of neuropathic pain with chronic low back pain (LBP) and the effect of pregabalin on neuropathic pain in the elderly. Overview of Literature Of those with chronic LBP, 37% were predominantly presenting with neuropathic pain in young adults. Pregabalin is effective for pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy and peripheral neuralgia. No study has reported on the effects of pregabalin for chronic LBP in elderly patients yet. Methods Pregabalin was administered to 32 patients (age, ?65 years) with chronic LBP for 4 weeks. Pain and activities of daily living were assessed using the Neuropathic Pain Screening Questionnaire (NePSQ), the pain DETECT questionnaire, visual analog scale, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Modic change and spinal canal stenosis were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Altogether, 43.3% of patients had neuropathic pain according to the NePSQ and 15.6% patients had pain according to the pain DETECT. The efficacy rate of pregabalin was 73.3%. A significant effect was observed in patients with neuropathic pain after 4 weeks of administration. Conclusions Neuropathic pain was slightly less frequently associated with chronic LBP in the elderly. Pregabalin was effective in reducing pain in patients with chronic LBP accompanied with neuropathic pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis and lower limb symptoms were observed in patients with neuropathic pain. We recommend the use of pregabalin for patients after evaluating a screening score, clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging studies. PMID:25901238

  7. Double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of pregabalin for neurogenic claudication

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Maria E.; Rast, Shirley A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Gewandter, Jennifer S.; Chowdhry, Amit K.; Czerniecka, Kate; Pilcher, Webster H.; Simon, Lee S.; Dworkin, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effects of pregabalin on the induction of neurogenic claudication. Methods: This study was a randomized, double-blind, active placebo-controlled, 2-period, crossover trial. Twenty-nine subjects were randomized to receive pregabalin followed by active placebo (i.e., diphenhydramine) or active placebo followed by pregabalin. Each treatment period lasted 10 days, including a 2-step titration. Periods were separated by a 10-day washout period, including a 3-day taper phase after the first period. The primary outcome variable was the time to first moderate pain symptom (Numeric Rating Scale score ?4) during a 15-minute treadmill test (Tfirst). Secondary outcome measures included pain intensity at rest, pain intensity at the end of the treadmill test, distance walked, and validated self-report measures of pain and functional limitation including the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, modified Brief Pain Inventory–Short Form, Oswestry Disability Index, and Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire. Results: No significant difference was found between pregabalin and active placebo for the time to first moderate pain symptom (difference in median Tfirst = ?1.08 [95% confidence interval ?2.25 to 0.08], p = 0.61). In addition, none of the secondary outcome measures of pain or functional limitation were significantly improved by pregabalin compared with active placebo. Conclusions: Pregabalin was not more effective than active placebo in reducing painful symptoms or functional limitations in patients with neurogenic claudication associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with neurogenic claudication, compared with diphenhydramine, pregabalin does not increase the time to moderate pain during a treadmill test. PMID:25503625

  8. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders) to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15) or placebo (n=12; n=17) treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT) in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects) and Ventral T10 (segmental effects). Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Results Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA) vs placebo responders (?0.1 mA; P=0.015). This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9%) vs placebo responders (?17%; P<0.001). CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006). Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study. PMID:26203273

  9. Efficacy of Pregabalin in Acute Postoperative Pain Under Different Surgical Categories

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David M.H.; Choi, Siu-Wai; Wong, Stanley S.C.; Irwin, Michael G.; Cheung, Chi-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The efficacy of pregabalin in acute postsurgical pain has been demonstrated in numerous studies; however, the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of using pregabalin in various surgical procedures remain uncertain. We aim to assess the postsurgical analgesic efficacy and adverse events after pregabalin administration under different surgical categories using a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A search of the literature was performed between August 2014 to April 2015, using PubMed, Ovid via EMBASE, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov with no limitation on publication year or language. Studies considered for inclusion were randomized controlled trials, reporting on relevant outcomes (2-, 24-hour pain scores, or 24 hour morphine-equivalent consumption) with treatment with perioperative pregabalin. Seventy-four studies were included. Pregabalin reduced pain scores at 2 hours in all categories: cardiothoracic (Hedge's g and 95%CI, ?0.442 [?0.752 to ?0.132], P?=?0.005), ENT (Hedge g and 95%CI, ?0.684 [?1.051 to ?0.316], P?Pregabalin reduced 24-hour morphine consumption in gynecologic (Hedge g, 95%CI, ?1.085 [?1.582 to ?0.441], P?=?0.001), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Hedge g, 95%CI, –0.886 [–1.652 to –0.120], P?=?0.023), orthopedic (Hedge g, 95%CI, ?0.720 [?1.118 to ?0.323], P?Pregabalin resulted in significant sedation in all surgical categories except ENT, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and gynecologic procedures. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was only significant after pregabalin in miscellaneous procedures. Analgesic effects and incidence of adverse effects of using pregabalin are not equal in different surgical categories. PMID:26579802

  10. Comparing the effect of pregabalin, gabapentin, and acetaminophen on post-dural puncture headache

    PubMed Central

    Mahoori, Alireza; Noroozinia, Heydar; Hasani, Ebrahim; Saghaleini, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication of lumbar puncture for any purpose. To avoid the need for invasive methods of treating PDPH such as blood patch, the search for novel pharmacological agents to manage PDPH continues. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acetaminophen, gabapentin and pregabalin in controlling PDPH in patients who underwent surgery under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients who underwent elective orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia and suffered from PDPH consequently were enrolled in this randomized trial. Patients were categorized randomly into three groups. Group A, B and C have received Acetaminophen, Gabapentin and Pregabalin (3 times a day for 3 days), respectively. The effect of medications on the severity of PDPH was evaluated and compared using visual analog scale (VAS). Results: The mean VAS score was significantly lower in pregabalin group compared with others 24, 48 and 72 h after the onset of headache (P = 0.001 for all of them) and lower in Gabapentin group compared with Acetaminophen group 24, 48 and 72 h after the onset of headache (P = 0.001 for all analyses). No adverse outcome was reported in groups. Conclusion: Pregabalin and gabapentin are both useful and safe in management of PDPH, but pregabalin is more effective in this regard. PMID:25191190

  11. Efficacy of Pregabalin in the Treatment of Radicular Pain: Results of a Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Khalid M.; M. Nelson, Ariana; J. Avram, Michael; Lee Robak, Sabrina; T. Benzon, Honorio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregabalin is commonly used to treat patients with various neuropathic pain syndromes. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin in patients with lumbar or cervical radicular pain. Patients and Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 39 patients with lumbar and cervical radicular pain, who received 3 weeks of either pregabalin (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9) treatment. Baseline pain and disability were evaluated before the treatment and were re-evaluated, along with overall patient satisfaction, after the 3 weeks of treatment. Results: Data on 19 of the 39 patients recruited were available for analysis. No statistically significant differences in the pain, disability, and patient satisfaction scores were found between the groups. When the individual patient scores were assessed, the placebo treatment was found to be efficacious in 4 of the 9 patients and pregabalin was effective in 2 of the 10 patients, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.350). Conclusions: The present data do not suggest that pregabalin is more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of lumbar and cervical radicular pain. However, the small sample size of this study may have affected the ability to detect such a difference. PMID:26478867

  12. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  13. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  17. Effect of Gabapentin and Pregabalin in Rat Model of Taxol Induced Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkannan, S.; Ali, R. Meher

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy induced neuropathy pain remains as a major dose limiting side effect of many commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs. Presently newer antiepileptic agents have been developed with improved safety and tolerability profiles in alleviating neuropathic pain. Objectives To evaluate the effect of Gabapentin and Pregabalin in Paclitaxel (Taxol) induced neuropathic pain and to compare the effect of these drugs in animal models. Materials and Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1- vehicle, Group 2 – Paclitaxel (2mg/kg), Group 3 - Gabapentin (60mg/kg) with Paclitaxel, Group 4 - Pregabalin (30mg/kg) with Paclitaxel. Pain was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Paclitaxel on four alternate days. After taking the baseline values, the drugs treated groups (group 3 and 4) were administered with respective drugs once a day orally for eight consecutive days along with paclitaxel. All the animals were tested for thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 with Radiant heat method and Tail immersion test, Acetone drop method respectively. Results In Radiant heat method, gabapentin and pregabalin treated animals found to have significant increase in the tail latency period compared to control and paclitaxel treated groups in all periods of observation. Acetone drop test and tail immersion test also showed significant response similar to Radiant heat method. Pregabalin showed highly significant effect when compared to gabapentin group. Conclusion Both gabapentin and pregabalin produced significant anti-hyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects in experimental animal models. Pregabalin treated group showed highly significant effect compared to gabapentin treated animals. PMID:26155495

  18. New treatment options in the management of fibromyalgia: role of pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Zareba, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common, chronic pain disorder with unknown etiology, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and tenderness, and accompanied by several other symptoms such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mood disorders. Pregabalin is the first drug approved for the treatment of FM. Pregabalin has analgesic, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic activity and has earlier demonstrated efficacy in the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjuvant therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures. Pregabalin, a lipophilic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog, is ?2?-1 ligand that binds to, and modulates, voltage-gated calcium channels. This modulation is characterized by a reduction of the excessive neurotransmitter release that is observed in certain neurological and psychotic disorders. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that pregabalin has been effective in pain management, improving sleep quality and fatigue, as well as in several domains of health related quality of life. Because of mild to moderate adverse effects it can be considered a well-tolerated therapy for FM. PMID:19337459

  19. Comparative study between paracetamol and two different doses of pregabalin on postoperative pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Esmat, Ibrahim M.; Farag, Hanan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain is the primary reason for prolonged hospital stay after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study compared the effect of a single oral preoperative administration of paracetamol (1 g) with 2 different doses of pregabalin (150 or 300 mg) for attenuating postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients, aged 18-60 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists’ physical status I and II undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this randomized controlled study. Patients were divided into three groups, 25 each to receive either oral paracetamol 1 g (group I, control group) or pregabalin 150 (group II) or 300 mg (group III), 2 h before surgery. Postoperative pain was evaluated based on visual analog scale over a period of 6 h and 1st time for rescue analgesia. Postoperative sedation, hemodynamic changes, serum cortisol level, and side effects were also evaluated. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean heart rate, mean systolic blood pressure, sedation score, pain score, and delayed the first request for analgesics postoperatively in group (II) and group (III) compared to group (I) 2 h postoperatively. There was no significant difference in group (III) compared to group (II) postoperatively. The incidence of postoperative side effects was more in group (III). Conclusion: The single oral preoperative dose administration of pregabalin had significant opioid-sparing effect in the first 6 h after surgery, whereas side effects were more common with administration of pregabalin 300 mg. PMID:26543452

  20. A comparative bioavailability study of two formulations of pregabalin in healthy Chilean volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Luis; Sasso, Jaime; Tamayo, Evelyn; Catalán, Johanna; González, Juan Paplo; Escala, Mario; Varela, Nelson; León, Jorge; Cáceres, Dante Daniel; Saavedra, Iván

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between two brands of pregabalin in healthy Chilean volunteers. Methods A randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in healthy Chilean males. Plasma samples were collected over a 12-hour period after administration of 150 mg pregabalin in each period. A validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography with positive ionization mass spectrometric detection method was used to analyze pregabalin concentration in plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. Bioequivalence between the test and reference products was determined when the ratio for the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the difference in the means of the log-transformed area under the curve (AUC)0—t, AUC0—?, and maximum concentration (Cmax) of the two products were within 0.80 and 1.25. Results The study was carried out on 22 healthy Chilean volunteers. The mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0—t and AUC0—? of the test formulation (Pregobin™) of pregabalin were 2.10 (0.56) ?g/ml, 10.35 (2.00) ?gxh/ml and 13.92 (2.74) ?gxh/ml, respectively. The mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0—t and AUC0—? of the reference formulation (Lyrica™) of pregabalin were 2.15 (0.52) ?g/ml, 10.31 (1.85) ?gxh/ml and 13.78 (2.25) ?gxh/ml, respectively. The parametric 90% CIs for Cmax, AUC0—t, and AUC0—? were 0.97–1.13, 1.01–1.04, and 0.98–1.02, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that both products are bioequivalent and can be used as interchangeable options in the clinical setting. PMID:23251735

  1. Perioperative use of pregabalin for acute pain-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eipe, Naveen; Penning, John; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Turner, Lucy; Ahmadzai, Nadera; Ansari, Mohammed Toseef

    2015-07-01

    Evidence supporting postoperative pain management using pregabalin as an adjunct intervention across various surgical pain models is lacking. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate "model-specific" comparative effectiveness and harms of pregabalin following a previously published systematic review protocol. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception through August 2013. Data were screened and single extraction with independent verification and dual risk of bias assessment was performed. Quality of evidence (QoE) was rated using the GRADE approach. Primary outcomes were pain relief at rest and on movement and reduction in postoperative analgesic consumption. A total of 1423 records were screened, and 43 studies were included. Perioperative pregabalin resulted in: 16% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9%-21%) reduction in analgesic consumption (moderate QoE, 24 trials) and a small reduction in the magnitude of pain in surgeries associated with pronociceptive pain. Per 1000 patients, 10 more will experience blurred vision (95% CI, 5-20 more; moderate QoE, 17 trials) and 41 more sedation (95% CI, 13-77 more, 17 trials). To prevent 1 case of perioperative nausea and vomiting, the number needed to treat is 11 (95% CI: 7-28, 25 trials). Inadequate evidence addressed outcomes of enhanced recovery and serious harms. Pregabalin analgesic effectiveness is largely restricted to surgical procedures associated with pronociceptive mechanisms. The clinical significance of observed pregabalin benefits must be weighed against the uncertainties about serious harms and enhanced recovery to inform the careful selection of surgical patients. Recommendations for future research are proposed. PMID:25830925

  2. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Peng, X; Sun, P; Novick, D; Andrews, J; Sun, S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009). Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs) had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years), percentage of women (87%–88%), and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis). In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%). The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05), any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05), and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05). From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort experienced decreases in certain utilization rates, whereas the pregabalin cohort had increases (percentage of patients with a fibromyalgia-related admission, ?1.2% versus 0.4% [P<0.01]; number of fibromyalgia-related outpatient claims, ?1.7 versus 4.7 [P<0.01]). Conclusion Fibromyalgia patients initiating pregabalin tended to consume more fibromyalgia-related inpatient and outpatient care in the first postinitiation year, whereas fibromyalgia patients initiating duloxetine tended to have lower utilization rates of fibromyalgia-related inpatient care in the postinitiation year than in the preinitiation year. PMID:24470771

  3. Predictors of placebo response in peripheral neuropathic pain: insights from pregabalin clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Roy; Emir, Birol; Parsons, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater understanding of factors associated with the high placebo-response rates noted in recent neuropathic pain trials may improve trial design. This study investigated placebo response and its predictors in pregabalin trials in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) or postherpetic neuralgia. Patients and methods Individual patient data from 16 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of pregabalin in 3,053 patients with DPN and 1,460 patients with postherpetic neuralgia were pooled (by condition and all together) in order to investigate the placebo response and its predictors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed across all 16 trials to identify predictors of change in pain score in patients. Trials with a >2-point mean reduction in pain score at endpoint with placebo were designated high placebo response and were compared with low placebo-response trials (those with a ?2-point mean reduction) with respect to patient and study characteristics. Results Three high placebo-response studies were identified, with all in DPN patients and all conducted postapproval of pregabalin. Younger age, higher mean baseline pain score, longer study duration, higher ratio of patients on active treatment to placebo, and study conducted postapproval were all significantly associated with a higher placebo response (P<0.05). There was a trend towards an increased placebo response in all studies over time without any corresponding change in the response to pregabalin. Conclusion Consideration of the factors identified here as contributing to a higher placebo response could help improve the sensitivity and accuracy of clinical trials in patients with neuropathic pain. PMID:26082659

  4. A2delta ligands gabapentin and pregabalin: future implications in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Tzellos, T G; Papazisis, G; Toulis, K A; Sardeli, Ch; Kouvelas, D

    2010-04-01

    Gabapentin (GP) and pregabalin (PB) are structurally related compounds and their predominant mechanism of action is the inhibition of calcium currents via high-voltage-activated channels containing the a2d-1 subunit. A2delta ligands are approved for the treatment of pain of diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults and as adjunctive therapy of partial seizures in children. Recently, pregabalin has been approved for treatment of anxiety disorders in Europe. Besides their already approved indications both drugs are promising treatment options for a number of different serious and debilitating diseases, as fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain of spinal cord injury, hot flushes, and essential tremor. In the present review, the unique mechanism of action of the above drugs is critically analyzed and evidence for their future use is provided. Gabapentin and pregabalin can be treatment options for these disorders, however, a clear comparison between the two drugs can not be performed, since there is no direct comparison study. The most common side effects are dizziness and somnolence which are also the most frequent reasons for withdrawal. Recommendations for future studies should include assessment of ideal titration period for GP and PB to reduce incidence of somnolence and dizziness and increase tolerability, cost-effectiveness and dose-response analysis of PB and GP and direct comparison of the two drugs. PMID:20596259

  5. A2? ligands gabapentin and pregabalin: future implications in daily clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Tzellos, T G; Papazisis, G; Toulis, K A; Sardeli, Ch; Kouvelas, D

    2010-01-01

    Gabapentin (GP) and pregabalin (PB) are structurally related compounds and their predominant mechanism of action is the inhibition of calcium currents via high-voltage-activated channels containing the a2d-1 subunit. A2? ligands are approved for the treatment of pain of diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults and as adjunctive therapy of partial seizures in children. Recently, pregabalin has been approved for treatment of anxiety disorders in Europe. Besides their already approved indications both drugs are promising treatment options for a number of different serious and debilitating diseases, as fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain of spinal cord injury, hot flushes, and essential tremor. In the present review, the unique mechanism of action of the above drugs is critically analyzed and evidence for their future use is provided. Gabapentin and pregabalin can be treatment options for these disorders, however, a clear comparison between the two drugs can not be performed, since there is no direct comparison study. The most common side effects are dizziness and somnolence which are also the most frequent reasons for withdrawal. Recommendations for future studies should include assessment of ideal titration period for GP and PB to reduce incidence of somnolence and dizziness and increase tolerability, cost-effectiveness and dose-response analysis of PB and GP and direct comparison of the two drugs. PMID:20596259

  6. Pregabalin, the lidocaine plaster and duloxetine in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients frequently fail to receive adequate pain relief from, or are intolerant of, first-line therapies prescribed for neuropathic pain (NeP). This refractory chronic pain causes psychological distress and impacts patient quality of life. Published literature for treatment in refractory patients is sparse and often published as conference abstracts only. The aim of this study was to identify published data for three pharmacological treatments: pregabalin, lidocaine plaster, and duloxetine, which are typically used at 2nd line or later in UK patients with neuropathic pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CCTR was carried out and supplemented with extensive conference and grey literature searching. Studies of any design (except single patient case studies) that enrolled adult patients with refractory NeP were included in the review and qualitatively assessed. Results Seventeen studies were included in the review: nine of pregabalin, seven of the lidocaine plaster, and one of duloxetine. No head-to-head studies of these treatments were identified. Only six studies included treatments within UK licensed indications and dose ranges. Reported efficacy outcomes were not consistent between studies. Pain scores were most commonly assessed in studies including pregabalin; trials of pregabalin and the lidocaine plaster reported the proportion of responders. Significant improvements in the total, sensory and affective scores of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and in function interference, sleep interference and pain associated distress, were associated with pregabalin treatment; limited or no quality of life data were available for the other two interventions. Limitations to the review are the small number of included studies, which are generally small, of poor quality and heterogeneous in patient population and study design. Conclusions Little evidence is available relevant to the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain despite the clinical need. There is a notable lack of high-quality comparative studies. It is evident that there is a need for future, high quality trials, particularly "gold-standard" RCTs in this refractory patient population. PMID:21092100

  7. Successful use of pregabalin by the rectal route to treat chronic neuropathic pain in a patient with complete intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Doddrell, Charlotte; Tripathi, Shiva Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin is widely used for treatment of neuropathic pain and is only approved for oral use. This is the first reported case of using pregabalin by the rectal route for treatment in a 70-year-old patient with chronic neuropathic pain and complete intestinal failure. Therapies used in an attempt to manage his chronic pain have included a variety of doses and strengths of opioid preparations and cannabinoids, plus topical and alternative therapies. These were not effective, so it was decided to start a trial of pregabalin administered by the rectal route. Serum levels were measured to assess absorption. Within a few weeks of starting the treatment, the patient had improved pain control and appeared more comfortable and calm. PMID:26516246

  8. The effects of preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirement in patients undergoing laparatomy

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Senniye Ulgen; Saracoglu, Ayten; Eti, Zeynep; Umuroglu, Tumay; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the effects of preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirement, adverse effects, patients’ satisfaction, mobilization, time to first defecation and time to discharge in patients undergoing laparotomy. METHODS: Eighty patients (18 to 65 years of age) undergoing elective laparotomy were randomly divided into four groups (n=20 in each group): group C, placebo capsules and normal saline infusion perioperatively (control); group L, placebo capsules and lidocaine 1 mg/kg intravenous bolus dose followed by 2 mg/kg/h infusion until skin closure; group P, 150 mg oral pregabalin and normal saline infusion perioperatively; and group PL, 150 mg oral pregabalin and lidocaine 2 mg/kg/h infusion until skin closure. Hemodynamic parameters, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, analgesic consumption, side effects, time to mobilization, time to first defecation, time to discharge and patients’ satisfaction were recorded. RESULTS: VAS scores of group L, group P and group PL were lower than group C (P<0.05). Morphine consumption of group P and group PL was lower than group C (P<0.05). Incidence of nausea in group C was higher than group L and group PL. Time to first defecation and mobilization were shorter in group L and group PL compared with group C (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion decreased postoperative VAS scores. Preoperative oral pregabalin decreased morphine requirement and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion hastened gastrointestinal motility and mobilization, and decreased the incidence of nausea in patients undergoing laparotomy. Therefore, preoperative pregabalin with or without lidocaine provides superior pain relief in patients undergoing laparatomy. PMID:25950425

  9. Examining the Time to Improvement of Sleep Interference With Pregabalin in Patients With Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Bruce; Emir, Birol; Knapp, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin has been shown to be a safe, effective treatment for neuropathic pain associated with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), with average time to reduction in pain of 2 days. Pain-related sleep interference is commonly reported in both painful DPN and PHN. These post hoc analyses examined the time to improvement in sleep with pregabalin in patients with painful DPN or PHN, measured by reduction in daily sleep interference (DSI) scores on an 11-point numeric rating scale. A total of 4527 patients from 16 placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin for treatment of painful DPN or PHN were included in the analysis. In these trials, there were a total of 16 pregabalin treatment arms for painful DPN (75-600 mg/d), 10 for PHN (150-600 mg/d), and 3 for painful DPN/PHN (150-600 mg/d). Time to improvement in DSI scores was calculated for all treatment arms that demonstrated statistically significant reductions in DSI scores during the first 14 days of treatment compared with placebo (23 of 29; 79.3%) and was defined as the first day DSI scores for that day and the following day were significantly lower than placebo (P < 0.001). Mean (SD) time to improvement in DSI scores was 1.6 (1.3) days. Sustained improvement (?1-point improvement in mean DSI score) was seen significantly earlier for pregabalin DSI responders than patients receiving placebo. These findings demonstrate that statistically significant and sustained improvement in sleep occurs rapidly (within 1 day for some patients) in response to treatment with pregabalin. PMID:25272094

  10. Sustained-release pregabalin with methylcobalamin in neuropathic pain: an Indian real-life experience

    PubMed Central

    Dongre, Yasmin U; Swami, Onkar C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuropathic pain is intense in nature and difficult to manage. Thus, the primary goal is maximum relief from pain. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of sustained-release pregabalin and methylcobalamin in reducing neuropathic pain in Indian patients, in the real-life situation. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, observational, 14-day study. Patients received fixed dose combination of 75 or 150 mg sustained-release pregabalin combined with 1500 mcg immediate release methylcobalamin, depending on the clinical requirement. Data was collected for pain reduction and other positive and negative symptoms associated with neuropathy, including hyperesthesia, paresthesia, numbness/tingling, burning sensation, muscle weakness, sleep disturbances, and impairment of movement. Pain intensity was measured on a ten-point visual analog scale (VAS) (0 represented “no pain,” and 10 represented “worst pain ever”). The safety of the drug was also evaluated throughout the study duration. Data was analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The overall reduction in mean VAS score over 14 days was 72.3%. The reduction in mean VAS score was significant as early as the first week. Both positive and negative symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were significantly improved in >50% patients within the 2 weeks. Giddiness (4.7%), followed by sedation (3.6%), dizziness (2.9%), drowsiness (2.3%), and nausea (2.3%) were the most commonly observed adverse effects. The overall efficacy and tolerability was rated as good to excellent by >95% of the investigators and patients. Conclusion Fixed dose combination of sustained-release pregabalin and methylcobalamin significantly reduced neuropathic pain, with significant improvement in both the positive and negative symptoms associated with neuropathy, in Indian patients and was well tolerated. PMID:23761981

  11. Impact of pregabalin treatment on synaptic plasticity and glial reactivity during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gleidy A A; Pradella, Fernando; Moraes, Adriel; Farias, Alessandro; dos Santos, Leonilda M B; de Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease that affects young adults. It is characterized by generating a chronic demyelinating autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system. An experimental model for studying MS is the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), induced by immunization with antigenic proteins from myelin. Aims The present study investigated the evolution of EAE in pregabalin treated animals up to the remission phase. Methods and results The results demonstrated a delay in the onset of the disease with statistical differences at the 10th and the 16th day after immunization. Additionally, the walking track test (CatWalk) was used to evaluate different parameters related to motor function. Although no difference between groups was obtained for the foot print pressure, the regularity index was improved post treatment, indicating a better motor coordination. The immunohistochemical analysis of putative synapse preservation and glial reactivity revealed that pregabalin treatment improved the overall morphology of the spinal cord. A preservation of circuits was depicted and the glial reaction was downregulated during the course of the disease. qRT-PCR data did not show immunomodulatory effects of pregabalin, indicating that the positive effects were restricted to the CNS environment. Conclusions Overall, the present data indicate that pregabalin is efficient for reducing the seriousness of EAE, delaying its course as well as reducing synaptic loss and astroglial reaction. PMID:25365796

  12. Pregabalin and Tranexamic Acid Evaluation by Two Simple and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Nawab; Fatima, Nasreen; Perveen, Shahnaz; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Wafa Sial, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates colorimetric visible spectrophotometric quantification methods for amino acid, namely, tranexamic acid and pregabalin. Both drugs contain the amino group, and when they are reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, they give rise to yellow colored complexes showing absorption maximum at 418?nm and 425?nm, respectively, based on the Lewis acid base reaction. Detailed optimization process and stoichiometric studies were conducted along with investigation of thermodynamic features, that is, association constant and standard free energy changes. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–200?µgmL?1 with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9990 in all of the cases. Limit of detection was in range from 0.0041 to 0.0094?µgmL?1 and limit of quantification was in the range from 0.0137 to 0.0302?µgmL?1. Excellent recovery in Placebo spiked samples indicated that there is no interference from common excipients. The analytical methods under proposal were successfully applied to determine tranexamic acid and pregabalin in commercial products. t-test and F ratio were evaluated without noticeable difference between the proposed and reference methods. PMID:25873964

  13. Pregabalin versus tramadol for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Koramutla Pradeep; Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar; Gurajala, Indira; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and treatment of postoperative pain continues to be a major challenge in postoperative care. Opioid analgesics, with their well-known side effects, continue to represent a cornerstone in postoperative pain control. Anticonvulsant medications are established treatments for neuropathic pain. Pregabalin (S-[+]-3-isobutylgaba), a structural analog of gamma-Aminobutyric acid, has been used for the treatment of various neuropathic pain and also as an adjunctive therapy for adults with partial onset seizures. This study was thus taken up to primarily assess and compare the analgesic and anxiolytic effects of administering pregabalin and tramadol preoperatively for patients undergoing elective decompressive lumbar laminectomy. The study group included 75 patients between the ages of 20–60 years belonging to American Society of Anesthesiology-1 (ASA) and ASA-2 patients. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups of 25 patients each. The placebo group received a placebo capsule, the tramadol group received a 100 mg capsule, while the pregabalin group received a 150 mg capsule orally 1 hour before anesthetic induction. Pregabalin showed statistically significant analgesic effects compared to placebo, but the effect was found to be less prevalent compared to tramadol. The need for rescue analgesia was the least prevalent in tramadol patients followed by pregabalin patients, and reached a maximum in the control group. Pregabalin showed statistically significant anxiolytic effects compared to placebo, and this was associated with less sedation in comparison to tramadol. Pregabalin had fewer numbers of postoperative complications of nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness in comparison to tramadol. The results of this study support the clinical use of pregabalin in the postsurgical setting for pain relief, as it is well tolerated, and usually presents with transient adverse effects. PMID:23837006

