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1

Pregabalin  

MedlinePLUS

Pregabalin is used to relieve neuropathic pain (pain from damaged nerves) that can occur in your arms, ... tiredness, and difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep). Pregabalin is used with other medications to treat certain ...

2

Pregabalin and Simvastatin  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We sought to determine whether a case of rhabdomyolysis was a probable adverse reaction associated with pregabalin (Lyrica) and simvastatin (Zocor). Pregabalin is not recognized as a cause of rhabdomyolysis, but statins are known to cause it. Patient Summary: A 70-year-old man with a history of fibromyalgia, type-2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic back pain presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, limb weakness, twitching, and slurred speech. He was taking multiple pain and neuropathic medications and had recently started taking lisinopril (e.g., Zestril) and simvastatin. His pregabalin dose was also increased from 50 mg to 100 mg three times daily. On admission, serum creatinine (SCr) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were 1.5 mg/dL (normal, 0.7–1.5 mg/dL) and 1,391 units/L (normal, 30–170 units/L), respectively. Metformin (Glucophage) was discontinued, and insulin was started. He was alert and oriented. The review of symptoms was normal except for leg weakness. He had no seizure activity. Simvastatin was discontinued, and the patient was aggressively hydrated. The following day, the SCr level was 1.6 mg/dL and the CPK level was 14,191 units/L. Pregabalin was then discontinued. The rhabdomyolysis resulted from simvastatin and perhaps also pregabalin. The Naranjo Causality Algorithm indicates a probable relationship between rhabdomyolysis and combined therapy. Three days later, the patient had significantly improved, and CPK began to decline. His discharge plan included all prior medications except simvastatin and pregabalin. Conclusion: It is not well known that pregabalin can cause rhabdomyolysis, and there is only one published report on pregabalin-induced hepatotoxicity. When different therapies are combined, the risk of rhabdomyolysis may be increased. The cause of rhabdomyolysis in our patient might be related to decreased renal elimination of both pregabalin and simvastatin (e.g., renal tubular reabsorption). It is important to be aware of this potentially serious and possibly life-threatening reaction especially when medication doses are increased or combined with other agents with similar safety issues.

Kaufman, Michele B.; Choy, Mary

2012-01-01

3

Pregabalin for pain management.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a new analog of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is an alpha2-delta (alpha2-delta) ligand that has analgesic, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic activity. Alpha2-delta is an auxiliary protein associated with voltage-gated calcium channels. Pregabalin binds potently to the alpha2-delta subunit resulting in modulation of calcium channels and reduction in the release of several neurotransmitters, including glutamate, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and substance P. This review discusses the pharmacology of this medication as well as available studies in patients. PMID:17177755

Gajraj, Noor M

2005-06-01

4

Intravaginal prasterone (DHEA) provides local action without clinically significant changes in serum concentrations of estrogens or androgens.  

PubMed

In order to avoid the risks of non-physiological systemic exposure, serum concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (as measured by mass spectrometry-based assays) should remain below the 95th centiles measured at 9.3pg/ml and 0.26ng/ml for these respective sex steroids in normal postmenopausal women. To document the possibility of achieving this therapeutic objective, we have measured individual 24h serum E2 and testosterone concentrations in women with vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) receiving daily intravaginal administration of a clinically effective dose of 6.5mg prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). Serum E2 and testosterone, as well as DHEA and nine of its other metabolites, were assayed at ten time intervals over 24h on the first and seventh days of daily vaginal administration of 6.5mg prasterone. No significant change from baseline of average 24h serum E2 or testosterone concentrations was observed. Moreover, average 24h serum DHEA remained within the normal postmenopausal range. Estrone sulfate and the androgen metabolites androsterone glucuronide and androstane-3?, 17?-diol glucuronide did not change, thus confirming the absence of any biologically relevant systemic exposure to estrogens and androgens, respectively. Serum concentrations of metabolites of both estrogens and androgens remain within the normal postmenopausal range following daily intravaginal administration of 6.5mg prasterone. As other studies have shown, local formation of sex steroids in peripheral tissues without significant release of E2 or testosterone in the circulation can be achieved with intravaginal prasterone. Thus, prasterone is a promising physiological and attractive solution to treating VVA symptoms. PMID:23954500

Labrie, Fernand; Martel, Céline; Bérubé, René; Côté, Isabelle; Labrie, Claude; Cusan, Leonello; Gomez, José-Luis

2013-11-01

5

Pregabalin for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Painful symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy have been shown to be improved by treatment with the antiepileptic drug pregabalin. Freeman et al. performed a meta-analysis of 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of pregabalin treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The trials were consistent in their inclusion and exclusion criteria, but involved a variety of doses

Lee C Rogers; David G Armstrong

2008-01-01

6

Pregabalin-induced self-harm behavior  

PubMed Central

Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) such as lamotrigine, gabapentin, and oxcarbazepine may have the potential to increase the risk of self-harm or suicidal behavior. We report a case of pregabalin-induced self-inflicted multiple injuries on forearm after its continuous use. This is an interesting adverse drug reaction (ADR) that is rare, unusual, and potentially serious.

Tandon, Vishal R; Mahajan, Vivek; Gillani, Zahid H; Mahajan, Annil

2013-01-01

7

Pregabalin for the management of partial epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin is one of the latest antiepileptic drugs introduced for the treatment of partial epilepsy. Its efficacy and safety as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial epilepsy have been established in four double-blind placebo-controlled trials (n = 1396) and 4 long-term open-label studies (n = 1480). In 3 fixed-dose trials, the proportion of patients with a ?50% reduction in seizure frequency across the effective dose-range (150–600 mg/day) ranged between 14% and 51%, with a clear dose-response relationship. Suppression of seizure activity could be demonstrated as early as day 2. The most frequently reported CNS-related adverse events included dizziness, somnolence, ataxia and fatigue, were usually mild or moderate, and tended to be dose related. In long-term studies, weight gain was reported as an adverse event by 24% of patients. When pregabalin dose was individualized to according to response within the 150 to 600 mg/day dose range, tolerability was considerably improved compared with use of a high-dose, fixed-dose regimen (600 mg/day) without titration. In long-term studies up to 4 years, no evidence of loss efficacy was identified. During the last year on pregabalin, 3.7% of patients were seizure-free. Pregabalin appears to be a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentariun for the management of refractory partial epilepsy.

Ryvlin, Philippe; Perucca, Emilio; Rheims, Sylvain

2008-01-01

8

Spectrofluorimetric and Spectrophotometric Determination of Pregabalin in Capsules and Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Three new, simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of the ?-amino-n-butyric acid derivative, pregabalin. Pregabalin as a primary amine reacts with fluorescamine to yield a fluorescent product (Method I), with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (Method II) and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (Method III) in aqueous alkaline buffered media to form colored products which could be measured spectrophotometrically. The optimum conditions for each reaction were ascertained and the methods were applied for the determination of pregabalin over the concentration range of 20-280 ng mL-1 and 1-7 ?g mL-1 for spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, respectively with good correlation (?0.999). The limits of assays detection ranged from 9.6 × 10-4 ?g mL-1 to 0.42 ?g mL-1 for spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, respectively. The suggested methods were applied to the determination of the drug in capsules. No interference could be observed from the additives listed to be in capsules. Furthermore, the spectrofluorimetric method was extended to the in-vitro determination of pregabalin in spiked urine, interference from endogenous amino acids could be eliminated through selective complexation with copper acetate; the percentage recovery was found to be 98% ± 1.42 (n=6). Co- administered drugs such as chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam and lamotrigine did not interfere with the assay. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The results obtained were determined to be in good agreement with those obtained using a previously reported method.

Shaalan, Rasha Abdel-Aziz

2010-01-01

9

Spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of pregabalin in capsules and urine samples.  

PubMed

Three new, simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of the ?-amino-n-butyric acid derivative, pregabalin. Pregabalin as a primary amine reacts with fluorescamine to yield a fluorescent product (Method I), with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (Method II) and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (Method III) in aqueous alkaline buffered media to form colored products which could be measured spectrophotometrically. The optimum conditions for each reaction were ascertained and the methods were applied for the determination of pregabalin over the concentration range of 20-280 ng mL(-1) and 1-7 ?g mL(-1) for spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, respectively with good correlation (?0.999). The limits of assays detection ranged from 9.6 × 10(-4) ?g mL(-1) to 0.42 ?g mL(-1) for spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, respectively. The suggested methods were applied to the determination of the drug in capsules. No interference could be observed from the additives listed to be in capsules. Furthermore, the spectrofluorimetric method was extended to the in-vitro determination of pregabalin in spiked urine, interference from endogenous amino acids could be eliminated through selective complexation with copper acetate; the percentage recovery was found to be 98% ± 1.42 (n=6). Co- administered drugs such as chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam and lamotrigine did not interfere with the assay. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The results obtained were determined to be in good agreement with those obtained using a previously reported method. PMID:23675201

Shaalan, Rasha Abdel-Aziz

2010-09-01

10

Pregabalin in post traumatic neuropathic pain: Case studies  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin is effective in the treatment of peripheral and central neuropathic pain. This study evaluated the effectiveness of pregablin in management of post traumatic peripheral nerve injury facial pain not responding to other medication like analgesics. Pregabalin was well tolerated. The most common adverse effects were dizziness and tiredness.

Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Sinha, Vijay Prakash; Pal, U. S.; Yadav, Sharad C.; Singh, Maneesh K.

2012-01-01

11

Severe and disabling constipation: an adverse effect of pregabalin.  

PubMed

The incidence of constipation as an adverse effect of pregabalin has previously been reported as low, with all cases described as either mild or moderate. From the experience of a tertiary referral epilepsy hospital center, we report several cases of severe and disabling constipation after initiating pregabalin, and resolving only on drug withdrawal. Of 80 consecutive patients, six (7.5%) developed significant constipation within 1-2 weeks of commencing pregabalin. Constipation was the most frequent adverse effect that required pregabalin to be withdrawn (6.3% of patients). The severity of symptoms was dose dependent. Pregabalin can cause marked constipation in some patients, and can lead to multiple unnecessary investigations and procedures if the clinician is not aware of this entirely reversible side effect. PMID:19845736

Kamel, Jordan T; D'Souza, Wendyl J; Cook, Mark J

2010-06-01

12

Long-term efficacy of pregabalin in generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin in preventing relapse of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) after response to short-term treatment. Outpatients (n=624) with GAD for > or =1 year received open-label pregabalin (450 mg/day) for 8 weeks and, if a clinical response was observed, were randomized to receive either pregabalin (450 mg/day; n=168) or placebo (n=170) for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was time to relapse. Among responders to open-label acute treatment with pregabalin, time to relapse of GAD was significantly longer for patients treated with pregabalin compared with placebo (P<0.0001). Fifty per cent of the placebo group had relapsed by day 23, and at study endpoint, 65% had relapsed. In the pregabalin group, only 42% had relapsed by study end. Total attrition during double-blind treatment was somewhat higher on pregabalin compared with placebo (21.4 vs. 15.3%); attrition owing to adverse events (AEs) was also somewhat higher on pregabalin (6.0 vs. 2.4%). AEs were relatively low in the double-blind phase; only three AEs occurred with an incidence of more than 5% on pregabalin and placebo, respectively: infection (14.9 vs. 11.2%), headache (10.1 vs. 11.2%), and somnolence (6.0 vs. 0%). No safety concerns were identified with long-term treatment. The study indicates that pregabalin is an effective treatment for the prevention of relapse in patients with GAD. PMID:18090504

Feltner, Douglas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Kavoussi, Richard; Brock, Jerri; Baldinetti, Francesca; Pande, Atul C

2008-01-01

13

Pregabalin in Chronic Post-thoracotomy Pain  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic post–thoracotomy pain (CPP) has very high incidence and therefore it needs attention. Usually, it is burning, dysaesthetic and aching in nature and it displays many features of neuropathic pain. No one technique of thoracotomy has been shown to reduce the incidence of chronic post thoracotomy pain. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in patients with chronic post–thoracotomy pain. Methods: This prospective, randomized study was conducted on 50 consenting patients who underwent posterolateral thoracotomy. 25 patients were given pregabalin for 21 days (Group A). Another 25 were given diclofenac sodium (Group B) on demand and they escaped treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring was performed on days 0, 1 and 7, then follow up was done at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The data was analyzed by using t-test and Chi- square test for various variables. Results: The pain VAS scores in Group A were significantly low at all observation points except on day 0, day 1 and day 7 post-operatively, when the difference in pain scores in both the groups were comparable. The overall pain scores of Group A were comparable at day 0, day 1 and at day 7 as compared to those of Group B (p>0.9). Pain was significantly low at three weeks (p<0.05). Pain scores of Group A were significantly low at 6 weeks,12 weeks and 24 weeks as compared to those of Group B (p<0.001) and the difference was statistically significant. No significant adverse reactions were observed during study period. Conclusion: Pregabalin is a safe and an effective adjuvant which is used for reducing the chronic post thoracotomy pain, which has no side effects and a high patient compliance. These results should be supported with multidisciplinary studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups.

Mishra, Atul; Nar, Amandeep Singh; Bawa, Ashvind; Kaur, Gurinder; Bawa, Sayesha; Mishra, Seema

2013-01-01

14

[Pregabalin for the reduction of opiate withdrawal symptoms].  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a substance which modulates monoamine release in "hyper-excited" neurons. It binds potently to the ?2-? subunit of calcium channels. Pilotstudies on alcohol- and benzodiazepine dependent patients reported a reduction of withdrawal symptoms through Pregabalin. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted so far assessing this effect in opiate dependent patients. We report the case of a 43-year-old patient with Pregabalin intake during opiate withdrawal. Multiple inpatient and outpatient detoxifications from maintenance replacement therapy with Buprenorphine in order to reach complete abstinence did not show success because of extended withdrawal symptoms and repeated drug intake. Finally he disrupted his heroine intake with a simultaneously self administration of 300 ?mg Pregabaline per day and was able to control the withdrawal symptoms. In this time we did control the Pregabalin level in serum and urine in our outpatient clinic. In the course the patient reported that he could treat further relapse with opiate or opioids with Pregabalin successful. This case shows first details for Pregabalin to relief withdrawal symptoms in opiate withdrawal. PMID:22689280

Kämmerer, Nina; Lemenager, Tagrid; Grosshans, Martin; Kiefer, Falk; Hermann, Derik

2012-10-01

15

Teratogenic Effects of Pregabalin in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have the potential to affect fetal development throughout pregnancy. Considering the broad therapeutic indications of pregabalin (PGB), its potential teratogenic effects and the levels of homocysteine have been studied. Materials and Methods: Timed-pregnant mice received one of three doses of PGB (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg/day) or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. The litters were stained and examined for malformations. Total homocysteine (tHcy) was measured in serum from the pregnant mice on GD18. Results: The rate of fetus malformations increased significantly in all treated groups as compared to the control group. The abnormalities included limb, vertebral column and craniofacial abnormalities. The most common abnormality was limb deformity. The percentage of fetal resorption significantly increased at higher doses. There was no significant difference in tHcy concentrations between the treated and control groups. Conclusion: Pregabalin may have potential teratogenic effects even in lower doses, however with less intensity than other AEDs. Therefore, it is suggested that great caution should be taken when prescribing it in pregnancy and further investigation for possible mechaninsms.

Etemad, Leila; Mohammad, Afshar; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Vahdati Mashhadi, Nasser; Moallem, Seyed Adel

2013-01-01

16

A review of the effects of pregabalin on sleep disturbance across multiple clinical conditions.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is approved for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions and its analgesic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties are well documented. Pregabalin's effects on sleep, however, are less well known. This review summarizes the published data on the effects of pregabalin on sleep disturbance associated with neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, restless legs syndrome, partial onset seizures and general anxiety disorder. The data demonstrate that pregabalin has a positive benefit on sleep disturbance associated with several different clinical conditions. Polysomnographic data reveal that pregabalin primarily affects sleep maintenance. The evidence indicates that pregabalin has a direct effect on sleep that is distinct from its analgesic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects. PMID:24119681

Roth, Thomas; Arnold, Lesley M; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Resnick, Malca; Clair, Andrew G

2014-06-01

17

Pregabalin: its efficacy, safety and tolerability profile in generalized anxiety.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a structural analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of the key inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain. Its mode of action is believed to be mediated by the alpha-2-delta-1 subunit protein of voltage-gated calcium channels to bring about its anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects. Pregabalin has linear pharmacokinetics, undergoes minimal metabolism and is excreted largely unchanged. It has a mean elimination half-life of 6.3 hours. Pregabalin's anxiolytic activity in generalized anxiety disorder has been demonstrated in seven acute randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of four to eight weeks duration, and in one six-month relapse-prevention study at doses of 150-600 mg/day using twice-daily or three-times-daily regimes. The magnitude of pregabalin's anxiolytic effects was similar to that of alprazolam, lorazepam or venlafaxine. However, pregabalin had a more consistent effect on psychic and somatic anxiety factors than the active comparators. Its speed of onset was apparent within one week - similar to the benzodiazepines, but faster than that of venlafaxine. Moreover, pregabalin's anxiolytic effect was apparent in patients with moderate or severe baseline anxiety and high or low baseline severity of sub-syndromic depression. A long-term, 26-week, open-label study showed that pregabalin's anxiolytic effects were maintained, although the fixed-dose design may have contributed to a high attrition rate. Pregabalin showed less cognitive and psychomotor impairment than alprazolam, and it showed different effects on sleep architecture to the latter in terms of REM sleep latency and slow wave stage 3/4 sleep. The most frequently reported adverse events were dizziness and somnolence, although tolerance to these developed within a few weeks. Withdrawal symptoms during a one-week taper phase were mild and were similar after both acute and chronic administration. PMID:17940637

Owen, Richard T

2007-09-01

18

The Efficacy of Preemptive Analgesia With Pregabalin in Septoplasty  

PubMed Central

Objectives Pregabalin is used to treat neuropathic pain and has shown analgesic properties in postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of pregabalin in reducing postoperative pain in patients after septoplasty. Methods Forty-seven patients scheduled for elective septoplasty were randomly assigned to groups that received either pregabalin (150 mg) or placebo, both one hour before surgery and 12 hours after the initial dose. Pain (verbal numerical rating scale, VNRS) and side effect assessments were performed at 6, 12, 12 to 24, and 24 to 48 hours postoperatively. Results From 1 to 12 hours postoperatively, VNRS scores for pain were lower in the pregabalin group (n=24) than in the placebo group (n=23; P<0.05). The number of patients who needed rescue analgesics was lower in the pregabalin group (P=0.042). The incidence of nausea and vomiting did not differ between groups (P=0.666), and the incidence of sedation was higher in the placebo groups (P=0.022). Conclusion The perioperative administration of oral pregabalin (150 mg twice) is an effective and safe way to reduce early postoperative pain in patients undergoing septoplasty.