  14. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  15. Effectiveness of pregabalin for the treatment of chronic low back pain with accompanying lower limb pain (neuropathic component): a non-interventional study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Toshihiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Watt, Stephen; Parsons, Bruce; Sadosky, Alesia; Nozawa, Kazutaka; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Yoshiyama, Tamotsu; Ebata, Nozomi; Fujii, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of pregabalin on sleep, pain, function, and health status in patients with chronic low back pain with accompanying neuropathic pain (CLBP-NeP) under routine clinical practice. Methods This prospective, non-interventional, observational study enrolled Japanese adults (?18 years) with CLBP-NeP of duration ?3 months and severity ?5 on a numerical rating scale (0= no pain, 10= worst possible pain). Treatment was 8 weeks with pregabalin (n=157) or usual care alone (n=174); choice of treatment was determined by the physician. The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline to 8 weeks in pain-related interference with sleep, assessed using the Pain-Related Sleep Interference Scale (PRSIS; 0= did not interfere with sleep, 10= completely interferes with sleep). Secondary endpoints were changes in PRSIS at week 4, and changes at weeks 4 and 8 in pain (numerical rating scale), function (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire), and quality of life (EuroQol 5D-5L); global assessments of change were evaluated from the clinician and patient perspectives at the final visit. Results Demographic characteristics were similar between cohorts, but clinical characteristics suggested greater disease severity in the pregabalin group including a higher mean (standard deviation) pain score, 6.3 (1.2) versus 5.8 (1.1) (P<0.001). For the primary endpoint, pregabalin resulted in significantly greater improvements in PRSIS at week 8, least-squares mean changes of ?1.3 versus ?0.4 for usual care (P<0.001); pregabalin also resulted in greater PRSIS improvement at week 4 (P=0.012). Relative to usual care at week 8, pregabalin improved pain and function (both P<0.001), and showed global improvements since beginning study medication (P<0.001). Pregabalin was well tolerated. Conclusion In clinical practice in patients with CLBP-NeP, pregabalin showed significantly greater improvements in pain-related interference with sleep relative to usual care. In addition, pregabalin significantly improved pain, function, and health status, suggesting the benefits of pregabalin for overall health and well-being relative to usual care in these patients. (Clinicaltrials. gov identifier NCT02273908). PMID:26346468

  16. Modeling the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin on self-reported changes in sleep disturbances in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder managed in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Miguel A; Álvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, Jose L; Olivares, José M; Pérez, María; Rejas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being one of the most common. Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in GAD patients. While treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across many controlled clinical trials, mediational analysis has suggested that a substantial portion of this effect could be the result of a direct effect of pregabalin. Thus, the objective of this study was to model the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin or usual care (UC) therapies on changes in sleep in outpatients with GAD under routine clinical practice. Methods Male and female GAD outpatients, aged 18 years or above, from a 6-month prospective noninterventional trial were analyzed. Direct and indirect effects of either pregabalin or UC changes in anxiety symptoms (assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale) and sleep disturbances (assessed with Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale [MOS-S]) were estimated by a conditional latent curve model applying structural equation modeling. Results A total of 1,546 pregabalin-naïve patients were analyzed, 984 receiving pregabalin and 562 UC. Both symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly improved in both groups, with higher mean (95% confidence interval) score reductions in subjects receiving pregabalin: ?15.9 (?15.2; ?16.6) vs ?14.5 (?13.5; ?15.5), P=0.027, in Hamilton Anxiety Scale; and ?29.7 (?28.1; ?31.3) vs ?24.0 (?21.6; ?26.4), P<0.001, in MOS-S. The conditional latent curve model showed that the pregabalin effect on sleep disturbances was significant (? =?3.99, P<0.001), after discounting the effect on reduction in anxiety symptoms. A mediation model showed that 70% of the direct effect of pregabalin on sleep remained after discounting the mediated effect of anxiety improvement. Conclusion A substantial proportion of the incremental improvements in anxiety-related sleep disturbances with pregabalin vs UC were explained by its direct effect, not mediated by improvements in anxiety symptoms. PMID:26273194

  17. Quantitation of pregabalin in dried blood spots and dried plasma spots by validated LC-MS/MS methods.

    PubMed

    Kosti?, Na?a; Dotsikas, Yannis; Jovi?, Nebojša; Stevanovi?, Galina; Malenovi?, An?elija; Medenica, Mirjana

    2015-05-10

    In this paper, novel LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of antiepileptic drug pregabalin in dried matrix spots (DMS) are presented. This attractive technique of sample collection in micro amount was utilized in the form of dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS). Following a pre-column derivatization procedure, using n-propyl chloroformate in the presence of n-propanol, and consecutive liquid-liquid extraction, derivatized pregabalin and its internal standard, 4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid, were detected in positive ion mode by applying two SRM transitions per analyte. A YMC-Pack Octyl column (50mm×4.0mm, 3?m particle size) maintained at 30°C, was utilized with running mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 0.15% formic acid (85:15, v/v). Flow rate was 550?L/min and total run time 2min. Established methods were fully validated over the concentration range of 0.200-20.0?g/mL for DBS and 0.400-40.0?g/mL for DPS, respectively, while specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix-effect, stability, dilution integrity and spot homogeneity were found within acceptance criteria. Validated methods were applied for the determination of pregabalin levels in dried blood and plasma samples obtained from patients with epilepsy, after per os administration of commercial capsules. Comparison of drug level in blood and plasma, as well as correction steps undertaken in order to overcome hematocrit issue, when analyzing DBS, are also given. PMID:25767905

  18. The Acetate Switch

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the “acetate switch,” occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the “switch” (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl?P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl?P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl?P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl?P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to “flip the switch,” the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the “acetate switch” as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described. PMID:15755952

  19. Formulation of a modified-release pregabalin tablet using hot-melt coating with glyceryl behenate.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyu Ho; Woo, Hye Seung; Kim, Chae Jin; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Jeon, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Young; Kang, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sangkil; Choi, Young Wook

    2015-11-10

    A modified-release (MR) tablet of the anti-anxiety drug pregabalin (PRE) was prepared by hot-melt coating PRE with glyceryl behenate (GB) as a release retardant and compressing to form a matrix with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a hydrophilic diluent. GB-coated PRE had a size in the range of 177-290?m with good to acceptable flowability. Tablet hardness decreased slightly as GB content increased. PRE release from the tablet matrices was successfully modified by altering the ratio of MCC and GB, and it was found that dissolution- or diffusion-controlled release depended on the amount of GB used. Drug release was pH-independent. An accelerated stability test on the most promising MR tablet at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for 6 months showed no significant changes in PRE content, and the occurrence of total impurities-including PRE-lactam-was within acceptable limits. After oral administration of the selected MR tablet or a commercial IR capsule (Lyrica) to healthy human volunteers, pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-24, and T1/2 were compared. The confidence interval of AUC0-24 was within the adequate range, but that of Cmax was inadequate. This study demonstrated the potential use of GB for PRE-containing MR formulations. PMID:26315121

  20. Carboxylic Acids as A Traceless Activation Group for Conjugate Additions: A Three-Step Synthesis of (±)-Pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct application of carboxylic acids as a traceless activation group for radical Michael additions has been accomplished via visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. Photon-induced oxidation of a broad series of carboxylic acids, including hydrocarbon-substituted, ?-oxy, and ?-amino acids, provides a versatile CO2-extrusion platform to generate Michael donors without the requirement for organometallic activation or propagation. A diverse array of Michael acceptors is amenable to this new conjugate addition strategy. An application of this technology to a three-step synthesis of the medicinal agent pregabalin (commercialized by Pfizer under the trade name Lyrica) is also presented. PMID:25032785

  1. Dosing time-dependent changes in the analgesic effect of pregabalin on diabetic neuropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Akamine, Takahiro; Koyanagi, Satoru; Kusunose, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hana; Taniguchi, Marie; Matsunaga, Naoya; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2015-07-01

    Patients with diabetes often develop peripheral nerve complications, including numbness and pain in the extremities. Diabetes-induced peripheral neuropathic pain is characterized by hypersensitivity to innocuous stimuli, known as tactile allodynia. Pregabalin (PGN) is currently used to treat diabetes-induced peripheral neuropathy and alleviates allodynia. In the present study, we demonstrated that the antiallodynic effect of PGN on diabetic mice was modulated by circadian changes in its intestinal absorption. A single intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) to mice induced type I diabetic pathologic changes that were accompanied by tactile allodynia. The intensity of tactile allodynia in STZ-induced diabetic mice was alleviated by the oral administration of PGN; however, the antiallodynic effect varied according to its dosing time. The analgesic effect of PGN was enhanced by its administration at the times of day when its intestinal absorption was accelerated. Organic cation transporter novel type 1 (Octn1) mediated the uptake of PGN into intestinal epithelial cells. The expression of Octn1 in the small intestine of STZ-induced diabetic mice oscillated in a circadian time-dependent manner. This oscillation in Octn1 appeared to cause the time of day-dependent changes in the intestinal absorption of PGN. Similar dosing time dependencies of the antiallodynic effect of PGN and oscillation in Octn1 expression were also detected in type II diabetic db/db mice. These results suggested that the dosing time-dependent differences in the analgesic effect of PGN were attributable to circadian oscillations in the intestinal expression of Octn1 and also that optimizing its dosing schedule may assist in achieving rational pharmacotherapy for diabetes-induced peripheral neuropathic pain. PMID:25962390

  2. Joint modeling of dizziness, drowsiness, and dropout associated with pregabalin and placebo treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Frame, Bill; Miller, Raymond; Hutmacher, Matthew M

    2009-12-01

    Dizziness and drowsiness are cited as being predictors of dropout from clinical trials for the medicine pregabalin. These adverse events are typically recorded daily on a four point ordinal scale (0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe), with most subjects never reporting either adverse event. We modeled the dizziness, drowsiness, and dropout associated with pregabalin use in generalized anxiety disorder using piecewise Weibull distributions for the time to first non-zero dizziness or drowsiness score, after which the dizziness or drowsiness was modeled with ordinal regression with a Markovian element. Dropout was modeled with a Weibull distribution. Platykurtosis was encountered in the estimated random effects distributions for the ordinal regression models and was addressed with dynamic John-Draper transformations. The only identified predictor for the time to first non-zero dizziness or drowsiness score was daily titrated dose. Predictors for dropout included creatinine clearance and maximum daily adverse event score. Tolerance to adverse events over time was modeled by including a non-stationary component for the dizziness ordinal Markov regression while the piecewise Weibull distributions allowed a change point in the median time to first non-zero dizziness or drowsiness score. PMID:19904583

  3. Guidelines in the management of diabetic nerve pain: clinical utility of pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Vinik, Aaron I; Casellini, Carolina M

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It presents as a variety of syndromes for which there is no universally accepted unique classification. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common type, affecting about 30% of diabetic patients in hospital care and 25% of those in the community. Pain is the reason for 40% of patient visits in a primary care setting, and about 20% of these have had pain for greater than 6 months. Chronic pain may be nociceptive, which occurs as a result of disease or damage to tissue with no abnormality in the nervous system. In contrast, neuropathic pain is defined as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system.” Persistent neuropathic pain interferes significantly with quality of life, impairing sleep and recreation; it also significantly impacts emotional well-being, and is associated with depression, anxiety, and noncompliance with treatment. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a difficult-to-manage clinical problem, and patients with this condition are more apt to seek medical attention than those with other types of diabetic neuropathy. Early recognition of psychological problems is critical to the management of pain, and physicians need to go beyond the management of pain per se if they are to achieve success. This evidence-based review of the assessment of the patient with pain in diabetes addresses the state-of-the-art management of pain, recognizing all the conditions that produce pain in diabetes and the evidence in support of a variety of treatments currently available. A search of the full Medline database for the last 10 years was conducted in August 2012 using the terms painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, painful diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, painful diabetic neuropathy and pain in diabetes. In addition, recent reviews addressing this issue were adopted as necessary. In particular, reports from the American Academy of Neurology and the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy were included. Unfortunately, the results of evidence-based studies do not necessarily take into account the presence of comorbidities, the cost of treatment, or the role of third-party payers in decision-making. Thus, this review attempts to give a more balanced view of the management of pain in the diabetic patient with neuropathy and in particular the role of pregabalin. PMID:23467255

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pregabalin for treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with accompanying lower limb pain (neuropathic component) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Ataru; Akazawa, Manabu; Murata, Tatsunori; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Sadosky, Alesia; Ebata, Nozomi; Willke, Richard; Fujii, Koichi; Doherty, Jim; Kobayashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of pregabalin for the treatment of chronic low back pain with accompanying neuropathic pain (CLBP-NeP) from the health care payer and societal perspectives. Methods The cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus usual care for treatment of CLBP-NeP was evaluated over a 12-month time horizon using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), derived from the five-dimension, five-level EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire, was the measure of effectiveness. Medical costs and productivity losses were both calculated. Expected costs and outcomes were estimated via cohort simulation using a state-transition model, which mimics pain state transitions among mild, moderate, and severe pain. Distributions of pain severity were obtained from an 8-week noninterventional study. Health care resource consumption for estimation of direct medical costs for pain severity levels was derived from a physician survey. The ICER per additional QALY gained was calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of the assumptions across a range of values. Results Direct medical costs and hospitalization costs were both lower in the pregabalin arm compared with usual care. The estimated ICERs in the base case scenarios were approximately ¥2,025,000 and ¥1,435,000 per QALY gained with pregabalin from the payer and societal perspectives, respectively; the latter included indirect costs related to lost productivity. Sensitivity analyses using alternate values for postsurgical pain scores (0 and 5), initial pain severity levels (either all moderate or all severe), and the actual EQ-5D-5L scores from the noninterventional study showed robustness of results, with ICERs that were similar to the base case. Development of a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed high probability (?75%) of pregabalin being cost-effective. Conclusion Using data and assumptions from routine clinical practice, pregabalin is cost-effective for the treatment of CLBP-NeP in Japan. PMID:26504403

  5. The antiallodynic action of pregabalin may depend on the suppression of spinal neuronal hyperexcitability in rats with spared nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lei; Cai, Jie; Guo, Xiang-Yang; Meng, Xiu-Li; Xing, Guo-Gang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregabalin (PGB) is a novel antiepileptic drug and is also used as a first-line medication for the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, the mechanisms of its analgesic effects remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiallodynic action of PGB in rats with neuropathic pain. METHODS: In a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury, mechanical allodynia, as a behavioural sign of neuropathic pain, was assessed by measuring 50% paw withdrawal threshold with von Frey filaments. Activities of dorsal horn wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined by extracellular electrophysiological recording in vivo. RESULTS: Spinal administration of PGB exerted a significant antiallodynic effect and a prominent inhibitory effect on the hypersensitivity of dorsal horn WDR neurons in rats with spared nerve injury. CONCLUSION: The antiallodynic action of PGB is likely dependent on the suppression of WDR neuron hyperexcitability in rats with neuropathic pain. PMID:24851240

  6. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each of 7...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  10. Comparison of milnacipran, duloxetine and pregabalin in the formalin pain test and in a model of stress-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.

    PubMed

    Bardin, L; Gregoire, S; Aliaga, M; Malfetes, N; Vitton, O; Ladure, P; Newman-Tancredi, A; Depoortère, R

    2010-02-01

    Milnacipran and duloxetine, serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, and pregabalin, a alpha(2)-delta(1) Ca(2+) channel blocker, are efficacious against fibromyalgia, a condition characterized by diffuse chronic pain and associated with stress. We compared these compounds (i.p. route), in rat models of acute/inflammatory pain (2.5% intraplantar formalin) and stress-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV: 22kHz calls following presentation of a conditioned stimulus previously associated with foot-shocks). In the formalin test, milnacipran dose-dependently attenuated paw elevation and licking (minimal effective dose, MED: 2.5mg/kg for licking/late phase). Duloxetine was slightly more potent (MED=0.63). Pregabalin also reduced paw licking/late phase (MED=0.63), but was inactive up to 160mg/kg for paw elevation (both phases) and paw licking (early phase). Milnacipran dose-dependently reduced USV (MED=10, near total inhibition at 20mg/kg); duloxetine was less potent (MED=20). Pregabalin (2.5-80mg/kg) was only significantly active at 40mg/kg. Milnacipran, duloxetine and pregabalin possess analgesic activity in the formalin test on paw licking/late phase (corresponding to inflammatory pain with a central sensitization component). In the stress-induced USV model, milnacipran was the most potent and efficacious compound. To summarize, reduction of formalin-induced paw licking/late phase might constitute a useful indicator of potential activity against inflammatory/centrally sensitized pain, as might be expressed in fibromyalgia. PMID:19883699

  11. Five Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome in Whom an Antidepressant (Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor) Was Not Effective, but Pregabalin Markedly Relieved Pain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikiko; Tokura, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Keizo; Nagashima, Wataru; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Umemura, Eri; Tachibana, Masako; Miyauchi, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Yuka; Arao, Munetaka; Ozaki, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) causes idiopathic pain or a burning sensation in clinically normal oral mucosa. Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic disease with an unknown etiology. Burning mouth syndrome is also idiopathic, and a consensus regarding diagnosis/treatment has not been reached yet. Recent studies have supported the suggestion that BMS is a neuropathic pain disorder in which both the peripheral and central nervous systems are involved. Tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline and amitriptyline), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (duloxetine and milnacipran), and antiepileptic drugs, potential-dependent calcium channel ?2? subunit ligands (gabapentine and pregabalin), are currently recommended as the first-choice drugs for neuropathic pain. In this study, we report 5 patients with BMS in whom there was no response to SNRI (milnacipran or duloxetine), or administration was discontinued because of adverse reactions, but in whom pregabalin therapy markedly reduced or led to the disappearance of pain in a short period. Pregabalin, whose mechanism of action differs from that of SNRIs, may become a treatment option for BMS patients who are not responsive to or are resistant to SNRIs. PMID:26166242

  12. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ?-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  13. A comparison of effect of preemptive use of oral gabapentin and pregabalin for acute post-operative pain after surgery under spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Usha; Rajarajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Khandelwal, Mamta; Verma, Anand Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Preemptive analgesia is an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered processing of afferent input. Pregabalin has been claimed to be more effective in preventing neuropathic component of acute nociceptive pain of surgery. We conducted a study to compare the effect of oral gabapentin and pregabalin with control group for post-operative analgesia Materials and Methods: A total of 90 ASA grade I and II patients posted for elective gynecological surgeries were randomized into 3 groups (group A, B and C of 30 patients each). One hour before entering into the operation theatre the blinded drug selected for the study was given with a sip of water. Group A- received identical placebo capsule, Group B- received 600mg of gabapentin capsule and Group C — received 150 mg of pregabalin capsule. Spinal anesthesia was performed at L3-L4 interspace and a volume of 3.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy injected over 30sec through a 25 G spinal needle. VAS score at first rescue analgesia, mean time of onset of analgesia, level of sensory block at 5min and 10 min interval, onset of motor block, total duration of analgesia and total requirement of rescue analgesia were observed as primary outcome. Hemodynamics and side effects were recorded as secondary outcome in all patients. Results: A significantly longer mean duration of effective analgesia in group C was observed compared with other groups (P < 0.001). The mean duration of effective analgesia in group C was 535.16 ± 32.86 min versus 151.83 ± 16.21 minutes in group A and 302.00 ± 24.26 minutes in group B. The mean numbers of doses of rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours in group A, B and C was 4.7 ± 0.65, 4.1 ±0.66 and 3.9±0.614. (P value <0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that preemptive use of gabapentin 600mg and pregabalin 150 mg orally significantly reduces the postoperative rescue analgesic requirement and increases the duration of postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing elective gynecological surgeries under spinal anesthesia PMID:25190946

  14. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone...

  15. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  16. Long-term cost-effectiveness of initiating treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy with pregabalin, duloxetine, gabapentin, or desipramine.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Brandon K; Nelson, Richard E; Oderda, Gary M; LaFleur, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) affects nearly half of patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of starting patients with PDN on pregabalin (PRE), duloxetine (DUL), gabapentin (GABA), or desipramine (DES) over a 10-year time horizon from the perspective of third-party payers in the United States. A Markov model was used to compare the costs (2013 $US) and effectiveness (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) of first-line PDN treatments in 10,000 patients using microsimulation. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Probabilities and utilities were derived from the published literature. Costs were average wholesale price for drugs and national estimates for office visits and hospitalizations. One-way and probabilistic (PSA) sensitivity analyses were used to examine parameter uncertainty. Starting with PRE was dominated by DUL as DUL cost less and was more effective. Starting with GABA was extendedly dominated by a combination of DES and DUL. DES and DUL cost $23,468 and $25,979, while yielding 3.05 and 3.16 QALYs, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DUL compared with DES was $22,867/QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to the adherence threshold and utility for mild pain. PSA showed that, at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $50,000/QALY, DUL was the most cost-effective option in 56.3% of the simulations, DES in 29.2%, GABA in 14.4%, and PRE in 0.1%. Starting with DUL is the most cost-effective option for PDN when WTP is greater than $22,867/QALY. Decision makers may consider starting with DUL for PDN patients. PMID:26397932

  17. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

  9. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  12. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate. 522.2476 Section 522.2476 Food... Trenbolone acetate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (d) of... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate. 522.2476 Section 522.2476 Food... Trenbolone acetate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (d) of... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each...

  14. Face-to-face comparison of the predictive validity of two models of neuropathic pain in the rat: analgesic activity of pregabalin, tramadol and duloxetine.

    PubMed

    Le Cudennec, Camille; Castagné, Vincent

    2014-07-15

    We compared the preclinical analgesic activity of three marketed drugs with different pharmacological properties, pregabalin, tramadol and duloxetine, described as effective against neuropathic pain in the clinic. These drugs were tested against evoked pain in two different neuropathic models in the rat, the Bennett (CCI) and the Chung (SNL) models. The selected endpoints were tactile allodynia, tactile hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. Although all three drugs displayed analgesic activity, the effects observed varied according to the behavioral evaluation. Pregabalin showed clear analgesic effects against cold allodynia and tactile hyperalgesia in both the CCI and Chung models. Tramadol was active against all four endpoints in the Chung model with similar effects in the CCI model, apart from tactile allodynia. Duloxetine inhibited tactile allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in both neuropathic pain models. It also displayed efficacy against tactile hyperalgesia in the CCI model and against cold allodynia in the Chung model. These data confirm that the CCI and the Chung models of neuropathic pain do not detect the activity of analgesics with the same sensitivity. Furthermore, the mode of stimulation (tactile or thermal) and the type of endpoint (allodynia or hyperalgesia) can further influence the observed efficacy of gold standards as well as novel compounds developed for treating neuropathic pain symptoms. PMID:24726848

  15. Enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seokhyeon; Park, Chulhwan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we report the enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol and methyl acetate. Lipases are essential for the catalysis of this reaction. To find the optimum conditions for glycerol acetate production, sequential experiments were designed. Type of lipase, lipase concentration, molar ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and solvents were investigated for the optimum conversion of glycerol to glycerol acetate. As the result of lipase screening, Novozym 435 (Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) was turned out to be the optimal lipase for the reaction. Under the optimal conditions (2.5 g/L of Novozym 435, 1:40 molar ratio of glycerol to methyl acetate, 40 °C and tert-butanol as the solvent), glycerol acetate production was achieved in 95.00% conversion. PMID:25640720

  16. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  17. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  18. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  19. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  3. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  6. 21 CFR 522.1073 - Gonadorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1073 Gonadorelin acetate. (a) Specifications. Each...

  7. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    was originally applied to water desalination in which water was extracted from aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Here, we explore its potential to recover acetate produced via fermentation. At 40C 55C, which corresponds to typical fen-fermentation temperatures...

  8. Acetic Acid Off Gassing in Clamshell Enclosures

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Allison

    2013-01-01

    . This presentation will investigate the use of acid detection strips (A-D strips) to study acetic acid off gassing occurring in custom-made, cloth covered book boxes constructed and used by conservators in research libraries....

  9. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

  10. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414651

  11. Fragrance material review on anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and phototoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414654

  12. [carbonyl-11 C]Benzyl acetate: Automated

    E-print Network

    Pike, Victor W.

    Fujita,a Osamu Inoue,b Robert B. Innis,a and Victor W. Pikea [carbonyl-11 C]Benzyl acetate ([11 C]1) has, so increasing the difficulty of their use in small-scale automated radiochemistry. Organolithium

  13. Activation of methyl acetate on Pd(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Xu, Ye

    2010-06-01

    The adsorption and activation of methyl acetate (CH 3COOCH 3), one of the simplest carboxylic esters, on Pd(111) have been studied using self-consistent periodic density functional theory calculations. Methyl acetate adsorbs weakly through the carbonyl oxygen. Its activation occurs via dehydrogenation, instead of direct C-O bond dissociation, on clean Pd(111): It is much more difficult to dissociate the C-O bonds ( Ea ? 2.0 eV for the carbonyl and acetate-methyl bonds; Ea = 1.0 eV for the acetyl-methoxy bond) than to dissociate the C-H bonds to produce enolate (CH 2COOCH 3; Ea = 0.74 eV) or methylene acetate (CH 3COOCH 2; Ea = 0.82 eV). The barriers for C-H and C-O bond dissociation are directly calculated for enolate and methylene acetate, and estimated for further dehydrogenated derivatives (CH 3COOCH, CH 2COOCH 2, and CHCOOCH 3) based on the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi linear energy relations formed by the calculated steps. The enolate pathway leads to successive dehydrogenation to CCOOCH 3, whereas methylene acetate readily dissociates to yield acetyl. The selectivity for dissociating the acyl-alkoxy C-O bond, which is desired for alcohol formation, is therefore fundamentally limited by the facility of dehydrogenation under vacuum/low-pressure conditions on Pd(111).

  14. Direct Detection of the Acetate-forming Activity of the Enzyme Acetate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Matthew L.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J.; Smith, Kerry S.

    2011-01-01

    Acetate kinase, a member of the acetate and sugar kinase-Hsp70-actin (ASKHA) enzyme superfamily1-5, is responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to acetyl phosphate utilizing ATP as a substrate. Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya6. The most well characterized acetate kinase is that from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila7-14. An acetate kinase which can only utilize PPi but not ATP in the acetyl phosphate-forming direction has been isolated from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and has thus far only been found in this genus15,16. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is typically measured using the hydroxamate assay, first described by Lipmann17-20, a coupled assay in which conversion of ATP to ADP is coupled to oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase21,22, or an assay measuring release of inorganic phosphate after reaction of the acetyl phosphate product with hydroxylamine23. Activity in the opposite, acetate-forming direction is measured by coupling ATP formation from ADP to the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH by the enzymes hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase24. Here we describe a method for the detection of acetate kinase activity in the direction of acetate formation that does not require coupling enzymes, but is instead based on direct determination of acetyl phosphate consumption. After the enzymatic reaction, remaining acetyl phosphate is converted to a ferric hydroxamate complex that can be measured spectrophotometrically, as for the hydroxamate assay. Thus, unlike the standard coupled assay for this direction that is dependent on the production of ATP from ADP, this direct assay can be used for acetate kinases that produce ATP or PPi. PMID:22214984

  15. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  16. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  17. Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

  18. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22387848

  19. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  20. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  1. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  2. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22421639

  3. Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414644

  4. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445840

  5. Fermentative biohydrogen production from lactate and acetate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao-Wei; Whang, Liang-Ming; Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Chan, Kan-Chi

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with lactate and acetate was operated to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. By varying the influent substrate concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRT), the volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 55.64 kg-COD/m(3)/day seemed to be optimum for this enriched culture for fermentative hydrogen production from lactate and acetate. The results of batch experiments confirmed that the enriched culture tended to fulfill the e(-) equiv requirement for cell growth at a lower VLR condition (21.77 kg-COD/m(3)/day), while it could largely distribute the e(-) equiv for hydrogen production at a higher VLR condition. However, a maximum lactate/acetate concentration allowed for enriching this culture existed, especially at a lower HRT condition in which wash-out can be an issue for this enriched culture. Finally, the results of cloning and sequencing indicated that Clostridium tyrobutyricum was considered the major hydrogen-producing bacteria in the CSTR fed with lactate and acetate. PMID:22318084

  6. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  7. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  8. Characterization of the Acetate Binding Pocket in the Methanosarcina thermophila Acetate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Gorrell, Andrea; Lawrence, Sarah H.; Iyer, Prabha; Smith, Kerry; Ferry, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Acetate kinase catalyzes the reversible magnesium-dependent synthesis of acetyl phosphate by transfer of the ATP ?-phosphoryl group to acetate. Inspection of the crystal structure of the Methanosarcina thermophila enzyme containing only ADP revealed a solvent-accessible hydrophobic pocket formed by residues Val93, Leu122, Phe179, and Pro232 in the active site cleft, which identified a potential acetate binding site. The hypothesis that this was a binding site was further supported by alignment of all acetate kinase sequences available from databases, which showed strict conservation of all four residues, and the recent crystal structure of the M. thermophila enzyme with acetate bound in this pocket. Replacement of each residue in the pocket produced variants with Km values for acetate that were 7- to 26-fold greater than that of the wild type, and perturbations of this binding pocket also altered the specificity for longer-chain carboxylic acids and acetyl phosphate. The kinetic analyses of variants combined with structural modeling indicated that the pocket has roles in binding the methyl group of acetate, influencing substrate specificity, and orienting the carboxyl group. The kinetic analyses also indicated that binding of acetyl phosphate is more dependent on interactions of the phosphate group with an unidentified residue than on interactions between the methyl group and the hydrophobic pocket. The analyses also indicated that Phe179 is essential for catalysis, possibly for domain closure. Alignments of acetate kinase, propionate kinase, and butyrate kinase sequences obtained from databases suggested that these enzymes have similar catalytic mechanisms and carboxylic acid substrate binding sites. PMID:15774882

  9. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

  13. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  14. Expression of Acetate Permease-like (apl) Genes in Subsurface Communities of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Mouser, Paula; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Risso, Carla; Holmes, Dawn; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2010-09-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that suf?cient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Ri?e, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater ?ush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater ?ush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2–10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under ?eld conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  15. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [?] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ?M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [?] and ?M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied. PMID:26344278

  16. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose... estradiol benzoate. (2) 4 pellets, each pellet containing 25 mg trenbolone acetate and 3.5 mg...