Kim, Joon Ho; Seo, Min Young; Hong, Sang Duk; Lee, Jungbok; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Hyo Yeol

2014-01-01

19

Pregabalin: latest safety evidence and clinical implications for the management of neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Used mainly for the management of neuropathic pain, pregabalin is a gabapentinoid or anticonvulsant that was initially developed as an antiepileptic agent. After more than a decade of experience with pregabalin, experience and studies have shown that the adverse effect profile of pregabalin is well tolerated for the management of neuropathic pain and other conditions. Its use is associated with benign central nervous system and systemic adverse effects, and there are very limited metabolic, idiosyncratic or known teratogenic adverse effects. Along with its efficacy in particular neuropathic pain conditions, pregabalin’s safety led it to be one of the first pharmacotherapies considered for the management of neuropathic pain. This review discusses the use of pregabalin as well as its potential adverse effects, including the most commonly noted features of sedation, dizziness, peripheral edema and dry mouth. Although other adverse effects may occur, these appear to be uncommon. The review also discusses the clinical implications of pregabalin’s use for the clinician.

2014-01-01

20

Perverted head-shaking and positional downbeat nystagmus in pregabalin intoxication.  

PubMed

Dizziness and ataxia are known adverse effects of pregabalin, but characteristic oculomotor signs in pregabalin intoxication have not been reported. Here we describe a patient who displayed perverted head-shaking and positional downbeat nystagmus after prescription of a high dosage of pregabalin. Since pregabalin reduces excitatory neurotransmitter secretion in the central nervous system, decreased excitatory inputs from the brainstem may lead to cerebellar dysfunction, causing perverted head-shaking and positional downbeat nystagmus. PMID:24368013

Choi, Jeong-Yoon; Park, Young-Min; Woo, Yeon Sun; Kim, Sung Un; Jung, Jin-Man; Kwon, Do-Young

2014-02-15

21

Milnacipran combined with pregabalin in fibromyalgia: a randomized, open-label study evaluating the safety and efficacy of adding milnacipran in patients with incomplete response to pregabalin  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adding milnacipran to pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia who have experienced an incomplete response to pregabalin. Methods: In this randomized, multicenter, open-label study, patients received pregabalin 300 or 450 mg/day during a 4- to 12-week run-in period. Patients with weekly recall visual analog scale (VAS) pain score of at least 40 and up to 90, Patient Global Impression of Severity score of at least 4, and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) score of at least 3 were classified as incomplete responders and randomized to continue pregabalin alone (n = 180) or receive milnacipran 100 mg/day added to pregabalin (n = 184). The primary efficacy parameter was responder status based on PGIC score of up to 2. The secondary efficacy parameter was change from randomization in weekly recall VAS pain score. Safety parameters included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, and clinical laboratory tests. Results: The percentage of PGIC responders was significantly higher with milnacipran added to pregabalin (46.4%) than with pregabalin alone (20.8%; p < 0.001). Mean improvement from randomization in weekly recall VAS pain scores was greater in patients receiving milnacipran added to pregabalin (?20.77) than in patients receiving pregabalin alone (?6.43; p < 0.001). During the run-in period, the most common treatment-emergent AEs with pregabalin were dizziness (22.8%), somnolence (17.3%), and fatigue (9.1%). During the randomized period, the most common treatment-emergent AEs with milnacipran added to pregabalin were nausea (12.5%), fatigue (10.3%), and constipation (9.8%). Conclusions: In this exploratory, open-label study, adding milnacipran to pregabalin improved global status, pain, and other symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia with an incomplete response to pregabalin treatment.

Farmer, Mildred V.; Palmer, Robert H.; Gendreau, R. Michael; Trugman, Joel M.; Wang, Yong

2013-01-01

22

Effect of Pregabalin and Dexamethasone on Postoperative Analgesia after Septoplasty  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this study was to explore effect of a combination of pregabalin and dexamethasone on pain control after septoplasty operations. Methods. In this study, 90 patients who were scheduled for septoplasty under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into groups that received either placebo (Group C), pregabalin (Group P), or pregabalin and dexamethasone (Group PD). Preoperatively, patients received either pregabalin 300?mg one hour before surgery, dexamethasone 8?mg intravenously during induction, or placebo according to their allocation. Postoperative pain treatment included tramadol and diclofenac sodium 30 minutes before the end of the operation. Numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain assessment, side effects, and consumption of tramadol, pethidine, and ondansetron were recorded. Results. The median NRS score at the postoperative 0 and the 2nd?h was significantly higher in Group C than in Group P and Group PD (P ? 0.004 for both). The 24?h tramadol and pethidine, consumptions were significantly reduced in Groups P and PD compared to Group C (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). The incidence of blurred vision was significantly higher in Group PD compared to Group C within both 0–2?h and 0–24?h periods (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, resp.). Conclusions. We conclude that administration of 300 mg pregabalin preoperatively may be an adequate choice for pain control after septoplasty. Addition of dexamethasone does not significantly reduce pain in these patients.

Demirhan, Abdullah; Akkaya, Akcan; Tekelioglu, Umit Yasar; Apuhan, Tayfun; Bilgi, Murat; Yurttas, Veysel; Bayir, Hakan; Yildiz, Isa; Gok, Uzeyir; Kocoglu, Hasan

2014-01-01

23

Misuse and abuse of pregabalin and gabapentin: cause for concern?  

PubMed

Gabapentinoids (e.g. pregabalin and gabapentin) are widely used in neurology, psychiatry and primary healthcare but are increasingly being reported as possessing a potential for misuse. In fact, increasing levels of both prescriptions and related fatalities, together with an anecdotally growing black market, have been reported from a range of countries. This article reviews the current evidence base of this potential, in an attempt to answer the question of whether there is cause for concern about these drugs. Potent binding of pregabalin/gabapentin at the calcium channel results in a reduction in the release of excitatory molecules. Furthermore, gabapentinoids are thought to possess GABA-mimetic properties whilst possibly presenting with direct/indirect effects on the dopaminergic 'reward' system. Overall, pregabalin is characterized by higher potency, quicker absorption rates and greater bioavailability levels than gabapentin. Although at therapeutic dosages gabapentinoids may present with low addictive liability levels, misusers' perceptions for these molecules to constitute a valid substitute for most common illicit drugs may be a reason of concern. Gabapentinoid experimenters are profiled here as individuals with a history of recreational polydrug misuse, who self-administer with dosages clearly in excess (e.g. up to 3-20 times) of those that are clinically advisable. Physicians considering prescribing gabapentinoids for neurological/psychiatric disorders should carefully evaluate a possible previous history of drug abuse, whilst being able to promptly identify signs of pregabalin/gabapentin misuse and provide possible assistance in tapering off the medication. PMID:24760436

Schifano, Fabrizio

2014-06-01

24

Pregabalin for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: an update  

PubMed Central

A previous review summarized what was then known about the potential role of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in “over-excited” presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD.

Baldwin, David S; Ajel, Khalil; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Nowak, Magda; Rafiq, Rizwan

2013-01-01

25

Pregabalin add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disease with an estimated prevalence of 1% in the UK. Approximately one third of these people continue to have seizures despite drug treatment. In order to try to improve outcomes a number of new antiepileptic drugs have been developed and pregabalin is one of these. This review is an update of a previous Cochrane review (Lozsadi 2008). Objectives To summarise evidence from randomised controlled trials regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pregabalin when used as an add-on antiepileptic drug in treatment-resistant partial epilepsy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (May 2012), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials issue 5 of 12, The Cochrane Library 2012), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to May week 4 2012) and contacted Pfizer Ltd. (the manufacturers of pregabalin) to identify published, unpublished and ongoing trials. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled double-blind trials comparing pregabalin with placebo for people with drug-refractory partial epilepsy. Outcomes included 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, seizure freedom, treatment withdrawal for any reason, treatment withdrawal for adverse events and nature of adverse events. Data collection and analysis Two review authors (JP and AGM) independently selected and assessed suitable trials and extracted data. Primary analyses were by intention-to-treat (ITT). Results are presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results Six suitable industry-sponsored trials (2009 participants) were identified and included in the analysis. Trials tested doses of pregabalin ranging from 50 mg/day to 600 mg/day. For the primary outcome, 50% or higher seizure reduction was significantly more likely in patients randomised to pregabalin than to placebo (RR 2.61; 95% CI 1.70 to 4.01). A dose-response analysis suggested increasing effect with increasing dose. Pregabalin was significantly associated with seizure freedom (RR 2.59; 95% CI 1.05 to 6.36). Patients were significantly more likely to have withdrawn from pregabalin treatment than placebo treatment for any reason (RR 1.39; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.72) or for adverse effects (RR 2.69; 95% CI 1.88 to 3.86). Ataxia, dizziness, somnolence and weight gain were significantly associated with pregabalin. The odds of response doubled with an increase in dose from 300 mg/day to 600 mg/day (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.76 to 2.54). Authors’ conclusions Pregabalin, when used as an add-on drug for treatment-resistant partial epilepsy, is significantly more effective than placebo at achieving a 50% or greater seizure reduction and significantly increasing seizure freedom. Results demonstrate efficacy for doses from 150 mg/day to 600 mg/day, with increasing effectiveness at 600 mg doses. The trials included in this review were of short duration and longer-term trials are needed to inform clinical decision making better.

Pulman, Jennifer; Hemming, Karla; Marson, Anthony G

2014-01-01

26

Pregabalin for neuropathic pain based on recent clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregabalin is a ligand for the ?-2-?subunit of voltagegated calcium channels with anticonvulsant, analgesic, and anxiolytic\\u000a properties. It has predictable absorption across the gastrointestinal tract, is neither metabolized nor protein-bound, and\\u000a has minimal drug-drug interactions. It is effective with two or three-times daily dosing in a dose range of 150 to 600 mg\\u000a daily. Seven published prospective, randomized clinical trials

Brett R. Stacey; Jon N. Swift

2006-01-01

27

Pregabalin in Neuropathic Pain: Evidences and Possible Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin is an antagonist of voltage gated Ca2+ channels and specifically binds to alpha-2-delta subunit to produce antiepileptic and analgesic actions. It successfully alleviates the symptoms of various types of neuropathic pain and presents itself as a first line therapeutic agent with remarkable safety and efficacy. Preclinical studies in various animal models of neuropathic pain have shown its effectiveness in treating the symptoms like allodynia and hyperalgesia. Clinical studies in different age groups and in different types of neuropathic pain (peripheral diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, cancer chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain) have projected it as the most effective agent either as monotherapy or in combined regimens in terms of cost effectiveness, tolerability and overall improvement in neuropathic pain states. Preclinical studies employing pregabalin in different neuropathic pain models have explored various molecular targets and the signaling systems including Ca2+ channel-mediated neurotransmitter release, activation of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), potassium channels and inhibition of pathways involving inflammatory mediators. The present review summarizes the important aspects of pregabalin as analgesic in preclinical and clinical studies as well as focuses on the possible mechanisms.

Verma, Vivek; Singh, Nirmal; Singh Jaggi, Amteshwar

2014-01-01

28

Pregabalin versus gabapentin in partial epilepsy: a meta-analysis of dose-response relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy of pregabalin and gabapentin at comparable effective dose levels in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. METHODS: Eight randomized placebo controlled trials investigating the efficacy of pregabalin (4 studies) and gabapentin (4 studies) over 12 weeks were identified with a systematic literature search. The endpoints of interest were \\

Philippa Delahoy; Sally Thompson; Ian C Marschner

2010-01-01

29

The effect of pregabalin on sensorimotor gating in 'low' gating humans and mice  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant and anxiolytic compound that binds to ?2-? auxiliary subunit Types 1 and 2 of voltage-gated calcium channels, has been shown to reduce excitatory neurotransmission partially through modulation of glutamatergic signaling. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating impacted by disruption of the glutamatergic system and is reduced in schizophrenia patients. Dysregulation of the glutamatergic system has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here we tested the hypothesis that pregabalin may ameliorate PPI in a model of deficient gating in humans and mice. In study 1, 14 healthy human subjects participated in a within subjects, cross-over study with placebo, 50 mg or 200 mg pregabalin treatment prior to undergoing a PPI task. In study 2, 24 C57BL/6 mice underwent a similar procedure with vehicle, 30 and 100 mg/kg dose treatments. In both studies, subjects were assigned to a “Low” or “High” gating group using a median split procedure based on their PPI performance during placebo/vehicle. Drug effects were then examined across these groups. In humans, pregabalin treatment significantly increased PPI performance in the “low gating” group. In mice, pregabalin treatment significantly increased PPI in the low gating group but reduced PPI in the high gating group. Across species, pregabalin treatment improves PPI in subjects with low gating. These data support further exploration of pregabalin as a potential treatment for disorders characterized by sensorimotor gating deficits and glutamatergic hypersignaling, such as schizophrenia.

Acheson, Dean T.; Stein, Murray B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Geyer, Mark A.; Risbrough, Victoria B.

2013-01-01

30

Inhibition of neuronal Ca 2+ influx by gabapentin and pregabalin in the human neocortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabapentin and pregabalin (S-(+)-3-isobutylgaba) produced concentration-dependent inhibitions of the K+-induced [Ca2+]i increase in fura-2-loaded human neocortical synaptosomes (IC50=17 ?M for both compounds; respective maximal inhibitions of 37 and 35%). The weaker enantiomer of pregabalin, R-(?)-3-isobutylgaba, was inactive. These findings were consistent with the potency of these drugs to inhibit [3H]-gabapentin binding to human neocortical membranes. The inhibitory effect of gabapentin

Klaus Fink; David J. Dooley; Wolfgang P. Meder; Nirmala Suman-Chauhan; Sandra Duffy; Hans Clusmann; Manfred Göthert

2002-01-01

31

Effects of Single-Dose Pregabalin on Postoperative Pain in Dacryocystorhinostomy Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Postoperative pain of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCA) surgery is one of the serious issues to be considered. Administrating opioids to relieve postoperative pain and facing their increasing side effects in eye surgeries, make the use of non-opioid drugs inevitable. Objectives The present study examined the efficacy of pregabalin in alleviating the postoperative pain of DCA surgery. Patients and Methods The present study has been carried out as a double-blind, randomized clinical trial on the patient candidates for DCR. The patients were randomly divided in to two groups of pregabalin and placebo. Patients in pregabalin group received 300 mg of pregabalin, an hour before the operation in the morning of the surgery. Pain intensity on visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded until 24 hours after the operation; also the rate of administrated opioids and nausea/vomiting frequency were recorded during the first 24-hour period after the operation and the resultsof the two groups were compared. Results Postoperative pain intensity in the pregabalin group at the time of recovery was significantly lower than that of the placebo group (P = 0.001) until 24 hours after the surgery. In the pregabalin group 17.5% of the patients received opioids while in the placebo group the figure was 52.5% (P = 0.001). Nausea frequency was also higher in the placebo group than the pregabalin group (P = 0.003). Conclusions A single 300 mg dose of pregabalin, an hour before DCA can effectively reduce pain intensity and also reduce opioid dose and nausea/vomiting.

Alimian, Mahzad; Imani, Farnad; Hassani, Valiollah; Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Sharifian, Mahshid; Safari, Saeid

2012-01-01

32

Significant improvement of chronic pain by Pregabalin after thoracotomy: report of four cases.  

PubMed

Unfortunately, many patients may have persistent pain lasting for many months, or even years, following thoracic surgery. No effective treatment has so far been established for chronic pain after thoracotomy. There are no reports of treatment involving Pregabalin for pain after thoracic surgery. This study reports four cases that showed significant improvement with Pregabalin in late-onset (notified during an office visit after discharge) nocturnal insomnia and in stress-induced ulcers caused by intercostal neuralgia after thoracotomy. PMID:22865014

Matsutani, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Masafumi

2013-08-01

33

Pregabalin reduces opioid consumption and improves outcome in chronic pain patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Introduction: Recently, multimodal pain control has been used to manage postoperative pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This approach combines numerous modalities, such as opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local anesthetics, and acetaminophen, in an effort to reduce overall opioid consumption and also to provide better pain control. Gabapentinoids are a class of drugs that have been used as part of multimodal approach, and may be effective in patients who are previous users of chronic pain medication. The hypothesis of this study was that the addition of pregabalin reduces opioid consumption and/or improves pain after TKA, even in patients who are previous users of chronic pain medications. Methods: Using a prospectively collected database, 262 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKA between December 2011 and April 2012 were identified who received multimodal analgesia after surgery that included pregabalin. Using the same database, these patients were compared with 268 patients undergoing TKA from January to December 2010 who also received multimodal analgesia but were not given pregabalin. The clinical records of these patients were reviewed in detail to determine the incidence and nature of postoperative complications, opioid consumption, and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Results: The incidence of respiratory, renal, and hemodynamic complications was significantly lower in the patients who received pregabalin. Gastrointestinal complications, which included nausea, were not significantly different between the groups. Patients receiving pregabalin had a lower average opioid consumption, and their minimum and maximum levels of opioid consumption were also reduced. Previous users of chronic pain medications had higher VAS scores but the same opioid consumption compared with those who were not previous users of chronic pain medications. No difference was seen in the maximum VAS scores between patients who received pregabalin and those who did not. Conclusion: Pregabalin in the context of multimodal pain management may be associated with reduced opioid consumption and other medical complications in patients undergoing TKA, including previous users of chronic pain medications. PMID:24875968

Sawan, Hind; Chen, Antonia F; Viscusi, Eugene R; Parvizi, Javad; Hozack, William J

2014-05-01

34

Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Impulsivity is a core symptom in many neuropsychiatric disorders. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of topiramate and pregabalin on the modulation of different impulsivity dimensions in DBA/2 mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of acute and chronic administration of pregabalin (10, 20 and 40 mg·kg?1) and topiramate (12.5, 25 and 50 mg·kg?1) were evaluated in the light–dark box (LDB), hole board test (HBT) and delayed reinforcement task (DRT). ?2A-Adrenoceptor, D2-receptor and TH gene expression were evaluated by real-time PCR in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), accumbens (ACC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), respectively. KEY RESULTS Acute pregabalin administration showed a clear anxiolytic-like effect (LDB) but did not modify novelty-seeking behaviour (HBT). In contrast, topiramate produced an anxiolytic effect only at the highest dose, whereas it reduced novelty seeking at all doses tested. In the DRT, acute pregabalin had no effect, whereas topiramate only reduced motor impulsivity. Chronically, pregabalin significantly increased motor impulsivity and topiramate diminished cognitive impulsivity. Pregabalin decreased ?2A-adrenoceptor and D2-receptor gene expression in the PFC and ACC, respectively, and increased TH in the VTA. In contrast, chronic administration of topiramate increased ?2A-adrenoceptor and D2-receptor gene expression in the PFC and ACC, respectively, and also increased TH in the VTA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the usefulness of pregabalin in impulsivity-related disorders is related to its anxiolytic properties, whereas topiramate modulates impulsivity. These differences could be linked to their opposite effects on ?2A-adrenoceptor and D2-receptor gene expression in the PFC and ACC, respectively.

Navarrete, Francisco; Perez-Ortiz, Jose M; Manzanares, Jorge

2012-01-01

35

A systematic cost-effectiveness analysis of pregabalin in the management of fibromyalgia: an Iranian experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction Fibromyalgia is a neuropathic syndrome which is more common in adult females. Pregabalin is the first medicine which was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of fibromyalgia. In this study we aimed to evaluate the cost-efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia in Iran. Material and methods To evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin, a systematic review was carried out by conducting a wide literature search for the main outcomes of interest that were pain score reduction from the baseline and the percentage of patients with more than 50% pain reduction. To evaluate costs of treatment, only the direct medical costs were considered. The calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were compared with one and three times the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as the threshold to evaluate the economic condition of treatment to be “highly cost-effective”, “cost-effective” or “not cost-effective”. Results Out of 4012 searched reports, only four reports were included in the study, all of which were randomized controlled trials with placebo controls. The calculated ICERs for pregabalin 450 mg/day and 600 mg/day with both available forms of brand and generic medicines in the country were in the range of 44–1170 US dollars (USD) and 48–814 USD, which in all cases could be considered as highly cost-effective. Pregabalin 150 mg/day based on available evidence does not have significant efficacy in comparison to placebo. But for pregabalin 300 mg/day, no decision can be made based on current data. Conclusions Our analysis indicated that generic pregabalin in the treatment doses of 450 mg/day and 600 mg/day is highly cost-effective.

Keshavarz, Khosro; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Gharibnaseri, Zahra; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

2013-01-01

36

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of pregabalin in older patients with neuropathic pain: results from a pooled analysis of 11 clinical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Older patients are typically underrepresented in clinical trials of medications for chronic pain. A post hoc analysis of multiple clinical studies of pregabalin in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in older patients. METHODS: Data from 11 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies of pregabalin

David Semel; T Kevin Murphy; Gergana Zlateva; Raymond Cheung; Birol Emir

2010-01-01

37

Abiraterone acetate.  

PubMed

Abiraterone acetate (CB 7630; CB7630; JNJ-212082), the 3?-acetate prodrug of abiraterone, is structurally related to ketoconazole and is being developed by Cougar Biotechnology as a hormonal therapy for advanced prostate and breast cancers. As a selective inhibitor of adrenal androgens, it is thought to be a safer product than existing second-line hormonal therapies. This review discusses the key development milestones and therapeutic trials of this drug. PMID:21171672

2010-01-01

38

A novel method for spectrophotometric determination of pregabalin in pure form and in capsules  

PubMed Central

Background Pregabalin, a ?-amino-n-butyric acid derivative, is an antiepileptic drug not yet official in any pharmacopeia and development of analytical procedures for this drug in bulk/formulation forms is a necessity. We herein, report a new, simple, extraction free, cost effective, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method for the determination of the pregabalin. Results Pregabalin, as a primary amine was reacted with ninhydrin in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 to form blue violet colored chromogen which could be measured spectrophotometrically at ?max 402.6 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The method showed linearity in a wide concentration range of 50-1000 ?g mL-1 with good correlation coefficient (0.992). The limits of assays detection was found to be 6.0 ?g mL-1 and quantitation limit was 20.0 ?g mL-1. The suggested method was applied to the determination of the drug in capsules. No interference could be observed from the additives in the capsules. The percentage recovery was found to be 100.43 ± 1.24. Conclusion The developed method was successfully validated and applied to the determination of pregabalin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations without any interference from common excipients. Hence, this method can be potentially useful for routine laboratory analysis of pregabalin.

2011-01-01

39

[Promising effects of pregabalin in the treatment of oxaliplatin-induced sensory neuropathy in patients with colorectal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Thirteen patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who suffered from oxaliplatin-induced sensory neuropathy were evaluated to determine the neuropathy Grade before and after the administration of pregabalin. All patients received oxaliplatin as adjuvant or first-line chemotherapy. The mFOLFOX6 and CapeOX groups included 3 and 10 cases, respectively, and the average treatment regimens were 8 and 5 doses, respectively. Before receiving pregabalin, sensory neuropathy was classified as Grade 3 in 2 patients, as Grade 2 in 8 patients, and as Grade 1 in 3 patient. The average amount of pregabalin administered to patients was 237 (range: 150-450) mg. After administering pregabalin, we observed improvements in 8 neuropathy cases (61. 5%)within approximately 2 weeks. All side effects were mild. In this study, pregabalin was shown to positively impact sensory neuropathy resulting from oxaliplatin treatment and to enable the long-term use of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:24047775

Nagahara, Hisashi; Noda, Eiji; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Toru; Hirakawa, Toshiki; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Shibutani, Masatsune; Hirakawa, Kosei

2013-09-01

40

Pregabalin action at a model synapse: binding to presynaptic calcium channel alpha2-delta subunit reduces neurotransmission in mice.  

PubMed

Pregabalin, ((S)-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid, also known as (S)-3-isobutyl GABA, Lyricatrade mark) is approved for treatment of certain types of peripheral neuropathic pain and as an adjunctive therapy for partial seizures of epilepsy both the EU and the USA and also for generalized anxiety disorder in the EU. Though pregabalin binds selectively to the alpha(2)-delta (alpha(2)-delta) auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, the cellular details of pregabalin action are unclear. The high density of alpha(2)-delta in skeletal muscle fibers raises the question of whether pregabalin alters excitation-contraction coupling. We used the mouse soleus neuromuscular junction from mice containing an artificially mutated alpha(2)-delta Type 1 protein (R217A) as a model to examine the effect of pregabalin. Pregabalin reduced nerve-evoked muscle contractions by 16% at a clinically relevant concentration of 10 muM in wildtype mice. When acetylcholine receptors were blocked with curare, pregabalin had no effect on contraction from direct stimulation of muscle, suggesting a lack of drug effects on contraction coupling. Our data are consistent with pregabalin having no effect on striated muscle L-type calcium channel function. However, in mice expressing mutant (R217A) alpha(2)-delta Type 1, there was no significant effect of pregabalin on nerve-evoked muscle contraction. We propose that pregabalin reduces presynaptic neurotransmitter release without altering postsynaptic receptors or contraction coupling and that these effects require high affinity binding to alpha(2)-delta Type 1 auxiliary subunit of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels. PMID:17064682

Joshi, Indu; Taylor, Charles P

2006-12-28

41

Pregabalin modulation of spinal and brainstem visceral nociceptive processing  

PubMed Central

Brainstem and spinal mechanisms mediating visceral nociception are investigated here using electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry techniques in a model of acute visceral pain. Colorectal distension (CRD) produced graded visceromotor responses (VMR) in normal rats, and these were facilitated by intracolonic mustard oil (MO) that generated acute visceral hyperalgesia. The neuropathic pain drug pregabalin (PGB) is thought to have state-dependent effects in attenuating neuropathic, but not acute somatic pain, likely by impairing calcium-channel trafficking. We found that systemic PGB produced antinociceptive effects on CRD-evoked VMRs in naïve rats lacking pathophysiology and in MO-pretreated rats. Systemic PGB also significantly reduced Fos labelling in lumbosacral spinal cords of rats given noxious repetitive CRD; however, PGB did not alter this measure of neural activity in the brainstem. Differential brainstem processing of noxious somatic and visceral stimuli may underlie the unique lack of state-dependent actions of PGB in this visceral pain model. Single-unit recordings in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) verify that brainstem processing of somatic and visceral stimuli differs. The effects of CRD on RVM cells classed as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL were independent of their somatic responses, with surprising changes in RVM cell activity to innocuous visceral stimulation. PGB also markedly reduced the visceral responses of RVM ON-cells to noxious CRD. These results illustrate clear differences in the central processing of visceral and somatic stimuli, yet a common role for descending modulation by brainstem activity in mediating evoked pain measures.

Sikandar, Shafaq; Dickenson, Anthony H.

2011-01-01

42

Pregabalin modulation of spinal and brainstem visceral nociceptive processing.  

PubMed

Brainstem and spinal mechanisms mediating visceral nociception are investigated here using electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry techniques in a model of acute visceral pain. Colorectal distension (CRD) produced graded visceromotor responses (VMR) in normal rats, and these were facilitated by intracolonic mustard oil (MO) that generated acute visceral hyperalgesia. The neuropathic pain drug pregabalin (PGB) is thought to have state-dependent effects in attenuating neuropathic, but not acute somatic pain, likely by impairing calcium-channel trafficking. We found that systemic PGB produced antinociceptive effects on CRD-evoked VMRs in naïve rats lacking pathophysiology and in MO-pretreated rats. Systemic PGB also significantly reduced Fos labelling in lumbosacral spinal cords of rats given noxious repetitive CRD; however, PGB did not alter this measure of neural activity in the brainstem. Differential brainstem processing of noxious somatic and visceral stimuli may underlie the unique lack of state-dependent actions of PGB in this visceral pain model. Single-unit recordings in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) verify that brainstem processing of somatic and visceral stimuli differs. The effects of CRD on RVM cells classed as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL were independent of their somatic responses, with surprising changes in RVM cell activity to innocuous visceral stimulation. PGB also markedly reduced the visceral responses of RVM ON-cells to noxious CRD. These results illustrate clear differences in the central processing of visceral and somatic stimuli, yet a common role for descending modulation by brainstem activity in mediating evoked pain measures. PMID:21778018

Sikandar, Shafaq; Dickenson, Anthony H

2011-10-01

43

Risk of heart failure and edema associated with the use of pregabalin: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Pregabalin is used in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathic pain, partial seizures, anxiety disorders and fibromyalgia. Recognized adverse effects associated with its use include cognitive impairment, somnolence and dizziness. Heart failure associated with pregabalin has been described, however the strength of this association has not been well characterized. To examine this further, we will conduct a systematic review of the risk of heart failure and edema associated with use of pregabalin. Methods/design We will include all studies (experimental, quasi-experimental, observational, case series/reports, drug regulatory reports) that examine the use of pregabalin compared to placebo, gabapentin or conventional care. Our primary outcome is heart failure and the secondary outcomes include edema and weight gain. We will search electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and grey literature sources (trial registries, conference abstracts) to identify relevant studies. To ensure literature saturation, we will contact drug manufacturers, conduct forward citation searching, and scan the reference lists of key articles and included studies. We will not restrict inclusion by language or publication status. Two reviewers will screen citations (titles and abstracts) and full-text articles, conduct data abstraction, and appraise risk of bias. Random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted if the studies are deemed heterogeneous in terms of clinical, statistical and methodological factors but still suitable for meta-analysis. Conclusions The results of this review will assist physicians to better appreciate pregabalin’s risk for edema or congestive heart failure and will be pertinent to the thousands of patients worldwide who are administered this medication. Our protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42012002948).

2013-01-01

44

Pregabalin long-term treatment and assessment of discontinuation in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Discontinuation effects following cessation of 12 and 24 wk of pregabalin treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were evaluated in a placebo- and lorazepam-controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial conducted in 16 countries. The study design consisted of two 12-wk treatment periods (periods 1 and 2), each followed by a 1-wk taper and two post-discontinuation assessments, one immediately following the taper and one 1-wk post-taper. Patients were assigned to receive an initially flexible dose of pregabalin 450-600 mg/d, pregabalin 150-300 mg/d, or lorazepam 3-4 mg/d for 6 wk; responders continued fixed-dose therapy for 6 additional weeks. Patients entering period 2 continued on the same fixed dose or switched to placebo. Discontinuation effects were evaluated with the Physician Withdrawal Checklist (PWC) and reported discontinuation-emergent signs and symptoms. Rebound anxiety was measured with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. GAD symptoms improved with all treatments and improvements were maintained over 12 and 24 wk. Low levels of discontinuation symptoms were evident in all treatment groups. For patients who received active treatment during both periods, mean (95% confidence interval) increases on the PWC from last visit on active treatment to the second post-discontinuation assessment were: pregabalin 450-600 mg/d: 2.8 (1.6-3.9), pregabalin 150-300 mg/d: 1.7 (0.7-2.8), lorazepam 3-4 mg/d: 2.2 (1.0-3.5). Rates of rebound anxiety were also low at both 12 and 24 wk (0-6%). This suggests that risk of discontinuation symptoms and rebound anxiety are low for pregabalin after 12 and 24 wk of treatment. PMID:24351233

Kasper, Siegfried; Iglesias-García, Celso; Schweizer, Edward; Wilson, Jacquelyn; DuBrava, Sarah; Prieto, Rita; Pitman, Verne W; Knapp, Lloyd

2014-05-01

45

Profiles of pregabalin and gabapentin abuse by postmortem toxicology.  

PubMed

Pregabalin (PRG) and gabapentin (GBP) are used in the treatment of neuropathic pain and epilepsy, and PRG also in generalized anxiety disorder. There is increasing evidence that PRG possesses considerable abuse potential. PRG may have a higher addiction potential than GBP due to its rapid absorption and faster onset of action. Our objective is to estimate the proportion of all PRG- and GBP-related fatalities attributable to PRG and GBP abuse. We investigated all medico-legal death cases in Finland in which PRG or GBP was found in postmortem toxicology during 2010-2011. PRG was found in 316 cases and GBP in 43 cases. Drug abuse was associated with 48.1% of the PRG and 18.6% of the GBP findings. PRG poisoning accounted for 10.1% of all PRG cases and GBP poisoning for 4.7% of all GBP cases. In the drug abuser cases, PRG poisoning represented 19.1%, and GBP poisoning 12.5%. The median blood concentration of PRG was 15mg/L in the abuser group and 5.8mg/L in the other cases. For GBP, these concentrations were 12mg/L and 8.3mg/L, respectively. In the PRG abuser group, 91.4% of cases showed concomitant opioid use, while in the rest of these cases neither alcohol nor opioids were detected, but other central nervous system acting drugs were found in each abuser case. In the GBP abuser group, 87.5% of cases showed concomitant opioid use. PRG abuse with high doses is increasingly common and can be fatal when combined with opioids. PMID:24835028

Häkkinen, Margareeta; Vuori, Erkki; Kalso, Eija; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

2014-08-01

46

Pregabalin's abuse potential: a mini review focusing on the pharmacological profile.  

PubMed

Pregabalin, an analogue of the gamma-aminobutyric acid mammalian neurotransmitter and its structurally related compound gabapentin are known as alpha2delta ligands. They might act as inhibitory modulators of neuronal excitability that reduce ectopic neuronal activation of hyperexcited neurons while normal activation remains unchanged. However, the interaction with Ca2+ channel alpha2delta subunit is not sufficient to account for the broad clinical spectrum of pregabalin effects including the abuse potential. Pregabalin is approved for the treatment of partial epilepsy; generalized anxiety disorder; peripheral and central neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Its prescribing is rapidly increasing and total sales of the drug worldwide reached 4.6 billion US$ in 2012. Since entering widespread clinical use, reports of pregabalin abuse appeared more often, usually involving individuals with a history of abuse of other medications. The purpose of this mini review is to present available published data signaling pregabalinâ??s abuse liability reflecting on the pharmacological characteristics that might enable this agent to trigger addictive behaviors. PMID:24849194

Papazisis, Georgios; Tzachanis, Dimitrios

2014-08-01

47

Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer.  