  17. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  18. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  19. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...trenbolone acetate and 24 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 6 pellets, each pellet...trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol) per implant dose. (B) 120 mg trenbolone acetate and 24 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate in wine.

    PubMed

    Khopkar, Yashdeep; Kojtari, Arben; Swearer, Dayne; Zivanovic, Sandra; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-09-01

    We report the application of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate. The conductivity of the crystalline nano/microwires increases quickly and selectively in the presence of ethyl acetate vapor, but not with water, acid and alcohol vapors, suggesting that the nanowires of PTCDI may be used for monitoring ethyl acetate during a wine manufacturing process. PMID:25924331

  6. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  7. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose consists of: (1) 8 pellets, each pellet containing 25 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate and 3.5...

  8. Isothermal decomposition of ?-irradiated erbium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Al-Shehri, S. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Alhaizan, A. I.; El-Salam, N. M. Abd

    Isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated erbium acetate has been investigated at different temperatures between 583 and 603 K. Irradiation was observed to enhance the rate of decomposition without modifying the mechanism of the thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition of erbium acetate has been shown to proceed by a nucleation and growth mechanism (Erofe'ev model) both for un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samples. The enhancement of the decomposition was found to increase with an increase in the ?-ray dose applied to the sample and may be attributed to an increase in point defects and formation of additional nucleation centers generated in the host lattice. Thermodynamic values of the main decomposition process were calculated and evaluated.

  9. Isothermal decomposition of ?-irradiated samarium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Alshehri, S. M.; Abd El-Salam, N. M.

    2000-10-01

    Isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samarium acetate has been investigated at different temperatures between 613 and 633 K. Irradiation was observed to enhance the rate of decomposition without modifying the mechanism of thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition of samarium acetate has been shown to proceed by two-dimensional phase-boundary reaction both for un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samples. The enhancement of the decomposition was found to increase with an increase in the ?-ray dose applied to the sample and may be attributed to an increase in point defects and formation of additional nucleation centers generated in the host lattice. Thermodynamic values of the main decomposition process were calculated and evaluated.

  10. Multiple-anion nonvolatile acetal (MANA) resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevremont, Jeffrey M.; Brainard, Robert L.; Reeves, Scott D.; Zhou, Xin; Nguyen, Thinh B.; Mackevich, Joseph F.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, Gary N.

    2001-08-01

    New acetal or ketal blocking reagents were investigated for use in e-beam lithography and compared with the performance of ethyl vinyl either (EVE). Three blocking groups, (alpha) -Angelicalactone (AL), 6-methylene-5,6-benzo-1,4- dioxane (MBD), and MANA50 (an undisclosed blocking group used to show the potential of this chemistry) were reacted with poly(p-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) under acid catalyzed conditions to form AL-PHS, MBD-PHS, MANA50-PHS. The performance objectives pursued in the design of these new materials was to use acetal (ketal) chemistry to deliver wide process latitudes (e.g. good PED performance and minimal PEB sensitivity), use high molecular weight blocking groups to eliminate outgassing, and use the novel concept of multiple anions to deliver lithographic performance. These new materials are called Multiple Anion Nonvolatile Acetal (MANA) resists. Resists films were exposed with 50kV electrons, post exposure baked (PEB), and developed with 0.26 N TMAH. Resists prepared with the third blocking group, MANA50, gave contrast and imaging performance independent of PEB humidity and were relatively insensitive to PEB temperature and post exposure delay (PED). These resists gave the best resolution (90 nm) and profiles of all the materials tested, as well as showing no outgassing (as measured by film thickness loss).

  11. Bicarbonate versus acetate hemodialysis in ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    van Geelen, J A; Woittiez, A J; Schalekamp, M A

    1987-09-01

    Hemodynamic tolerance to bicarbonate versus acetate hemodialysis was studied in seven ventilated, critically ill patients, suffering from acute renal failure. Both kinds of hemodialysis were carried out with a recirculating dialysate delivery system and a relatively low blood flow (180 ml/min). Each patient underwent two hemodialysis procedures, one with bicarbonate and one with acetate, lasting for four hours. Ultrafiltration rates were kept below 250 ml/h and only biocompatible membranes with a relatively small surface area (Biospal 2400, Hospal, France) were used. Despite the mild hemodialysis conditions, hypotensive episodes with a mean blood pressure below 70 mmHg were observed in 3 out of 7 bicarbonate sessions and 4 out of 7 acetate sessions. Thus, we could not demonstrate a hemodynamic advantage of bicarbonate hemodialysis in this group of ventilated patients. This contrasts with other studies conducted in non-ventilated patients. Prevention of hypoxemia by mechanical ventilation and control of vascular tone by the use of vasoactive drugs may be of more clinical relevance than the kind of hemodialysis procedure that is used. PMID:3117466

  12. Can Palladium Acetate Lose Its "Saltiness"? Catalytic Activities of the Impurities in Palladium Acetate.

    PubMed

    Carole, William A; Bradley, Jonathan; Sarwar, Misbah; Colacot, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Commercially available palladium acetate often contains two major impurities, whose presence can impact the overall catalytic efficacy. This systematic study provides a comparison of the differences in catalytic activity of pure palladium acetate, Pd3(OAc)6, with the two impurities: Pd3(OAc)5(NO2) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2]n in a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The solid state (13)C NMR spectra of all three compounds in conjunction with DFT calculations confirm their reported geometries. PMID:26507318

  13. Electron tunneling studies of Mn12-Acetate 

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lianxi

    2008-10-10

    dependence. In the region |V |?0.04 V, we find a zero-bias feature (ZBF) in which the differential conductance is suppressed. In some samples, we observe I?V staircases which we attribute to electrons “hopping” between the electrodes and the molecules.... The observed hystere- sis was attributed to the slow relaxation of molecules re-orienting within the junction. Abrupt conductance jumps at a bias voltage of -0.12 V were also observed and may indicate state transitions in the Mn 12 -Acetate molecules...

  14. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-03-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Activated protein C concentrate, Ad-CD154, Adeno-Interferon gamma, alemtuzumab, APC-8024, 9-aminocamptothecin, aprepitant, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arsenic trioxide, asimadoline; O6-Benzylguanine, bevacizumab, Bi-20, binodenoson, biphasic insulin aspart, bivatuzumab, 186Re-bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, bryostatin 1; Carboxy- amidotriazole, caspofungin acetate, CB-1954, CC-4047, CDP-860, cerivastatin sodium, clevidipine, CTL-102; 3,4-DAP, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, desloratadine, DHA-paclitaxel, duloxetine hydrochloride; Efalizumab, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, eniluracil, ENMD-0997, eplerenone, eplivanserin, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, FR-901228, FTY-720; Gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gepirone hydrochloride; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, iodine (I131) tositumomab, ISV-205, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, linezolid, liposomal NDDP, lonafarnib, lopinavir, LY-156735; Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt, magnesium sulfate, maxacalcitol, meclinertant, melagatran, melatonin, MENT, mepolizumab, micafungin sodium, midostaurin, motexafin gadolinium; Nesiritide, NS-1209, NSC-601316, NSC-683864; Osanetant; Palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegylated OB protein, pemetrexed disodium, perillyl alcohol, picoplatin, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plevitrexed, polyglutamate paclitaxel, posurdex, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, rostaporfin, rosuvastatin calcium; SDZ-SID-791, sibrotuzumab, sorafenib, SU-11248; Tadalafil, targinine, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, TheraCIM, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Ximelagatran; Zofenopril calcium, Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15071612

  15. Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. PMID:23862653

  16. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  17. Thermal decomposition of acetate: III. Catalysis by mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Julie L. S.; Palmer, Donald A.; Barnes, H. L.; Drummond, S. E.

    1994-10-01

    The kinetics of thermal decarboxylation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid and sodium acetate were evaluated at 335 and 355°C in contact with various surfaces as potential catalysts. Quartz, fused quartz, calcite, natural pyrite, titanium oxide, and Au apparently do not catalyze aqueous decarboxylation reactions, in contrast to Pyrex, Ca-montmorillonite, Fe-bearing montmorillonite, hematite, synthetic pyrite, and magnetite. The dependence of the rate of acetic acid decarboxylation on the surface area of pyrite per unit solution volume was also studied. The results show that the decarboxylation of acetic acid and acetate is catalyzed heterogeneously, with the cleavage of the C-C bond occurring while the acetate molecule is adsorbed onto a surface. Entropies and enthalpies of activation obtained from these experiments are compatible with the isokinetic relationship established previously for acetic acid and acetate under similar experimental conditions, indicating the existence of a common rate-determining step. Experimental evidence indicates that oxidation of acetic acid can occur with hematite and defected magnetite. These oxidative decomposition reactions differ from the decarboxylation reaction in that CO 2 and polycondensates are produced instead of CO 2 and CH 4.

  18. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  19. A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NeP) is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB) on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS) in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia), refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7) years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44%) switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm), 589 (44%) received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on), and 167 (12%) patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB). Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively) than in non-PGB group (34%), p < 0.001. Incremental drug costs, particularly in PGB subgroups [€34.6 (80.3), €160.7 (123.9) and €154.5 (133.0), for non-PGB, PGBm and PGBadd-on, respectively (p < 0.001)], were off-set by higher significant reductions in all other components of health costs yielding to a greater total cost reductions: -€1,045.3 (1,989.6),-€1,312.9 (1,543.0), and -€1,565.5 (2,004.1), for the three groups respectively (p = 0.03). Conclusion In Spanish primary care settings, PGB given either add-on or in monotherapy in routine medical practice was associated with pain alleviation leading to significant longitudinal reductions in resource use and total costs during the 12-week period of the study compared with non-PGB-therapy of patients with chronic NeP of peripheral origin. The use of non-appropriate analgesic therapies for neuropathic pain in a portion of subjects in non-PGB group could explain partially such findings. PMID:21251268

  20. Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

  1. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  2. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  3. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...trenbolone acetate and 24 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 6 pellets, each pellet...trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol) per implant dose. (B) 120 mg trenbolone...

  4. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 522.2477, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate and estradiol. 522.2477 Section... § 522.2477 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol. (a) (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of...

  5. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  6. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 522.2477, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate and estradiol. 522.2477 Section... § 522.2477 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol. (a) (b) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of...

  8. Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Oxindole-3-acetic Acid to 2,3-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H Indole-3-acetic Acid-7?-O-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Zea mays Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Nonhebel, Heather M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7?-O-?-d-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid ? Oxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. PMID:11540902

  9. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  10. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  11. 76 FR 32366 - Determination That ORLAAM (Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and...Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams/Milliliter...acetate hydrochloride (HCl)) oral solution, 10 milligrams (mg...for levomethadyl acetate HCl oral solution, 10 mg/mL, if...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...residues of the biochemical pesticide acetic acid when used as a...

  13. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  14. Formate and acetate in monsoon rainwater of Agra, India

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Kulshrestha, U.C.; Saxena, A.; Kumari, K.M.; Srivastava, S.S. )

    1993-03-20

    Formate and acetate concentrations were estimated using ion chromatography in 19 precipitation samples collected on an eventwise basis during the monsoon season (July through September), 1991, at Dayalbagh, Agra. Volume-weighted average (VWA) concentrations for formate and acetate were 5.8 and 6.55 [mu]molL[sup [minus]1], respectively. The VWA hydrogen ion concentration was 0.084 [mu]eq L[sub [minus]1] (pH 7.07) and the correlation coefficient between the two ions was 0.85. The average formate to acetate ratio was low (0.88), possibly due to an increase in acetate contribution from direct emissions associated with heavy vehicular traffic load and/or indirect acetate formation by alkaline hydrolysis of PAN. Widespread local use of biomass as a domestic fuel may also contribute acetate. In 4 of the 19 precipitation events studied, higher values of both species were recorded. Contributions from soil in addition to vegetation, were suspected in these samples. Inputs from soil and combustion activities were supported by correlations among formate, acetate and Ca[sup 2+] (terrigenous species), K[sup +], SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  15. A Search for Methyl Acetate in Hot Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Matthew; Braakman, Rogier; Blake, Geoffrey

    2006-10-01

    We propose to search for methyl acetate, CH3COOCH3, in high mass hot cores. Methyl acetate is possibly synthesized through multiple reaction pathways from molecules previously detected in hot cores, most notably from acetic acid and methanol via esterification. Esterification, beyond the formation of methyl formate, has not yet been observed in the ISM. The project is already underway in nothern sources based on millimeter data from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We hope to study the chemically rich southern source G327.3 (decl B1950=-54.49'15.6"), amongst others, using MOPRA and to search for acetic acid and methyl acetate. Observations are supported by laboratory studies of methyl acetate in the 3 mm and 1 mm and successful spectral fitting by the Blake group at Caltech. If detected, methyl acetate, consisting of 11 atoms, would be one of the larger complex organic molecules detected in the interstellar medium and could point to previously unconsidered reaction mechanisms.

  16. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  17. Crystal structure of a mixed solvated form of amoxapine acetate

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rajni M.; Raval, Vishal; Oswald, Iain D. H.; Florence, Alastair J.

    2015-01-01

    The mixed solvated salt 4-(2-chloro­dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxazepin-11-yl)piperazin-1-ium acetate–acetic acid–cyclo­hexane (2/2/1), C17H17ClN3O+·C2H3O2 ?·C2H4O2·0.5C6H12, crystallizes with one mol­ecule of protonated amoxapine (AXPN), an acetate anion and a mol­ecule of acetic acid together with half a mol­ecule of cyclo­hexane. In the centrosymmetric crystal, both enanti­omers of the protonated AXPN mol­ecule stack alternatively along [001]. Acetate anions connect the AXPN cations through N—H?O hydrogen bonding in the [010] direction, creating a sheet lying parallel to (100). The acetic acid mol­ecules are linked to the acetate anions via O—H?O hydrogen bonds within the sheets. Within the sheets there are also a number of C—H?O hydrogen bonds present. The cyclo­hexane solvent mol­ecules occupy the space between the sheets. PMID:25878802

  18. Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lihong; Gulanski, Barbara Irene; De Feyter, Henk M.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Pittman, Brian; Guidone, Elizabeth; Koretski, Julia; Harman, Susan; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Krystal, John H.; Mason, Graeme F.

    2013-01-01

    When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking. Seven heavy drinkers, who regularly consumed at least 8 drinks per week and at least 4 drinks per day at least once per week, and 7 light drinkers, who consumed fewer than 2 drinks per week were recruited. The subjects were administered [2-13C]acetate for 2 hours and scanned throughout that time with magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to observe natural 13C abundance of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the appearance of 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, and acetate. Heavy drinkers had approximately 2-fold more brain acetate relative to blood and twice as much labeled glutamate and glutamine. The results show that acetate transport and oxidation are faster in heavy drinkers compared with that in light drinkers. Our finding suggests that a new therapeutic approach to supply acetate during alcohol detoxification may be beneficial. PMID:23478412

  19. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  20. Methane Production and Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M. E.; Chanton, J.; Bae, H.; Ogram, A.

    2012-12-01

    Methane production pathways in the Florida Everglades are influenced by factors such as nutrient levels, H2 concentrations, and temperature. Syntrophic acetate oxidizers can outcompete methanogens for acetate when conditions are right (high temperatures and low H2). During syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO), which becomes more exergonic with increasing temperature, acetate is oxidized to carbon dioxide and H2, which can be utilized to produce methane via CO2 reduction. Everglades soil from along a nutrient gradient was incubated at 25°C and 45°C. The shift to the CO2 reduction pathway for methane formation that would be expected in high temperature incubations due to SAO should result in a decrease in ?13C-CH4 and increase in ?2H-CH4. Instead, we observed higher ?13C and lower ?2H in the methane produced in high temperature incubations. The higher than expected ?13C may be partly explained by lower kinetic isotope effects caused by temperature. Coupling between the syntrophic acetate oxidizers and the CO2 reducers, whereby isotopically light hydrogen from acetate is used in methane formation could lower ?2H-CH4. Separate experiments using 13C-labelled acetate revealed that potential SAO activity is low in soils collected from the Everglades.

  1. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in rice field soil during acetate turnover by syntrophic acetate oxidation or acetoclastic methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie

    2011-03-01

    Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. In Italian rice field soil CH 4 is produced either by hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis, or by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation when temperatures are below and above about 40-45 °C, respectively. In order to see whether these acetate consumption pathways differently discriminate the stable carbon isotopes of acetate, we measured the ? 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl as well as the ? 13C of CO 2 and CH 4 in rice field soil that had been pre-incubated at 45 °C and then shifted to different temperatures between 25 and 50 °C. Acetate transiently accumulated to about 6 mM, which is about one-third of the amount of CH 4 produced, irrespective of the incubation temperature and the CH 4 production pathway involved. However, the patterns of ? 13C of the CH 4 and CO 2 produced were different at low (25, 30, 35 °C) versus high (40, 45, 50 °C) temperatures. These patterns were consistent with CH 4 being exclusively formed by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at high temperatures, and by a combination of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at low temperatures. The patterns of ? 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl were also different at high versus low temperatures, indicating the involvement of different pathways of production and consumption of acetate at the two temperature regimes. Isotope fractionation during consumption of the methyl group of acetate was more pronounced at low ( ? = 1.010-1.025) than at high ( ? = 1.0-1.01) temperatures indicating that acetoclastic methanogenesis exhibits a stronger isotope effect than syntrophic acetate oxidation. Small amounts of propionate also transiently accumulated and were analyzed for ? 13C. The ? 13C values slightly increased (by about 10‰) during production and consumption of propionate, but were not affected by incubation temperature. Collectively, our results showed distinct isotope discrimination for different paths of acetate (and propionate) production and consumption, albeit differences were only small, and discrimination between methanogenic and syntrophic acetate consumption in nature may be difficult to detect.

  2. Selective Cross-Coupling of Organic Halides with Allylic Acetates

    PubMed Central

    Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L.; Prinsell, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

  3. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  4. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  5. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

    2003-01-01

    Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP. PMID:14617380

  6. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-11-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (PE)HRG214, 1E10, 21-Aminoepothilone B; Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, Ad100-B7.1/HLA, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AMD-070, anhydrovinblastine, aripiprazole, asimadoline, atrasentan, AVE-5883; Bimatoprost, BNP-7787, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BR-1; Canfosfamide hydrochloride, ciclesonide, curcumin, cypher; D0401, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, D-D4FC, dendritic cell-based vaccine, desloratadine, dextrin sulfate, dolastatin 10, drospirenone drospirenone/estradiol, DS-992, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; E-7010, efalizumab, eletriptan, EM-1421, enfuvirtide, entecavir, etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide, ezetimibe; Favid, fidarestat, fingolimod hydrochloride, FK-352; Gefitinib, gemifloxacin mesilate, gepirone hydrochloride, gimatecan; HE-2000; Imatinib mesylate, indisulam, insulin detemir, irofulven, ISIS-5132; Lapatinib, levocetirizine, liraglutide, lumiracoxib; Metformin/Glyburide, methionine enkephalin, MK-0431, morphine hydrochloride, motexafin gadolinium, mycobacterium cell wall complex; Naturasone, neridronic acid, nesiritide; Oblimersen sodium, olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, omalizumab, oral insulin; Paclitaxel poliglumex, PC-515, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pegvisomant, pexelizumab, picoplatin, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Quercetin; Ramelteon, ranirestat, RG228, rhGAD65, roflumilast, rubitecan; Sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate; Tadalafil, taxus, tipifarnib, tolevamer sodium, topixantrone hydrochloride; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vildagliptin, voriconazole; XTL-001; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15632957

  7. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate solution. (a) Specifications....

  8. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...per cubic centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol...preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram of citric acid; water for injection...

  9. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...per cubic centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol...preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram of citric acid; water for injection...

  10. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...per cubic centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol...preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram of citric acid; water for injection...

  11. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...per cubic centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol...preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram of citric acid; water for injection...

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

  13. Fragrance material review on 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate was evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414656

  14. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  15. Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

  16. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol (as preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1...

  17. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol (as preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1...

  18. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol (as preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1...

  19. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol (as preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1...

  20. Highly Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Enol Acetates Catalyzed by

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xumu

    enol acetates. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis presents one of most powerful methods for accessing Although atropisomeric biaryl diphosphines such as BI- NAP,1,4 BIPHEMP,1,5 and MeO-BIPHEP1,5 have been used

  1. Electronic interactions between gold films and mn12-acetate 

    E-print Network

    Means, Joel Lewis

    2009-05-15

    Interactions between Mn12–acetate molecular magnets and thin gold films have been explored in light of the theory of weak localization. Low-temperature measurements of the magnetoresistance of gold films of varying thicknesses, with and without...

  2. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

  3. Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-09-20

    A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. PMID:21848256

  4. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  5. Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-C coupling of 7-azaindoles with vinyl acetates and allyl acetates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electron-rich alkenes with 7-azaindoles in rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation is investigated. Various substituted vinyl acetates and allyl acetates as coupling partners reacted smoothly providing a wide variety of 7-azaindole derivatives, and the selectivity of the coupling reaction is alkene-dependent. In addition, the approaches of rhodium(iii)-catalyzed dehydrogenative Heck-type reaction (DHR) and carbonylation reaction were quite novel and simple. PMID:26553424

  6. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  11. Laboratory millimeter wave spectrum and astronomical search for vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesniková, L.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Kleiner, I.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The recent discovery of methyl acetate in Orion KL makes vinyl acetate, CH3C=OOCH=CH2, a potential molecule in the interstellar medium. We obtained very accurate spectroscopic constants in a comprehensive laboratory analysis of its rotational spectra which can be used to predict those transition frequencies towards interstellar sources. Aims: We present the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state of vinyl acetate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate has been measured from 125 to 305 GHz to provide direct frequencies to the astronomical community. Additional measurements have also been made using a broadband CP-FTMW spectrometer in the region of 6-18 GHz. Transition lines, corresponding to the most stable conformer, have been observed and assigned. All the rotational transitions revealed the A-E splitting due to the methyl internal rotation and had to be treated with a specific internal rotation code (BELGI-Cs). Results: We analyzed 2508 transitions up to J'' = 75 for vt = 0 for the most stable conformer of vinyl acetate. The new lines were globally fitted with previously published data and 24 parameters of the Hamiltonian were accurately determined. The spectral features of vinyl acetate were then searched for in Orion KL. Using the whole line survey of Orion KL (80-280 GHz) obtained with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope we can provide only an upper limit to the column density of vinyl acetate. However, using the ALMA science verification data we obtain a tentative detection of this species that will require further search at other frequencies to confirm its presence in this high mass star forming region. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A91

  12. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra ; Reva, I. Fausto, R.

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup ?1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup ?1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup ?1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup ?1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup ?1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

  13. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people allocated zuclopenthixol did not seem to be at more risk of a range of movement disorders (< 20%). Three studies found no difference in the proportion of people getting blurred vision/dry mouth (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70). Similarly, dizziness was equally infrequent for those allocated zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 1.15, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.88). There was no difference between treatments for leaving the study before completion (n = 522, RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.31). One study reported no difference in adverse effects and outcome scores, when high dose (50-100 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate was compared with low dose (25-50 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate. Authors’ conclusions Recommendations on the use of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of psychiatric emergencies in preference to ‘standard’ treatment have to be viewed with caution. Most of the small trials present important methodological flaws and findings are poorly reported. This review did not find any suggestion that zuclopenthixol acetate is more or less effective in controlling aggressive acute psychosis, or in preventing adverse effects than intramuscular haloperidol, and neither seemed to have a rapid onset of action. Use of zuclopenthixol acetate may result in less numerous coercive injections and low doses of the drug may be as effective as higher doses. Well-conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trials are needed. PMID:22513898

  14. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  15. Effects of physical properties for starch acetate powders on tableting.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Ossi; Pohja, Seppo; Peltonen, Soili; Suihko, Eero; Vidgren, Mika; Paronen, Petteri; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate particle and powder properties of various starch acetate powders, to study the effect of these properties on direct compression characteristics, and to evaluate the modification opportunity of physical properties for starch acetate powders by using various drying methods. At the end of the production phase of starch acetate, the slurry of starch acetate was dried using various techniques. Particle, powder, and tableting properties of end products were investigated. Particle size, circularity, surface texture, water content and specific surface area varied according to the particular drying method of choice. However, all powders were freely flowing. Bulk and tapped densities of powders varied in the range of 0.29 to 0.44 g/cm3 and 0.39 to 0.56 g/cm3, respectively. Compaction characteristics revealed that all powders were easily deformed under compression, having yield pressure values of less than 66 MPa according to Heckel analysis. All powders possessed a significant interparticulate bond-forming capacity during compaction. The tensile strength values of tablets varied between 10 and 18 MPa. In conclusion, physical properties of starch acetate could be affected by various drying techniques. A large specific surface area and water content above 4% were favorable properties by direct compression, especially for small, irregular, and rough particles. PMID:12916928

  16. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Therien, Jesse B.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Peters, John W.

    2014-10-18

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. We demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

  17. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  18. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  19. Isothermal decomposition of gamma-irradiated palladium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Alshehri, S. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Abd El-Salam, N. M.

    2004-06-01

    The isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated (pristine) and pre-gamma-irradiated palladium acetate was studied in the temperature range (498-508 K) and in air using the isothermal thermogravimetric technique. The data were analysed using various solid state reaction models. The results showed that the kinetics of isothermal decomposition of palladium acetate was governed by random nucleation reaction (Erofe'ev equation A(3)). The activation energies of the main decomposition process for un-irradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated samples were calculated. The change in texture and crystal structure of the investigated palladium acetate by gamma-irradiation was studied using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  20. Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

    1999-08-01

    Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:10456753

  1. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  2. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, D.; Hamilton, M.L.; Deisinger, P.J.; DiVincenzo, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p < 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg (ethyl-1,2-/sup 14/C)PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. (/sup 14/C)EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for (/sup 14/C)PEA and 7.9 hr for (/sup 14/C)EEA. Only trace amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (<1%) or volatile materials (<0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, (/sup 14/C)PEA or (/sup 14/C)EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with (/sup 14/C)PEA being excreted more rapidly than (/sup 14/C)EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Mass spectra of methyl acetate and ethyl formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Wu, Chengyin; Wu, Zhifeng; Liang, Qingqing; Deng, Yongkai; Gong, Qihuang; Sun, Yue; Xu, Yuntao; Zhao, Yujie; Shan, Xiaobin; Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the ionization and dissociation of two isomers, methyl acetate (CH 3COOCH 3) and ethyl formate (CH 3CH 2COOH), irradiated by strong laser pulses with a pulse duration of 7 fs. Strong parent ions are observed for both isomers. However, main fragmental ions are CH 3CO + and CH3+ for methyl acetate and CH 3O + and CH4+ for ethyl formate. Through comparing with the single photon ionization mass spectra of these two isomers, we find that these fragments are produced by the direct dissociation of the parent ions in different excited electronic states.

  4. Response to aminoglutethimide and cortisone acetate in advanced prostatic cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ponder, B. A.; Shearer, R. J.; Pocock, R. D.; Miller, J.; Easton, D.; Chilvers, C. E.; Dowsett, M.; Jeffcoate, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate were evaluated for response to treatment with aminoglutethimide plus cortisone acetate. All had relapsed from or failed to respond to primary endocrine treatment with orchidectomy or stilboestrol. Nineteen patients (48%) showed subjective response, in most cases relief of bone pain. Side effects limited treatment in only 3 patients. We conclude that aminoglutethimide plus cortisone acetate is a useful addition to the treatment available for this difficult group of patients. The mechanism by which this treatment has a beneficial effect remains unclear. PMID:6238616

  5. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. )

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  6. Tarapacol 15-Acetate, a New Diterpenoid from Grindelia tarapacana Phil.

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Lin; Timmermann, Barbara N.; Grittini, Carina; Bruck, Michael A.; Enemark, John H.

    1996-01-01

    In the title compound, 15-acetoxy-14(S)-hydroxy-13-epi-manoyl oxide {IUPAC systematic name: 2-(dodecahydro-3,4a,7,7,10a-pentamethyl-1H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran-3-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl acetate}, C22H38N4, rings A and B have chair conformations. Ring C adopts...

  7. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

  8. Electrodeposition of Californium Using Isobutanol and Aqueous Ammonium Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoš, Milan; Boll, Rose A.; Phelps, Clarice E.; Torrico, Matthew N.; van Cleve, Shelley M.; Lewis, Benjamin E.

    2013-10-01

    Californium sources and targets are used in many applications in research and industry. Molecular deposition (commonly referred to as electrodeposition) is an experimental technique suitable for production of californium thin films. We are investigating molecular depositions using isobutanol and aqueous ammonium acetate solvents at various conditions to optimize for the best deposition efficiency and repeatability. Results of those tests will be presented.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  10. Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Maitreya

    Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004 Original protocol from Katja at room temperature on the orbital shaker. Mix: 10 µl 10 mg/ml boiled sheared salmon sperm DNA ~10 µl ~5-10 µg DNA (also set up a ­DNA control) 200 µl cells Incubate 30 min at room temperature on the orbital

  11. Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

  12. Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

  13. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  14. PROCESS FOR OBTAINING CELLULOSE ACETATE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of preparation of commercially useful product, cellulose acetate from discarded byproducts such as rice-straw, wheat hull and corn fiber will be discussed. This work will provide potential new markets and applications for low-value agricultural wastes and co-products. By converting the ce...

  15. THERMOREGULATION IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD ACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports in the literature suggest a relationship between lead intoxication and thermoregulatory capacity. To investigate the effects of lead on the control of body temperature, mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (0 to 100 mg/kg) wh...

  16. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

  17. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  18. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  19. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. 529.1003 Section 529.1003 Food...Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge contains 20 milligrams of flurogestone...