PubMed

A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin. PMID:24790724

Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martín, Pablo J; López-López, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J

2014-04-01

48

Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer  

PubMed Central

A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin.

Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martin, Pablo J.; Lopez-Lopez, Jose; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martin-Gonzalez, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

2014-01-01

49

Systemic pregabalin attenuates sensorimotor responses and medullary glutamate release in inflammatory tooth pain model.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have demonstrated that application of inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the tooth pulp induces medullary glutamate release and central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as well as nociceptive sensorimotor responses in craniofacial muscles in rats. There is recent evidence that anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin that influence glutamatergic neurotransmission are effective in several pain states. The aim of this study was to examine whether systemic administration of pregabalin attenuated glutamate release in the medulla as well as these nociceptive effects reflected in increased electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by MO application to the tooth pulp. Male adult rats were anesthetized with isofluorane (1.0-1.2%), and jaw and tongue muscle EMG activities were recorded by needle electrodes inserted bilaterally into masseter and anterior digastric muscles and into the genioglossus muscle, and also the medullary release of glutamate was assessed by in vivo microdialysis. Pregabalin or vehicle control (isotonic saline) was administered 30 min before the pulpal application of MO or vehicle control (mineral oil). Application of mineral oil to the maxillary first molar tooth pulp produced no change in baseline EMG activity and glutamate release. However, application of MO to the pulp significantly increased both the medullary release of glutamate and EMG activity in the jaw and tongue muscles for several minutes. In contrast, pre-medication with pregabalin, but not vehicle control, significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the medullary glutamate release and EMG activity in these muscles after MO application to the tooth pulp (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.05). These results suggest that pregabalin may attenuate the medullary release of glutamate and associated nociceptive sensorimotor responses in this acute inflammatory pulpal pain model, and that it may prove useful for the treatment of orofacial inflammatory pain states. PMID:22609939

Narita, N; Kumar, N; Cherkas, P S; Chiang, C Y; Dostrovsky, J O; Coderre, T J; Sessle, B J

2012-08-30

50

Evaluation of the neurological safety of epidurally-administered pregabalin in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The primary site of action of pregabalin, i.e. the ?-2-? subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, is located at the dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Therefore, the epidural administration of pregabalin could have advantages over oral administration. However, the possibility of its neurotoxicity should be excluded before any attempt at epidural administration. We evaluated the neuronal safety of epidurally-administered pregabalin by observing the sensory/motor changes and examining the histopathology of spinal cord in rats. Methods Sixty rats of 180-230 g were divided into three groups; 3 mg of pregabalin dissolved in 0.3 ml saline (group P, n = 20), 0.3 ml 40% alcohol (group A, n = 20), or 0.3 ml normal saline (group N, n = 20) was administered epidurally to the rats in each group. Pinch-toe test, motor function evaluation, and histopathologic examination of vacuolation, chromatolysis, meningeal inflammation, and neuritis were performed at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 21st day after each epidural administration. Results All rats enrolled in group P, like those in group N, showed neither sensory/motor dysfunction nor any histopathological abnormality over the 3-week observation period. In contrast, in group A, 80% of the rats showed abnormal response to the pinch-toe test and all rats showed decreased motor function during the entire evaluation period. In addition, all histopathologic findings of neurotoxicity were observed exclusively in group A. Conclusions The epidurally administered pregabalin (about 15 mg/kg) did not cause any neurotoxic evidence, in terms of both sensory/motor function evaluation and histopathological examination in rats.

Lee, Jeong Rim; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Choe, Gheeyoung; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Hyo Min; Kim, Eunjung

2012-01-01

51

Pregabalin induces hepatic hypoxia and increases endothelial cell proliferation in mice, a process inhibited by dietary vitamin E supplementation.  

PubMed

The preceding article identified key components of pregabalin's mode of action on nongenotoxic hemangiosarcoma formation in mice, including increased serum bicarbonate leading to decreased respiratory rate, increased blood pH, increased venous oxygen saturation, increased vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor expression, increased hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression, and increased iron-laden macrophages. Increased platelet count and platelet activation were early, species-specific biomarkers in mice. Dysregulated erythropoiesis, macrophage activation, and elevations of tissue growth factors were consistent with the unified mode of action for nongenotoxic hemangiosarcoma recently proposed at an international hemangiosarcoma workshop (Cohen, S. M., Storer, R. D., Criswell, K. A., Doerrer, N. G., Dellarco, V. L., Pegg, D. G., Wojcinski, Z. W., Malarkey, D. E., Jacobs, A. C., Klaunig, J. E., et al. (2009). Hemangiosarcoma in rodents: Mode-of-action evaluation and human relevance. Toxicol. Sci. 111, 4-18). In this article, we present evidence that pregabalin induces hypoxia and increases endothelial cell (EC) proliferation in a species-specific manner. Dietary administration of pregabalin produced a significant 35% increase in an immunohistochemical stain for hypoxia (Hypoxyprobe) in livers from pregabalin-treated mice. Increased Hypoxyprobe staining was not observed in the liver, bone marrow, or spleen of rats, supporting the hypothesis that pregabalin produces local tissue hypoxia in a species-specific manner. Transcriptional analysis supports that rats, unlike mice, adapt to pregabalin-induced hypoxia. Using a dual-label method, increased EC proliferation was observed as early as 2 weeks in mouse liver and 12 weeks in bone marrow following pregabalin administration. These same assays showed decreased EC proliferation in hepatic ECs of rats, further supporting species specificity. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E, which is known to have antioxidant and antiangiogenic activity, inhibited pregabalin-induced increases in mouse hepatic EC proliferation, providing confirmatory evidence for the proposed mode of action and its species-specific response. PMID:22539613

Criswell, Kay A; Cook, Jon C; Morse, Dennis; Lawton, Michael; Somps, Christopher; Obert, Leslie; Roy, Marc; Sokolowski, Sharon; Koza-Taylor, Petra; Colangelo, Jennifer; Navetta, Kimberly; Brady, Joseph; Pegg, David; Wojcinski, Zbigniew; Rahbari, Ramin; Duddy, Steven; Anderson, Timothy

2012-07-01

52

PRECISE - pregabalin in addition to usual care for sciatica: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sciatica is a type of neuropathic pain that is characterised by pain radiating into the leg. It is often accompanied by low back pain and neurological deficits in the lower limb. While this condition may cause significant suffering for the individual, the lack of evidence supporting effective treatments for sciatica makes clinical management difficult. Our objectives are to determine the efficacy of pregabalin on reducing leg pain intensity and its cost-effectiveness in patients with sciatica. Methods/Design PRECISE is a prospectively registered, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin compared to placebo, in addition to usual care. Inclusion criteria include moderate to severe leg pain below the knee with evidence of nerve root/spinal nerve involvement. Participants will be randomised to receive either pregabalin with usual care (n = 102) or placebo with usual care (n = 102) for 8 weeks. The medicine dosage will be titrated up to the participant’s optimal dose, to a maximum 600 mg per day. Follow up consultations will monitor individual progress, tolerability and adverse events. Usual care, if deemed appropriate by the study doctor, may include a referral for physical or manual therapy and/or prescription of analgesic medication. Participants, doctors and researchers collecting participant data will be blinded to treatment allocation. Participants will be assessed at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 26 and 52. The primary outcome will determine the efficacy of pregabalin in reducing leg pain intensity. Secondary outcomes will include back pain intensity, disability and quality of life. Data analysis will be blinded and by intention-to-treat. A parallel economic evaluation will be conducted from health sector and societal perspectives. Discussion This study will establish the efficacy of pregabalin in reducing leg pain intensity in patients with sciatica and provide important information regarding the effect of pregabalin treatment on disability and quality of life. The impact of this research may allow the future development of a cost-effective conservative treatment strategy for patients with sciatica. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, ACTRN 12613000530729

2013-01-01

53

Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009). Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs) had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years), percentage of women (87%–88%), and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis). In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%). The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05), any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05), and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05). From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort experienced decreases in certain utilization rates, whereas the pregabalin cohort had increases (percentage of patients with a fibromyalgia-related admission, ?1.2% versus 0.4% [P<0.01]; number of fibromyalgia-related outpatient claims, ?1.7 versus 4.7 [P<0.01]). Conclusion Fibromyalgia patients initiating pregabalin tended to consume more fibromyalgia-related inpatient and outpatient care in the first postinitiation year, whereas fibromyalgia patients initiating duloxetine tended to have lower utilization rates of fibromyalgia-related inpatient care in the postinitiation year than in the preinitiation year.

Peng, X; Sun, P; Novick, D; Andrews, J; Sun, S

2014-01-01

54

Presynaptic inhibitory actions of pregabalin on excitatory transmission in superficial dorsal horn of mouse spinal cord: further characterization of presynaptic mechanisms.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is widely used as an analgesic for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In the present experiments using mouse spinal slices, we recorded electrically evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) from superficial dorsal horn neurons. Pregabalin reduced the amplitude of eEPSCs, and increased the paired pulse ratio. Pregabalin also inhibited the frequency of spontaneously occurring miniature EPSCs without affecting their amplitude. Partial ligation of the sciatic nerve increased the expression of the calcium channel ?2?-1 subunit, and increased the presynaptic inhibitory action of pregabalin. Intrathecal injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against the ?2?-1 subunit, decreased the expression of ?2?-1 mRNA in the spinal dorsal horn, and decreased pregabalin's action. These results provide further evidence that pregabalin exerts its presynaptic inhibitory action via binding with the ?2? subunit in a state-dependent manner. Furthermore, presynaptic actions of pregabalin were attenuated in knockout mice lacking the protein syntaxin 1A, a component of the synaptic vesicle release machinery, indicating that syntaxin 1A is required for pregabalin to exert its full presynaptic inhibitory action. These observations might suggest that direct and/or indirect interactions with the presynaptic proteins composing the release machinery underlie at least some part of pregabalin's presynaptic actions. PMID:24269977

Matsuzawa, Rie; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Nemoto, Kohei; Fukushima, Teruyuki; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Akagawa, Kimio; Hori, Yuuichi

2014-01-13

55

A case of severe oral self-injurious Tourette's syndrome alleviated by pregabalin.  

PubMed

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) associated with Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a severe neuropsychiatric condition that causes significant distress and can impair social functioning. The current treatment options for the condition include pharmacological, physical and psychosocial interventions. However, given the need for more effective interventions, especially for those patients who are unresponsive and/or intolerant to standard medications, further exploration of novel treatments is imperative. In this report, we present a case of SIB-TS that was successfully treated with pregabalin. The patient received 1-year of follow-up and was noted to have considerable improvement in symptoms. Although rigorous controlled studies are required, based on our case study, pregabalin may be a potential treatment option in some cases of SIB with TS. PMID:22133981

Fornaro, Michele; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Colicchio, Maria Giovanna; Romano, Anna; Fornaro, Stefania; Rizzato, Salvatore; Ciampa, Giovanni; Colicchio, Salvatore; Dell'Osso, Liliana

2012-01-01

56

Successful treatment by adding duloxetine to pregabalin for peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel.  

PubMed

Although paclitaxel is a commonly used anticancer drug, peripheral neuropathy may develop as a side effect. Worsening of the symptoms with time may cause patients who receive paclitaxel to give up their chemotherapy. Duloxetine, a serotonin- and norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor, has been used to treat peripheral neuropathic pain. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with gastric cancer, who underwent gastrectomy and then received 8 cycles of chemotherapy involving weekly administrations of paclitaxel. Under this paclitaxel treatment, he complained of severe peripheral neuropathy, leading to a diminished quality of life. Following treatment with a combination of duloxetine and pregabalin, a remission of his symptoms was achieved. Duloxetine plus pregabalin therapy may be useful for the peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel. PMID:23064035

Takenaka, Motoyasu; Iida, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Yoshimura, Noritaka; Miyamoto, Maki

2013-11-01

57

Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of pregabalin in bulk and pharmaceutical preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of the ?-amino- n-butyric acid derivative pregabalin (PGB) in bulk drug and capsule. Pregabalin, as a primary amine compound, reacts with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzofurazon (NBD-Cl) which is a highly sensitive fluorogenic and chromogenic reagent used in many investigations. According to this fact, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of pregabalin in capsules were developed for the first time. The relation between the absorbance at 460 nm and the concentration is rectilinear over the range 0.5-7.0 ?g mL -1. The reaction product was also measured spectrofluorimetrically at 558 nm after excitation at 460 nm. The fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the concentration over the range 40-400 ng mL -1. The method was applied successfully to the determination of this drug in pharmaceutical dosage form. The mean recovery for the commercial capsules was 99.93% and 99.96% for spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric study, respectively. The suggested procedures could be used for the determination of PGB in pure and capsules being sensitive, simple and selective.

Önal, Arma?an; Sagirli, Olcay

2009-02-01

58

Evaluation of Antinociceptive Effect of Pregabalin in Mice and its Combination with Tramadol using Tail Flick Test  

PubMed Central

The development of combination therapy is a coherent approach in severe pain treatment. The present study investigated the antinociceptive effect of pregabalin alone and in combination with tramadol in acute pain modeling. Therefore, three groups of male mice received either pregabalin (1 to 400 mg/Kg), tramadol (10 to 80 mg/Kg) or their combination intraperitoneally. Then latency time, maximum possible effect (%MPE) and area under curve (AUC) were calculated in tail flick test. The antinociceptive indexes were significantly increasedin10, 100 and 200 mg/kg ofpregabalin while tramadol showed dose-dependentantinociception (effective dose 50% was 54 to 79 mg/Kg). The antinociceptive effect of 100 mg/Kg of pregabalin (%MPE = 35±4%) was similar to that of 50 mg/Kg of tramadol. The combination of non-analgesic doses (10 mg/Kg) of tramadol and pregabalin did not increase %MPE and AUC, but the co-administration of 30 mg/Kg of tramadol with pregabalin (10 mg/Kg) increased all antinociceptive indexes significantly compared to the controls and with each drug alone. In conclusion, pregabalin showed a comparable antinociceptive effect to tramadol. The increase in analgesic effect was observed after the combination of low analgesic doses of tramadol with pregabalin, while the combination of non-analgesic doses of each drug reversed the interaction to antagonism. Therefore to increase the analgesic effect in pain management, more attention should be paid to respecting right proportion of drug combination. Further studies that specify the mechanism(s) and statement of interaction are needed to expand these findings to clinical applications.

Keyhanfar, Fariborz; Shamsi Meymandi, Manzumeh; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Rastegaryanzadeh, Ramin; Heravi, Gioia

2013-01-01

59

Calcium channel alpha 2-delta type 1 subunit is the major binding protein for pregabalin in neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and spinal cord: An ex vivo autoradiographic study in alpha 2-delta type 1 genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregabalin is a synthetic amino acid compound effective in clinical trials for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, generalized anxiety disorder and adjunctive therapy for partial seizures of epilepsy. However, the mechanisms by which pregabalin exerts its therapeutic effects are not yet completely understood. In vitro studies have shown that pregabalin binds with high affinity to the alpha2-delta

Feng Bian; Zheng Li; James Offord; M. Duff Davis; Julie McCormick; Charles P. Taylor; Lary C. Walker

2006-01-01

60

Pregabalin, the lidocaine plaster and duloxetine in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Patients frequently fail to receive adequate pain relief from, or are intolerant of, first-line therapies prescribed for neuropathic pain (NeP). This refractory chronic pain causes psychological distress and impacts patient quality of life. Published literature for treatment in refractory patients is sparse and often published as conference abstracts only. The aim of this study was to identify published data for three pharmacological treatments: pregabalin, lidocaine plaster, and duloxetine, which are typically used at 2nd line or later in UK patients with neuropathic pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CCTR was carried out and supplemented with extensive conference and grey literature searching. Studies of any design (except single patient case studies) that enrolled adult patients with refractory NeP were included in the review and qualitatively assessed. Results Seventeen studies were included in the review: nine of pregabalin, seven of the lidocaine plaster, and one of duloxetine. No head-to-head studies of these treatments were identified. Only six studies included treatments within UK licensed indications and dose ranges. Reported efficacy outcomes were not consistent between studies. Pain scores were most commonly assessed in studies including pregabalin; trials of pregabalin and the lidocaine plaster reported the proportion of responders. Significant improvements in the total, sensory and affective scores of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and in function interference, sleep interference and pain associated distress, were associated with pregabalin treatment; limited or no quality of life data were available for the other two interventions. Limitations to the review are the small number of included studies, which are generally small, of poor quality and heterogeneous in patient population and study design. Conclusions Little evidence is available relevant to the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain despite the clinical need. There is a notable lack of high-quality comparative studies. It is evident that there is a need for future, high quality trials, particularly "gold-standard" RCTs in this refractory patient population.

2010-01-01

61

Efficacy and safety of methylcobalamin, alpha lipoic acid and pregabalin combination versus pregabalin monotherapy in improving pain and nerve conduction velocity in type 2 diabetes associated impaired peripheral neuropathic condition. [MAINTAIN]: Results of a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: To assess whether methylcobalamin and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) added to pregabalin provide additional benefit compared to pregabalin alone in type 2 diabetes mellitus associated peripheral neuropathy. Setting and Design: An open label, randomized, controlled parallel-group pilot study. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy for ?6 months were randomized to receive pregabalin 75 mg, methylcobalamin 750 ?g, and ALA 100 mg (PMA, n = 15); or pregabalin 75 mg (PG, n = 15) for 12 weeks. Assessment variables were numeric rating scale (NRS), sleep interference scores (SIS), response rate to pain, and global assessment for the usefulness of therapy. The nerve conduction velocity was assessed for sensory and motor nerves. Safety assessment included adverse events reported by the patients, clinical laboratory, and general medical, neurological examinations. Statistical Analysis: Efficacy analyses were done on per-protocol (PP) population, whereas safety analyses were done on intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Results: Significant improvement was seen in pain and sleep interference in both groups. Mean nerve conduction velocity of left common peroneal nerve (CPN) showed significant improvement in PMA group at week 12 compared to baseline (P = 0.018). For right CPN both groups showed significant improvement. (PMA, P = 0.002, PG, P = 0.007). For sensory testing, at week 12, right superficial peroneal nerve showed reduction in nerve conduction velocity in PG group compared to baseline (P = 0.043). Conclusion: Methylcobalamine, ALA and pregabalin combination provides pain relief and improves sleep interference. Addition of methylcobalamin and ALA to pregabalin improves the nerve function. Due to small sample size, most of the efficacy parameters could not reach significant difference between groups; hence benefit of the 3-drug-combimation should be interpreted with reservation.

Vasudevan, D.; Naik, Manoj M.; Mukaddam, Qayum I.

2014-01-01

62

Anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure assay in ?2?1 (R217A) and ?2?2 (R279A) mouse mutants.  

PubMed

Pregabalin has been shown to have anticonvulsant, analgesic, and anxiolytic activity in animal models. Pregabalin binds with high affinity to the ?2?1 and ?2?2 subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels. In order to better understand the relative contribution that binding to either the ?2?1 or ?2?2 subunits confers on the anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin, we characterized the anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin in different wild-type (WT) and mutant mouse strains. Two targeted mouse mutants have been made in which either the ?2?1 subunit was mutated (arginine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 217; R217A) or the ?2?2 subunit was mutated (arginine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 279; R279A). These mutations in ?2?1 or ?2?2 render the subunits relatively insensitive to pregabalin binding. The anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin was assessed in these different mouse lines using the maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. Pregabalin reduced the percentage of seizures and increased the latency to seizure in the MES model in two parental mouse strains used to construct the mutants. Pregabalin also reduced the percentage of seizures and increased latency to seizure similarly in the ?2?2 (R279A) and WT littermate control mice. In contrast, pregabalin's anticonvulsant efficacy was significantly reduced in ?2?1 (R217A) mutants compared with WT littermate control mice. Phenytoin showed anticonvulsant activity across all WT and mutant mice. These data show that the anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin in the MES model requires binding to the ?2?1 subunit. PMID:24698052

Lotarski, Susan; Hain, Heather; Peterson, Jason; Galvin, Stacey; Strenkowski, Bryan; Donevan, Sean; Offord, James

2014-07-01

63

Delayed onset of rotatory self-motion perception, dysdiadochokinesia and disturbed eye pursuit caused by low-dose pregabalin.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old woman with chronic foot pain after an orthopaedic surgery and chronic neck pain presented to the emergency department (ED) with a history of self-rotatory vertigo with unsteadiness. She had started low-dose pregabalin, 25 mg two times a day 9 months before experiencing symptoms with the dose gradually increased to 150 mg two times a day over this period. Clinical examination revealed difficulty performing eye pursuit with left eye and dysdiadochokinesia of the left arm. Owing to a suspicion of multiple sclerosis she underwent cerebral MRI, which was normal. Pregabalin was tapered over 2 months with a complete disappearance of the symptoms. We concluded that symptoms were due to pregabalin treatment. PMID:24728890

Hounnou, Patrice; Nicoucar, Keyvan

2014-01-01

64

Sustained-release pregabalin with methylcobalamin in neuropathic pain: an Indian real-life experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuropathic pain is intense in nature and difficult to manage. Thus, the primary goal is maximum relief from pain. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of sustained-release pregabalin and methylcobalamin in reducing neuropathic pain in Indian patients, in the real-life situation. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, observational, 14-day study. Patients received fixed dose combination of 75 or 150 mg sustained-release pregabalin combined with 1500 mcg immediate release methylcobalamin, depending on the clinical requirement. Data was collected for pain reduction and other positive and negative symptoms associated with neuropathy, including hyperesthesia, paresthesia, numbness/tingling, burning sensation, muscle weakness, sleep disturbances, and impairment of movement. Pain intensity was measured on a ten-point visual analog scale (VAS) (0 represented “no pain,” and 10 represented “worst pain ever”). The safety of the drug was also evaluated throughout the study duration. Data was analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The overall reduction in mean VAS score over 14 days was 72.3%. The reduction in mean VAS score was significant as early as the first week. Both positive and negative symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were significantly improved in >50% patients within the 2 weeks. Giddiness (4.7%), followed by sedation (3.6%), dizziness (2.9%), drowsiness (2.3%), and nausea (2.3%) were the most commonly observed adverse effects. The overall efficacy and tolerability was rated as good to excellent by >95% of the investigators and patients. Conclusion Fixed dose combination of sustained-release pregabalin and methylcobalamin significantly reduced neuropathic pain, with significant improvement in both the positive and negative symptoms associated with neuropathy, in Indian patients and was well tolerated.

Dongre, Yasmin U; Swami, Onkar C

2013-01-01

65

Successful Treatment of Adult-Onset Erythromelalgia with Steroid Pulse and Pregabalin  

PubMed Central

Adult-onset erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare disease characterized by episodic bouts of burning pain and erythema for which the optimal therapy is unclear. In this report, we describe a 68-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset EM. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1,000 mg/day dramatically improved her pain as evaluated by the visual analog scale. Although the patient's pain gradually developed again, it could be controlled with pregabalin. Our present case might suggest a possible, optimal therapy for adult-onset EM.

Kakizaki, Aya; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

2012-01-01

66

Successful treatment of adult-onset erythromelalgia with steroid pulse and pregabalin.  

PubMed

Adult-onset erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare disease characterized by episodic bouts of burning pain and erythema for which the optimal therapy is unclear. In this report, we describe a 68-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset EM. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1,000 mg/day dramatically improved her pain as evaluated by the visual analog scale. Although the patient's pain gradually developed again, it could be controlled with pregabalin. Our present case might suggest a possible, optimal therapy for adult-onset EM. PMID:23275767

Kakizaki, Aya; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

2012-09-01

67

Rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of pregabalin in a pharmaceutical dosage form following derivatization with fluorescamine.  

PubMed

A simple, fast, and sensitive HPLC method was developed and validated for the evaluation of pregabalin in a pharmaceutical dosage form using fluorescamine as a derivatization agent for the first time. After a precolumn derivatization (5 min, room temperature), the reaction mixture was chromatographed on a C18 column with isocratic elution using 0.2% of triethylamine in a mixture of methanol and water (10 + 90, v/v). 3-Aminopentanoic acid was used as the internal standard. Using fluorescent detection (lamdaex 395 nm, lamdaem 476 nm), a low detection limit of 0.02 microg/mL was reached. The method was linear (r > 0.999) over the lower (0.125-25 microg/mL) and higher (1.25-250 microg/mL) concentration range. The intraday and interday precision of the QC samples was < 4.3%, and the accuracy was 94.2-102.5%. The samples were stable for 24 h at 4 degrees C. The robustness study showed that the derivatization is more robust than the chromatography method. The method was applied for the analysis of pregabalin content in 25, 75, and 300 mg capsules, and a good agreement was found with the declared amount of pregabalin (the relative error did not exceed 3.2%). Finally, the method was successfully used for dissolution studies of pregabalin capsules. PMID:20922936

Martinc, Bostjan; Grabnar, Iztok; Mrhar, Ales; Vovk, Tomaz

2010-01-01

68

Quantification of pregabalin using hydrophilic interaction HPLC-high-resolution MS in postmortem human samples: eighteen case reports.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a drug for treating epilepsy, anxiety disorders and neuropathic pain. Cases of poisoning are rare, though some have been fatal. Concentrations of pregabalin in postmortem human samples and its distribution have very rarely been documented. As the literature is so scarce, we propose to report the concentrations in autopsy samples of 18 people who had been taking Lyrica(®), including one case of a mixed overdose involving pregabalin. Analysis was carried out using an original Hydrophilic Interaction LIquid Chromatography (HILIC) technique coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer (m/z 160.1334 ± 5 ppm). The sensitivity of the technique enables a quick and simple treatment of the samples by protein precipitation. The method was validated in the whole blood with detection and quantification limits of 0.025 and 0.060 µg/mL, respectively. Pregabalin was a likely factor in the cause of death in 3 of the 18 cases. In the other individuals, the concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 17.0 in the peripheral blood, 1.5 to 11.1 in the central blood, 126.6 to 2004.6 in the urine and 10.5 to 58.3 µg/mL in the bile, with median values of 5.6, 4.6, 534.6 and 17.7, respectively. PMID:24519561

Priez-Barallon, Cédric; Carlier, Jérémy; Boyer, Baptiste; Benslima, Mounir; Fanton, Laurent; Mazoyer, Cédric; Gaillard, Yvan

2014-04-01

69

A study of the use of carbamazepine, pregabalin and alpha lipoic acid in patients of diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common, symptomatic, long-term complication of diabetes mellitus. Many of the agents used to treat DN have not been compared with each other. This study was, therefore, undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine, pregabalin and alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic neuropathy patients. Methods This was a prospective, observational study. The patients were categorized into three groups, Group I included those patients who were prescribed carbamazepine while group II included those on pregabalin and group III patients received alpha-lipoic acid. Each patient was followed up at every month for total duration of 6 months. Demographic details, presenting symptoms, history of diabetes, laboratory values pertaining to diabetes (Fasting blood sugar, Post prandial blood sugar and HbA1c) were recorded. Intensity of pain, using a visual analogue scale (VAS), diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS) score and diabetic neuropathy examination (DNE) score were assessed at baseline and then at each monthly follow-up. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was also measured at baseline and then at the end of 3 and 6 months. Results A total of 101 patients were enrolled out of them 96 completed the study. Regarding VAS, the number of patients having pain was reduced substantially however, the speed and the quantum of this reduction were best in group II (pregabalin). Regarding DNS, also group II showed the best response in terms of number of patients as well as the speed of improvement. The results also imply that the relief from diabetic neuropathy (as per DNE score) is superior with pregabalin administration. However, no improvement in NCV was evident in any group. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that treatment with pregabalin gives faster and better improvement in diabetic neuropathy.

2014-01-01

70

Pregabalin and topiramate regulate behavioural and brain gene transcription changes induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

This study examined the actions of pregabalin and topiramate on behavioural and gene transcription alterations induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice. Tolerance was induced in mice by administration of CP-55,940 (0.5 mg/kg/12 hours; i.p.; 7 days). Behavioural assessment of spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal was performed by measuring motor activity, somatic signs and anxiety-like behaviour on days 1 and 3 after cessation of treatment with CP-55,940. On days 1-3 of cannabinoid withdrawal, mice received pregabalin (40 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) or topiramate (50 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) and their actions on signs of withdrawal and anxiety-like behaviour were evaluated. The administration of CP-55,940 decreased rectal temperature and motor activity on day 1. On day 1 after interruption of cannabinoid administration, motor activity and the number of rearings increased compared with control group. Anxiety-like behaviour induced by cessation of cannabinoid treatment increased significantly on days 1 and 3 of withdrawal. The administration of pregabalin or topiramate blocked the motor signs and reduced significantly anxiety-like behaviour. Cannabinoid withdrawal decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the ventral tegmental area and µ-opioid receptor gene expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and increased CB1 receptor gene expression in the NAcc. Treatment with topiramate or pregabalin blocked the decrease of TH and the increase of CB1 gene expressions induced by cannabinoid withdrawal. Both drugs failed to alter µ-opioid receptor gene expression. These results suggest that pregabalin and topiramate may result useful for the treatment of anxiety-like behaviour and motor symptoms associated with spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal. PMID:22017514

Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Almela, Pilar; Manzanares, Jorge

2013-03-01

71

Pallidol hexa-acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate  

PubMed Central

The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside.

Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

2013-01-01

72

Efficacy of pregabalin in neuropathic pain evaluated in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of flexible- and fixed-dose regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregabalin binds with high affinity to the alpha2-delta subunit protein of voltage-gated calcium channels and, thereby, reduces release of excitatory neurotransmitters. This 12-week randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study evaluated the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in patients with chronic postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) or painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Patients were randomised to placebo (n=65) or to one of two

Rainer Freynhagen; Krzysztof Strojek; Teresa Griesing; Ed Whalen; Michael Balkenohl

2005-01-01

73

Efficacy and safety of pregabalin 600 mg\\/d for treating painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent consensus guidelines recommend pregabalin as a first-tier treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We evaluated the efficacy of pregabalin 600 mg\\/d (300 mg dosed BID) versus placebo for relieving DPN-associated neuropathic pain, and assessed its safety using objective measures of nerve conduction (NC). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the primary efficacy measure was endpoint mean

Joseph C Arezzo; Julio Rosenstock; Linda LaMoreaux; Lynne Pauer

2008-01-01

74

Pregabalin and Radicular Pain Study (PARPS) for Cervical Spondylosis in a Multiracial Asian Population  

PubMed Central

Background Pain from cervical spondylosis (CS) may result from degenerative spinal canal stenosis (cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)) or lateral recesses compromise, leading to nerve root compression (cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR)). Pregabalin was shown to be effective in randomized, placebo-controlled trials for post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. We evaluate its efficacy in CS with underlying CSR or CSM in a prospective study comprising Asian patients for the first time. Methods Patients with CS and CSR or CSM (clinical, MRI, or electrophysiological evidence) presenting with neuropathic pain were recruited. We excluded patients with diabetes, underlying neurological disease or who were previously on antiepileptics. Pregabalin 75 mg bd was administered for 4 weeks, after which dosage was increased to 150 mg bd for another 4 weeks if the visual analog scale (VAS) was not reduced by 50%. In addition, we monitored the short form McGill pain questionnaire (SFMPQ) at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Mood changes were monitored using the hospital anxiety and depression score (HADS) with an identical timeline. Results We recruited 50 patients, of which 23 completed the trial. Of the 27 who withdrew, 12 (44%) were for somnolence. Thirteen patients’ (54%) dosages remained at 75 mg and 11 patients’ (46%) dosages were escalated to 150 mg bd. There were significantly reducing trends from baseline for VAS (ANOVA, F(1, 21) = 25.4, P < 0.0005), SFMPQ (sensory) (F(1, 22) = 11.2, P = 0.003), and SFMPQ (affective) (F(1, 21) = 10.9, P = 0.008). For VAS, there was significant reduction at 4 weeks (P = 0.001) and 8 weeks (P < 0.0005) compared to baseline. For SFMPQ (sensory), there was significant reduction at 4 weeks (P = 0.01) and 8 weeks (P = 0.006) in scores compared to baselines. For SFMPQ (affective), there was significant reduction at 4 weeks (P = 0.04) and 8 weeks (P = 0.008) in scores compared to baseline. No significant anxiety (F(1, 4) = 1.3, P = 0.32) or depression (F(1, 4) = 0.06, P = 0.82) changes were observed in the HADS. Conclusion Pregabalin is efficacious in alleviation of pain symptoms related to CSR as a first-line single agent, evaluated by quantitative severity and other experiential scales. No significant mood changes reported in other studies were demonstrated. Somnolence was commonest adverse effect leading to high dropout rates, occurring early even at the lowest dose. The findings suggest the need for further studies of efficacy at lower dosages, particularly in the Asian population.

Lo, Yew Long; Cheong, Priscilia Woon Ting; George, Jane Mary; Tan, Seang Beng; Yue, Wai Mun; Guo, Chang Ming; Fook-Chong, Stephanie

2014-01-01

75

Interference with work in fibromyalgia - effect of treatment with pregabalin and relation to pain response  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trials in chronic pain often collect information about interference with work as answers to component questions of commonly used questionnaires but these data are not normally analysed separately. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from four large trials of pregabalin for fibromyalgia lasting 8-14 weeks. We analysed data on interference with work, inferred from answers to component questions of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form 36 Health Survey, Sheehan Disability Scale, and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, including "How many days in the past week did you miss work, including housework, because of fibromyalgia?" from FIQ. Analyses were performed according to randomised treatment group (pregabalin 150-600 mg daily or placebo), pain improvement (0-10 numerical pain rating scale scores at trial beginning vs. end), and end of trial pain state (100 mm visual analogue pain scale [VAS]). Results Comparing treatment group average outcomes revealed modest improvement over the duration of the trials, more so with active treatment than with placebo. For the 'work missed' question from FIQ the change for patients on placebo was from 2.2 (standard deviation [SD] 2.3) days of work lost per week at trial beginning to 1.9 (SD 2.1) days lost at trial end (p < 0.01). For patients on 600 mg pregabalin the change was from 2.1 (SD 2.2) days to 1.6 (SD 2.0) days (p < 0.001). However, the change in days of work lost was substantial in patients with a good pain response: from 2.0 (SD 2.2) days to 0.97 (SD 1.6) days (p < 0.0001) for those experiencing >/= 50% pain improvement and from 1.9 (SD 2.2) days to 0.73 (SD 1.4) days (p < 0.0001) for those achieving a low level of pain at trial end (<30 mm on the VAS). Patients achieving both >/= 50% pain improvement and a pain score <30 mm on the VAS had the largest improvement, from 2.0 (SD 2.2) days to 0.60 (SD 1.3) days (p < 0.0001). Analysing answers to the other questions yielded qualitatively similar results. Conclusions Effective pain treatment goes along with benefit regarding work. A reduction in time off work >1 day per week can be achieved in patients with good pain responses.