  20. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. 529.1003 Section 529.1003 Food...Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge contains 20 milligrams of flurogestone...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  7. Mn12-acetate thin film patterns and their interaction with superconductors 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Kyongwan

    2009-05-15

    Mn12-acetate single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are nano-scale magnets showing a strong magnetic anisotropy, slow relaxation and stepwise magnetic hysteresis curves. Possible applications of Mn12-acetate, e.g. for ultra high density magnetic information...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate...524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the calcium salt...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1) Those copolymers containing a...

  18. Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1957-01-01

    Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The untreated waters were generally cool, low in content of calcium and magnesium, and very low in iron and manganese. At many plants, water was obtained from more than one source, and thus had different quality characteristics. Dissolved solids in all the untreated waters analyzed ranged between 14 and 747 ppm (parts per million) but in those waters used in processing the dissolved solids content was less than 200 ppm. The cooling water used by the industry is also generally of very high quality, principally because the requirements for a high-quality process water necessitate location of the plants in areas where such water is available.

  19. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  2. EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT SOURCE AND

    E-print Network

    EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT APPROVAL EVALUATION OF NATURAL SOURCE VITAMIN E, RRR--TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, AS AN ALTERNATIVE MICRONUTRIENT: Evaluation of Natural Source Vitamin E, RRR--Tocopheryl Acetate, as an Alternative Micronutrient Source

  3. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...biochemical pesticide acetic acid when used as a preservative...timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or commodities...

  4. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350... § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Office of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  9. Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective [32] and [33] cycloaddition reactions of propargyl acetals/ketals

    E-print Network

    Toste, Dean

    Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective [3þ2] and [3þ3] cycloaddition reactions of propargyl acetals May 2015 Keywords: Gold Homogeneous catalysis Enantioselective catalysis Cycloaddition Propargyl acetals/ketals a b s t r a c t An asymmetric gold(I)-catalyzed [3þ2] cycloaddition of propargyl acetals

  10. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  12. SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF a-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE IN OLIVE OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of '-acetate tocopherol in olive oil. After extracts in n-hexane, acetate '- tocopherol were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC with fluorimetric detector. The presence of acetate '- tocopherol in...

  13. Determination of Formic and Acetic Acid in Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, J. F.; Moore, C. B.

    1993-07-01

    The concentrations of formic and acetic acid have been determined using ion exclusion chromatography after water extraction from several chondritic meteorite samples. Monocarboxylic acids are of great importance because of their high concentration in meteorites and for their role as precursor molecules in organic synthesis [1]. The concentration of acetic acid has been determined previously using gas chromatography [2,3]. Prior gas chromatographic analyses failed to resolve formic acid and so the results were limited to carboxylic acids having two or more carbons. Alternatively, wet chemical methods for the determination of formic acid, although precise, are lengthy and difficult to reproduce [4]. Ion exclusion chromatography (ICE) is an excellent technique for the simultaneous determination of formic and acetic acids. Using ICE the carboxylic acids can be determined in less time and with minimal sample handling. In most cases the amount of formic acid present is found to be lower than the amount of acetic acid present. This contradicts the accepted synthesis scheme of higher homologs being made from lower members, where the formic acid would be expected to have a higher concentration than acetic acid. Other monocarboxylic acids in the homologous series (C(sub)2-C(sub)7) have been shown to decrease with increasing carbon number as expected [2,3]. This data suggests that either the formic acid may have been preferentially depleted or it may have a different synthesis mechanism as compared with the other monocarboxylic acids present in meteorites. Additionally, there is a relationship between the amount of formic and acetic acid present and the oxidation state of the iron in the chondrites. As the matrix environment becomes more oxidizing, the amount of the two monocarboxylic acids increases comparatively. Furthermore, the ratio of formic to acetic acid starts to increase as the metal phase is more oxidized, suggesting that a more oxidized matrix environment in some way makes the production of higher homologs from lower members more favorable. References: [1] Cronin J. R. et al. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 819-857. Univ. of Arizona. [2] Yuen G. U. and Kvenvolden K. A. (1974) Nature, 246, 301-303. [3] Yuen G. et al. (1984) Nature, 307, 252-254. [4] Kimball B. (1988) M.S. thesis, Arizona State Univ. [5] Urey H. C. and Craig H. (1953) GCA, 4, 36-82. [6] Sears D. W. and Dodd R. T. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 3-31. Univ. of Arizona. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows a representative concentration of formic and acetic acid (in ppm) for select chondrites as measured by ion exclusion chromatography.

  14. Isothermal decomposition of gamma-irradiated dysprosium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Al-Shehri, S. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Abd El-Salam, N. M.

    Isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated dysprosium acetate [Dy(CH3COO)(3)] has been investigated at different temperatures between 603-623 K. Irradiation was observed to enhance the rate of decomposition without modifying the mechanism of the thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition of dysposium acetate is shown to proceed by a nucleation and growth mechanism (Avarmi-Erofe'ev equation) both for un-irradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated samples. The enhancement of the decomposition was found to increase with an increase in the gamma-ray dose applied to the sample and may be attributed to an increase in point defects and formation of additional nucleation centers generated in the host lattice. Thermodynamic values of the main decomposition process were calculated and evaluated.

  15. Digestive stability of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosyl acetate and alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Sarriá, Beatriz; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Escuderos, María E; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

    2012-09-01

    The digestive stability of two natural antioxidant compounds present in virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol (HTy) and hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac) and a new series of hydroxytyrosyl ethers (methyl, ethyl and butyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers) was evaluated by a simulated digestion procedure. High recovery of all compounds after gastric digestion was obtained, although they showed a statistically significant lower stability after pancreatic-bile salts digestion. HTy-Ac was partially hydrolyzed into free HTy, whereas after intestinal digestion, HTy was converted into 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), and HTy-Ac was hydrolyzed to HTy and subsequently transformed into DOPAC. In contrast, no chemical modification of hydroxytyrosyl ethers during in vitro digestion was observed. In summary, HTy, HTy-Ac and hydroxytyrosyl ethers show high and interesting digestive stability and the new synthetic hydroxytyrosyl ethers showed enhanced chemical stability compared to HTy and HTy-Ac. PMID:22268563

  16. Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Hosogi, Naoki; Nishioka, Hideo; Nakakoshi, Masamichi

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl acetate (UAc) has been generally used not only as a superb staining reagent for ultrathin sections of plastic-embedded biological materials, but also as high-contrast negative stains for biological macromolecules such as particles of protein or virus. However, the use and purchase of radioactive UAc have been restricted. In this study, we determine the performance of ytterbium triacetate, lutetium triacetate, samarium triacetate and gadolinium triacetate as new staining reagents for biological electron microscopy. We observed chemically fixed spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves stained with these reagents. Ultrathin sections were stained with these reagents. Some of them were counterstained with lead citrate. The transmission electron microscopy contrast of spinach organelles was evaluated in sections exposed to the conventional stain and new stains. We show acetate salts of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium and lutetium could be excellent substitutes for UAc for thin section staining and for negative staining. In addition, each reagent showed appreciable negative-staining effects. PMID:26374081

  17. Synthesis and Decarboxylative Coupling of Sulfonyl Acetic Esters

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Jimmie Dean

    2010-04-28

    make the reaction more tolerant of both ?-H’s and ?-H’s on the allyl component, cyclohex-2-enyl 2-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfonyl)acetate was synthesized. The substrate was first subjected to the standard conditions which required some heating but gave.... In addition to not reaching completion the amount of protonation product increased significantly. The incomplete reaction might be explained if the phosphine ligand is the reductant. If the BINAP ligand is oxidized, it would likely not ligate comparably...

  18. Kinetic model of acetate metabolism in healthy and hyperinsulinaemic humans

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Judlyn; Vogt, Janet; Wolever, Thomas MS

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives The short chain fatty acid acetate (AC), may play a role in increasing insulin sensitivity, thus lowering risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if AC kinetics is similar in normal and hyperinsulinaemic participants. Therefore, we studied AC absorption from the distal colon in participants with normal (<40 pmol/L, NI) and high (?40 pmol/L, HI) plasma-insulin. This work was part of a series of studies conceived to compute a kinetic model for acetate. Kinetic parameters such as estimates of rate of entry into peripheral blood, hepatic uptake and endogenous/exogenous production were compared in the groups. Subjects/methods Overnight fasted NI (n = 9) and HI (n = 8) participants were given rectal infusions containing sodium acetate (90 mmol/L). The solutions were retained for 40 min, then voided for AC measurement. Total amount of AC infused was 27 mmols. Results Acetate absorption from the distal colon (279±103 vs 322±91 ?mol/min, P = 0.76) and hepatic uptake of AC (155±101 vs 146±85 ?mol/min, P = 0.94) were similar in the groups. Endogenous and exogenous AC production was significantly higher in NI than HI participants. Plasma AC was inversely proportional to plasma insulin concentrations in the entire cohort (y=k/x, where k = 1813). Conclusions There was low power to detect differences in AC absorption rate and hepatic AC uptake in NI vs HI. The rate of entry of AC into peripheral blood was similar in NI and HI participants. However, hyperinsulinaemia may alter endogenous and exogenous AC metabolism. PMID:25052228

  19. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    PubMed

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (<10(3) cfu/mL), which under conducive conditions might proliferate. Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine. PMID:18237809

  20. Propagation of avalanches in Mn12-acetate: magnetic deflagration.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoko; Sarachik, M P; Chudnovsky, E M; McHugh, S; Gonzalez-Rubio, R; Avraham, Nurit; Myasoedov, Y; Zeldov, E; Shtrikman, H; Chakov, N E; Christou, G

    2005-09-30

    Local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization of single crystals of Mn12-acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity that is roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. We argue that this phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance. PMID:16241690

  1. Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.

    PubMed Central

    Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

    1990-01-01

    Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively. PMID:2285314

  2. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  3. Miscibility and dynamical properties of cellulose acetate/plasticizer systems.

    PubMed

    Bao, Cong Yu; Long, Didier R; Vergelati, Caroll

    2015-02-13

    Due to its biodegradability and renewability, a great interest has been devoted to investigating cellulose acetate in order to expand its potential applications. In addition, secondary cellulose acetate (CDA) could also be considered as a model system for strongly polar polymer system. The dynamical behavior of CDA is supposed to be governed by H-bonding and dipolar interaction network. Due to their high glass transition temperature, cellulose acetate-based systems are processed when blended with plasticizers. It is thus of utmost importance to study the miscibility and plasticizing effects of various molecules. We prepared CDA films via solvent casting method with diethyl phthalate as the plasticizer. Miscibility diagrams were established by calorimetry and thermo-mechanical (DMTA) experiments. Dynamical properties were analyzed by DMTA and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We could identify the ?-relaxation of these CDA-plasticizer systems in the frequency range from 0.06 Hz to 10(6)Hz, which allowed for describing the dynamics in the so-called Williams-Landel-Ferry/Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann regime. PMID:25458277

  4. Enzyme immunoassay for nomegestrol acetate in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ezan, E; Benech, H; Bucourt, R; Ardouin, T; Tchernatinsky, C; Thomas, J L; Paris, J; Grognet, J M

    1993-10-01

    Currently available chromatographic assays of the progestative drug nomegestrol acetate in human plasma are not suitable for monitoring drug kinetics more than 24 h after clinical dosage. A specific and sensitive enzyme immunoassay was therefore developed. A 3(O-carboxymethyl)oxime derivative of nomegestrol acetate was synthesized and coupled to bovine serum albumin in order to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. The enzymatic tracer was obtained by coupling the 3(O-carboxymethyl)oxime derivative to acetylcholinesterase (E.C.3.1.1.7.). HPLC fractionation of human plasma samples followed by enzyme immunoassay revealed the presence of cross-reacting metabolites. An automated procedure of metabolite separation was developed using silica bonded with diol groups (Diol Bakerbond column). This procedure ensured assay specificity. The quantification limit in human plasma was 0.1 ng/ml. Mean repeatability (intra-assay variation) and reproducibility (inter-assay variation) were 9 and 15%, respectively. The enzyme immunoassay allowed monitoring of the kinetics of nomegestrol acetate 144 h after oral administration of a single 5 mg dose. Values for human samples were in excellent agreement with those assayable by HPLC followed by u.v. detection. PMID:8217881

  5. Isolation and characterization of ack and pta mutations in Azotobacter vinelandii affecting acetate-glucose diauxie.

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, D; Melton, T

    1986-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii mutants defective for acetate utilization that were resistant to fluoroacetate (FA) were isolated. FA-resistant mutant AM6 failed to transport [14C]acetate and lacked enzymatic activity for both acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase. Growth of wild-type A. vinelandii was sensitive to 10 mM glycine; however, all FA-resistant strains were resistant to glycine toxicity. Isolated mutants that were spontaneously resistant to glycine were also resistant to FA and lacked both acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase activity. The glycine-resistant mutant AM3, unlike mutant AM6, was capable of growth on acetate. The mutant strain AM6 was unable to growth under acetate-glucose diauxie conditions. Glucose utilization in this mutant, unlike that in wild-type A. vinelandii, was permanently arrested in the presence of acetate. Revertants of strain AM6 were selected on plates with acetate or acetate-glucose. Two classes of revertants were isolated. Class I revertant mutants AM31 and AM35 were positive for both acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase activities. These revertants were also sensitive to both FA and glycine. Class II revertant strains AM32 and AM34 still lacked acetate kinase and phophotransacetylase activity. Both of these revertants remained resistant to FA and glycine. PMID:3001033

  6. Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

  7. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (?QDR3 and ?IKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ?QDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:25698512

  8. Studies of the Acetate Kinase-Phosphotransacetylase and the Butanediol-Forming Systems in Aerobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, T. D. K.; Pereira, C. R. S.; Størmer, F. C.

    1972-01-01

    Mutants of Aerobacter aerogenes devoid of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase activities were isolated by selection for resistance to fluoroacetate on lactate medium. The mutants were used to study the role of the acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase system in growth on acetate and glucose. Acetate kinase-negative and phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants were unable to grow on acetate minimal medium. Their growth rates on glucose minimal medium were identical with that of the parent strain under aerobic conditions, but lower growth rates were observed in the mutant strains during anaerobic growth on glucose medium. The mutants were unable to incorporate [2-14C]-acetate rapidly while growing on glycerol. Variations in acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase levels during growth on glucose were studied. The specific activities of the enzymes increased approximately fivefold during aerobic growth on glucose in batch culture. The enzyme levels were also studied during anaerobic growth on glucose at constant pH (pH 5.8 and 7.0). Smaller increases in specific activities were found under these conditions. The role of acetate in the induction of the diacetyl (acetoin) reductase was investigated using a mutant deficient in both acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase. The effect of pH on the induction of this enzyme during growth on glucose under anaerobic conditions was tested. The data support the idea that free acetic acid is the inducer for the enzymes of the butanediol-forming pathway in A. aerogenes. PMID:4640502

  9. Two concomitant polymorphs of monomeric nickel acetate with 2-pyridineethanol.

    PubMed

    Trdin, Miha; Bergant, Valter; Leban, Ivan; Lah, Nina

    2012-09-01

    A new mononuclear nickel(II) acetate with 2-pyridineethanol, Ni(ac)2(2-PyEtOH)2 has been prepared. The reaction product is a mixture of two polymorphic forms that crystallize concomitantly: triclinic (P?) and monoclinic (P21/c). Their structures have been determined at 150 K. The molecular structure of the mononuclear complex shows similar geometry in both polymorphic structures but they differ notably in the arrangement of mononuclear entities in space. The crystal densities are significantly different, nevertheless they behave as concomitant polymorphs. PMID:24061300

  10. Negative-tone resist system using vinyl cyclic acetal crosslinker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wu-Song; Lee, Kim Y.; Chen, K. Rex; Schepis, Dominic

    1996-06-01

    Most high performance negative tone resists are chemically amplified systems. The chemistry involves a creation of acid during photo-exposure and subsequent crosslinking of the polymer matrix during post-exposure bake. The commonly used crosslinkers are epoxies, melamines, benzyl alcohol and benzyl acetates. In light of the high reactivity of vinyl group on vinyl ether type compounds, literature has suggested that photochemical addition reaction of a polymer- bearing pendant vinyl ether with various thiol compounds can potentially be highly sensitive negative-type photoresists. Recently, bis-dihydropyrane derivative has been used for the first time to develop high performance negative tone resists for DUV, E-beam and x-ray applications. A cyclic acetal system based on acetal blocked aromatic aldehyde has also been demonstrated to be a good crosslinker for negative DUV resist. In order to take advantage of the above chemistries, we have investigated a crosslinker, 3,9-divinylspirobi(M-dioxane) (DVSDO), which contains both cyclic acetal groups and vinyl groups. Different loadings of DVSDO from 8% to 17% were formulated in combination with triphenyl sulfonyl triflate and N-sulfonyl triflate derivatives in polyhydroxystyrene matrix. One composition contains 8% N- sulfonyloxy derivative, 12% DVSDO in 20% solid of polyhydroxystyrene has shown resolution to 0.35 micrometer from Canon 0.37 NA DUV stepper. It also shows promising resolution in E-beam lithography. Varying the post apply bake (PAB) temperatures and post exposure bake temperatures (PEB) demonstrate a great dependency of sensitivity to baking temperature. The sensitivity increases with decreasing PAB, while decreases with decreasing PEB. Insufficient baking time (less than 4 - 5 minutes) at lower PEB temperature 90 degrees Celsius causes significant film loss after development in 0.14N TMAH for 60 - 75s. On the other hand, when the PEB temperature is too high (greater than 120 degrees Celsius), the resist's resolution is degraded. Recent literature report has shown that high resolution can be achieved on negative resist system by raising PAB temperature. However, most of the known resist systems cannot tolerate high temperature, due to background crosslinking. The crosslinker, DVSDO, introduced in this paper seems to have higher heat resistance toward thermal induced background crosslinking. The resist formulated here can tolerate 140 degrees Celsius bake without seeing residues on the unexposed area. In this paper, we also discuss some IR studies on the crosslinking mechanism in addition to the lithographic evaluation.

  11. Hydrogen fluoride capture by imidazolium acetate ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, we evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  12. Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid

    E-print Network

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  13. Potassium 2-(N-hydroxy­carbamo­yl)acetate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Prisyazhnaya, Elena V.; Odarich, Irina; Fritsky, Igor O.; Gumienna-Kontecka, El?bieta; Iskenderov, Turganbay S.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, K+·C3H4NO4 ?·H2O, consists of potassium cations, monoanions of 2-carboxy­acetohydroxamic acid [namely 2-(N-hydroxy­carbamo­yl)acetate] and solvent water mol­ecules. The elements of the structure are united in a three-dimensional network by numerous K?O coordinate bonds and O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds. The coordination sphere of the K+ ions may be described as a distorted double capped octa­hedron. Bond lengths and angles are similar to those in related compounds. PMID:21577769

  14. DFT studies of CNT-functionalized uracil-acetate hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Gulseren, Oguz

    2015-09-01

    Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the stabilities and properties of hybrid structures consisting of a molecular carbon nanotube (CNT) and uracil acetate (UA) counterparts. The investigated models have been relaxed to minimum energy structures and then various physical properties and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have been evaluated. The results indicated the effects of functionalized CNT on the properties of hybrids through comparing the results of hybrids and individual structures. The oxygen atoms of uracil counterparts have been seen as the detection points of properties for the CNT-UA hybrids.

  15. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate; ACP-103, Ad.Egr.TNF.11 D, adalimumab, AF-IL 12, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, alefacept, alemtuzumab, a-Galactosylceramide, ALVAC vCP 1452, alvimopan hydrate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, antarelix, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic sulfide, asoprisnil, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BrachySil, brivudine; Caffeine, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, capsaicin for injection, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, cetuximab, CGP-36742, clofazimine, CpG-7909, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, dimethylfumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GPI-0100; hA 20, HTU-PA, human insulin, HuOKT 3 gamma 1(Ala 234-Ala 235), hyaluronic acid; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, INKP-100, INKP-102, iodine (I131) tositumomab, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lasofoxifene tartrate, LB-80380, lenalidomide, lidocaine/tetracaine, linezolid, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Maribavir, morphine glucuronide, MVA-5 T 4; NBI-56418, NCX-4016, nesiritide, nicotine conjugate vaccine, NSC-330507; Oglufanide, omalizumab, oxipurinol; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, PEGylated interferon alfacon-1, perospirone hydrochloride, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plerixafor hydrochloride, PowderJect lidocaine, pradefovir mesylate, prasterone, pregabalin, Prostvac VF, PT-141, PTC-124, pyridoxamine; QS-21, quercetin; R-126638, R-411, ralfinamide, rasagiline mesilate, rF-PSA, RG-2077, rhThrombin, rimonabant hydrochloride, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rV-PSA; S-18886, S-303, seocalcitol, SGN-40, sitaxsentan sodium, SPP-301, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenatoprazole, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone MDTS, testosterone transdermal patch, tgAAC-09, TH-9507, thioacetazone, tipifarnib, TQ-1011, trabectedin, travoprost, trimethoprim; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valopicitabine, voriconazole; Xcellerated T cells. PMID:16179960

  16. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L. E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  17. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  18. Demonstration of equivalence of a generic glatiramer acetate (Glatopa™).

    PubMed

    Anderson, James; Bell, Christine; Bishop, John; Capila, Ishan; Ganguly, Tanmoy; Glajch, Joseph; Iyer, Mani; Kaundinya, Ganesh; Lansing, Jonathan; Pradines, Joel; Prescott, James; Cohen, Bruce A; Kantor, Daniel; Sachleben, Richard

    2015-12-15

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) has been available under the brand name Copaxone® for nearly two decades. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first generic GA, Glatopa™, as fully substitutable for all indications for which Copaxone 20mg is approved; Glatopa also represents the first FDA-approved "AP-rated," substitutable generic for treating patients with MS. Glatiramer acetate is a complex mixture of polypeptides and, consequently, its characterization presented challenges not generally encountered in drug development. Despite its complexity, and without requiring any clinical data, approval was accomplished through an Abbreviated New Drug Application in which equivalence to Copaxone was evaluated across four criteria: starting materials and basic chemistry; structural signatures for polymerization, depolymerization, and purification; physicochemical properties; and biological and immunological properties. This article describes the rigorous overall scientific approach used to successfully establish equivalence between Glatopa and Copaxone, and presents key representative data from several of the comprehensive sets of physicochemical (structural) and biological (functional) assays that were conducted. PMID:26671082

  19. Ion selective permeation through cellulose acetate membranes in forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gavin J; Rajesh, Sahadevan; Georgiadis, Michael; Phillip, William A

    2013-12-01

    Solute-solute interactions can have a dramatic impact on the permeation of solutes through dense polymeric membranes. In particular, understanding how solute-solute interactions can affect the design of osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) is critical to the successful development of these emerging water treatment and energy generation processes. In this work, we investigate the influence that solute-solute interactions have on nitrate permeation through an asymmetric cellulose acetate forward osmosis membrane. A series of experiments that included systematic modifications to the cation paired with nitrate, the identity of the draw solute, and the solution pH were conducted. These experiments reveal that in the unique operating geometry of ODMPs, where solute containing solutions are present on both sides of the membrane, nitrate fluxes are significantly higher (>15 times in some cases) than predicted by existing models for solute permeation in ODMPs. The identity of the cation paired with nitrate influences the flux of nitrate; the identity of the cation in the draw solution does not affect the flux of nitrate; however, the identity of the anion in the draw solution has the most significant impact on the flux of nitrate. These results suggest that an ion exchange mechanism, which allows nitrate to switch rapidly with anions from the draw solution, is present when cellulose acetate based membranes are used in ODMPs. PMID:24152190

  20. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 68-76, 2016. PMID:25044390

  1. Redox-Neutral ?-Sulfenylation of Secondary Amines: Ring-Fused N,S-Acetals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Secondary amines react with thiosalicylaldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of acetic acid to generate ring-fused N,S-acetals in redox-neutral fashion. A broad range of amines undergo ?-sulfenylation, including challenging substrates such morpholine, thiomorpholine, and piperazines. Computational studies employing density functional theory indicate that acetic acid reduces the energy barriers of two separate steps, both of which involve proton transfer. PMID:24927364

  2. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  3. Ethyl acetate as a substitute for diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    PubMed Central

    Young, K H; Bullock, S L; Melvin, D M; Spruill, C L

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl acetate appears to be a satisfactory subsitute solvent for diethyl ether in the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. In comparative studies, concentration of organisms with ethyl acetate was equal to or greater than that with diethyl ether. No distortion or alteration of morphology was observed with eigher solvent, and preparations were comparable in appearance and ease of examination. In addition, ethyl acetate is less flammable and less hazardous to use than diethyl ether. PMID:574877

  4. P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate/palladium-catalyzed asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Kageyama, Takeharu; Goto, Hiroki; Carrow, Brad P; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2012-08-01

    Utilization of palladium catalysts bearing a P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate ligand enabled asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide. The obtained ?-polyketones have head-to-tail and isotactic polymer structures. The origin of the regio- and stereoregularities was elucidated by stoichiometric reactions of acylpalladium complexes with vinyl acetate. The present report for the first time demonstrates successful asymmetric coordination-insertion (co)polymerization of vinyl acetate. PMID:22823453

  5. Boswellic acid acetate induces apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways in myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijuan; Chen, Duo; Han, Rui; Fang, Qicheng; Waxman, Samuel; Jing, Yongkui

    2005-03-01

    The mechanism of the cytotoxic effect of boswellic acid acetate, a 1:1 mixture of alpha-boswellic acid acetate and beta-boswellic acid acetate, isolated from Boswellia carterri Birdw on myeloid leukemia cells was investigated in six human myeloid leukemia cell lines (NB4, SKNO-1, K562, U937, ML-1, and HL-60 cells). Morphologic and DNA fragmentation assays indicated that the cytotoxic effect of boswellic acid acetate was mediated by induction of apoptosis. More than 50% of the cells underwent apoptosis after treatment with 20 mug/mL boswellic acid for 24 hours. This apoptotic process was p53 independent. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-XL were not modulated by boswellic acid acetate. Boswellic acid acetate induced Bid cleavage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential without production of hydrogen peroxide. A general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and a specific caspase-8 inhibitor II (Z-IETD-FMK) blocked boswellic acid acetate-induced apoptosis. The mRNAs of death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) were induced in leukemia cells undergoing apoptosis after boswellic acid acetate treatment. These data taken together suggest that boswellic acid acetate induces myeloid leukemia cell apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 by induced expression of DR4 and DR5, and that the activated caspase-8 either directly activates caspase-3 by cleavage or indirectly by cleaving Bid, which in turn decreases mitochondria membrane potential. PMID:15767547

  6. Kinetic studies of acetate in freshwater sediments: Use of stable isotopic tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordijk, C. A.; Kamminga, H.; Cappenberg, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of acetate uptake in the sediment of Lake Vechten, a meso-eutrophic, monomictic freshwater lake, was investigated by monitoring the disappearance of deuterated acetate tracers. Steep acetate concentration gradients were observed in the top cm when the sediment was analyzed at the millimeter scale. The gradients revealed not only the dynamic nature of the acetate pools but also indicated substantial mass transport between sediment layers. Acetate uptake could conveniently be modeled using first order reaction kinetics. Uptake rates ranged from 30 ?M day -1 (winter) to 546 ?M day -1 (early spring) in the sulfidogenic horizon (2 cm) and from 30 ?M day -1 (winter) to 1176 ?M day -1 (late summer) in the methanogenic horizon (5 cm). The integrated acetate uptake rate in the top 7 cm was 39.8 ± 20 (2 × SE) mmol acetate m -2 day -1 during early spring. More than 40% of the total acetate pool was reversibly adsorbed in oxic sediment slurries. The presence of hydrous Fe(III) oxides appeared to determine the occurrence of acetate adsorption.

  7. Isotope fractionation during the anaerobic consumption of acetate by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gövert, D.; Conrad, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the anaerobic degradation of organic matter in anoxic sediments and soils acetate is the most important substrate for the final step in production of CO2 and/or CH4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea both compete for the available acetate. Knowledge about the fractionation of 13C/12C of acetate carbon by these microbial groups is still limited. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope fractionation in different cultures of acetate-utilizing SRB (Desulfobacter postgatei, D. hydrogenophilus, Desulfobacca acetoxidans) and methanogens (Methanosarcina barkeri, M. acetivorans). Including literature values (e.g., Methanosaeta concilii), isotopic enrichment factors (epsilon) ranged between -35 and +2 permil, possibly involving equilibrium isotope effects besides kinetic isotope effects. The values of epsilon were dependent on the acetate-catabolic pathway of the particular microorganism, the methyl or carboxyl position of acetate, and the relative availability or limitation of the substrate acetate. Patterns of isotope fractionation in anoxic lake sediments and rice field soil seem to reflect the characteristics of the microorganisms actively involved in acetate catabolism. Hence, it might be possible using environmental isotopic information to determine the type of microbial metabolism converting acetate to CO2 and/or CH4.

  8. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    PubMed

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted. PMID:23519192

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  10. Use of pooled sodium acetate acetic acid formalin-preserved fecal specimens for the detection of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing detection of intestinal parasites from single unpreserved stool sample vs. sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-preserved pooled samples, and stained with chlorazol black dye in routine practice. Unpreserved samples were collected from 120 patients and represented as Group I. Other three SAF-preserved samples were collected from the same patients over a 6-day period and represented as Groups IIa, IIb, and IIc. The latter groups were equally subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup of each of the three samples was examined individually, whereas the second subgroup of each were pooled and examined as a single specimen. All groups were examined by the routine diagnostic techniques; however, in group II when the diagnosis was uncertain, the chlorazol black dye staining procedure was carried out. Results demonstrated that out of 74 patients who continued the study, 12 cases (16%) were positive in group I, compared with 29 (39%) in the subgroups examined individually, and 27 (36%) in the pooled subgroups. Therefore, pooling of preserved fecal samples is an efficient and economical procedure for the detection of parasites. Furthermore, the chlorazol black dye was simple and effective in detecting the nuclear details of different parasites. PMID:21567472

  11. Magnetic avalanches in manganese-acetate, "magnetic deflagration"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoko

    Mn12-acetate, first synthesized in 1980 by Lis, is one example of a class of many molecules called single molecule magnets (SMMs) or molecular nanomagnets. These molecules have several atomic spins strongly coupled together within each molecule. They exhibit interesting quantum mechanical phenomena at low temperatures such as quantum tunneling of magnetization, which was first found with Mn12-acetate in 1996 by Friedman, et al. , and Berry phase oscillations which were measured in Fe8 (another SMM) in 1999 by Wernsdorfer, et al. In addition to possible application as memory storage and qubits for quantum computers, these systems provide the means for studies of mesoscopic physics as well as the interactions of the molecules with their environment, such as phonon, photon, nuclear spin, intermolecular dipole, and exchange interactions. Mn12-acetate has twelve Mn ions magnetically coupled in the center of the molecule yielding a giant spin of S = 10 at low temperature. It also has a large uniaxial anisotropy of 65 K. Below 3 K, magnetization curves show strong hysteresis due to the anisotropy barrier. At thesis temperatures, the spin relaxes through the barrier by quantum tunneling of magnetization, which produces regularly-spaced multiple resonant steps in the hysteresis curve. Magnetic avalanches, first detected by Paulsen et al., also occur for some samples only at low temperature, leading to a very fast single-step reversal of the full magnetization, which clearly differs from relaxation by tunneling. In this thesis, I present the results of detailed experimental studies of two aspects of magnetic avalanche phenomenon: "conditions for the triggering of avalanches" and "propagation of the avalanche front". In the first study, we find the magnetic fields at which avalanches occur are stochastically distributed in a particular range of fields. For the second study, we conducted local time-resolved measurements. The results indicate the magnetization avalanches spread as a narrow interface that propagate through the crystal at a constant velocity which is roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound in solids. We argue this phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front(deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance.

  12. Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

  13. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdhAÂ?::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical catabolic pathway is controlled by mechanisms similar to those employed by the Bacteria and Eukarya, or by a regulatory paradigm that is unique to the Archaea. The mechanism(s) revealed by this investigation will provide insight into the regulatory strategies employed by the aceticlastic methanogenic Archaea to efficiently direct carbon and electron flow in anaerobic consortia during fermentative processes.

  14. Dissolution control of Mg by cellulose acetate-polyelectrolyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Kirsi; Wilson, Benjamin P; Singer, Ferdinand; Höhn, Sarah; Kontturi, Eero; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2014-12-24

    Cellulose acetate (CA)-based membranes are used for Mg dissolution control: the permeability of the membrane is adjusted by additions of the polyelectrolyte, poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). Spin-coated films were characterized with FT-IR, and once exposed to an aqueous solution the film distends and starts acting as a membrane which controls the flow of ions and H2 gas. Electrochemical measurements (linear sweep voltammograms, open-circuit potential, and polarization) show that by altering the CA:PDMAEMA ratio the dissolution rate of Mg can be controlled. Such a control over Mg dissolution is crucial if Mg is to be considered as a viable, temporary biomedical implant material. Furthermore, the accumulation of corrosion products between the membrane and the sample diminishes the undesirable effects of high local pH and H2 formation which takes place during the corrosion process. PMID:25426707

  15. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine. PMID:25704707

  16. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases ‡

    PubMed Central

    Vav?íková, Eva; Gavezzotti, Paolo; Purchartová, Kate?ina; Fuksová, Kate?ina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, Sergio; K?en, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22) of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule. PMID:26016503

  17. UV recording with vinyl acetate and muicle dye film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ordoñez-Padilla, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of holographic recording medium some of them are photopolymer systems that generally consist of a polymeric host matrix, photopolymerizable momomer, photosensitizing dye and charge transfer agent but some of them have an undesirable feature, the toxicity of their components. Therefore, the present research study material recording, vinyl acetate is selected as polymeric matrix and natural dye from "muicle plant" is used as the photoinitiation these components are not toxic. The films are fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature by this method, uniform films is obtained with good optical quality. To characterize the medium, been obtained when the coherent reed light (632.8 nm) was sent normally to the grating.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of cyclic acetal based degradable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kaihara, Sachiko; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fisher, John P

    2008-01-01

    While many synthetic, hydrolytically degradable hydrogels have been developed for biomedical applications, there are only a few examples whose polymer backbone does not form acidic products upon degradation. In order to address this concern, we proposed to develop a hydrogel based on a cyclic acetal unit that produces diols and propanals upon hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we proposed the fabrication of hydrogels formed by the free radical polymerization of two diacrylate monomers, 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD), a cyclic acetal having two acryl groups, and poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA). However, the hydrophobicity of the EHD monomer inhibits hydrogel fabrication. Therefore this work develops a strategy to form hydrogels with a co-monomer system, one of which is hydrophobic, and subsequently describes the properties of the resulting hydrogel. Using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine as an accelerator, the EHD and PEGDA monomers were reacted in an acetone/water co-solvent system. The chemical structure of the resulting EH-PEG [5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol-co-PEG] hydrogel was then characterized by FT-IR. Physicochemical properties of the EH-PEG hydrogel, including swelling degree, sol fraction, and contact angle, were determined so as to characterize the properties of these materials and ultimately investigate their use in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Results showed that EH-PEG hydrogel may be formed using the co-solvent system. Further results indicated that swelling degree is dependent upon initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and molar ratios of monomers, while sol fraction significantly depended on initiator concentration and monomer concentration, only. These results demonstrate the ability to fabricate hydrogels using EHD and PEGDA system as well as to control the properties of the resulting hydrophilic networks. PMID:17888640

  19. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects, as well as their association with different plants and contribution through BNF are described as an overview. PMID:18177965

  20. Investigation of carbon tetrachloride destruction by copper acetate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Halogenated synthetic organic compounds are used in a wide variety of pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, fire retardants, and paints that cause extensive pollution to the air, surface water, groundwater, and soils. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) is a typical halogenated synthetic organic compound that has been suspected to be toxic and carcinogenic and to cause ozone depletion. In the present work, molecular-level destruction of CCl by copper acetate was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structural spectra, X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Experimentally, the Cl species dissociated from CCl were abstracted by copper species and formed CuCl. At 473 to 533 K, reaction products (copper chloride) aggregated on the surfaces of CuO, which might cause the obstruction of further CCl destruction. Due to the insertion of Cl species into the matrix of CuO, the bond distances of Cu-O and Cu-(O)-Cu were increased by 0.3 to 0.4 Å and 0.3 to 0.6 Å, respectively. However, at 603 K, because 79.5% of the Cu was in the CCl destruction solid products, the coordination number of Cu-(O)-Cu increased to 5.6. Molecular level investigations are a key to identifying the mechanisms of the CCl destruction process. In addition, identification of the molecular characteristics of the products may help in safe disposal of the toxic substances. The success of this study paved the way for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds by copper acetate. PMID:22370408

  1. Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1

    E-print Network

    Lombardi, John R.

    Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1 M. P. Sarachik,1 E- acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through. This phenomenon, also ob- served in other molecular magnets, has been attributed to a thermal runaway (avalanche

  2. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  3. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  4. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  5. Evidence for a Complex Between Thf and Acetic Acid from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Bittner, Dror M.; Mullaney, John Connor; Stephens, Susanna L.; King, Adrian; Habgood, Matthew; Walker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Evidence for a complex between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and acetic acid from broadband rotational spectroscopy will be presented. Transitions believed to belong to the complex were first identified in a gas mixture containing small amounts of THF, triethyl borane, and acetic acid balanced in argon. Ab initio calculations suggest a complex between THF and acetic acid is more likely to form compared to the analogous acetic acid complex with triethyl borane, the initial target. The observed rotational constants are also more similar to those predicted for a complex formed between THF and acetic acid, than for those of a complex formed between triethyl borane and acetic acid. Subsequently, multiple isotopologues of acetic acid have been measured, confirming its presence in the structure. No information has yet been obtained through isotopic substitution within the THF sub-unit. Ab initio calculations predict the most likely structure is one where the acetic acid subunit coordinates over the ring creating a "bridge" between the THF oxygen, the carboxylic O-H, and the carbonyl oxygen to a hydrogen atom on the back of the ring.

  6. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  7. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert...

  8. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert...

  9. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert...

  10. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo(11)C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through (13)C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that (13)C acetate from fermentation of (13)C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic (13)C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic (13)C acetate regionally increases the (13)C labelling of the glutamate-glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic (13)C lactate reaching higher levels than the 'remaining brain'. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  11. Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations

    E-print Network

    Nair, Sankar

    Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations Wun. The exfoliated SAMH-3 flakes were used to form SAMH-3/cellulose acetate (CA) membranes. Their micro- structure of each type of material [4]. Various inorganic porous materials such as zeolite, metal oxide nanotubes

  12. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... phosphate aqueous suspension. 522.161 Section 522.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.161 Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate... - acetate (C24H31FO6). Betamethasone disodium phosphate:...

  13. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... phosphate aqueous suspension. 522.161 Section 522.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.161 Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate... - acetate (C24H31FO6). Betamethasone disodium phosphate:...

  14. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... phosphate aqueous suspension. 522.161 Section 522.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.161 Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate... - acetate (C24H31FO6). Betamethasone disodium phosphate:...

  15. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... phosphate aqueous suspension. 522.161 Section 522.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.161 Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate... - acetate (C24H31FO6). Betamethasone disodium phosphate:...

  16. Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

  17. Acetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra Ann E. West, Steven K. Schmidt*

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    CH4 by an alpine tundra soil. Acetate, formate, methanol, trimethylamine and yeast extract were tested. Acetate and formate (500 mg C (g d.w.)À1 ) stimulated CH4 oxidation rates from 300 to 1192.8 (297 in maximal CH4 oxidation rates, but methanol-treated soil maintained peak rates of CH4 oxidation longer than

  18. [Effects of gossypol acetic acid on transport and development of fertilized eggs in rats].

    PubMed

    Lei, H Q; Xu, Y X

    1990-01-01

    The effects of gossypol acetic acid on the transport and development of fertilized eggs have been observed in rats. The results showed that gossypol acetic acid apparently delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct. It is suggested that these two effects may be important causes of the antiimplantation action of gossypol. PMID:2082677

  19. Improved isolation of zein from corn gluten meal using acetic acid as solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop new uses for corn zein, an improved means of isolating zein is needed. We have evaluated the ability of acetic acid to remove zein from corn gluten meal, distillers dried grains and ground corn. Acetic acid removed zein more quickly, at lower temperatures and in higher yields when compa...

  20. Enzymology of the Pathway for Acetate Conversion to Methane in Methanosarcina thermophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, James G.

    1999-05-04

    These topics are covered: Regulation of enzyme synthesis; Activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA; Biochemistry of acetyl-CoA cleavage; Electron transport; Other enzymes implicated in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane; and publications resulting from this work.

  1. CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF 6,6´-DIMETHOXY-GOSSYPOL:ACETIC ACID (1:1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By crystallization from dilute solutions of acetic acid (2-4%) in diethyl ether, acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, 6,6´-dimethoxy-gossypol forms an inclusion complex with acetic acid in a one-to-one molar ratio. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic P1bar1¯space group and has unit cell dimensio...

  2. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPHALTENES AND ETHYL ACETATE INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF PETROLEUM VACUUM RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asphaltenes and insoluble fractions of vacuum residues (VRs) of two Indian crude oils (viz. Heera and Jodhpur) of different specific gravity were obtained by precipitation of VRs in n-hexane, n-heptane and ethyl acetate, and also by subsequent reprecipitation of n-heptane and ethyl acetate soluble f...

  3. Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and todlux

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and tod­lux Expression with increasing influent concentrations of ethanol, acetate, or phenol. Three inhibitory mechanisms were inhibition of toluene dioxygenase by phenol; and (3) metabolic flux dilution (MFD) by all three cosubstrates

  4. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  5. Different mechanisms for histone acetylation by ethanol and its metabolite acetate in rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shivendra D; Restrepo, Ricardo; Fish, Philip; Lim, Robert W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol and its major metabolite acetate both induced histone H3 acetylation in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. The acetylation by ethanol was dependent on the reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, whereas that by acetate was independent of both pathways. Ethanol increased CYP2E1 protein expression but acetate had negligible effect. The level of phospho-H2AX, an indicator of DNA breaks, was elevated by ethanol but not by acetate. Ethanol and acetate differentially activated mRNA expression for different genes, e.g., IL-6, PPAR?, c-Fos, Egr-1, and PNPLA3 in hepatocytes. The most striking increase (3-fold) was in PNPLA3 mRNA by ethanol with little change by acetate. It was further shown that acetate inhibited histone deacetylase activity. Taken together, these data establish for the first time that ethanol and acetate exhibit differences in their effects on hepatocytes in gene expression, P-H2AX levels, and the mechanism of histone H3 acetylation. The implications of these differences in the actions of ethanol in liver are discussed. PMID:25886906

  6. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  7. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  8. Production of ethyl acetate from dilute ethanol solutions by Candida utilis

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.W.; Martin, S.M.; Yamazaki, H.

    1984-01-01

    The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate has an advantage as a method of ethanol recovery since ethyl acetate is amenable to simple solvent extraction. The potential of Candida utilis in this conversion was studied. The kinetics of accumulation of ethanol and ethyl acetate in glucose-grown C. utilis showed that ester formation resulted from ethanol utilization under appropriate aeration and was inhibited by Fe/sup 3 +/ supplementation. Candida utilis converted ethanol to ethyl acetate optimally at pH 5.0-7.0. The five-hour rate of ester production increased as the ethanol concentration increased to 10 g/L, and rapidly declined to zero at concentrations exceeding 35 g/L. Thus, C. utilis has potential to recover dilute ethanol in the form of ethyl acetate.

  9. The use of the [1,2-13C]acetate recovery factor in metabolic research.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Koopman, Rene; Schrauwen, Patrick; Stegen, Jos; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2003-05-01

    To provide guidelines on the correct application of the acetate recovery factor in metabolic research, we investigated the influence of exercise intensity and infusion protocol on [1,2-(13)C]acetate label recovery during exercise. Eight cyclists were studied during [1,2-(13)C]acetate infusion for 1 h at rest followed by three 30-min stages of cycling exercise at a workload of 40, 55 and 75% maximal workload ( W(max)), respectively (protocol 1). Four cyclists were subsequently studied following [1,2-(13)C]acetate infusion in three separate trials while cycling at the same workloads but in the absence of any pre-exercise infusion period (protocol 2). Finally, we observed the cyclists during [1,2-(13)C]acetate infusion at a 40% W(max) workload after 4 h of pre-exercise infusion (protocol 3). Acetate recovery increased from 13.7 (0.4)%, after 1 h of rest, to a plateau value of 75.1 (2), 91.2 (0.7) and 101 (2)% during exercise at 40, 55 and 75% W(max) workloads, respectively. In protocol 2, without prior infusion time, fractional label recovery was substantially lower at each separate workload. In contrast, when applying an extensive pre-exercise infusion period of 4 h, acetate recovery rates were substantially increased compared to the values observed in protocols 1 and 2 during exercise at a 40% W(max) workload. In conclusion, in contrast to resting conditions, acetate recovery reaches a plateau value during exercise. Though this plateau value is repeatedly used to correct for label recovery in various exercise studies, our data clearly show that acetate label recovery during exercise not only depends on the exercise intensity but also on the applied infusion protocol. Therefore, theoretical acetate recovery factors taken from previous literature are not generally applicable. PMID:12682837

  10. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  11. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  12. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

  13. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  18. Spasticity in multiple sclerosis and role of glatiramer acetate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meca-Lallana, Jose Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spasticity is one of the most disabling and difficult-to-treat symptoms shown by patients with multiple sclerosis, who often show a suboptimal and unsatisfactory response to classic treatment and new available nonpharmacological alternatives. Due to the progressive nature of this condition, the early management should be essential to improve long-term outcomes. Methods We performed a narrative literature review of the contribution of spasticity to the burden of multiple sclerosis and the potential role of classic disease-modifying drugs. Results Added to the underlying pathophysiology of spasticity, certain external factors and drugs such as interferon may exacerbate the existing condition, hence their awareness is crucial as part of an effective management of spasticity. Furthermore, the evidence for the effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in preventing spasticity in naïve patients and in those switching from interferon should not be ignored. Conclusions This literature review proposes the examination of spasticity and the influence of classic disease-modifying agents on the level of existing condition among the variables to be considered when deciding on therapy for multiple sclerosis in clinical practice. PMID:26445705

  19. Stratification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Based on Acetate Utilization.

    PubMed

    Björnson, Elias; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Asplund, Anna; Pristovsek, Nusa; Cinar, Resat; Romeo, Stefano; Uhlen, Mathias; Kunos, George; Nielsen, Jens; Mardinoglu, Adil

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly form of liver cancer that is increasingly prevalent. We analyzed global gene expression profiling of 361 HCC tumors and 49 adjacent noncancerous liver samples by means of combinatorial network-based analysis. We investigated the correlation between transcriptome and proteome of HCC and reconstructed a functional genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for HCC. We identified fundamental metabolic processes required for cell proliferation using the network centric view provided by the GEM. Our analysis revealed tight regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) and highly significant deregulation of fatty acid oxidation in HCC. We predicted mitochondrial acetate as an emerging substrate for FAB through upregulation of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACSS1) in HCC. We analyzed heterogeneous expression of ACSS1 and ACSS2 between HCC patients stratified by high and low ACSS1 and ACSS2 expression and revealed that ACSS1 is associated with tumor growth and malignancy under hypoxic conditions in human HCC. PMID:26655911

  20. Crystallization in Thin Films of Poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yantian; Zhang, Wenhua; Ge, Shouren; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2002-03-01

    The crystallization of spun cast poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) thin films was investigated as a function of film thickness, temperature and time. The morphology was studied with scanning probe microscopy, crystallinity was analyzed by TEM and FTIR, and the melting point was measured using shear modulation force microscopy (SMFM)[1] and a home built micro DSC unit. The results show that melting point decreases abruptly by more than 15oC when the film thickness becomes less than the crystalline lamellar height. This effect appears to be correlated with a change in morphology from ordered spherulites structure with a central nucleation site to a random fibril structure with many nucleation sites. The degree of crystallinity was also drastically reduced in the fibril structure. The presence of exfoliated clay platelets increased the number of nucleation sites and decreased the spherulite diameter. Tm was not affected, but the lateral force of the film was reduced. The observed phenomena are consistent with a lamella orientation parallel to the film surface. Supported in part by the NSF-MRSEC program. [1] S.Ge, Y. Pu, W. Zhang, M. Rafailovich, and J. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 2340(2000)

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  2. Plasmacatalytic removal of lead acetate assisted by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Haddou, Nabila; Ghezzar, Mouffok Redouane; Abdelmalek, Fatiha; Ognier, Stéphanie; Martel, Marc; Addou, Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    The Gliding Arc Discharge (GAD) is an efficient non-thermal plasma technique able to degrade organic compounds dispersed in water at atmospheric pressure. The degradation of the organometallic lead acetate (PbAc) in aqueous solution was performed by two distinct plasmageneous processes: GAD and GAD/TiO2. The global oxidation of the organic matter was followed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the mineralization was determined by the Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The Pb(2+) ions released during the degradation process were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). For 2h of GAD treatment, the degradation rate of PbAc (10mM) reached 83% and for the same duration of GAD/TiO2 process ([TiO2]=1gL(-1)), it reached 93%. The release of Pb(2+) ions in the solution was respectively of 95% and 57% for GAD and GAD/TiO2 processes. The released Pb(2+) ions were removed by precipitation process in a basic medium at pH=11.1. A reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the PbAc molecule degradation and the Pb(2+) elimination. PMID:24462087

  3. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  4. A paradigm for strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance loci in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Pelletier, Dale A; Lu, Tse-Yuan; Martin, S L.; Guo, Hao-Bo; Smith, Jeremy C; Brown, Steven D

    2010-04-01

    The application of systems biology tools holds promise for rational industrial microbial strain development. Here, we characterize a Zymomonas mobilis mutant (AcR) demonstrating sodium acetate tolerance that has potential importance in biofuel development. The genome changes associated with AcR are determined using microarray comparative genome sequencing (CGS) and 454-pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing analysis is employed to validate genomic differences and to investigate CGS and 454-pyrosequencing limitations. Transcriptomics, genetic data and growth studies indicate that over-expression of the sodium-proton antiporter gene nhaA confers the elevated AcR sodium acetate tolerance phenotype. nhaA over-expression mostly confers enhanced sodium (Na+) tolerance and not acetate (Ac-) tolerance, unless both ions are present in sufficient quantities. NaAc is more inhibitory than potassium and ammonium acetate for Z. mobilis and the combination of elevated Na+ and Ac- ions exerts a synergistic inhibitory effect for strain ZM4. A structural model for the NhaA sodium-proton antiporter is constructed to provide mechanistic insights. We demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae sodium-proton antiporter genes also contribute to sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and ammonium acetate tolerances. The present combination of classical and systems biology tools is a paradigm for accelerated industrial strain improvement and combines benefits of few a priori assumptions with detailed, rapid, mechanistic studies.

  5. (S)-2-pentadecyl acetate and 2-pentadecanone Components of aggregation pheromone ofDrosophila busckii.

    PubMed

    Schaner, A M; Tanico-Hogan, L D; Jackson, L L

    1989-11-01

    (S)-2-Pentadecyl acetate and 2-pentadecanone were identified as the major aggregation pheromone components, inDrosophila busckii. Both sexes of flies were attracted equally in a wind-tunnel olfactometer. The flies also responded to racemic 2-pentadecyl acetate but not to the pureR enantiomer. In bioassay, (S)-2-pentadecyl acetate and 2-pentadecanone were each active alone, and a mixture of both increased the number of flies responding ca. twofold. The aggregation pheromone components are found in the ejaculatory bulb of sexually mature males and are transferred primarily to the female cuticle during mating. One third of the pheromone transferred is released by the female to the surrounding environment in a few hours after mating. None of the aggregation pheromone components remained on the mated female's cuticle, leaving two thirds unaccounted for. The same results were obtained when racemic 2-pentadecyl acetate was topically applied to immature and mature virgin males and females. BothD. mulleri andD. busckii were attracted to (S)-2-acetates of 13, 14 and 15 carbons, butD. mulleri preferred (S)-2-tridecyl acetate andD. busckii preferred (S)-2-pentadecyl acetate. PMID:24271599

  6. Glatiramer acetate in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: emerging concepts regarding its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Lalive, Patrice H; Neuhaus, Oliver; Benkhoucha, Mahdia; Burger, Danielle; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Zamvil, Scott S; Weber, Martin S

    2011-05-01

    Glatiramer acetate is a synthetic, random copolymer widely used as a first-line agent for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). While earlier studies primarily attributed its clinical effect to a shift in the cytokine secretion of CD4+ T helper (T(h)) cells, growing evidence in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), suggests that glatiramer acetate treatment is associated with a broader immunomodulatory effect on cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. To date, glatiramer acetate-mediated modulation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as monocytes and dendritic cells, CD4+ T(h) cells, CD8+ T cells, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and antibody production by plasma cells have been reported; in addition, most recent investigations indicate that glatiramer acetate treatment may also promote regulatory B-cell properties. Experimental evidence suggests that, among these diverse effects, a fostering interplay between anti-inflammatory T-cell populations and regulatory type II APC may be the central axis in glatiramer acetate-mediated immune modulation of CNS autoimmune disease. Besides altering inflammatory processes, glatiramer acetate could exert direct neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative properties, which could be of relevance for the treatment of MS, but even more so for primarily neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. In this review, we provide a comprehensive and critical overview of established and recent findings aiming to elucidate the complex mechanism of action of glatiramer acetate. PMID:21476611

  7. Safety and efficacy of roxatidine acetate. Evidence from pharmacodynamic and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Merki, H S; Bender, W; Labs, R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a new H2-receptor antagonist, roxatidine acetate, have been investigated in both clinical and pharmacodynamic trials in Europe and the United States. A series of four double-blind randomized studies are reviewed, reporting the effects of different dose regimens of roxatidine acetate compared with ranitidine and placebo in healthy volunteers using continuous intragastric pH monitoring. These pharmacodynamic studies clearly demonstrate that roxatidine acetate is an effective gastric antisecretory agent, which is up to twice as potent as ranitidine. The results of several clinical studies of roxatidine acetate in patients with gastric as well as duodenal ulcer conducted in Europe, Japan, and the United States are also reviewed. These studies show that roxatidine acetate is comparable to other potent H2-receptor antagonists in terms of cumulative healing rates, pain relief, and safety. Overall, the pharmacodynamic and clinical data indicate that the efficacy of roxatidine acetate 75 mg twice-daily (b.i.d.) does not differ significantly from ranitidine 150 mg b.i.d. Roxatidine acetate is equally effective in the treatment of peptic disease including gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and reflux esophagitis. PMID:2572621

  8. Paradigm for industrial strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance loci in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Pelletier, Dale A; Lu, Tse-Yuan; Martin, S L.; Guo, Hao-Bo; Smith, Jeremy C; Brown, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    The application of systems biology tools holds promise for rational industrial microbial strain development. Here, we characterize a Zymomonas mobilis mutant (AcR) demonstrating sodium acetate tolerance that has potential importance in biofuel development. The genome changes associated with AcR are determined using microarray comparative genome sequencing (CGS) and 454-pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing analysis is employed to validate genomic differences and to investigate CGS and 454-pyrosequencing limitations. Transcriptomics, genetic data and growth studies indicate that over-expression of the sodium-proton antiporter gene nhaA confers the elevated AcR sodium acetate tolerance phenotype. nhaA over-expression mostly confers enhanced sodium (Na{sup +}) tolerance and not acetate (Ac{sup -}) tolerance, unless both ions are present in sufficient quantities. NaAc is more inhibitory than potassium and ammonium acetate for Z. mobilis and the combination of elevated Na{sup +} and Ac{sup -} ions exerts a synergistic inhibitory effect for strain ZM4. A structural model for the NhaA sodium-proton antiporter is constructed to provide mechanistic insights. We demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae sodium-proton antiporter genes also contribute to sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and ammonium acetate tolerances. The present combination of classical and systems biology tools is a paradigm for accelerated industrial strain improvement and combines benefits of few a priori assumptions with detailed, rapid, mechanistic studies.

  9. Isolation of cellulose from rice straw and its conversion into cellulose acetate catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guozhi; Wang, Min; Liao, Chongjing; Fang, Tao; Li, Jianfen; Zhou, Ronghui

    2013-04-15

    Cellulose was isolated from rice straw by pretreatment with dilute alkaline and acid solutions successively, and it was further transferred into cellulose acetate in the presence of acetic anhydride and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40·6H2O). The removal of hemicellulose and lignin was affected by the concentration of KOH and the immersion time in acetic acid solution, and 83wt.% content of cellulose in the treated rice straw was obtained after pretreatment with 4% KOH and immersion in acetic acid for 5h. Phosphotungstic acid was found to be an effective catalyst for the acetylation of the cellulose derived from rice straw. The degree of substitution (DS) values revealed a significant effect for the solubility of cellulose acetate, and the acetone-soluble cellulose acetate with DS values around 2.2 can be obtained by changing the amount of phosphotungstic acid and the time of acetylation. Both the structure of cellulose separated from rice straw and cellulose acetate were confirmed by FTIR and XRD. PMID:23544511

  10. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...chemical substance identified as acetic acid, 2-chloro-,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...chemical substance identified as acetic acid, 2-chloro-,...

  12. Alternative Acetate Production Pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Dark Anoxia and the Dominant Role of Chloroplasts in Fermentative Acetate Production[W

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; D’Adamo, Sarah; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J.; Mackinder, Luke; Miller, Tarryn E.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Peers, Graham; Smith, Kerry S.; Jonikas, Martin C.; Grossman, Arthur R.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii insertion mutants disrupted for genes encoding acetate kinases (EC 2.7.2.1) (ACK1 and ACK2) and a phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) (PAT2, but not PAT1) were isolated to characterize fermentative acetate production. ACK1 and PAT2 were localized to chloroplasts, while ACK2 and PAT1 were shown to be in mitochondria. Characterization of the mutants showed that PAT2 and ACK1 activity in chloroplasts plays a dominant role (relative to ACK2 and PAT1 in mitochondria) in producing acetate under dark, anoxic conditions and, surprisingly, also suggested that Chlamydomonas has other pathways that generate acetate in the absence of ACK activity. We identified a number of proteins associated with alternative pathways for acetate production that are encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome. Furthermore, we observed that only modest alterations in the accumulation of fermentative products occurred in the ack1, ack2, and ack1 ack2 mutants, which contrasts with the substantial metabolite alterations described in strains devoid of other key fermentation enzymes. PMID:25381350

  13. Extraction and sorption of acetic acid at pH above pK{sub a} to form calcium magnesium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, H.; King, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The use of rock salt for deicing roads has many negative effects on automobiles, highway systems, and the environment. Calcium magnesium acetate, hence-forth denoted CMA, has been identified as a more desirable, environmentally benign solid deicer for high-ways, airport runaways, and similar applications. CMA is also of interest as an additive for scavenging sulfur in combustion processes so as to reduce emissions of sulfur oxides and as a catalyst for coal gasification. Different extractants (trioctylphosphine oxide and secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines) and solid sorbents (tertiary and quaternary amines) were investigated as agents for recovery of acetic acid as part of a process for production of CMA from fermentation acetic acid. The pH and temperature dependencies for uptake of acetic acid by these extractants and sorbents were measured, along with the degrees of regeneration by aqueous suspensions of slaked dolomitic lime. These results enable identification of agents having optimal basicity. Among the extractants, the secondary amine Amberlite LA-2 gave the best combined performance for extraction and regeneration. Among the sorbents, a tertiary amine, Amberlite IRA-35, gave the best performance. Trioctylphosphine oxide does not maintain capacity in the pH range (about 6) most attractive for acetic acid fermentation. Slurred crushed dolomite is not sufficiently basic to accomplish regeneration.