2011-01-01

76

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

77

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-03-24

78

Meta-analysis of duloxetine vs. pregabalin and gabapentin in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few direct head-to-head comparisons have been conducted between drugs for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). Approved or recommended drugs in this indication include duloxetine (DLX), pregabalin (PGB), gabapentin (GBP) and amitriptyline (AMT). We conducted an indirect meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and tolerability of DLX with PGB and GBP in DPNP, using placebo as a common

Sibilia Quilici; Jeremy Chancellor; Mickael Löthgren; Dominique Simon; Gérard Said; Trong Kim Le; Ana Garcia-Cebrian; Brigitta Monz

2009-01-01

79

Nanofabrication in cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated nanofabrication with commercialized cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate is used for bulk nanofabrication and surface nanofabrication. In bulk nanofabrication, cellulose acetate reacts with an e-beam and permanent patterns are formed in it instead of being transferred to other substrates. We have studied the nano relief modulation performance of cellulose acetate before and after development. The depth of the nanopatterns is magnified after development, and is varied by exposing dosage and line width of the pattern. The thinnest 65 nm wide line is achieved in the bulk fabrication. We also demonstrate a binary phase Fresnel lens array which is directly patterned in a cellulose acetate sheet. Because of its unique mechanical and optical properties, cellulose is a good candidate for a template material for soft imprinting lithography. In the surface nanofabrication, cellulose acetate thin film spin-coated on silicon wafers is employed as a new resist for e-beam lithography. We achieved 50 nm lines with 100 nm pitches, dots 50 nm in diameter, and single lines with the smallest width of 20 nm. As a new resist of e-beam lithography, cellulose acetate has high resolution comparable with conventional resists, while having several advantages such as low cost, long stock time and less harmfulness to human health. PMID:19224020

Zeng, Hongjun; Lajos, Robert; Metlushko, Vitali; Elzy, Ed; An, Se Young; Sautner, Joshua

2009-03-01

80

Effect of oral pregabalin on opioid-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing laparo-endoscopic single-site urologic surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Pregabalin is an antiepileptic drug that is effective for treating postoperative pain, neuropathic pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic instability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single preoperative dose of pregabalin in patients with opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Methods Ninety ASA I-II patients undergoing laparoendoscopic single-site urologic surgery were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups that received either pregabalin or placebo 1 h before anesthesia and an intraoperative remifentanil infusion. Group plL received placebo and 0.05 µg/kg/min remifentanil, group plH received placebo and 0.3 µg/kg/min remifentanil, and group prH received 300 mg pregabalin plus 0.3 µg/kg/min remifentanil. The primary endpoint was pain intensity upon movement 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Secondary endpoints were the area of hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia threshold 24 h after surgery, time to first postoperative analgesic requirement, and cumulative postoperative volume of morphine administered via a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump over 24 h. Results The time to first postoperative analgesic requirement in group plH was significantly shorter than that in group plL. The injected PCA volume was significantly greater in group plH than that in the other two groups. Postoperative pain intensity in group plH was significantly greater than that in the other two groups at 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. The mechanical hyperalgesia threshold and the area of hyperalgesia around the surgical incision 24 h after surgery in group plH differed significantly from those in the other two groups, which were not significantly different. Adverse effects were comparable among groups. Conclusions High-dose remifentanil induced hyperalgesia, including increased pain intensity, increased area of hyperalgesia, and decreased mechanical hyperalgesia threshold. These effects were attenuated by oral administration of a single preoperative dose of pregabalin (300 mg) in patients undergoing laparo-endoscopic single-site urologic surgery.

Lee, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Ji-Na

2013-01-01

81

Paradoxical worsening of seizure activity with pregabalin in an adult with isodicentric 15 (IDIC-15) syndrome involving duplications of the GABRB3, GABRA5 and GABRG3 genes  

PubMed Central

Background Isodicentric 15 syndrome (IDIC-15) is due to partial duplications of chromosome 15 that may includes the q11–13 region that includes genes encoding the ?5 (GABRA5) and ?3 - ?3 (GABRB3) receptor subunits. The disease causes intellectual and physical developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability and behavioral disorders that may be related to abnormal GABA receptor function and morphology. Seizures are often severe and may be refractory to treatment. There are however no specific guidelines for the treatment of the seizures and it is unknown whether drugs that affect the GABAergic system have a different effect in IDIC-15 seizures. Case presentation We report the case of an adult individual with IDIC-15 whose complex-partial seizures worsened dramatically after the introduction of pregabalin, with increased seizure frequency, frequent generalization, and appearance of new seizure pattern. Her cognitive function and verbal skills also worsened during treatment with pregabalin. Her seizures and cognitive skills quickly improved after pregabalin was discontinued and treatment with lacosamide started. Discussion As her genetic testing confirmed that her region of duplication included GABA receptor encoding genes, it is plausible that the worsening of seizures were due to induction of an abnormal GABAergic response to pregabalin. Conclusion As her genetic testing confirmed that her region of duplication included GABA receptor encoding genes, it is plausible that the worsening of seizures were due to induction of an abnormal GABAergic response to pregabalin.This case may help define proper therapeutic strategies for the treatment of IDIC-15 associated seizures.

2013-01-01

82

Simultaneous determination of gabapentin, pregabalin, vigabatrin, and topiramate in plasma by HPLC with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been recognized as a useful tool in management of epilepsy. We developed a simple analytical method for simultaneous determination of four second generation AEDs, including gabapentin (GBP), pregabalin (PGB), vigabatrin (VGB), and topiramate (TOP). Analytes were extracted from human plasma using universal solid phase extraction, derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) and analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Using mass spectrometry we confirmed that NBD-Cl reacts with sulfamate group of TOP similarly as with amine group of the other three analytes. The method is linear (r(2)>0.998) across investigated analytical ranges (0.375-30.0?g/mL for GBP, PGB, and VGB; 0.50-20.0?g/mL for TOP). Intraday and interday precision do not exceed 9.40%. The accuracy is from 95.6% to 106%. The recovery is higher than 80.6%, and the lower limit of quantification is at least 0.5?g/mL. The method is selective and robust. For TOP determination the method was compared to a previously published method and the results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. The developed method is suitable for routine TDM. PMID:24907547

Martinc, Boštjan; Roškar, Robert; Grabnar, Iztok; Vovk, Tomaž

2014-07-01

83

Mechanisms of acetate formation and acetate activation in halophilic archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The halophilic archaea Halococcus (Hc.) saccharolyticus, Haloferax (Hf.) volcanii, and Halorubrum (Hr.) saccharovorum were found to generate acetate during growth on glucose and to utilize acetate as a growth substrate. The mechanisms of acetate formation from acetyl-CoA and of acetate activation to acetyl-CoA were studied. Hc. saccharolyticus, exponentially growing on complex medium with glucose, formed acetate and contained ADP-forming acetyl-CoA

Christopher Bräsen; Peter Schönheit

2001-01-01

84

Efficient assessment of efficacy in post-traumatic peripheral neuropathic pain patients: pregabalin in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study  

PubMed Central

Background: Detecting the efficacy of novel analgesic agents in neuropathic pain is challenging. There is a critical need for study designs with the desirable characteristics of assay sensitivity, low placebo response, reliable pain recordings, low cost, short duration of exposure to test drug and placebo, and relevant and recruitable population. Methods: We designed a proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in patients with post-traumatic peripheral neuropathic pain (PTNP) to evaluate whether such a study design had the potential to detect efficacious agents. Pregabalin, known to be efficacious in neuropathic pain, was used as the active analgesic. We also assessed physical activity throughout the study. Results: Twenty-five adults (20–70 years of age) with PTNP for ?3 months entered a screening week and were then randomized to one of the two following treatment sequences: (1) pregabalin followed by placebo or (2) placebo followed by pregabalin. These 2-week treatment periods were separated by a 2-week washout period. Patients on pregabalin treatment received escalating doses to a final dosage of 300 mg/day (days 5–15). In an attempt to minimize placebo response, patients received placebo treatment during the screening week and the 2-week washout period. Average daily pain scores (primary endpoint) were significantly reduced for pregabalin versus placebo, with a mean treatment difference of ?0.81 (95% confidence interval: ?1.45 to ?0.17; P = 0.015). Conclusion: The efficacy of pregabalin was similar to that identified in a large, parallel group trial in PTNP. Therefore, this efficient crossover study design has potential utility for future proof-of-concept studies in neuropathic pain.

Jenkins, Tim M; Smart, Trevor S; Hackman, Frances; Cooke, Carol; Tan, Keith KC

2012-01-01

85

Successful treatment of chronic intractable itching using oral pregabalin in a patient with diabetes and systemic prurigo nodularis: a case report of an iliopsoas muscle abscess.  

PubMed

A 73-year-old Japanese man developed chronic intractable itching due to prurigo nodularis. High-dose glucocorticoid ointment failed, and the treatment resulted in poor glycemic control. Repeated scratching caused hematogenous bacterial dissemination via cutaneous injuries, resulting in the formation of iliopsoas and spinal epidural abscesses that required long-term antibiotic treatment. Pregabalin was administered to treat the pruritus, and a considerable improvement was observed. A reduction in the dose and intensity of the topical corticosteroids improved the patient's glycemic control, resulting in the complete resolution of the abscesses. Pregabalin significantly improved the patient's pruritus and decreased the risk of infection. PMID:24292753

Imai, Kenjiro; Kishimoto, Miyako; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Ihana, Noriko; Ono, Kanako; Hachiya, Remi; Inoue, Kaori; Goto, Maki; Goto, Atsushi; Noto, Hiroshi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

2013-01-01

86

Analgesic treatment with pregabalin does not prevent persistent pain after peripheral nerve injury in the rat.  

PubMed

Reducing the risk of chronic postoperative pain through preventive analgesia is an attractive therapeutic concept. Because peripheral nerve lesions are a major cause of chronic pain after surgery, we tested in rats whether analgesic treatment with pregabalin (PGB) has the capacity to mitigate the development of persistent neuropathic pain-like behavior. Starting on the day of spared nerve injury or 1week later, we treated rats with a continuous intrathecal infusion of PGB (300 or 900?g/24hours) or vehicle for up to 28days. Rats receiving early PGB treatment had almost normal withdrawal thresholds for punctate mechanical stimuli and were clearly less sensitive to pinprick or cold stimulation. The responses to punctate mechanical and cold stimulation were still reduced for a brief period after the infusion was terminated, but the difference from vehicle-treated rats was minor. Essentially, the analgesic effect of PGB was limited to the duration of the infusion, whether analgesia started at the time of surgery or with a delay of 1week, independently of the length of the treatment. PGB did not suppress the activation of spinal microglia, indicating that analgesia alone does not eliminate certain pain mechanisms even if they depend, at least partially, on nociceptive input. Unexpectedly, intrathecal infusion of PGB did not inhibit the nerve injury-induced accumulation of its binding target, the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ?2?1, at primary afferent terminals in the spinal cord. Interference with the synaptic trafficking of ?2?1 is not required to achieve analgesia with PGB. PMID:24176928

Yang, Fang; Whang, John; Derry, William T; Vardeh, Daniel; Scholz, Joachim

2014-02-01

87

Engineering of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase Lip: creation of novel biocatalyst for efficient biosynthesis of chiral intermediate of Pregabalin.  

PubMed

Efficient and highly enantioselective hydrolysis of 2-carboxyethyl-3-cyano-5-methylhexanoic acid ethyl ester (CNDE) is the most crucial step in chemoenzymatic synthesis of Pregabalin. By using site-saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput screening techniques, lipase Lip from Thermomyces lanuginosus DSM 10635 was engineered to improve its activity towards CNDE. The triple mutant, S88T/A99N/V116D exhibited a 60-fold improvement in specific activity for CNDE (2.35 U/mg) over the wild-type Lip (0.039 U/mg). Modeling and docking studies demonstrated that the mutant could more effectively stabilize oxygen anions in transition states and the lid of Lip in the open conformation. Additionally, the kinetic resolution of CNDE catalyzed by Escherichia coli cell overexpressing S88T/A99N/V116D mutant afforded (3S)-2-carboxyethyl-3-cyano-5-methylhexanoic acid in 42.4 % conversion and 98 % ee within 20 h with a substrate loading of 1 M (255 g/l). These results demonstrated that a novel and promising biocatalyst was created for efficient chemoenzymatic manufacturing of Pregabalin. PMID:23917635

Li, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Ma, Hong-Ye; Zheng, Yu-Guo

2014-03-01

88

Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The ir...

A. Charef A. Boussaha

1989-01-01

89

Acetate Production by Methanogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Methanosarcina barkeri MS and 227 and Methanosarcina mazei S-6 produced acetate when grown on H2-CO2, methanol, or trimethylamine. Marked differences in acetate production by the two bacterial species were found, even though methane and cell yields were nearly the same. M. barkeri produced 30 to 75 ?mol of acetate per mmol of CH4 formed, but M. mazei produced only 8 to 9 ?mol of acetate per mmol of CH4.

Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

1989-01-01

90

Acet-oxy-?-valerolactone  

PubMed Central

Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo­tetra­hydro­furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol­ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C—H?O inter­actions.

Tristram, Cameron; Gainsford, Graeme J.; Hinkley, Simon

2013-01-01

91

Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation.  

PubMed Central

Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation were determined in 11 healthy subjects by the constant infusion of a trace amount of [1-14C]acetate for 6 h. The subjects ages ranged from 22 to 57 yr. There was a positive correlation (P less than 0.001) between plasma acetate concentration and turnover rate, and a negative correlation (P less than 0.001) between turnover and age. The plasma acetate concentration in the subjects 22--28 yr old was 0.17 vs. 0.13 mM (P less than 0.02) in subjects 40--57 yr old. The plasma acetate turnover rate was also greater in the younger age group (8.23 +/- 0.66 vs. 4.98 +/- 0.64 mumol/min . kg, P less than 0.01). Approximately 90% of the plasma acetate turnover was immediately oxidized to CO2 in both age groups, however, 13.2 +/- 0.89% of the CO2 output in the younger group was derived from plasma acetate oxidation compared to 7.9 +/- 0.94% in the older group (P less than 0.01). The mean plasma acetate concentration, turnover, and oxidation in six cancer patients 47--63 yr old were similar to the values observed in the age-matched healthy subjects. Uptake or output of acetate by various tissues was measured by arterial-venous plasma acetate concentration differences. In seven of eight subjects undergoing elective surgery, the arterial-portal venous concentration difference was negative, which indicated that the gastrointestinal tract can contribute to plasma acetate production. Uptake of plasma acetate by both the leg and liver appeared to be dictated by the arterial acetate concentration. Net production of acetate by both the leg and liver was most often observed at arterial plasma acetate concentrations less than 0.08 mM.

Skutches, C L; Holroyde, C P; Myers, R N; Paul, P; Reichard, G A

1979-01-01

92

Guidelines in the management of diabetic nerve pain: clinical utility of pregabalin  

PubMed Central

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It presents as a variety of syndromes for which there is no universally accepted unique classification. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common type, affecting about 30% of diabetic patients in hospital care and 25% of those in the community. Pain is the reason for 40% of patient visits in a primary care setting, and about 20% of these have had pain for greater than 6 months. Chronic pain may be nociceptive, which occurs as a result of disease or damage to tissue with no abnormality in the nervous system. In contrast, neuropathic pain is defined as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system.” Persistent neuropathic pain interferes significantly with quality of life, impairing sleep and recreation; it also significantly impacts emotional well-being, and is associated with depression, anxiety, and noncompliance with treatment. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a difficult-to-manage clinical problem, and patients with this condition are more apt to seek medical attention than those with other types of diabetic neuropathy. Early recognition of psychological problems is critical to the management of pain, and physicians need to go beyond the management of pain per se if they are to achieve success. This evidence-based review of the assessment of the patient with pain in diabetes addresses the state-of-the-art management of pain, recognizing all the conditions that produce pain in diabetes and the evidence in support of a variety of treatments currently available. A search of the full Medline database for the last 10 years was conducted in August 2012 using the terms painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, painful diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, painful diabetic neuropathy and pain in diabetes. In addition, recent reviews addressing this issue were adopted as necessary. In particular, reports from the American Academy of Neurology and the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy were included. Unfortunately, the results of evidence-based studies do not necessarily take into account the presence of comorbidities, the cost of treatment, or the role of third-party payers in decision-making. Thus, this review attempts to give a more balanced view of the management of pain in the diabetic patient with neuropathy and in particular the role of pregabalin.

Vinik, Aaron I; Casellini, Carolina M

2013-01-01

93

Calcium channel alpha2-delta type 1 subunit is the major binding protein for pregabalin in neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and spinal cord: an ex vivo autoradiographic study in alpha2-delta type 1 genetically modified mice.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a synthetic amino acid compound effective in clinical trials for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, generalized anxiety disorder and adjunctive therapy for partial seizures of epilepsy. However, the mechanisms by which pregabalin exerts its therapeutic effects are not yet completely understood. In vitro studies have shown that pregabalin binds with high affinity to the alpha(2)-delta (alpha(2)-delta) subunits (Type 1 and 2) of voltage-gated calcium channels. To assess whether alpha(2)-delta Type 1 is the major central nervous system (CNS) binding protein for pregabalin in vivo, a mutant mouse with an arginine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 217 of the alpha(2)-delta Type 1 protein (R217A mutation) was generated. Previous site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that the R217A mutation dramatically reduces alpha(2)-delta 1 binding to pregabalin in vitro. In this autoradiographic analysis of R217A mice, we show that the mutation to alpha(2)-delta Type 1 substantially reduces specific pregabalin binding in CNS regions that are known to preferentially express the alpha(2)-delta Type 1 protein, notably the neocortex, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and spinal cord. In mutant mice, pregabalin binding was robust throughout regions where the alpha(2)-delta Type 2 subunit mRNA is abundant, such as cerebellum. These findings, in conjunction with prior in vitro binding data, provide evidence that the alpha(2)-delta Type 1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is the major binding protein for pregabalin in CNS. Moreover, the distinct localization of alpha(2)-delta Type 1 and mutation-resistant binding (assumed to be alpha(2)-delta Type 2) in brain areas subserving different functions suggests that identification of subunit-specific ligands could further enhance pharmacologic specificity. PMID:16460711

Bian, Feng; Li, Zheng; Offord, James; Davis, M Duff; McCormick, Julie; Taylor, Charles P; Walker, Lary C

2006-02-23

94

Investigation on isobaric vapor liquid equilibrium for acetic acid + water + ( n-propyl acetate or iso-butyl acetate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for acetic acid+water, acetic acid+n-propyl acetate, acetic acid+iso-butyl acetate, acetic acid+water+n-propyl acetate, acetic acid+water+iso-butyl acetate are measured at 101.33kPa with a modified Rose still. The nonideal behavior in vapor phase caused by the association of acetic acid are corrected by the chemical theory and Hayden–O’Connell method, and analyzed by calculating the second virial coefficients and

Chundong Zhang; Hui Wan; Lijun Xue; Guofeng Guan

2011-01-01

95

A back translation of pregabalin and carbamazepine against evoked and non-evoked endpoints in the rat spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was twofold. First to characterize endpoints distinct to the reflexive responses to sensory stimuli typically used in neuropathic pain models. A second aim was to evaluate two clinically approved drugs carbamazepine (Tegretol) and pregabalin (Lyrica) against these endpoints with the purpose to backtranslate from the clinical to preclinical setting. The selected neuropathic pain model was the spared nerve injury (SNI) model and the endpoints were burrowing and measures of paw posture in Sprague Dawley rats. As previously described, SNI surgery produced a robust heightened sensitivity to tactile and thermal (cold) stimuli. SNI surgery also produced robust decreases in burrowing and affected multiple measures of paw position. There was no correlation between magnitude of change in burrowing and sensory allodynia within SNI operated rats. Pregabalin (10-30 mg/kg IP) produced a reliable reversal of both tactile and cold allodynia and also the burrowing deficit, with minimal effect on neurological function evaluated using rotorod, beam walking and open field activity. Pregabalin did not affect any measure of paw position. Pharmacokinetic studies conducted in satellite animals identified plasma levels of pregabalin at the 10 mg/kg IP dose to be equivalent to clinically efficacious levels recorded in neuropathic patients (3-6 ?g/ml). In contrast carbamazepine (10-60 mg/kg IP) had only a very modest effect against a reflexive (tactile) measure, and no effect against the burrowing deficit. Carbamazepine also affected various measures of neurological function, complicating interpretation of the reflexive measure. Measurement of burrowing appears to detect a behavioural deficit associated with the SNI model, that may be attenuated by pregabalin but not carbamazepine. Overall the present findings support an advantage of pregabalin over carbamazepine in terms of both efficacy and tolerability which is consistent with clinical experience. The inclusion of additional endpoints beyond traditional reflexive behaviours further supports the value of rodent neuropathic pain models, such as the SNI, as behavioural assays to detect new chemical entities to treat this pain condition. PMID:23747575

Lau, W; Dykstra, C; Thevarkunnel, S; Silenieks, L B; de Lannoy, I A M; Lee, D K H; Higgins, G A

2013-10-01

96

[Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].  

PubMed

Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

Lello, S

2009-10-01

97

Thermogravimetric analysis of the relationship among calcium magnesium acetate, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition characteristic of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium acetate (CA) and magnesium acetate (MA) are investigated through thermogravimetric (TG) analysis at the heating rates of 5Kmin?1, 7.5Kmin?1, 10Kmin?1 and 15Kmin?1. After dehydration, the evaporation of carboxylic radical and carbon dioxide of CMA and CA exist in two separate segments, but for MA, this occurs together in just one segment

Shengli Niu; Kuihua Han; Chunmei Lu; Rongyue Sun

2010-01-01

98

An intensive perioperative regimen of pregabalin and celecoxib reduces pain and improves physical function scores six weeks after total hip arthroplasty: A prospective randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite the success of total hip arthroplasty (THA), some patients experience persistent pain and poor function after surgery. Predictors of poor outcomes include the presence of significant pre- and postoperative pain. Patients undergoing THA often experience severe, longstanding pain before surgery that may compromise the outcome of the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of administering pregabalin and celecoxib for two weeks before and three weeks after THA in patients with moderate to severe pain before surgery. The aim was to determine whether patients with well-controlled pain both before surgery and in the acute postoperative period experience less pain and better physical function six weeks after THA. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. Group 1 received pregabalin (75 mg twice per day) and celecoxib (100 mg twice per day) for 14 days before THA and for three weeks after discharge. Group 2 received a placebo for the same duration. All patients received pregabalin and celecoxib 2 h before surgery and while in the hospital. RESULTS: On the morning of surgery, patients in group 1 reported less pain at rest (mean [± SD] pain intensity measured on a visual analogue scale [VAS] 2.1±1.4) compared with group 2 (3.3±1.9; P=0.04). Patients in group 1 experienced less pain 3 h to 4 h postoperation (P<0.001). There was no difference in morphine consumption between the two groups. Six weeks after THA, movement-evoked pain was lower in group 1 (VAS 0.8±0.6) compared with group 2 (VAS 2.0±1.3; P=0.01). Group 1 reported better physical function, measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire score (P=0.04). There was no significant difference in 6 min walk test performance between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Intensive pain control with pregabalin and celecoxib improves pain and physical function after THA.

Carmichael, Nicole ME; Katz, Joel; Clarke, Hance; Kennedy, Deborah; Kreder, Hans J; Gollish, Jeffrey; McCartney, Colin JL

2013-01-01

99

Stabilized Calcium Acetate Oil Dispersions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lubricating composition is imparted with improved load-carrying ability and anti-wear properties by incorporation of calcium acetate. The composition consists of a base lubricant, 0.1 to 50 percent by weight calcium acetate and 0.01 to 20 percent by wei...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

100

[Formulation of calcium acetate tablets].  

PubMed

The results of the testing of calcium acetate tablets, produced by direct compression and by wet granulation (Ph. Jug. IV) are presented. Tablet hardness, friability and disintegration were determined. The best properties were observed in the tablets produced with maize starch. This procedure is fast and simple, and compound tablets of calcium acetate fulfill the current requirements for this type of preparation. PMID:11521467

Obrenovic, D; Gazikalovic, E; Ognjanovic, J; Nidzovic Z, Z

2000-01-01

101

Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

2004-11-10

102

Triamcinolone acetonide acetate.  

PubMed

IN THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 2-(4b-fluoro-5-hy-droxy-4a,6a,8,8-tetra-methyl-2-oxo-2,4a,4b,5,6,6a,9a,10,10a,10b,11,12-dodeca-hydro-7,9-dioxa-penta-leno[2,1-a]phenanthren-6b-yl)-2-oxoethyl acetate], C(26)H(33)FO(7), the mol-ecules are connected by inter-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bonds into an infinite supra-molecular chain along the b axis. The mol-ecular framework consists of five condensed rings, including three six-membered rings and two five-membered rings. The cyclo-hexa-2,5-dienone ring is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.013?(3)?Å], while the cyclo-hexane rings adopt chair conformations. The two five-membered rings, viz. cyclo-pentane and 1,3-dioxolane, display envelope conformations. PMID:21523039

Lu, Xiao; Tang, Gu-Ping; Gu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiu-Rong

2011-01-01

103

Triamcinolone acetonide acetate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(4b-fluoro-5-hy­droxy-4a,6a,8,8-tetra­methyl-2-oxo-2,4a,4b,5,6,6a,9a,10,10a,10b,11,12-dodeca­hydro-7,9-dioxa­penta­leno[2,1-a]phenanthren-6b-yl)-2-oxoethyl acetate], C26H33FO7, the mol­ecules are connected by inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds into an infinite supra­molecular chain along the b axis. The mol­ecular framework consists of five condensed rings, including three six-membered rings and two five-membered rings. The cyclo­hexa-2,5-dienone ring is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.013?(3)?Å], while the cyclo­hexane rings adopt chair conformations. The two five-membered rings, viz. cyclo­pentane and 1,3-dioxolane, display envelope conformations.

Lu, Xiao; Tang, Gu-Ping; Gu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiu-Rong

2011-01-01

104

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

105

Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO/sub 2/. The rate of loss of radioactivity from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate was over three times greater than that from (2-/sup 14/C)acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of /sup 14/C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of /sup 14/C from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO/sub 2/ superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO/sub 2/ was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H/sub 2/ and ATP.

Grahame, D.A.

1987-05-01

106

Investigation on isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium for acetic acid + water + methyl ethyl ketone + isopropyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for acetic acid+water, acetic acid+methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), MEK+isopropyl acetate, acetic acid+MEK+water and acetic acid+MEK+isopropyl acetate+water are measured at 101.33kPa using a modified Rose cell. The nonideal behavior in vapor phase of binary systems measured in this work is analyzed through calculating fugacity coefficients since mixture containing acetic acid deviates from ideal behavior seriously in

Qiang Xie; Hui Wan; MingJuan Han; GuoFeng Guan

2009-01-01

107

Duloxetine and pregabalin: high-dose monotherapy or their combination? The "COMBO-DN study" - a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

This multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group study in diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain addressed whether, in patients not responding to standard doses of duloxetine or pregabalin, combining both medications is superior to increasing each drug to its maximum recommended dose. For initial 8-week therapy, either 60 mg/day duloxetine (groups 1, 2) or 300 mg/day pregabalin (groups 3, 4) was given. Thereafter, in the 8-week combination/high-dose therapy period, only nonresponders received 120 mg/day duloxetine (group 1), a combination of 60 mg/day duloxetine and 300 mg/day pregabalin (groups 2, 3), or 600 mg/day pregabalin (group 4). Primary outcome (Brief Pain Inventory Modified Short Form [BPI-MSF] 24-hour average pain change after combination/high-dose therapy) was analyzed comparing combination (groups 2, 3 pooled) with high-dose monotherapy (groups 1, 4 pooled). Secondary end points included response rates, BPI-MSF severity items, and comparison of duloxetine and pregabalin in BPI-MSF average pain. Eight hundred four patients were evaluated for initial therapy and 339 for combination/high-dose therapy. There were no significant differences between combination and high-dose monotherapy regarding BPI-MSF average pain (mean change: combination: -2.35; high-dose monotherapy: -2.16; P = 0.370) and most secondary end points, which, however, consistently favoured combination therapy. Fifty-percent response rates were 52.1% for combination and 39.3% for high-dose monotherapy (P = 0.068). In exploratory analyses of the initial 8-week therapy uncorrected for multiple comparisons, 60 mg/day duloxetine was found superior to 300 mg/day pregabalin (P < 0.001). Both drugs and their combination were well tolerated. Although not significantly superior to high-dose monotherapy, combination therapy was considered to be effective, safe, and well tolerated. PMID:23732189

Tesfaye, Solomon; Wilhelm, Stefan; Lledo, Alberto; Schacht, Alexander; Tölle, Thomas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Skljarevski, Vladimir; Freynhagen, Rainer

2013-12-01

108

Regeneration of Cellulose Acetate Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several simple methods for in situ one-step regeneration of both flux and salt-retention properties of service-deteriorated membranes have been developed. Membranes have been successfully regenerated using hot, 4% acetic acid, and a one-step cleaning meth...

P. A. Cantor W. S. Higley C. W. Saltonstall

1970-01-01

109

Lead Acetate, Teratology Study - Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three groups of 15 females rabbits were mated. Two groups were fed lead acetate in their diet at lead concentrations of 54.6 and 546 ppm from day 6 through day 16 of their gestation period. The third group of females and all males received the basal labor...

D. C. Jessup

1967-01-01

110

Face-to-face comparison of the predictive validity of two models of neuropathic pain in the rat: Analgesic activity of pregabalin, tramadol and duloxetine.  

PubMed

We compared the preclinical analgesic activity of three marketed drugs with different pharmacological properties, pregabalin, tramadol and duloxetine, described as effective against neuropathic pain in the clinic. These drugs were tested against evoked pain in two different neuropathic models in the rat, the Bennett (CCI) and the Chung (SNL) models. The selected endpoints were tactile allodynia, tactile hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. Although all three drugs displayed analgesic activity, the effects observed varied according to the behavioral evaluation. Pregabalin showed clear analgesic effects against cold allodynia and tactile hyperalgesia in both the CCI and Chung models. Tramadol was active against all four endpoints in the Chung model with similar effects in the CCI model, apart from tactile allodynia. Duloxetine inhibited tactile allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in both neuropathic pain models. It also displayed efficacy against tactile hyperalgesia in the CCI model and against cold allodynia in the Chung model. These data confirm that the CCI and the Chung models of neuropathic pain do not detect the activity of analgesics with the same sensitivity. Furthermore, the mode of stimulation (tactile or thermal) and the type of endpoint (allodynia or hyperalgesia) can further influence the observed efficacy of gold standards as well as novel compounds developed for treating neuropathic pain symptoms. PMID:24726848

Le Cudennec, Camille; Castagné, Vincent

2014-07-15

111

Biofiltration of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate using a composite bead biofilter.  

PubMed

Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. The composite bead was the spherical PVA/peat/KNO3/GAC composite bead which was prepared in our previous works. Both microbial growth rate and biochemical reaction rate were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in this concentration range. The half-saturation constant Ks values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 16.26 and 12.65ppm, respectively. The maximum reaction rate Vm values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 4.08 and 3.53gCh(-1)kg(-1) packed material, respectively. Zero-order kinetic with the diffusion limitation could be regarded as the most adequate biochemical reaction model. For the biochemical reaction process, the biochemical reaction rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The inhibitive effect for ethyl acetate was more pronounced than that for AA in this concentration range. The maximum elimination capacity of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 82.3 and 37.93gCh(-1)m(-3) bed volume, respectively. Ethyl acetate degraded by microbial was easier than amyl acetate did. PMID:18445522

Chan, Wu-Chung; Su, Mei-Qi

2008-11-01

112

Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

1990-01-01

113

Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions  

SciTech Connect

The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

1987-01-01

114

Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of COâ for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis

Jeffrey T. Gelwicks; J. M. Hayes

1990-01-01

115

21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981),...

2013-04-01

116

21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981),...

2012-04-01

117

Alpha 2 Delta (?2?) Ligands, Gabapentin and Pregabalin: What is the Evidence for Potential Use of These Ligands in Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habit, and often associates with other gastrointestinal symptoms such as feelings of incomplete bowel movement and abdominal bloating, and extra-intestinal symptoms such as headache, dyspareunia, heartburn, muscle pain, and back pain. It also frequently coexists with conditions that may also involve central sensitization processes, such as fibromyalgia, irritable bladder disorder, and chronic cough. This review examines the evidence to date on gabapentin and pregabalin which may support further and continued research and development of the ?2? ligands in disorders characterized by visceral hypersensitivity, such as IBS. The distribution of the ?2? subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel, possible mechanisms of action, pre-clinical data which supports an effect on motor–sensory mechanisms and clinical evidence that points to potential benefits in patients with IBS will be discussed.

Gale, Jeremy D.; Houghton, Lesley A.