  14. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  15. Acetate formation in the energy metabolism of parasitic helminths and protists.

    PubMed

    Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Henze, Katrin; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Martin, William

    2010-03-15

    Formation and excretion of acetate as a metabolic end product of energy metabolism occurs in many protist and helminth parasites, such as the parasitic helminths Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum, and the protist parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis as well as Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. In all of these parasites acetate is a main end product of their energy metabolism, whereas acetate formation does not occur in their mammalian hosts. Acetate production might therefore harbour novel targets for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. In parasites, acetate is produced from acetyl-CoA by two different reactions, both involving substrate level phosphorylation, that are catalysed by either a cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) or an organellar acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT). The ACS reaction is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, whereas the ASCT reaction yields succinyl-CoA for ATP formation via succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS). Based on recent work on the ASCTs of F. hepatica, T. vaginalis and Trypanosoma brucei we suggest the existence of three subfamilies of enzymes within the CoA-transferase family I. Enzymes of these three subfamilies catalyse the ASCT reaction in eukaryotes via the same mechanism, but the subfamilies share little sequence homology. The CoA-transferases of the three subfamilies are all present inside ATP-producing organelles of parasites, those of subfamily IA in the mitochondria of trypanosomatids, subfamily IB in the mitochondria of parasitic worms and subfamily IC in hydrogenosome-bearing parasites. Together with the recent characterisation among non-parasitic protists of yet a third route of acetate formation involving acetate kinase (ACK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) that was previously unknown among eukaryotes, these recent developments provide a good opportunity to have a closer look at eukaryotic acetate formation. PMID:20085767

  16. Development of xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production at high acetic acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, D.V.; Whelan, D.R.; Panchal, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Mutants resistant to comparatively high levels of acetic acid were isolated from the xylose-fermenting yeasts Candida shehatae and Pichia Stipitis by adapting these cultures to increasing concentrations of acetic acid grown in shake-flask cultures. These mutants were tested for their ability to ferment xylose in presence of high acetic acid concentrations, in acid hydrolysates of wood, and in hardwood spent sulfite liquor, and compared with their wild-type counterparts and between themselves. The P. stipitis mutant exhibited faster fermentation times, better tolerance to acid hydrolysates, and tolerance to lower pH.

  17. Brønsted Acid/Lewis Acid Cooperatively Catalyzed Addition of Diazoester to 2H-chromene Acetals

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Yi; Qi, Yue; Gao, Hongyi; Ma, Qianqian; Schaus, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel Brønsted acid/Lewis acid dual catalyst system has been developed to promote an efficient C–C bond formation between a range of oxocarbenium precursors derived from chromene acetals and ethyl diazoacetate. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions and is tolerant of common functionalized 2H-chromene and isochromene acetals. In addition, an asymmetric variant of diazoacetate addition towards 2H-chromene acetal is described. Continued investigations include the further optimization of asymmetric induction towards the formation of diazo ester substituted 2H-chromene. PMID:25411552

  18. Lewis Base Activation of Silyl Acetals: Iridium-Catalyzed Reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Olefination.

    PubMed

    Dakarapu, Udaya Sree; Bokka, Apparao; Asgari, Parham; Trog, Gabriela; Hua, Yuanda; Nguyen, Hiep H; Rahman, Nawal; Jeon, Junha

    2015-12-01

    A Lewis base promoted deprotonative pronucleophile addition to silyl acetals has been developed and applied to the iridium-catalyzed reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination of esters and the chemoselective reduction of the resulting enoates. Lewis base activation of silyl acetals generates putative pentacoordinate silicate acetals, which fragment into aldehydes, silanes, and alkoxides in situ. Subsequent deprotonative metalation of phosphonate esters followed by HWE with aldehydes furnishes enoates. This operationally convenient, mechanistically unique protocol converts the traditionally challenging aryl, alkenyl, and alkynyl esters to homologated enoates at room temperature within a single vessel. PMID:26566189

  19. Optimisation of n-Hexyl Acetate Synthesis in a Chromatographic Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dipesh; Saha, Basudeb; Wakeman, Richard

    Laboratory scale batch chromatographic reactor experiments were carried for the esterification of acetic acid with n-hexanol to synthesise a value added ester, namely n-hexyl acetate in the presence of an ion exchange resin catalyst, Purolite CT-124. The effect of various parameters such as solvent flow rates in the regeneration step, amount of reactants in the reaction step and reaction step time was studied for optimisation of the reaction condition in a batch chromatographic reactor. This information would be useful for the design, operation and optimisation of n-hexyl acetate synthesis in a continuous chromatographic reactor.

  20. 1.8 M Sodium acetate trihydrate pH 7.0 2.8 M Sodium acetate trihydrate pH 7.0

    E-print Network

    Zhijie, Liu

    . 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. Buffer 0.1 M BIS-TRIS propane pH 7.0 0.1 M BIS-TRIS propane pH 7.0 0.1 M Sodium acetate trihydrate pH 4.6 0.1 M BIS-TRIS propane pH 7.0 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 0.1 M Sodium acetate trihydrate pH 4.6 0.1 M BIS-TRIS propane pH 7.0 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 0.1 M Sodium acetate trihydrate

  1. Glatiramer acetate treatment negatively regulates type I interferon signaling

    PubMed Central

    Molnarfi, Nicolas; Prod'homme, Thomas; Schulze-Topphoff, Ulf; Spencer, Collin M.; Weber, Martin S.; Patarroyo, Juan C.; Lalive, Patrice H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone), a disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), promotes development of anti-inflammatory (M2, type II) monocytes that can direct differentiation of regulatory T cells. We investigated the innate immune signaling pathways that participate in GA-mediated M2 monocyte polarization. Methods: Monocytes were isolated from myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)–deficient, Toll-IL-1 receptor domain–containing adaptor inducing interferon (IFN)–? (TRIF)–deficient, IFN-?/? receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1)–deficient, and wild-type (WT) mice and human peripheral blood. GA-treated monocytes were stimulated with Toll-like receptor ligands, then evaluated for activation of kinases and transcription factors involved in innate immunity, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. GA-treated mice were evaluated for cytokine secretion and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Results: GA-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes occurred independently of MyD88 and nuclear factor–?B, but was blocked by TRIF deficiency. Furthermore, GA did not provide clinical benefit in TRIF-deficient mice. GA inhibited activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, an upstream regulator of activating transcription factor (ATF)–2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, which regulates IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Consequently, nuclear translocation of ATF-2 and IRF3, components of the IFN-? enhanceosome, was impaired. Consistent with these observations, GA inhibited production of IFN-? in vivo in WT mice, but did not modulate proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes from IFNAR1-deficient mice. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that GA inhibits the type I IFN pathway in M2 polarization of monocytes independently of MyD88, providing an important mechanism connecting innate and adaptive immune modulation in GA therapy and valuable insight regarding its potential use with other MS treatments. PMID:26601118

  2. Photoluminescence of cellulose acetate and silica sphere composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Sun

    2014-08-01

    Strong blue and green light emission has been observed from the cellulose acetate (CA) and silica sphere composite. Two different amounts of silica spheres were mixed in the CA solution to fabricate large area super-hydrophobic films. The silica spheres and CA solution ratios were 0.07:4.0 (SSCA-A) and 0.14:4.0 (SSCA-B). The milky color solution of SSCA-A and SSCA-B slowly turned to light yellow and red, respectively, with the time passed. The colors became intense yellow and red for the SSCA-A and SSCA-B, respectively, after 38 days. FTIR spectra show more absorption at 3478 cm-1 corresponding sbnd OH stretching vibration, at 2963 cm-1 caused by sbnd CH stretching vibration, at 1746 and 1713 cm-1 representing the Cdbnd O stretching vibration, and at 1100 cm-1 corresponding sbnd Rsbnd OH and Sisbnd Osbnd Si stretching vibration for CA and silica. Therefore, aged SSCA-A and SSCA-B have more sbnd OH, sbnd CH, sbnd Cdbnd O, and Sisbnd Osbnd Si groups than pure CA. UV-visible spectra show the absorption peaks at 410 nm for both SSCA-A and SSCA-B. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks were shifted toward longer wavelength with the increase of the excitation wavelength and became maximum at approximately 470 nm with excitation wavelength at 400 nm for the SSCA-A. There were two maximum luminescence peaks at 470 and 530 nm with the excitation wavelength at 400 and 470 nm, respectively, for the SSCA-B. The luminescence peak shift was due to the multiple emission center proved by the different excitation energy.

  3. Acetic acid bacteria, newly emerging symbionts of insects.

    PubMed

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-11-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

  4. Acetic Acid Bacteria, Newly Emerging Symbionts of Insects?

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Working, Dennis C.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax(TM)260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax(TM) 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash(TM)) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  6. Kinetic model for methanogenesis of acetic acid in a multireactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.N.; Ghose, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    Bioconversion of acetic acid to methane by a crude culture of methanogens in a continuous multireactor system was investigateed. Culture of methanogens was drawn from an active cow-dung digester (12 days) and was grown in a semisynthetic medium (pH 6.3, 37/sup 0/C) with acetic acid as the sole carbon source. The solubilities of CO/sub 2/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ increased with the rise in pH and exercised considerable influence on the gas composition. Various mechanisms for methanogenesis of acetic acid based on the available pathways were considered. Experimental data were compared with these mechansims, the best fit was determined, and the corresponding rate expression was identified. This mechanism predicted that, of the total methane produced, 72% comes from acetic acid directly and 28% via the CO/sub 2/ reduction route.

  7. Interaction between Starch Breakdown, Acetate Assimilation, and Photosynthetic Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas

    E-print Network

    . These studies, which focus on the light reactions of photosynthesis, also indirectly provide infor- mation of acetate, for example, the P700 reduction rate matches the rate of starch breakdown reported previously

  8. Effects of lead acetate on guinea pig - cochear microphonics, action potential, and motor nerve conduction velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, K.; Maehara, N.; Terayama, K.; Ueno, N.; Kohyama, A.; Sawada, Y.; Kishi, R.

    1987-04-01

    Segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration of motor nerves induced by lead exposure is well known in man, and animals. The effect of lead acetate exposure to man may involve the cranial nerves, since vertigo and sensory neuronal deafness have been reported among lead workers. However, there are few reports concerning the dose-effects of lead acetate both to the peripheral nerve and the cranial VII nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration. The authors investigated the effects of lead acetate to the cochlea and the VIII nerve using CM (cochlear microphonics) and AP (action potential) of the guinea pigs. The effects of lead acetate to the sciatic nerve were measured by MCV of the sciatic nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration.

  9. Effect of Shear on Gelation of Polyacrylamide-Chromium Acetate Gelant in a Circular Tube

    E-print Network

    Li, Xianping

    2010-11-26

    This research studies the gelation and flow properties of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM)-chromium acetate gel system under shear conditions. Gelation was observed in steady shear on a rheometer and during injection through a 1,031-ft...

  10. Inelastic neutron scattering study of Mn12acetate Yicheng Zhong and M. P. Sarachika)

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Jonathan R.

    referred to as Mn12­Ac . First synthesized by Lis,1 it consists of Avogadro's number of weakly interacting­acetate consisting of a large number of nominally identical spin-10 magnetic clusters. Our resolution

  11. Two-dimensional isobutyl acetate production pathways to improve carbon yield

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yohei; Desai, Shuchi H.; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    For an economically competitive biological process, achieving high carbon yield of a target chemical is crucial. In biochemical production, pyruvate and acetyl-CoA are primary building blocks. When sugar is used as the sole biosynthetic substrate, acetyl-CoA is commonly generated by pyruvate decarboxylation. However, pyruvate decarboxylation during acetyl-CoA formation limits the theoretical maximum carbon yield (TMCY) by releasing carbon, and in some cases also leads to redox imbalance. To avoid these problems, we describe here the construction of a metabolic pathway that simultaneously utilizes glucose and acetate. Acetate is utilized to produce acetyl-CoA without carbon loss or redox imbalance. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for isobutyl acetate (IBA) production, wherein IBA production with glucose and acetate achieves a higher carbon yield than with either sole carbon source. These results highlight the potential for this multiple carbon source approach to improve the TMCY and balance redox in biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26108471

  12. Palladium-catalyzed substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles

    E-print Network

    Chattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Fenster, Erik; Grenning, Alexander James; Tunge, Jon A.

    2012-07-27

    The palladium-catalyzed nucleophilic substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates is described. The reaction proceeds though a palladium ?-benzyl-like complex and allows for many different types of C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles to be regioselectively...

  13. Regioselective acetylation of diols and polyols by acetate catalysis: mechanism and application.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bo; Rahm, Martin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yixuan; Dong, Hai

    2014-09-01

    We propose a principle for H-bonding activation in acylation of hydroxyl groups, where the acylation is activated by the formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups and anions. With the guidance of this principle, we demonstrate a method for the selective acylation of carbohydrates. By this method, diols and polyols are regioselectively acetylated in high yields under mild conditions using catalytic amounts of acetate. In comparison to other methods involving reagents such as organotin, organoboron, organosilicon, organobase, and metal salts, this method is more environmentally friendly, convenient, and efficient and is also associated with higher regioselectivity. We have performed a thorough quantum chemical study to decipher the mechanism, which suggests that acetate first forms a dual H-bond complex with a diol, which enables subsequent monoacylation by acetic anhydride under mild conditions. The regioselectivity appears to originate from the inherent structure of the diols and polyols and their specific interactions with the coordinating acetate catalyst. PMID:25102271

  14. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Calaza, Florencia; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R; Xu, Ye; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acid desorb. DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.

  15. Production of acetone and conversion of acetone to acetate in the perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Gavino, V.C.; Somma, J.; Philbert, L.; David, F.; Garneau, M.; Belair, J.; Brunengraber, H.

    1987-05-15

    The utilization of millimolar concentrations of (2-/sup 14/C)acetone and the production of acetone from acetoacetate were studied in perfused livers from 48-h starved rats. We devised a procedure for determining, in a perfused liver system, the first-order rate constant for the decarboxylation of acetoacetate (0.29 +/- 0.09 h-1, S.E., n = 8). After perfusion of livers with (2-/sup 14/C)acetone, labeled acetate was isolated from the perfusion medium and characterized as (1-/sup 14/C)acetate. No radioactivity was found in lactate or 3-hydroxybutyrate. After 90 min of perfusion with (2-/sup 14/C)acetone, the specific activity of acetate was 30 +/- 4% (n = 13) of the initial specific activity of acetone. We conclude that, in perfused livers from 2-day starved rats, acetone metabolism occurs for the most part via free acetate.

  16. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  17. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...activity in all cells that utilize oxygen as part of their respiration process. The krebs cycle is carried out in the mitochondria...believes that because acetic acid biodegrades rapidly under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the environment, residues...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...acetates. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...acetates. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...acetates. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...acetates. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...

  2. Ultrasound assisted lipase catalyzed synthesis of cinnamyl acetate via transesterification reaction in a solvent free medium.

    PubMed

    Tomke, Prerana D; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-11-01

    Cinnamyl acetate is known for its use as flavor and fragrance material in different industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic etc. This work focuses on ultrasound assisted lipase (Novozym 435) catalyzed synthesis of cinnamyl acetate via transesterification of cinnamyl alcohol and vinyl acetate in non-aqueous, solvent free system. Optimization of various parameters shows that a higher yield of 99.99% can be obtained at cinnamyl alcohol to vinyl acetate ratio of 1:2 with 0.2% of catalyst, at 40°C and 150 rpm, with lower ultrasound power input of 50 W (Ultrasound intensity 0.81 W/cm(2)), at 25 kHz frequency, 50% duty cycle. Further, the time required for the maximum conversion is reduced to 20 min as compared to 60 min of conventional process. Similarly, the enzyme can be successfully reused seven times without loss of enzyme activity. Thus, ultrasound helps to enhance the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of flavors. PMID:26186841

  3. 75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  4. 75 FR 33316 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  5. 76 FR 67459 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

  6. 78 FR 28221 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  7. 75 FR 63496 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  8. 78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  9. 77 FR 65555 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  10. 78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed:...

  11. 77 FR 27776 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

  12. 76 FR 27327 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

  13. 77 FR 8877 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system....

  15. 76 FR 36556 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License; The Development of Ulipristal Acetate for the Treatment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...Proposed clinical indications for ulipristal acetate include emergency/daily contraception, treatment of uterine fibroids, endometriosis, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and cancer. The prospective exclusive license will be royalty bearing and will...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...., which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350. (1)...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Office of Food... produced by the partial or complete alcoholysis or hydrolysis of those ethylene-vinyl acetate...

  18. Tsuji-Trost N-allylation with allylic acetates using cellulose-Pd catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic amines are synthesized using heterogeneous cellulose-Pd catalyst via N-allylation of amines; aliphatic and benzyl amines undergo facile reaction with substituted and unsubstituted allyl acetates in high yields.

  19. Role of the ejaculatory bulb in biosynthesis of the male pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Pho, Dang Ba; Jallon, Jean-Marc

    2007-06-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the male ejaculatory bulb is the site of synthesis of a male-specific pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate, which functions as both an attractant and an anti-aphrodisiac. This long monounsaturated acetate is structurally similar to a number of shorter gland-synthesized moth pheromones. The cell monolayer that forms the Drosophila male ejaculatory bulb wall is responsible for the production and secretion of cis-vaccenyl acetate into the seminal fluid. When dissected bulbs were incubated with sodium [14-C]-acetate (or deuterated acetate), a labeled acetate ester was synthesized. The labeled acetate ester co-migrated with cis-vaccenyl acetate in thin layer chromatography. Incubation of the abdomens of males from which the ejaculatory bulbs had been removed, or the abdomens of females, with radiolabeled acetate did not yield any acetate ester, but did yield other lipid products, including hydrocarbons. When the isolated labeled acetate ester was hydrolyzed, no radioactive vaccenol was formed. This strongly suggests that the acetyl group is incorporated via a transacetylation reaction, but that the vaccenyl moiety is not synthetized in the blub. The transacetylation enzyme activity was localized in the microsomal subfraction of the bulb homogenate, and its affinity for vaccenol was not very different from that reported for monounsaturated alcohol substrates in moths. PMID:21396023

  20. Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M.

    1997-03-01

    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

  1. Alignment of micro-crystals of Mn12-acetate and direct observation of single molecules thereof 

    E-print Network

    Seo, Dongmin

    2009-05-15

    OF MICRO-CRYSTALS OF MN 12 -ACETATE AND DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SINGLE MOLECULES THEREOF A Dissertation by DONGMIN SEO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2007 Major Subject: Physics ALIGNMENT OF MICRO-CRYSTALS OF MN 12 -ACETATE AND DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SINGLE MOLECULES THEREOF A Dissertation by DONGMIN SEO Submitted to the Office...

  2. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

  3. Acetate is a superior substrate for microbial fuel cell initiation preceding bioethanol effluent utilization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed cell voltage development, electricity recovery, and microbial community composition in response to initial substrate including acetate, xylose, acetate/xylose 1:1 mixture (ace/xyl), and bioethanol effluent (BE) during microbial fuel cell (MFC) operation at 1000?? external resistance. The BE mainly contained 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose, and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. The MFCs initially fed with acetate showed shorter initiation time (1 day), higher average cell voltage (634?±?9 mV), and higher coulombic efficiency (31.5?±?0.5 %) than those initially fed with ace/xyl or xylose. However, BE-initiated MFCs only generated 162?±?1 mV. The acetate-initiated MFCs exhibited longer adaptation time (21 h) and lower cell voltage (645?±?10 mV) when the substrate was switched to xylose, whereas substrate switching to BE produced the highest voltage (656 mV), maximum power density (362?±?27 mW/m(2)), maximum current density (709?±?27 mA/m(2)), and coulombic efficiency (25?±?0.5 %) in the acetate-initiated MFCs. The microbial community in acetate-initiated MFCs was less diverse and contained more electrogenic bacteria (13.9?±?0.4 %) including Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfuromonas acetexigen than the MFCs initially fed with ace/xyl, xylose, and BE. After switching the substrate to xylose and subsequently to BE, the microbial community in the acetate-initiated MFCs became more diverse, while no significant changes were observed in ace/xyl-, xylose-, and BE-initiated MFCs. The results showed that initial substrate affected the power generation and the capability to adapt to the substrate alteration in MFCs. Acetate-initiated MFCs showed best performance in utilizing BE. PMID:25794875

  4. Polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk and emulsion by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, Andrea C.; Mori, Manoel N.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G.

    2004-09-01

    The vinyl acetate polymerization to produce poly(vinyl acetate) was carried out in bulk and emulsion using a 60Co gamma irradiator Gammacell-220 type. The irradiation was carried out in a dose rate of 5.25 and 5.30 kGy/h, respectively. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out.

  5. Acetic acid induces pH-independent cellular energy depletion in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sin Mei; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-03-01

    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (p<0.05) that was apparent for the four Salmonella strains. We suggest that this effect was probably due solely to the action of undissociated acid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56 ± 1.27; p<0.05), where the role of both pH and undissociated acid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH. PMID:25562466

  6. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  7. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L?1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h?1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L?1) and very high (100–200 g·L?1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L?1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L?1·h?1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L?1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L?1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

  8. Proteins Induced during Adaptation of Acetobacter aceti to High Acetate Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Peter; Sauer, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    As a typical product of microbial metabolism, the weak acid acetate is well known for its cytotoxic effects. In contrast to most other microbes, the so-called acetic acid bacteria can acquire significant resistance to high acetate concentrations when properly adapted to such hostile conditions. To characterize the molecular events that are associated with this adaptation, we analyzed global protein expression levels during adaptation of Acetobacter aceti by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Adaptation was achieved by using serial batch and continuous cultivations with increasing acetate supplementation. Computer-aided analysis revealed a complex proteome response with at least 50 proteins that are specifically induced by adaptation to acetate but not by other stress conditions, such as heat or oxidative or osmotic stress. Of these proteins, 19 were significantly induced in serial batch and continuous cultures and were thus noted as acetate adaptation proteins (Aaps). Here we present first microsequence information on such Aaps from A. aceti. Membrane-associated processes appear to be of major importance for adaptation, because some of the Aap bear N-terminal sequence homology to membrane proteins and 11 of about 40 resolved proteins from membrane protein-enriched fractions are significantly induced. PMID:11722895

  9. Anaphylaxis to gonadorelin acetate in a girl with central precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Ak?n, Onur; Yavuz, Süleyman Tolga; Hac?hamdio?lu, Bülent; Sar?, Erkan; Gürsel, Orhan; Ye?ilkaya, Ediz

    2015-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues are generally regarded as safe drugs. Gonadorelin acetate has been widely used for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty, and life-threatening reactions to gonadorelin acetate are extremely rare. Herein, we described - to the best of our knowledge - the first pediatric case in which severe anaphylaxis was encountered after intravenous gonadorelin acetate administration. An 8-year-old girl who was diagnosed with central precocious puberty was receiving triptorelin acetate treatment uneventfully for 6 months. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment, an LH-RH stimulation test with gonadorelin acetate was planned. Within 3 min after intravenous administration of gonadorelin acetate, she lost consciousness and tonic seizures began in her hands and feet. She was immediately treated with epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and fluids. Her vital signs recovered within 30 min. Based on the results, anaphylaxis should be anticipated and the administration of these drugs should be performed in a setting that is equipped to deal with systemic reactions. PMID:26197466

  10. Lipozyme TL IM as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Eugenyl Acetate in Solvent-Free Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Silva, María José A; Loss, Raquel A; Laroque, Denise A; Lerin, Lindomar A; Pereira, Gabriela N; Thon, Élise; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Ninow, Jorge L; Hense, Haiko; Oliveira, Débora

    2015-06-01

    The ability of commercial immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) to catalyze the acetylation of essential clove oil with acetic anhydride in a solvent-free system was studied, and the antimicrobial activity of the ester formed was evaluated as well. Experimental design based on two variables (eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio and temperature) was employed to evaluate the experimental conditions of eugenyl acetate ester production. The maximum conversion yield (92.86 %) was obtained using Lipozyme TL IM (5 wt%, based on the total amount of substrates), with eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:5 at 70 °C. The chemical structure of the eugenyl acetate ester obtained at the optimized condition, and purified, was confirmed by the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis. The antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate ester was proven effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with means of 16.62 and 17.55 mm of inhibition halo. PMID:25875787

  11. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Properties of Vasicine Acetate Synthesized from Vasicine Isolated from Adhatoda vasica L.

    PubMed Central

    Duraipandiyan, V.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Balachandran, C.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Sankar, C.; Balakrishna, K.

    2015-01-01

    Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae) is used in the indigenous system of medicine in India. The alkaloid Vasicine was isolated from ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. vasica using column chromatography. Vasicine acetate was obtained by acetylation of Vasicine. Vasicine acetate exhibited good zone of inhibition against bacteria: 10?mm against E. aerogenes, 10?mm against S. epidermidis, and 10?mm against P. aeruginosa. Vasicine acetate showed minimum inhibitory concentration values against bacteria: M. luteus (125??g/mL), E. aerogenes (125??g/mL), S. epidermidis (125??g/mL), and P. aeruginosa (125??g/mL). The radical scavenging activity of Vasicine acetate was the maximum at 1000??g/mL (66.15%). The compound showed prominent cytotoxic activity in vitro against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line. Quantification of Vasicine and Vasicine acetate by HPLC-DAD analysis showed their contents to be 0.2293% and 0.0156%, respectively, on dry weight basis of the leaves. Vasicine acetate could be probed further in drug discovery programme. PMID:25632399

  12. Ammonium acetate enhances solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 using cassava as a fermentation medium.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang; Hu, Shiyuan; Chen, Jun; Shao, Lijun; He, Huiqi; Yang, Yunliu; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2009-09-01

    Cassava, due to its high starch content and low cost, is a promising candidate substrate for large-scale fermentation processes aimed at producing the solvents acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE). However, the solvent yield from the fermentation of cassava reaches only 60% of that achieved by fermenting corn. We have found that the addition of ammonium acetate (CH(3)COONH(4)) to the cassava medium significantly promotes solvent production from cassava fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018, a mutant with a high butanol ratio. When cassava medium was supplemented with 30 mM ammonium acetate, the acetone, butanol and total solvent production reached 5.0, 13.0 and 19.4 g/l, respectively, after 48 h of fermentation. This level of solvent production is comparable to that obtained from corn medium. Both ammonium (NH(4) (+)) and acetate (CH(3)COO(-)) were required for increased solvent synthesis. We also demonstrated substantially increased acetic and butyric acid accumulation during the acidogenesis phase as well as greater acid re-assimilation during the solventogenesis period in ammonium acetate-supplemented cassava medium. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transcription of several genes encoding enzymes related to acidogenesis and solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 were enhanced by the addition of ammonium acetate to the cassava medium. PMID:19543929

  13. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    PubMed

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2?mutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. PMID:24761971

  14. Theoretical study of the infrared frequencies of crystalline methyl acetate under interstellar medium conditions.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Radhika; Inomata, Kensuke; Gopakumar, Geetha; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Zempo, Yasunari; Hada, Masahiko

    2016-01-15

    Identification of methyl acetate in the interstellar medium (ISM) and its spectroscopic studies have prompted us to investigate the structure of crystalline methyl acetate using numerical calculations. Here, we present a theoretical study of the structure of crystalline methyl acetate and its isotopologues and compare the calculated infrared (IR) spectra with the available experimental data. The optimized structure and vibrational properties were calculated using SIESTA software at 0K. In the optimization process, the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional and conjugate gradient methods were used with double zeta polarization basis functions. After optimization of the periodic structure, the vibrational frequencies and normal modes were calculated within the harmonic approximation. Using the calculated results, we refine the mode assignments of experimental work on crystalline methyl acetate and determine the low frequency modes (below 650cm(-1)). To investigate the accuracy of the pseudopotential and confirm the IR frequencies, we performed molecular calculations using a periodic model of methyl acetate and its isotopologues using SIESTA and compared them with results obtained from Gaussian 09 (all electron method) calculations. Finally, we assigned the vibrational modes of crystalline CD3-COO-CH3 and CH3-COO-CD3, for which experimental data are not available in the crystalline phase under ISM conditions. For all of the calculation methods, the IR vibrational modes of molecular and crystalline methyl acetate and its isotopologues were in good agreement with the available experimental data and predict the unavailable values. PMID:26356787

  15. Theoretical study of the infrared frequencies of crystalline methyl acetate under interstellar medium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Radhika; Inomata, Kensuke; Gopakumar, Geetha; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Zempo, Yasunari; Hada, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Identification of methyl acetate in the interstellar medium (ISM) and its spectroscopic studies have prompted us to investigate the structure of crystalline methyl acetate using numerical calculations. Here, we present a theoretical study of the structure of crystalline methyl acetate and its isotopologues and compare the calculated infrared (IR) spectra with the available experimental data. The optimized structure and vibrational properties were calculated using SIESTA software at 0 K. In the optimization process, the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional and conjugate gradient methods were used with double zeta polarization basis functions. After optimization of the periodic structure, the vibrational frequencies and normal modes were calculated within the harmonic approximation. Using the calculated results, we refine the mode assignments of experimental work on crystalline methyl acetate and determine the low frequency modes (below 650 cm- 1). To investigate the accuracy of the pseudopotential and confirm the IR frequencies, we performed molecular calculations using a periodic model of methyl acetate and its isotopologues using SIESTA and compared them with results obtained from Gaussian 09 (all electron method) calculations. Finally, we assigned the vibrational modes of crystalline CD3-COO-CH3 and CH3-COO-CD3, for which experimental data are not available in the crystalline phase under ISM conditions. For all of the calculation methods, the IR vibrational modes of molecular and crystalline methyl acetate and its isotopologues were in good agreement with the available experimental data and predict the unavailable values.

  16. Microbial Community Dynamics and Stability during an Ammonia-Induced Shift to Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Jeffrey J.; Garcia, Marcelo L.; Perkins, Sarah D.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Smith, Samuel R.; Muegge, Brian D.; Stadermann, Frank J.; DeRito, Christopher M.; Floss, Christine; Madsen, Eugene L.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters rely on the diversity and distribution of parallel metabolic pathways mediated by complex syntrophic microbial communities to maintain robust and optimal performance. Using mesophilic swine waste digesters, we experimented with increased ammonia loading to induce a shift from aceticlastic methanogenesis to an alternative acetate-consuming pathway of syntrophic acetate oxidation. In comparison with control digesters, we observed shifts in bacterial 16S rRNA gene content and in functional gene repertoires over the course of the digesters' 3-year operating period. During the first year, under identical startup conditions, all bioreactors mirrored each other closely in terms of bacterial phylotype content, phylogenetic structure, and evenness. When we perturbed the digesters by increasing the ammonia concentration or temperature, the distribution of bacterial phylotypes became more uneven, followed by a return to more even communities once syntrophic acetate oxidation had allowed the experimental bioreactors to regain stable operation. The emergence of syntrophic acetate oxidation coincided with a partial shift from aceticlastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Our 16S rRNA gene analysis also revealed that acetate-fed enrichment experiments resulted in communities that did not represent the bioreactor community. Analysis of shotgun sequencing of community DNA suggests that syntrophic acetate oxidation was carried out by a heterogeneous community rather than by a specific keystone population with representatives of enriched cultures with this metabolic capacity. PMID:24657858

  17. Anion release and uptake kinetics: structural changes of layered 2-dimensional ZnNiHN upon uptake of acetate and chlorinated acetate anions.

    PubMed

    Machingauta, Cleopas; Hossenlopp, Jeanne M

    2013-12-01

    X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy were used for the investigation of ion exchange reaction kinetics of nitrates with acetate (Ac), chloro acetate (ClAc), dichloro acetate (dClAc) and trichloro acetate (tClAc) anions, using zinc nickel hydroxy nitrate (ZnNiHN) as the exchange precursor. The exchange reactions conducted at 24, 30, 40 and 50°C revealed that rate constants were inversely related to the calculated anion electronic spatial extent (ESE), while a direct relationship between rate constants and the average oxygen charges was observed. Temporal solid phase structural transformations were shown to be affected by the nature of the guest anions. The amount of nitrates released into solution has been shown to decrease as the guest anions became more chlorinated. Use of isoconversional approach revealed that activation energies changed significantly with ? during dClAc intercalation than for the other anions. The topotactic intercalation of the guest anions, except dClAc, followed the Avrami-Erofe'ev kinetic model for the entire reaction progress. PMID:24054447

  18. PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers electrospun using diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate solvent system for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Binulal, N S; Natarajan, Amrita; Menon, Deepthy; Bhaskaran, V K; Mony, Ullas; Nair, Shantikumar V

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofibrous scaffolds with various poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 wt.%) were successfully electrospun using diluted acetic and ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of this solvent system on the solution properties of the composites and its electrospinning properties were investigated. Viscosity and conductivity of the solutions, with the addition of gelatin, allowed for the electrospinning of uniform nanofibers with increasing hydrophilicity and degradation. Composite nanofibers containing 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin showed an optimum combination of hydrophilicity and degradability and also maintained the structural integrity of the scaffold. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) showed favorable interaction with and proliferation on, the composite scaffolds. hMSC proliferation was highest in the 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin containing composites. Our experimental data suggested that PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers containing 30-40 wt.% of gelatin and electrospun in diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate mixture produced nanofiber scaffolds with optimum hydrophilicity, degradability, and bio-functionality for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering. PMID:24274102

  19. Effectiveness of glatiramer acetate compared to other multiple sclerosis therapies

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Guillermo; García-Agua Soler, Nuria; Rus, Macarena; García-Ruiz, Antonio José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of glatiramer acetate (GA) compared to other multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies in routine clinical practice. Materials and methods Observational cohort study carried out in MS patients treated with GA (GA cohort) or other MS therapies –switched from GA– (non-GA cohort). Study data were obtained through review of our MS patient database. The primary endpoint was the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores reached at the end of treatment/last check-up. Results A total of 180 patients were included: GA cohort n = 120, non-GA cohort n = 60. Patients in the GA cohort showed better EDSS scores at the end of treatment/last check-up (mean ± SD, 2.8 ± 1.8 vs. 3.9 ± 2.2; P = 0.001) and were 1.65 times more likely to show better EDSS scores compared to the non-GA cohort (odds ratio, 0.606; 95%CI, 0.436–0.843; P = 0.003). Patients in the GA cohort showed longer mean time to reach EDSS scores of 6 (209.1 [95%CI, 187.6–230.6] vs. 164.3 [95%CI, 137.0–191.6] months; P = 0.004) and slower disability progression (hazard ratio, 0.415 [95%CI, 0.286–0.603]; P < 0.001). The annualized relapse rate was lower in the GA cohort (mean ± SD, 0.5 ± 0.5 vs. 0.8 ± 0.5; P = 0.001) and patients’ quality of life was improved in this study cohort compared to the non-GA cohort (mean ± SD, 0.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.01). Conclusions GA may slow down the progression of EDSS scores to a greater extent than other MS therapies, as well as achieving a greater reduction in relapses and a greater improvement in patients’ quality of life. Switching from GA to other MS therapies has not proved to entail a better response to treatment. PMID:26085963

  20. Acetate-Bridged Platinum(III) Complexes Derived from Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Justin J.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of the acetate-bridged half-lantern platinum(II) complex, cis-[PtII(NH3)2(µ-OAc)2PtII(NH3)2](NO3)2, [1](NO3)2, with iodobenzene dichloride or bromine generates the halide-capped platinum(III) species, cis-[XPtIII(NH3)2(µ-OAc)2PtIII(NH3)2X](NO3)2, where X is Cl in [2](NO3)2, or Br in [3](NO3)2, respectively. These three complexes, characterized structurally by X-ray crystallography, feature short (? 2.6 Å) Pt–Pt separations, consistent with formation of a formal metal-metal bond upon oxidation. Elongated axial Pt–X distances occur, reflecting the strong trans influence of the metal-metal bond. The three structures are compared to those of other known dinuclear platinum complexes. A combination of 1H, 13C, 14N, and 195Pt NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize [1]2+–[3]2+ in solution. All resonances shift downfield upon oxidation of [1]2+ to [2]2+ and [3]2+. For the platinum(III) complexes, the 14N and 195Pt resonances exhibit decreased linewidths by comparison to those of [1]2+. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the decrease in 14N linewidth arises from a diminished electric field gradient (EFG) at the 14N nuclei in the higher valent compounds. The oxidation of [1](NO3)2 with the alternative oxidizing agent, bis(trifluoroacetoxy) iodobenzene, affords the novel tetranuclear complex, cis-[(O2CCF3)PtIII(NH3)2(µ-OAc)2PtIII(NH3)(µ-NH2)]2(NO3)4, [4](NO3)4, also characterized structurally by X-ray crystallography. In solution, this complex exists as a mixture of species, the identities of which are proposed. PMID:22946515

  1. Comparative pharmacogenetics of multiple sclerosis: IFN-? versus glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Kulakova, Olga G; Tsareva, Ekaterina Yu; Lvovs, Dmitrijs; Favorov, Alexander V; Boyko, Alexey N; Favorova, Olga O

    2014-04-01

    Various diseases require the selection of preferable treatment out of available alternatives. Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory/neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, requires long-term medication with either specific disease-modifying therapy (DMT) - IFN-? or glatiramer acetate (GA) - which remain the only first-line DMTs in all countries. A significant share of MS patients are resistant to treatment with one or the other DMT; therefore, the earliest choice of preferable DMT is of particular importance. A number of conventional pharmacogenetic studies performed up to the present day have identified the treatment-sensitive genetic biomarkers that might be specific for the particular drug; however, the suitable biomarkers for selection of one or another first-line DMT are remained to be found. Comparative pharmacogenetic analysis may allow the identification of the discriminative genetic biomarkers, which may be more informative for an a priori DMT choice than those found in conventional pharmacogenetic studies. The search for discriminative markers of preferable first-line DMT, which differ in carriage between IFN-? responders and GA responders as well as between IFN-? nonresponders and GA nonresponders, has been performed in 253 IFN-?-treated MS patients and 285 GA-treated MS patients. A bioinformatics algorithm for identification of composite biomarkers (allelic sets) was applied on a unified set of immune-response genes, which are relevant for IFN-? and/or GA modes of action, and identical clinical criteria of treatment response. We found the range of discriminative markers, which include polymorphic variants of CCR5, IFNAR1, TGFB1, DRB1 or CTLA4 genes, in different combinations. Every allelic set includes the CCR5 genetic variant, which probably suggests its crucial role in the modulation of the DMT response. Special attention should be given to the (CCR5*d+ IFNAR1*G) discriminative combination, which clearly points towards IFN-? treatment choice for carriers of this combination. As a whole the comparative approach provides an option for the identification of prognostic composite biomarkers for a preferable medication among available alternatives. PMID:24798724

  2. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. PMID:25069743

  3. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kojima, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; T Masters, Eliot; Manosroi, Aranya; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2010-01-01

    Four triterpene acetates, alpha-amyrin acetate (1a), beta-amyrin acetate (2a), lupeol acetate (3a), and butyrospermol acetate (4a), and four triterpene cinnamates, alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c), lupeol cinnamate (3c), and butyrospermol cinnamate (4c), were isolated from the kernel fat (n-hexane extract) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae). Upon evaluation of these eight triterpene esters for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds tested exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values in the range of 0.15-0.75 micromol/ear, and among which compound 3c showed the highest activity with ID(50) of 0.15 micromol/ear. Compound 3c (10 mg/kg) further exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan, with the percentage of inflammation at 1, 3, and 5 h of 35.4, 41.5, and 45.5%, respectively. The eight triterpene esters were then evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells as a primary screening test for inhibitors of tumor promoters. All the compounds showed moderate inhibitory effects. Furthermore, compound 3c exhibited inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. The biological activities of triterpene acetate and cinnamate esters, together with the exceptionally high levels of these triterpenes in shea fat, indicate that shea nuts and shea fat (shea butter) constitute a significant source of anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting compounds. PMID:20484832

  4. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  5. Genome-guided analysis of physiological and morphological traits of the fermentative acetate oxidizer Thermacetogenium phaeum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thermacetogenium phaeum is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium oxidizing acetate to CO2 in syntrophic association with a methanogenic partner. It can also grow in pure culture, e.g., by fermentation of methanol to acetate. The key enzymes of homoacetate fermentation (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) are used both in acetate oxidation and acetate formation. The obvious reversibility of this pathway in this organism is of specific interest since syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the energetic limitations of microbial life. Results The genome of Th. phaeum is organized on a single circular chromosome and has a total size of 2,939,057 bp. It comprises 3.215 open reading frames of which 75% could be assigned to a gene function. The G+C content is 53.88 mol%. Many CRISPR sequences were found, indicating heavy phage attack in the past. A complete gene set for a phage was found in the genome, and indications of phage action could also be observed in culture. The genome contained all genes required for CO2 reduction through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, including two formyl tetrahydrofolate ligases, three carbon monoxide dehydrogenases, one formate hydrogenlyase complex, three further formate dehydrogenases, and three further hydrogenases. The bacterium contains a menaquinone MQ-7. No indications of cytochromes or Rnf complexes could be found in the genome. Conclusions The information obtained from the genome sequence indicates that Th. phaeum differs basically from the three homoacetogenic bacteria sequenced so far, i.e., the sodium ion-dependent Acetobacterium woodii, the ethanol-producing Clostridium ljungdahlii, and the cytochrome-containing Moorella thermoacetica. The specific enzyme outfit of Th. phaeum obviously allows ATP formation both in acetate formation and acetate oxidation. PMID:23259483

  6. Uncultivated Methylocystis Species in Paddy Soil Include Facultative Methanotrophs that Utilize Acetate.

    PubMed

    Leng, Lingqin; Chang, Jiali; Geng, Kan; Lu, Yahai; Ma, Ke

    2015-07-01

    Methanotrophs are crucial in regulating methane emission from rice field systems. Type II methanotrophs in particular are often observed in high abundance in paddy soil. Some cultivated species of Methylocystis are able to grow on acetate in the absence of methane. We hypothesize that the dominant type II methanotrophs in paddy soil might facultatively utilize acetate for growth, which we evaluate in the present study. The measurement of methane oxidation rates showed that the methanotrophic activity in paddy soil was inhibited by the addition of acetate compared to the continuous supplementation of methane, but the paddy soil maintained the methane oxidation capacity and recovered following methane supplementation. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) combined with cloning and sequencing of pmoA genes showed that Methylocystis was enriched after incubation with added acetate, while the type I methanotrophs Methylocaldum/Methylococcus and Methylobacter were enriched by methane supplementation. A comparison of pmoA sequences obtained in this study with those in the public database indicated that they were globally widespread in paddy soils or in associated with rice roots. Furthermore, we performed stable isotope probing (SIP) of pmoA messenger RNA (mRNA) to investigate the assimilation of (13)C-acetate by paddy soil methanotrophs. RNA-SIP revealed that Methylocystis-related methanotrophs which shared the same genotype of the above enriched species were significantly labelled. It indicates that these methanotrophs actively assimilated the labelled acetate in paddy soil. Altogether, these results suggested that uncultivated Methylocystis species are facultative methanotrophs utilizing acetate as a secondary carbon source in paddy soil. PMID:25475784

  7. Ionic liquid mediated technology for synthesis of cellulose acetates using different co-solvents.

    PubMed

    Jogunola, Olatunde; Eta, Valerie; Hedenström, Mattias; Sundman, Ola; Salmi, Tapio; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In this work, cellulose acetate was synthesized under homogeneous conditions. Cellulose was first dispersed in acetone, acetonitrile, 1,5-diazabicyclo(4.3.0)non-5-ene (DBN) or dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and the resulting suspension was dissolved in an ionic liquid, 1,5-diazabicyclo(4.3.0)non-5-enium acetate [HDBN][OAc] at 70°C for 0.5h. It was possible to dissolve more than 12wt% cellulose with a degree of polymerization in the range of 1000-1100. The dissolved cellulose was derivatized with acetic anhydride (Ac2O) to yield acetylated cellulose. As expected, the use of the co-solvents improved the acetylation process significantly. In fact, cellulose acetates with different properties could be obtained in half an hour, thus facilitating rapid processing. When DBN was used as the dispersing agent (the precursor of the ionic liquid), the problems associated with recycling of the ionic liquid were significantly reduced. In fact, additional [HDBN][OAc] was obtained from the interaction of the DBN and the by-product, acetic acid (from Ac2O). However, the cellulose acetate obtained in this manner had the lowest DS. Consequently, the native cellulose and acetylated celluloses were characterized by means of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, FT-IR, GPC/SEC and by titration. The cellulose acetates produced were soluble in organic solvents such as acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane and DMSO which is essential for their further processing. It was demonstrated that the ionic liquid can be recovered from the system by distillation and re-used in consecutive acetylation batches. PMID:26453886

  8. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect

    Therien, Jesse B.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Peters, John W.

    2014-10-18

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. We demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

  9. Acetate and glucose incorporation into subcutaneous, intramuscular, and visceral fat of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Nayananjalie, W A D; Wiles, T R; Gerrard, D E; McCann, M A; Hanigan, M D

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of early grain feeding on acetate and glucose turnover rates and acetate and glucose preference for palmitate synthesis by subcutaneous fat (SCF), intramuscular fat (IMF), and visceral fat (VF) in finishing steers. Sixteen Angus × Simmental steers were used in the study; 8 were early weaned (EW) and fed a high-grain diet immediately after weaning for 100 or 148 d, and 8 remained with their dams on pasture until weaning at 202 ± 5 or 253 ± 5 d of age. Normal weaned (NW) and EW animals were combined and grazed to 374 ± 5 or 393 ± 5 d of age, when they were placed on a corn silage-based finishing ration until they achieved a SCF thickness of 1.0 to 1.2 cm (494 ± 17 d of age for EW steers and 502 ± 12 d of age for NW steers). Immediately before harvest, steers were continuously infused for 12 h with [2H3] acetate (1.63 mmol/min; n = 8) or [U-13C6] glucose (0.07 mmol/min; n = 8). Blood samples were collected before initiation of infusions and at the end of the infusion from 8 animals or at 1-h intervals for the first 11 h and at 15-min intervals for the last hour of infusion for the other 8 animals. Adipose tissue samples from SCF, IMF, and VF depots were collected at harvest, and lipids were extracted. Plasma enrichments of acetate and glucose and palmitate enrichment in each depot were used to calculate plasma turnover rates and fractional synthesis rates (FSR; % per h) of palmitate from each isotope. Early weaned steers had greater marbling scores compared to NW steers ( P< 0.05). Plasma turnover rates and FSR for EW and NW steers were similar except for SCF, where a greater FSR from acetate was observed for EW steers. It is possible the greater FSR for SCF was due to harvesting the animals at a slightly more advanced stage of conditioning as evidenced by the trend for greater 12th rib fat (P = 0.07). Plasma acetate turnover and palmitate FSR from acetate were much greater (P < 0.05) than the corresponding rates from glucose, supporting the primary role of acetate as an energy source and the primary substrate for lipid synthesis across fat depots. However, FSR from acetate and glucose were not different among depots, suggesting that any potential effects of dietary starch on differential deposition of energy in SCF and IMF are not substrate driven. PMID:26020340

  10. Effects of acetate and butyrate during glycerol fermentation by Clostridium butyricum.

    PubMed

    Colin, T; Bories, A; Lavigne, C; Moulin, G

    2001-10-01

    The effects of acetate and butyrate during glycerol fermentation to 1,3-propanediol at pH 7.0 by Clostridium butyricum CNCM 1211 were studied. At pH 7.0, the calculated quantities of undissociated acetic and butyric acids were insufficient to inhibit bacterial growth. The initial addition of acetate or butyrate at concentrations of 2.5 to 15 gL(-1) had distinct effects on the metabolism and growth of Clostridium butyricum. Acetate increased the biomass and butyrate production, reducing the lag time and 1,3-propanediol production. In contrast, the addition of butyrate induced an increase in 1,3-propanediol production (yield: 0.75 mol/mol glycerol, versus 0.68 mol/mol in the butyrate-free culture), and reduced the biomass and butyrate production. It was calculated that reduction of butyrate production could provide sufficient NADH to increase 1,3-propanediol production. The effects of acetate and butyrate highlight the metabolic flexibility of Cl. butyricum CNCM 1211 during glycerol fermentation. PMID:11683356

  11. Candida zemplinina Can Reduce Acetic Acid Produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sweet Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ?0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response. PMID:22247148

  12. Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, T.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar; Senthilkumar, G. P.; Mani, Tamizh

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg). Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine. PMID:22593683

  13. The Antibacterial Activity of Acetic Acid against Biofilm-Producing Pathogens of Relevance to Burns Patients

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Fenella D.; Rauf, Maryam; Moiemen, Naiem S.; Bamford, Amy; Wearn, Christopher M.; Fraise, Adam P.; Lund, Peter A.; Oppenheim, Beryl A.; Webber, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Localised infections, and burn wound sepsis are key concerns in the treatment of burns patients, and prevention of colonisation largely relies on biocides. Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against various planktonic organisms, however data is limited on efficacy, and few studies have been performed on biofilms. Objectives We sought to investigate the antibacterial activity of acetic acid against important burn wound colonising organisms growing planktonically and as biofilms. Methods Laboratory experiments were performed to test the ability of acetic acid to inhibit growth of pathogens, inhibit the formation of biofilms, and eradicate pre-formed biofilms. Results Twenty-nine isolates of common wound-infecting pathogens were tested. Acetic acid was antibacterial against planktonic growth, with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.16–0.31% for all isolates, and was also able to prevent formation of biofilms (at 0.31%). Eradication of mature biofilms was observed for all isolates after three hours of exposure. Conclusions This study provides evidence that acetic acid can inhibit growth of key burn wound pathogens when used at very dilute concentrations. Owing to current concerns of the reducing efficacy of systemic antibiotics, this novel biocide application offers great promise as a cheap and effective measure to treat infections in burns patients. PMID:26352256

  14. Mitochondria defects are involved in lead-acetate-induced adult hematopoietic stem cell decline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Jia, Dao-Yong; Cai, Shi-Zhong; Li, Cheng-Peng; Zhang, Meng-Si; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Yan, Chong-Huai; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2015-05-19

    Occupational high-grade lead exposure has been reduced in recent decades as a result of increased regulation. However, environmental lead exposure remains widespread, and is associated with severe toxicity implicated in human diseases. We performed oral intragastric administration of various dose lead acetate to adult Sprague Dawley rats to define the role of lead exposure in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) function, and to clarify its underlying mechanism. Lead acetate-exposed rats exhibited developmental abnormalities in myeloid and lymphoid lineages, and a significant decline in immune functions. It also showed HSCs functional decline associated with senescent phenotype with low grade lead acetate exposure or apoptotic phenotype with relative higher grade dose exposure. Mechanistic exploration showed a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lead acetate-exposed CD90(+)CD45(-) compartment, which correlated with functional defects in cellular mitochondria. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with the antioxidant vitamin C led to reversion of the CD90(+)CD45(-) compartment functional decline. These results indicate that lead acetate perturbs the hematopoietic balance of adult HSCs, associated with cellular mitochondria defects, increased intracellular ROS generation. PMID:25800560

  15. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. PMID:25485864

  16. Olfactory receptor-based polypeptide sensor for acetic acid VOC detection.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Suranjan; Sankaran, Sindhuja; Mallik, Sanku; Gaddam, Bhushan; Hanson, Andrea A

    2012-08-01

    Rapid detection of food-borne pathogens in packaged food products can prevent the spread of infectious diseases. This study investigates the application of novel sensing material that is sensitive to specific indicator volatile organic compound (VOC) related to Salmonella contamination in packaged meat. Specifically, the objective was to develop an olfactory receptor-based synthetic polypeptide sensor for the detecting acetic acid in low concentrations and at room temperature. Synthetic polypeptide was deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode and was evaluated for detecting acetic acid at 10-100 ppm. Developed sensor exhibited repeatable response to a particular concentration of acetic acid and displayed reproducibility among multiple sensors during acetic acid detection. Mean estimated lower detection limits of these sensors were about 1-3 ppm and linear calibration models showed linear relationships. Thus, the QCM sensors exhibited a great potential for detecting low concentrations of acetic acid at room temperature and can be used in the sensor array for packaged meat spoilage and contamination detection. PMID:24364927

  17. Effectiveness of deslorelin acetate subcutaneous implantation in a domestic queen with after-spaying urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pisu, Maria Carmela; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2014-04-01

    A 2-year-old female ovariectomised Norwegian Forest cat with a history of post-spaying urinary incontinence was diagnosed with acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after complete clinical and laboratory examination. Although there is no literature regarding the treatment of post-spaying USMI in cats, deslorelin acetate is successful in the treatment of post-spaying USMI in dogs. Deslorelin acetate implants have been shown previously to be effective for contraception and oestrus suppression in queens, and suppression of reproductive function in tomcats. Therefore, deslorelin acetate implant treatment was chosen for treatment of post-spaying USMI in this queen. Follow-up examinations were performed on days 8, 15 and 30 after deslorelin implant insertion. Urinary continence was restored about 25 days after implantation and maintained for at least 15 months, without treatment-related negative effects. In the present case report, the post-spaying urinary incontinence related to the acquired USMI was successfully treated with a deslorelin acetate implant. In addition, safe implantation was easy in cats and the single injection resulted in long-lasting efficacy. Further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of deslorelin acetate treatment for post-spaying USMI in queens and to better delineate the duration of efficacy. PMID:23873046

  18. Biomimetic oxidative coupling of sinapyl acetate by silver oxide: preferential formation of ?-O-4 type structures.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takao; Takahashi, Nana; Hamada, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    Biomimetic oxidations of sinapyl alcohol and sinapyl acetate were carried out with Ag2O to better understand the high frequency of ?-O-4 structures in highly acylated natural lignins. The major products from the Ag2O oxidation of sinapyl alcohol were sinapyl aldehyde (14% yield), ?-O-4-coupled dimer (32% yield), and ?-?-coupled dimer (3% yield). In contrast, the Ag2O oxidation of sinapyl acetate produced ?-O-4-coupled dimer in 66% yield. Oligomeric products with predominantly ?-O-4 structures were also obtained in 18% yield. The yield of the ?-O-4-coupled products from sinapyl acetate was much higher than that from sinapyl alcohol. Computational calculations based on density functional theory showed that the negative charge at C? was significantly reduced by the ?-acetyl group. The computational calculations suggest that the Coulombic repulsion between C? and O4 in sinapyl acetate radicals was significantly reduced by the ?-acetyl group, contributing to the preferential formation of ?-O-4 structures from sinapyl acetate. PMID:25654327

  19. Diagnosis of Exclusion: A Case Report of Probable Glatiramer Acetate-Induced Eosinophilic Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Christopher J.; Bockheim, Heather M.; Daum, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Importance. Medication-induced eosinophilia is an acknowledged, often self-limiting occurrence. Glatiramer acetate, a biologic injection used in the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is widely regarded as a safe and effective medication and lists eosinophilia as an infrequent side effect in its package insert. Contrary to reports of transient, benign drug-induced eosinophilia, we describe a case of probable glatiramer acetate-induced eosinophilia that ultimately culminated in respiratory distress, shock, and eosinophilic myocarditis. Observations. A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital after routine outpatient labs revealed leukocytosis (43,000 cells/mm3) with pronounced hypereosinophilia (63%). This patient had been using glatiramer acetate without complication for over 10 years prior to admission. Leukocytosis and hypereosinophilia persisted as a myriad of diagnostic evaluations returned negative, ultimately leading to respiratory depression, shock, and myocarditis. Glatiramer acetate was held for the first time on day 6 of the hospital stay with subsequent resolution of leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, respiratory distress, and shock. Conclusions and Relevance. Glatiramer acetate was probably the cause of this observed hypereosinophilia and the resulting complications. Reports of glatiramer-induced eosinophilia are rare, and few case reports regarding medication-induced hypereosinophilia describe the severe systemic manifestations seen in this patient. PMID:25105037

  20. Regioselective Silyl/Acetate Exchange of Disaccharides Yields Advanced Glycosyl Donor and Acceptor Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hsiao-Wu; Schombs, Matthew W.; Witschi, Mark A.; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2015-01-01

    Glycoconjugates are comprised of carbohydrate building blocks linked together in a multitude of ways giving rise to diverse biological functions. Carbohydrates are especially difficult to synthetically manipulate due to the similar reactivity of their numerous and largely equivalent hydroxyl groups. Hence, methodologies for both the efficient protection and selective modification of carbohydrate alcohols are considered important synthetic tools in organic chemistry. When per-O-TMS protected mono- or disaccharides in a mixture of pyridine and acetic anhydride are treated with acetic acid, regioselective exchange of silicon for acetate protecting groups occurs. Acid concentration, thermal conditions and microwave assistance mediate the silyl/acetate exchange reaction. Regiocontrol is achieved by limiting the equivalents of acetic acid and microwave irradiation hastens the process. We coined the term Regioselective Silyl Exchange Technology (ReSET) to describe this process, which essentially sets the protecting groups anew. To demonstrate the scope of the reaction, the conditions were applied to lactose, melibiose, cellobiose and trehalose. ReSET provided rapid access to a wide range of orthogonally protected disaccharides that would otherwise require multiple synthetic steps to acquire. The resulting bi-functional molecules are poised to serve as modular building blocks for more complex glycoconjugates. PMID:23980653

  1. Preparation and characterization of film of poly vinyl acetate ethylene copolymer emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanhua; Gu, Jiyou; Tan, Haiyan; Shi, Junyou; Di, Mingwei; Zuo, Yingfeng; Qiu, Si

    2013-07-01

    In order to improve the storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate), the vinyl acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were respectively used as monomers and protective colloid to prepare a new kind of polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesive by continuous emulsion polymerization. The dynamic mechanics, particle distribution, glass transition temperature, polymer emulsion structure of both polymerized and copolymerized emulsion were analyzed by SEM, DMA and XPS, respectively. The results indicated that the copolymerized emulsion has the appropriate particle size and the uniform particle distribution, the glass transition temperature increased from 50 °C to 70 °C, compared with poly (vinyl acetate). It could be seen from XPS spectra of copolymerized emulsion that key characteristic peak of Cdbnd O was still existent. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the addition of EVA did not generate the new bond, whereas the maximum percentage increases in ester was determined in the composite film with the introduction of EVA of 25%, which indicated that the composite film has copolymer structure. The storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate) were improved due to the introduction of the EVA.

  2. Uncultured Desulfobacteraceae and Crenarchaeotal group C3 incorporate 13C-acetate in coastal marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyunsoo; Lever, Mark Alexander; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Schulz, Frederik; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-08-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was used to identify microbes incorporating (13) C-labeled acetate in sulfate-reducing sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark. Sediment was incubated in medium containing 10?mM sulfate and different (13) C-acetate (10, 1, 0.1?mM) concentrations. The resultant changes in microbial community composition were monitored in total and SIP-fractionated DNA during long-term incubations. Chemical analyses demonstrated metabolic activity in all sediment slurries, with sulfate-reducing activity largely determined by initial acetate concentrations. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons showed that the incubations shifted the bacterial but not the archaeal community composition. After 3 months of incubation, only sediment slurries incubated with 10?mM (13) C-acetate showed detectable (13) C-DNA labeling. Based on 16S rRNA and dsrB gene PCR amplicon sequencing, the (13) C-labeled DNA pool was dominated by a single type of sulfate reducer representing a novel genus in the family Desulfobacteraceae. In addition, members of the uncultivated Crenarchaeotal group C3 were enriched in the (13) C-labeled DNA. Our results were reproducible across biological replicate experiments and provide new information about the identities of uncultured acetate-consuming bacteria and archaea in marine sediments. PMID:25950866

  3. Methyl Acetate and Its Singly Deuterated Isotopomers in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen; Gorai, Prasanta; Sivaraman, B.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2015-07-01

    Methyl acetate ({{CH}}3{{COOCH}}3) has been recently observed by the IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion, though the presence of its deuterated isotopomers is yet to be confirmed. We therefore study the properties of various forms of methyl acetate, namely, {{CH}}3{{COOCH}}3, {{CH}}2{{DCOOCH}}3, and {{CH}}3{{COOCH}}2{{D}}. Our simulation reveals that these species could be produced efficiently in both gas and ice phases. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl ({{CH}}3{CO}) and methoxy ({{CH}}3{{O}}) radicals. To predict abundances of {{CH}}3{{COOCH}}3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxyacetone), we prepare a gas-grain chemical network to study the chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas-phase rate coefficients for methyl acetate and its related species are unknown, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing databases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown rate coefficients. For the surface reactions, we use adsorption energies of reactants from some earlier studies. Moreover, we perform quantum chemical calculations to obtain spectral properties of methyl acetate in infrared and sub-millimeter regions. We prepare two catalog files for the rotational transitions of {{CH}}2{{DCOOCH}}3 and {{CH}}3{{COOCH}}2{{D}} in JPL format, which could be useful for their detection in regions of interstellar media where {{CH}}3{{COOCH}}3 has already been observed.

  4. Androgen dynamics in vitro in the human prostate gland. Effect of cyproterone and cyproterone acetate

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Eleonora P.; Shirley, I. M.; Grant, J. K.; Stewart, Joan C.

    1973-01-01

    Hyperplastic and adenocarcinomatous human prostatic tissue was superfused in vitro with radioactively labelled androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, testosterone and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (17?-hydroxy-5?-androstan-3-one), with and without addition of the anti-androgens cyproterone and cyproterone acetate. Cyproterone competitively inhibited the entry of the androgens into the majority of the tissues, whereas cyproterone acetate increased this entry. These findings indicated that transport of androstenedione, testosterone and 5?-dihydrotestosterone into prostatic tissue is performed by a specific mechanism, possibly involving a carrier situated in the cell membrane. The extent of metabolism of the three androgens was also modified: formation of 5?-dihydrotestosterone from testosterone, and of the latter from androstenedione, was decreased by cyproterone and increased by the acetate. Acetate was more effective than cyproterone in decreasing the `uptake' of the perfused androgens by the tissue; at the same time, it increased the androgen clearance from the tissue. As cyproterone acetate is the more potent of the two anti-androgens, the possibility that these findings in vitro are related to the different anti-androgenic potency exhibited by the two compounds in vivo is discussed. `Uptake' of the two anti-androgens and the response to their action on androgen dynamics were similar in adenocarcinomatous and hyperplastic glands. PMID:4125095

  5. New alkyl N,N-dialkyl-substituted amino acetates as transdermal penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Wong, O; Huntington, J; Nishihata, T; Rytting, J H

    1989-04-01

    New alcohol derivatives of N,N-disubstituted amino acids with a low toxicity have been synthesized and evaluated for their transdermal penetration enhancing effects on the transport of indomethacin from petrolatum ointments across shed skin of black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta). The derivatives show excellent penetration enhancement of indomethacin, as high as 3.8 times that of Azone, with decyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate as the lead compound in the series. The release of indomethacin from an ointment containing 1% indomethacin, 5% dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate, and 94% petrolatum was 3.15 micrograms/min1/2/cm2. Saturation studies performed by incorporating varying concentrations of indomethacin, from 0.1 to 10%, into the ointments and determination of the fluxes of indomethacin demonstrated that the saturated concentration of indomethacin in petrolatum base was approximately 1%. Penetration fluxes of indomethacin (1%) through snake skin increased linearly as the concentration of dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate increased from 2.5 to 15%. Experiments involving the pretreatment of the snake skins with dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate indicated that pretreatment of the skin increased the skin permeability significantly. Electron micrograph studies on the snake skin treated with dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate show clearly that the enhancer interacted with both the lipid-rich layer (mesos phase) and the keratin-rich layers (both alpha and beta phases). PMID:2748516

  6. Caspofungin Acetate, Fluconazole, or Voriconazole in Preventing Fungal Infections in Patients Following Donor Stem Cell Transplant | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies how well caspofungin acetate works compared to fluconazole or voriconazole in preventing fungal infections in patients following donor stem cell transplant. Caspofungin acetate, fluconazole, and voriconazole may be effective in preventing fungal infections in patients following donor stem cell transplant. It is not yet known whether caspofungin acetate is more effective than fluconazole or voriconazole in preventing fungal infections in patients following donor stem cell transplant.

  7. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  8. Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    P?n?ík, Aleš; Simonovik, Biljana; Petersson, Sara V.; Henyková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Estelle, Mark; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ond?ej; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The native auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is a major regulator of plant growth and development. Its nonuniform distribution between cells and tissues underlies the spatiotemporal coordination of many developmental events and responses to environmental stimuli. The regulation of auxin gradients and the formation of auxin maxima/minima most likely involve the regulation of both metabolic and transport processes. In this article, we have demonstrated that 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) is a major primary IAA catabolite formed in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissues. OxIAA had little biological activity and was formed rapidly and irreversibly in response to increases in auxin levels. We further showed that there is cell type–specific regulation of oxIAA levels in the Arabidopsis root apex. We propose that oxIAA is an important element in the regulation of output from auxin gradients and, therefore, in the regulation of auxin homeostasis and response mechanisms. PMID:24163311

  9. Preparation of magnetic nickel hollow fibers with a trilobe structure using cellulose acetate fibers as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Changfeng; Li, Ping; Zhang, Lixiong

    2013-02-01

    Nickel hollow fibers with trilobe shape in cross section and monolithic nickel structures composed of trilobe shaped nickel hollow fibrous networks were prepared by using cellulose acetate fibers from cigarette filters as the template. Magnetic ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers were then fabricated by using the nickel-based hollow fibers as the support. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that nickel hollow fibers and ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers retain the morphology of the cellulose acetate fibers, and the monolithic nickel structures can be prepared by pre-shaping the cellulose acetate fibers. The thickness of the nickel layer can be regulated by controlling the electroless plating times. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the trilobe shaped nickel hollow fibers and ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers are 27.78 and 21.59 emu/g and 78 and 61 Oe, respectively.

  10. Resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of Mn12 acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendínez, S.; Zarzuela, R.; Tejada, J.; Terban, M. W.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Espin, J.; Imaz, I.; Maspoch, D.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report measurements and theoretical analysis of resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of a molecular magnet. Amorphous nanospheres of Mn12 acetate have been fabricated and characterized by chemical, infrared, TEM, x-ray, and magnetic methods. Magnetic measurements have revealed sharp tunneling peaks in the field derivative of the magnetization that occur at the typical resonant field values for the Mn12 acetate crystal in the field parallel to the easy axis. Theoretical analysis is provided that explains these observations. We argue that resonant spin tunneling in a molecular magnet can be established in a powder sample, without the need for a single crystal and without aligning the easy magnetization axes of the molecules. This is confirmed by reanalyzing the old data on a powdered sample of nonoriented micron-size crystals of Mn12 acetate. Our findings can greatly simplify the selection of candidates for quantum spin tunneling among newly synthesized molecular magnets.

  11. Rapid Solid-State Photopolymerization of Cyclic Acetal-Containing Acrylates

    PubMed Central

    Berchtold, Kathryn A.; Hacio?lu, Bilge; Nie, Jun; Cramer, Neil B.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    A cyclic acetal-functionalized urethane acrylate monomer is synthesized here and polymerized in a crystalline state without the polymerization kinetics being deleteriously affected by the solid state. Depending on the processing conditions, the cyclic acetal urethane acrylate monomer exists in either a metastable liquid state or a crystalline state at ambient conditions. Due to mobility restrictions, extremely poor polymerization kinetics and functional group conversions are typically achieved in solid state polymerizations. However, the solid-state photopolymerization of a cyclic acetal urethane acrylate results in nearly identical polymerization rates and ultimately higher conversion in the crystalline state than in the liquid state under otherwise identical conditions. We conclude that the crystallization process occurs in such a manner as to template the acrylic double bonds in a structure that facilitates rapid, minimally activated propagation. PMID:20827437

  12. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Progress report, May 15, 1989--May 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-06-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH{sub 4}. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  13. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting

    PubMed Central

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80?°C to 160?°C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods. PMID:26640089

  14. Laboratory and field measurements to constrain atmospheric sources of acetic and formic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Hu, L.; Mitroo, D.; Martinez, R.; Walker, M.; Williams, B. J.; Millet, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Acetic and formic acids are the most abundant organic acids in the atmosphere. They play an important role in atmospheric aqueous chemistry as they can influence the acidity of precipitation, cloud droplets, and atmospheric aerosols. Sources of these acids are highly uncertain, but include secondary production from VOC oxidation, direct emissions, and possibly organic aerosol aging. Here we present measurements of formic and acetic acid, along with a suite of other gas and particle phase species, from a field study in St. Louis during summer 2013. Calibration procedures and results are discussed, and we interpret the ambient formic and acetic acid measurements in terms of patterns of variability and implied constraints on sources. Finally, we present results from oxidative aging experiments on both ambient and test organic aerosol designed to assess the importance of this mechanism as a source of gas-phase carboxylic acids.

  15. Measurement of choline acetyltransferase with (/sup 14/C)acetate by a cycling procedure

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, J.J.; Hruschak, K.A.

    1987-06-01

    A multiple enzyme and multisubstrate cycling system is described for the radiometric determination of cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in crude tissue homogenates. The methods employs (/sup 14/C)acetate coupled with the enzymes acetate kinase (AK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) for the generation of (/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA. By recycling it was possible to avoid product inhibition of ChAT by CoA, ATP was maintained constant by rephosphorylation of ADP. Kinetics of the individual enzyme reactions were studied and the parameters obtained were used to select appropriate conditions to maintain linearity of varying amounts ChAT activity over a sixty minute time course. The sensitivity of the method is limited only by the specific activity of commercially available isotope labeled acetate.

  16. Structure and dynamics of acetate anion-based ionic liquids from molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Aneesh; Prakash, Karthigeyan; Senapati, Sanjib

    2010-08-01

    Acetate anion-based ionic liquids (ILs) have found wide range of applications. The microstructure and dynamics of this IL family have not been clearly understood yet. We report molecular dynamics simulation results of three acetate anion-based ionic liquids that encompass the most common IL cations. Simulations are performed based on a set of proposed force field parameters for IL acetate anion which can be combined with existing parameters for IL cations to simulate large variety of ILs. The computed liquid density and IR spectral data for [BMIM][Ac] are found to match very well with available experimental results. The strong amino-group-associated interactions in [TMG][Ac] are seen to bring about higher cohesive energy density, stronger ion packing, and more restricted translational and rotational mobilities of the constituent ions. The IL anions are found to track the cation movements in all systems, implying that ions in ILs travel in pairs or clusters.

  17. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 ?M. PMID:24514562

  18. The pH dependence of Am(III) complexation with acetate: an EXAFS study.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Daniel R; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Bauer, Nicole; Rossberg, André; Panak, Petra J

    2015-01-01

    The complexation of acetate with Am(III) is studied as a function of the pH (1-6) by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the Am(III)-acetate complexes (coordination numbers, oxygen and carbon distances) is determined from the raw k(3)-weighted Am LIII-edge EXAFS spectra. The results show a continuous shift of Am(III) speciation with increasing pH value towards the complexed species. Furthermore, it is verified that acetate coordinates in a bidentate coordination mode to Am(III) (Am-C distance: 2.82 ± 0.03 Å). The EXAFS data are analyzed by iterative transformation factor analysis to further verify the chemical speciation, which is calculated on the basis of thermodynamic constants, and the used structural model. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the thermodynamic modelling. PMID:25537594

  19. Chlorine Incorporation for Enhanced Performance of Planar Perovskite Solar Cell Based on Lead Acetate Precursor.

    PubMed

    Qing, Jian; Chandran, Hrisheekesh-Thachoth; Cheng, Yuan-Hang; Liu, Xiao-Ke; Li, Ho-Wa; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Lo, Ming-Fai; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-21

    We show the effects of chlorine incorporation in the crystallization process of perovskite film based on a lead acetate precursor. We demonstrate a fabrication process for fast grain growth with highly preferred {110} orientation upon only 5 min of annealing at 100 °C. By studying the correlation between precursor composition and morphology, the growth dynamic of perovskite film in the current system is discussed. In particular, we found that both lead acetate precursor and Cl incorporation are beneficial to perovskite growth. While lead acetate allows fast crystallization process, Cl improves perovskite crystallinity. Planar perovskite solar cells with optimized parameters deliver a best power conversion efficiency of 15.0% and average efficiency of 14.0% with remarkable reproducibility and good stability. PMID:26442432

  20. Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

  1. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25°C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25°C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS. PMID:26593546

  2. Genotoxicity of lavender oil, linalyl acetate, and linalool on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Carbone, Fabio; Hrelia, Patrizia; Maffei, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The potential genotoxicity of lavender essential oil and its major components, linalool, and linalyl acetate, was evaluated in vitro by the micronucleus test on peripheral human lymphocytes. In the range of non-toxic concentrations (0.5-100 ?g/ml), linalyl acetate increased the frequency of micronuclei significantly and in concentration-dependent manner; lavender oil did so only at the highest concentration tested, whereas linalool was devoid of genotoxicity. None of the tested substances led to an increase in nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds frequency. These findings suggest that the mutagenic activity of lavender oil can be related to the presence of linalyl acetate, which seems to have a profile of an aneugenic agent. PMID:20839219

  3. Transparent and flexible haptic array actuator made with cellulose acetate for tactile sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, Md; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports an array type film haptic actuator based on cellulose acetate. Suggested actuator can vibrate with faster response time and various frequencies to give a range of haptic feedbacks to users which can be used in touch screen devices. Fabrication process, performance evaluation and electrostatic behavior of haptic actuator are reported for tactile sensation. Cellulose acetate film is suitable for haptic actuator for its transparency, flexibility and high dielectric constant. An element of haptic actuator is made by using cellulose acetate film with patterned adhesive tape spacer, then haptic actuator elements arrayed to 3 x 3 to embed in haptic devices. Experiment to measure vibration acceleration is carried out on wide range of actuation frequency and voltage for single actuator to evaluate 3x3 array actuator.

  4. Modified technique to recover microsporidian spores in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples by light microscopy and correlation with transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, P L; MacPherson, D W; McKenzie, R A

    1996-01-01

    Microsporidia are an emerging cause of significant disease, particularly in the immunocompromised host. Until recently, the diagnosis of enteric infections has required invasive sampling, the use of expensive technology, and considerable technological expertise. The purpose of the present study was to examine three modifications to the processing of fecal specimens for light microscopy (LM) examination for microsporidian spores: the use of pretreatment with potassium hydroxide, modified centrifugation conditions, and a modified staining technique. A sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal sample containing numerous microsporidian spores confirmed to be positive by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in all studies performed. A simulation of a heavy to lightly infected individual was used. The results of LM were correlated with those of TEM. Duplicate smears were stained with Weber's modified trichrome and Giemsa (GS) stains. The stained slides were randomized and examined blindly by LM at x 625 and x 1,250 magnifications. A portion of the dilutions after centrifugation were fixed for TEM. The Weber modified trichrome stain performance rating was higher than the Giemsa stain rating because of ease of interpretation, and material stained with Weber modified trichrome stain required less examination time at a lower magnification. The number of positive smears and the quantity of spores detected were significantly higher following pretreatment of the sample with KOH. TEM was positive only when numerous spores were present, but the quality of the photomicrographs was superior after pretreatment with KOH. Pretreatment of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples with 10% KOH and then a 5-min centrifugation time and staining with Weber modified trichrome stain provide for the excellent recovery of microsporidia in the routine diagnostic parasitology laboratory. PMID:8897162

  5. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  6. Candida glabrata susceptibility to antifungals and phagocytosis is modulated by acetate

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Sandra; Alves, Rosana; Carneiro, Catarina; Silva, Sónia; Brown, Alistair J.; Istel, Fabian; Kuchler, Karl; Sampaio, Paula; Casal, Margarida; Henriques, Mariana; Paiva, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is considered a major opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. The capacity of this yeast species to cause infections is dependent on the ability to grow within the human host environment and to assimilate the carbon sources available. Previous studies have suggested that C. albicans can encounter glucose-poor microenvironments during infection and that the ability to use alternative non-fermentable carbon sources, such as carboxylic acids, contributes to the virulence of this fungus. Transcriptional studies on C. glabrata cells identified a similar response, upon nutrient deprivation. In this work, we aimed at analyzing biofilm formation, antifungal drug resistance, and phagocytosis of C. glabrata cells grown in the presence of acetic acid as an alternative carbon source. C. glabrata planktonic cells grown in media containing acetic acid were more susceptible to fluconazole and were better phagocytosed and killed by macrophages than when compared to media lacking acetic acid. Growth in acetic acid also affected the ability of C. glabrata to form biofilms. The genes ADY2a, ADY2b, FPS1, FPS2, and ATO3, encoding putative carboxylate transporters, were upregulated in C. glabrata planktonic and biofilm cells in the presence of acetic acid. Phagocytosis assays with fps1 and ady2a mutant strains suggested a potential role of FPS1 and ADY2a in the phagocytosis process. These results highlight how acidic pH niches, associated with the presence of acetic acid, can impact in the treatment of C. glabrata infections, in particular in vaginal candidiasis. PMID:26388859

  7. Pheromone communication channels in tortricid moths: lower specificity of alcohol vs. acetate geometric isomer blends.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, P; Trematerra, P; Liblikas, I; Bengtsson, M; Unelius, C R

    2010-04-01

    Discrimination of conspecific and heterospecific signals is a key element in the evolution of specific mate recognition systems. Lepidopteran pheromone signals are typically composed of several compounds that synergize attraction of conspecific and inhibit attraction of heterospecific males. Blends convey specificity, but not their single components, that are typically shared by several species. Many sex pheromones are blends of geometric or positional isomers of straight-chain acetates, while species-specific blends of analogous alcohols have not been described. We have, therefore, studied the attraction of tortricid moths to the geometric isomers (E,E)-, (E,Z)-, (Z,E)- and (Z,Z)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol. Only one species responding to these alcohols seemed to be attracted to a blend of two isomers, while most species are attracted to only one alcohol isomer. Lack of a pronounced synergist or antagonist effect of the other geometric isomers explains the lack of specific attraction to isomer blends and reduces accordingly the number of specific communication signals composed of these alcohols. In comparison, many more species respond to the analogous (E,E)-, (E,Z)-, (Z,E)- and (Z,Z)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetates and their binary blends. The acetate isomers all play a behavioural role, either as attractants, attraction synergists or antagonists, and thus promote specific communication with acetate blends. Male moths seem to discriminate the acetate isomers with greater precision than the analogous alcohols. It is proposed that discrimination is facilitated by steric differences between the four acetate isomers, as compared to the more uniform steric properties of the alcohols. PMID:19586577

  8. Cloning, sequence analysis, and hyperexpression of the genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase from Methanosarcina thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, M T; Ferry, J G

    1993-01-01

    The genes for the acetate-activating enzymes, acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase (ack and pta), from Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 were cloned and sequenced. Both genes are present in only one copy per genome, with the pta gene adjacent to and upstream of the ack gene. Consensus archaeal promoter sequences are found upstream of the pta coding region. The pta and ack genes encode predicted polypeptides with molecular masses of 35,198 and 44,482 Da, respectively. A hydropathy plot of the deduced phosphotransacetylase sequence indicates that it is a hydrophobic polypeptides; however, no membrane-spanning domains are evident. Comparison of the amino acid sequences deduced from the M. thermophila and Escherichia coli ack genes indicate similar subunit molecular weights and 44% identity (60% similarity). The comparison also revealed the presence of several conserved arginine, cysteine, and glutamic acid residues. Arginine, cysteine, and glutamic acid residues have previously been implicated at or near the active site of the E. coli acetate kinase. The pta and ack genes were hyperexpressed in E. coli, and the overproduced enzymes were purified to homogeneity with specific activities higher than those of the enzymes previously purified from M. thermophila. The overproduced phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase migrated at molecular masses of 37,000 and 42,000 Da, respectively. The activity of the acetate kinase is optimal at 65 degrees C and is protected from thermal inactivation by ATP. Diethylpyrocarbonate and phenylglyoxal inhibited acetate kinase activity in a manner consistent with the presence of histidine and arginine residues at or near the active site; however, the thiol-directed reagents 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) and N-ethylmaleimide were ineffective. Images PMID:8226623

  9. A shock tube laser schlieren study of methyl acetate dissociation in the fall-off regime.

    PubMed

    Annesley, Christopher J; Franklin Goldsmith, C; Tranter, Robert S

    2014-04-28

    The pyrolysis of methyl acetate, 2% and 4% dilute in krypton, was investigated in a diaphragmless shock tube (DFST) using laser schlieren densitometry (LS). Experiments were performed at 122 ± 3 and 63 ± 2 Torr over the temperature range of 1492-2266 K. Master equation models for the four main dissociation paths of methyl acetate based on a prior study by Peukert et al. [S. Peukert, R. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Su and J. Michael, Combust. Flame, 2012, 159, 2312-2323] were refined and formed the basis for simulating the LS experiments. The density gradient profiles from the LS experiments indicate that the initial dissociation proceeds predominantly by breakage of the C-O bond leading ultimately to two methyl radicals and CO2, accounting for 83-88% of the methyl acetate loss over this temperature range. Rate coefficients for dissociation of methyl acetate were satisfactorily simulated with a master equation model, with modelled rate coefficients of k120 Torr = 9.06 × 10(81) × T(-19.07) × exp(-61?600K/T) s(-1), k60 Torr = 3.71 × 10(82) × T(-19.34) × exp(-61?200K/T) s(-1), and of k? = 1.97 × 10(30) × T(-3.80) × exp(-47?900K/T) s(-1) for the major channel, based on fitting to 120 Torr and 60 Torr data taken in this study. The model also captures the pressure dependency of methyl acetate dissociation and resolves an earlier discrepancy concerning the mechanism of dissociation of methyl acetate. PMID:24608752

  10. Would acetate (or its derivatives) be the most reliable guide to life on terraqueous globes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Michael; Martin-Torres, Javier; Yung, Yuk; Kanik, Isik

    2010-05-01

    At bottom life hydrogenates carbon dioxide. But so does serpentinization-to methane-hence the problem of diagnosing its source (Mumma et al. 2009). However, this abiotic process does not appear to produce acetate or acetic acid (CH3COOH) in measurable quantities-only the acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria do that. On the early Earth it seems that the homoacetogens were the first to resolve the tension between CO2 and H2 via the autotrophic acetyl coenzyme-A pathway. The acetyl co-A pathway employs two separate redox controlled tributaries-one Ni-Fe-directed, merely reduces CO2 to CO, while the other, initially molybdenum-directed, reduces CO2 through to a methyl group. The CO and the -CH3 are then assembled on the nickel-bearing acetyl coenzyme-A synthase. Such a complex dual delivery system from contrasting redox conditions could not be prefigured by serpentinization but required a chemiosmotic drive, as did the origin of life itself (Nitschke and Russell 2009). Homoacetogens can compete successfully against the methanoarchaea for H2 and CO2 in the cold, as can the sulfate-reducing acetate-generating bacteria (Krumholz et al. 1999). Thus we argue that acetate or acetic acid effluent (depending on pH) from putative microbes on wet rocky planets would be a more reliable indicator of life. What are the difficulties? The most critical is that in ground-waters and oceans with pH >5 acetate remains in solution and would therefore not be detectable remotely. Even were the waters acidic enough to release volatile acetic acid, it would be prone to photo- and chemical oxidation. However, apart from CO2 and CH4, the products are formic (HCOOH), glycolic (HOCH2.COOH) and tartaric (HOOC.HCOH.HOCH.COOH) acids (Ogata et al. 1981). Remote sensing in the ultraviolet to near-infrared might be used for detection of all these acids, especially when their concentrations are enhanced in plumes. In situ techniques would be required for acetate detection. Krumholz, L.R. et al. (1999) Appl. Environ Microbiol. 65, 2300-2306. Ogata, Y. et al. (1981) Can. J. Chem. 59, 14-18. Mumma, M. et al. (2009) Science 323, 1041-1045. Nitschke, W., Russell, M.J. (2009) J. Molec. Evol. 69, DOI:10.1007/s00239-009-9289-3

  11. Properties of MgB 2 superconductor chemically treated by acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hušeková, K.; Hušek, I.; Ková?, P.; Kulich, M.; Dobro?ka, E.; Štrbík, V.

    2010-03-01

    Commercial Alfa Aesar MgB 2 powder was chemically treated by acetic acid with the aim of MgO removing. Single-core MgB 2/Fe ex situ wires have been made by powder-in-tube (PIT) process using the powders treated with different acid concentration. All samples were annealed in argon at 950 °C/0.5 h. Differences in transition temperatures and critical currents of acetic acid treated MgB 2 are related to the normal state resistivity, effective carbon substitution from the organic solvent and the active area fraction (grain-connectivity).

  12. Comparison between Local Injections of Silicone Oil and Hydrocortisone Acetate in Chronic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Mary; Seifert, Martin H.; Hacking, Celia; Webb, Sylvia

    1970-01-01

    One of three preparations—silicone oil, hydrocortisone acetate, and hydrocortisone acetate plus saline—was injected into 22 osteoarthritic and 49 rheumatoid knees. Silicone injected into stiff, dry, grating knees which were the site of chronic arthritis did not promote better movement than did hydrocortisone alone. Hydrocortisone plus saline, however, appeared to be more effective than silicone or hydrocortisone alone in increasing movement in rheumatoid knees. The maximum increase in movement was found to occur three weeks after each of the three different injection preparations. PMID:5411599

  13. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of ethylidene diacetate from acetic anhydride

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1998-06-16

    This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled without loss in activity.

  14. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of ethylidene diacetate from acetic anhydride

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled without loss in activity.

  15. Investigating the performance of CoxOy/activated carbon catalysts for ethyl acetate catalytic combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Zhou, Guilin; He, Xiaoling; Lan, Hai; Jiang, Zongxuan

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic properties of Co-supported activated carbon (AC) catalysts for ethyl acetate catalytic elimination in air were investigated. Results showed that air atmosphere promoted the generation of high-valence state cobalt oxides, and promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the Co3O4/AC catalyst. ROS crucially functioned in improving the catalytic activity of Co3O4/AC catalysts. Therefore, CoACA catalyst prepared in air exhibited higher catalytic activity than CoACN catalyst prepared in nitrogen, and CoACA catalyst led to high ethyl acetate conversion (>93%) and stability at a low reaction temperature (210 °C).

  16. Synthesis of poly(vinyl acetate-methyl methacrylate) copolymer microspheres using suspension polymerization.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Yeum, Jeong Hyun; Das, Ajoy Kumar

    2012-02-15

    Poly(vinyl acetate-methyl methacrylate) (VAc-MMA) copolymer microspheres were prepared using suspension polymerization at low temperature initiated with 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile) (ADMVN). The poly(VAc-MMA) copolymer microspheres can be used over a large area where homopolymers, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and methyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres are capable of being put to use. The prepared microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Obtained copolymer microspheres which have 200 ?m average diameter and higher thermal stability than those of homopolymer. PMID:22137854

  17. Novel anthracene-based fluorescent sensor for selective recognition of acetate anions in protic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kuoxi; Kong, Huajie; Li, Qian; Song, Pan; Dai, Yanpeng; Yang, Li

    2015-02-01

    Novel 9-substituted anthracene derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, HRMS, 1H and 13C NMR. The fluorescence titration experiments were explored to study the interaction between the compounds and some anions, such as H2PO4-, P2O74-, F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO- in H2O (0.01 M HEPES, pH = 7.4) under imitated physiological conditions. One of these compounds, bearing a phenylalaninol unit, showed specific fluorescence enhancement with acetate anion. The sensor L1 was found to present good selective fluorescence sensing ability to acetate anion through photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism in protic media.

  18. Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties. PMID:24574887

  19. Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L?1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L?1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large rearrangements in its lipid profile. PMID:24023914

  20. 36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... film as specified in Department of Transportation regulations (49 CFR 172.101, Hazardous materials... records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section 1237.30 Parks, Forests... and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The nitrocellulose base, a substance akin to gun cotton,...