2011-01-01

118

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131I-chTNT; Abatacept, adalimumab, alemtuzumab, APC-8015, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bortezomib, bosentan, buserelin; Caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, ChAGCD3, ciclesonide, clopidogrel, curcumin, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, dapoxetine hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, denosumab, DMXB-Anabaseine, drospirenone, drospirenone/estradiol, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Edodekin alfa, efaproxiral sodium, elaidic acid-cytarabine, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etonogestrel/testosterone decanoate, exenatide; Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, glycine, GVS-111; Homoharringtonine; ICC-1132, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, i.v. gamma-globulin; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, lintuzumab, liposomal nystatin, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Manitimus, mapatumumab, melatonin, micafungin sodium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Oblimersen sodium, OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), pasireotide, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, phVEGF-A165, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PT-141; Quercetin; Ranolazine, rosuvastatin calcium, rubitecan, rupatadine fumarate; Sardomozide, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, talactoferrin alfa, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, testosterone transdermal patch, TH-9507, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, voriconazole. PMID:16395422

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-12-01

119

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131-I-chlorotoxin; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, albumin interferon alfa, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, AR-C126532, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cangrelor tetrasodium, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cinacalcet hydrochloride, collagen-PVP, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, dasatinib, denosumab, desloratadine, dexosome vaccine (lung cancer), dexrazoxane, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, eel calcitonin, efalizumab, entecavir, etoricoxib; Falciparum merozoite protein-1/AS02A, fenretinide, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib, ghrelin (human); hLM609; Icatibant acetate, imatinib mesylate, ipsapirone, irofulven; LBH-589, LE-AON, levocetirizine, LY-450139; Malaria vaccine, mapatumumab, motexafin gadolinium, muraglitazar, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; nab-paclitaxel, nelarabine; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, orbofiban acetate; Panitumumab, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, pleconaril, prasterone, pregabalin; Ranolazine, rebimastat, recombinant malaria vaccine, rosuvastatin calcium; SQN-400; Taxus, tegaserod maleate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, troxacitabine; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Val-Tyr sardine peptidase, VNP-40101M, vorinostat. PMID:16845450

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2006-06-01

120

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, abarelix, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AdGVVEGF121.10, anastrozole, anecortave acetate, aripiprazole, asulacrine isethionate, atazanavir, ATL-962, 16-Aza-epothilone B; Bevacizumab, bicalutamide, blonanserin, BMS-188667, bosentan; Celecoxib, celmoleukin, cetuximab, cilomilast, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CNTF(Ax15), colesevelam hydrochloride; Daclizumab, delavirdine mesilate, desogestrel, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, emtricitabine, epalrestat, escitalopram oxalate, examorelin, exendin-4, ezetimibe; Fidarestat, frovatriptan; HIV-1 Immunogen; Iloperidone, insulin detemir, insulin lispro, irinotecan hydrochloride; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lasofoxifene tartrate, levetiracetam, levormeloxifene, levosimendan, lumiracoxib, LY-307161 SR; Memantine hydrochloride, MEN-10755, metformin hydrochloride, metreleptin, motexafin gadolinium; Naratriptan hydrochloride, natalizumab, nesiritide, nicotine, NN-2211, NN-414; Olanzapine, omalizumab; Pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegvisomant, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, pramlintide acetate prasterone, pregabalin; Quetiapine fumarate; Rabeprazole sodium, raloxifene hydrochloride, raltitrexed, rDNA insulin, rFGF-2, risedronate sodium, rofecoxib, roflumilast, rosiglitazone maleate; SN-22995; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, tiotropium bromide, tomoxetine hydrochloride, trastuzumab, trimegestone; Voglibose, Voriconazole; Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:12616707

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2002-11-01

121

Radical addition of methyldichlorosilane to vinyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GC-MS method was used to identify the addition products of methyldichlorosilane to vinyl acetate. Radiation-induced addition of methyldichlorosilane to vinyl acetate produces 2-methyldichlorosilylethyl ethyl ether. The reaction follows a radical-chain mechanism. The ratio of the rate constants of methyldichlorosilyl radical addition to C=C and C=O to vinyl acetate amounts to 0.4±0.1 (303 K).

Yu. M. Lugovoi; N. P. Tarasova; G. Bourgeois; N. V. Bryantseva; V. V. Kostikov; C. Filliatre; A. G. Shostenko

1991-01-01

122

Graft polymerization of vinyl acetate onto silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free-radical graft polymerization of vi- nyl acetate onto nonporous silica particles was studied ex- perimentally. The grafting procedure consisted of surface activation with vinyltrimethoxysilane, followed by free-rad- ical graft polymerization of vinyl acetate in ethyl acetate with 2,2-azobis(2,4-dimethylpentanenitrile) initiator. Initial monomer concentration was varied from 10 to 40% by vol- ume and the reaction was spanned from 50 to

Van Nguyen; Wayne Yoshida; Yoram Cohen

2003-01-01

123

[Synthesis of ethriolophospholipids of acetal type].  

PubMed

New analogues of acetal-type phospholipids were obtained on the basis of ethriol (2-hydroxymethyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol). The starting triol originally was condensed with decanal or dodecanal to form acetals, which were then phosphorylated with tetraethyldiamidophosphorous acid chloride. The amidophosphites were further oxidized with iodosobenzene or sulfurized to the corresponding acetal-type phospholipids and their thio analogues. PMID:17042275

Savin, G A

2006-01-01

124

Miscibility of cellulose acetate with vinyl polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary blend films of cellulose acetate (CA) with flexible syntheticpolymers including poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP),and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [P(VP-co-VAc)] were preparedfrommixed polymer solutions by solvent evaporation. Thermal analysis by DSC showedthat CA of any degree of substitution (DS) was not miscible with PVAc, but CAwith DS less than 2.8 was miscible with PVP to form homogeneous blends. Thestate

Yoshiharu Miyashita; Tetsuya Suzuki; Yoshiyuki Nishio

2002-01-01

125

Oxidative reaction of oxindole-3-acetic acids.  

PubMed

The oxindole-3-acetic acids, oxidative metabolites of indole-3-acetic acid, were isolated from a byproduct of a corn starch manufacturing plant, and were further converted to the 3-hydroxyl derivatives in the presence of metal ion. The mechanical study was followed by a chemical analysis including other byproducts, and suggested the presence of an intermediate that had a radical at the C-3 position of oxindole-3-acetic acids. PMID:14519969

Niwa, Toshio; Ishii, Sayuri; Hiramatsu, Atsushi; Osawa, Toshihiko

2003-09-01

126

Creatininium 2-chloro-acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound (systematic name: 2-amino-1-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium 2-chloro­acetate), C4H8N3O+·C2H2ClO2 ?, the mol­ecular aggregations are stabil­ized through classical (N—H?O) and non-classical (C—H?O and C—H?N) hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. The cations are linked to the anions, forming ion pairs through two N—H?O bonds that produce characteristic R 2 2(8) ring motifs. These cation–anion pairs are connected through another N—H?O hydrogen bond, leading to an R 4 2(8) ring motif. Further weak C—H?N inter­actions link the mol­ecules along the a axis, while other C—H?O inter­actions generate zigzag chains extending along b.

Ali, A. Jahubar; Athimoolam, S.; Bahadur, S. Asath

2012-01-01

127

(Acetoxy)(2-methylphenyl)methyl acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C12H14O4, the two acet­oxy groups are inclined by 57.92?(5)° and 62.71?(6)° to the benzene ring. An inter­molecular C—H?O inter­action involving the two acet­oxy groups generates a centrosymmetric dimer via an R 2 2(16) ring motif.

Kanchanadevi, J.; Anbalagan, G.; Saravanan, V.; Mohanakrishnan, A. K.; Manivannan, V.

2011-01-01

128

Biodegradable Plastics Based on Cellulose Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally known that secondary cellulose acetate (with 53 to 56% acetyl groups) is suitable for thermoplastic processing. With appropriate plasticizers a plastic material is obtained which excels in transparency and pleasant texture, and it is therefore often used for tool handles, combs, spectacle frames, and the like. In principle, cellulose acetate with such a degree of substitution is

Alexander Ach

1993-01-01

129

Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate  

SciTech Connect

Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO{sub 2} for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500{degree}C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the {sup 13}C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4{per thousand} for acetate samples larger than 5 {mu}mol. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

Gelwicks, J.T. (Merck and Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ (USA)); Hayes, J.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA))

1990-03-01

130

Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception. PMID:24851646

Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Skrgati?, Lana; Radakovi?, Branko; Vrbi?, Hrvoje; Cani?, Tomislav

2014-03-01

131

Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

2014-06-01

132

36 CFR 1232.24 - Unstable cellulose-acetate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Unstable cellulose-acetate film. 1232.24 Section 1232...Audiovisual Records Management § 1232.24 Unstable cellulose-acetate film. Cellulose-acetate film, also known as safety...

2009-07-01

133

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2009-04-01

134

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2010-01-01

135

DESOXYCORTICOSTERONE ACETATE AND WOUND HEALING  

PubMed Central

The effect of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DCA) on the granulation tissue of healing and healed linear laparotomy wounds was studied in young adult male guinea pigs maintained on a complete diet and on a known intake of ascorbic acid. DCA induces the production of an excessive amount of granulation tissue, as evidenced by a relatively great number of fibroblasts and by a larger amount of ground substance. This effect was accompanied by a slight to moderate lag in the maturation process of both cellular and intercellular elements. These changes were observed when DCA administration was begun 5 days prior to operation, but were less obvious or absent if DCA was injected, beginning on the 5th or 10th postoperative day. The results indicate that the action of DCA on immature, proliferating connective tissue is marked, and is considerably less or absent when connective tissue elements have reached partial or almost complete maturity. The effect of DCA on connective tissue does not appear to rest on the basis of an altered nutritional status. Chemical and histochemical studies of the adrenals suggest that the action of DCA on connective tissue is probably mediated through a disturbance of adrenocortical function, namely an imbalance between hormones of the zona glomerulosa (excess of DCA) and those of the zona fasciculata (deficiency of glucocorticoids). The presence of changes in granulation tissue and the lack of them in mature resting connective tissue of DCA-treated guinea pigs confirm the view that a profound difference in the response mechanism exists between resting and actively proliferating connective tissue.

Pirani, Conrad L.; Stepto, Robert C.; Sutherland, Kenneth

1951-01-01

136

The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.  

PubMed

Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

2012-04-01

137

Correlation between acetic acid resistance and characteristics of PQQ-dependent ADH in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared the growth properties and molecular characteristics of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) among highly acetic acid-resistant strains of acetic acid bacteria. Gluconacetobacter europaeus exhibited the highest resistance to acetic acid (10%), whereas Gluconacetobacter intermedius and Acetobacter pasteurianus resisted up to 6% of acetic acid. In media with different concentrations of acetic acid, the maximal acetic acid production rate of Ga. europaeus slowly increased, but specific growth rates decreased concomitant with increased concentration of acetic acid in medium. The lag phase of A. pasteurianus was twice and four times longer in comparison to the lag phases of Ga. europaeus and Ga. intermedius, respectively. PQQ-dependent ADH activity was twice as high in Ga. europaeus and Ga. intermedius as in A. pasteurinus. The purified enzymes showed almost the same specific activity to each other, but in the presence of acetic acid, the enzyme activity decreased faster in A. pasteurianus and Ga. intermedius than in Ga. europaeus. These results suggest that high ADH activity in the Ga. europaeus cells and high acetic acid stability of the purified enzyme represent two of the unique features that enable this species to grow and stay metabolically active at extremely high concentrations of acetic acid. PMID:16133326

Trcek, Janja; Toyama, Hirohide; Czuba, Jerzy; Misiewicz, Anna; Matsushita, Kazunobu

2006-04-01

138

Density Functional Theory Study of Selective Deacylation of Aromatic Acetate in the Presence of Aliphatic Acetate under Ammonium Acetate Mediated Conditions.  

PubMed

Aromatic acetates can be selectively deprotected in the presence of aliphatic acetates under ammonium acetate mediated condition. B3LYP/6-31++G** level of theory was demonstrated to be successfully used to model the relative reaction rates for deacylation reactions for aliphatic and aromatic ester systems. On the basis of the mechanistic studies, acetate anion is most likely to be the active catalyst for the ester deacylation reactions under ammonium acetate mediated condition. PMID:24956355

Xia, Shijing; Zhang, Haoyu

2014-07-01

139

Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. Discussion Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

Maxwell, Christina R.; Spangenberg, Rebecca Jay; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

2010-01-01

140

Ultrasonic Relaxation in Aqueous Acetic Acid Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrasonic absorption measurements have been made in aqueous acetic solutions at 15 to 85 MHz using pulse echo and pulse send-receive techniques. A weighted nonlinear regression method has been developed for the computation of the relaxation parameters. A...

L. G. Jackopin E. Yeager

1971-01-01

141

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as \\

A Robert Neurath; Nathan Strick; Yun-Yao Li

2003-01-01

142

Gateways to clinical trials. March 2003.  

PubMed

Gateways to clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and devlopment protal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV-CF, adalimumab, ademetionine, afeletecan hydrochloride, agomelatine, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, amdoxovir, aplidine, aranose, arsenic sulfide, atazanavir, atlizumab; Bimatoprost, BMS-181176, BMS-188667, bortezomib, bryostatin 1; Combretastatin A-4 phosphate; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, deferasirox, desloratadine, DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib-vaccine, DTI-0009; Eculizumab, edodekin alfa, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, epoetin, esomeprazole magnesium etoricoxib; Fampridine, fenretinide, FR-146687; Galiximab, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, ganirelix acetate, gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gimatecan; HEA125xOKT3, hIL-13-PE38QQR, HSV-2 theracine, Hu14.18-IL-2, human gammaglobulin; Idraparinux sodium, imatinib mesylate, IMiD3, insulin detemir, interleukin-4, irofulven, ISAtx-247; JT-1001; Levetiracetam, levosimendan, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lixivaptan, lopinavir, lumiracoxib; Maxacalcitol, melatonin, midostaurin, MLN-518; Neridronic acid, nesiritide, nitronaproxen; Oblimersen sodium, oregovomab; PEG-filgrastim polyglutamate paclitaxel, prasterone, pregabalin; Rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; SGN-30; T-1249, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipranavir, TMC-114, trabectedin, transdermal selegiline; UK-427857; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil, vatalanib succinate, vincristine sulfate TCS; Zofenopril calcium. PMID:12731460

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-03-01

143

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AdGVVEGF121.10, anakinra, andolast, anidulafungin, APC-2059, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arzoxifene hydrochloride, asimadoline; Bexarotene, bimatoprost, bimosiamose, bizelesin, BMS-188667, botulinum toxin type B, bromfenac sodium, bryostatin 1; Cannabidiol, cariporide mesilate, CCI-1004, CDP-571, cerivastatin sodium, clevudine; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, deligoparin sodium, diethylnorspermine, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib-vaccine; E-5564, eculizumab, edodekin alfa, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, etaquine, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Fesoterodine, fipamezole hydrochloride, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan, fulvestrant; Gadofosveset sodium, galiximab, ghrelin (human), glufosfamide; Homoharringtonine; Idraparinux sodium, imatinib mesylate, INS-37217; KRN-7000; L-651582, lafutidine, lanthanum carbonate, lenercept, levetiracetam, lusupultide; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, mepolizumab, midostaurin, morphine hydrochloride, mozavaptan; Natalizumab, nesiritide; OPC-51803, oregovomab, oritavancin; Peginterferon alfa-2(a), pleconaril, plevitrexed, prasterone, pregabalin; Ranibizumab, Ro-31-7453, roxifiban acetate, rubitecan; SCV-07, SHL-749, sho-saiko-to, soblidotin, solifenacin succinate; Tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tenecteplase, theraCIM, tipifarnib, travoprost; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, voriconazole; Ximelagatran; Ziprasidone hydrochloride, ZYC-00101. PMID:12851663

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-06-01

144

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-510, adalimumab, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AMG-531, anakinra, armodafinil, asenapine maleate, atazanavir sulfate, atorvastatin; Bortezomib, bosentan; CEB-1555, cetuximab, ciclesonide, clodronate, CT-011; Darifenacin hydrobromide, desloratadine; E-7010, ecallantide, eculizumab, efalizumab, eltrombopag, erlotinib hydrochloride, eslicarbazepine acetate, eszopiclone, ezetimibe; Febuxostat, fosamprenavir calcium, fulvestrant; Gefitinib, genistein; Haemophilus influenzae B vaccine, human papillomavirus vaccine; Imatinib mesylate, insulin glargine; Lenalidomide, liposomal cisplatin; MAb G250, mapatumumab, midostaurin, MP4, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, neridronic acid, NSC-330507; Oblimersen sodium, ofatumumab, omalizumab, oral insulin, oregovomab; Paliperidone, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pegylated arginine deiminase 20000, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin, pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, prasterone, pregabalin, pumosetrag hydrochloride; Recombinant malaria vaccine, retigabine, rivaroxaban, Ro-26-9228, romidepsin, rosuvastatin calcium, rotavirus vaccine; SGN-30, sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate, sorafenib, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, temsirolimus, TER-199, tifacogin, tiludronic acid, tiotropium bromide; Vildagliptin, VNP-40101M, vorinostat; YM-150, yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zanolimumab, zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:16810345

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2006-04-01

145

Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.  

PubMed

Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

2012-10-01

146

Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pregabalin, gabapentin and vigabatrin in human serum by precolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde and fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and robust method is presented for the simultaneous determination of the gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) derivatives pregabalin (PGB), gabapentin (GBP) and vigabatrin (VGB) in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum is deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid and aliquots of the supernatant are precolumn derivatized with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA) and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Separation is achieved on a Alltima 3C18 column using isocratic elution; the drugs are monitored using fluorescence detection. Norvaline is used as an internal standard. Within-day precision (COV; n = 10) is 1.2% for PGB (serum concentration 10.0 mg/l), 1.1% for GBP (serum concentration 15.8 mg/l) and 0.3% for VGB (serum concentration 15.5 mg/l). The method is linear up to at least 63 mg/l for PGB, 40 mg/l for GBP and 62 mg/l for VGB. Lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) are 0.13 mg/l for PGB, 0.53 mg/l for GBP and 0.06 mg/l for VGB. No interferences were found from commonly coadministered antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and from endogenous amino acids. Experimental design in combination with statistical evaluation (ANOVA) was used to study the robustness of chromatography and sample preparation. The method is very suitable for routine therapeutic drug monitoring and for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:15380728

Vermeij, T A C; Edelbroek, P M

2004-10-25

147

Fluorescence quenching of etilefrine by acetate anion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid dissociation in the excited state of antihypotensor drug etilefrine [2-(ethylamino1-3-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol] is studied. Fluorescence of etilefrine decreases at pH<7 and is related to phenolic group dissociation. However, intensity of etilefrine fluorescence diminishes as the concentration of the acetate anion increases at pH>7. Analyses of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of aqueous solutions of etilefrine in the presence of acetate anions have been made. Considering the existence of an equilibrium in the excited state the values of 3.47×10 -9 and 0.216×10 -9 M -1 s -1 have been obtained for the rate constants for direct and inverse reactions, respectively. Moreover, the lifetime ( ?0'=0.58×10 -9 s) and quantum yield (0.01) of non-protonated etilefrine have been determined. Our results seem to support the existence of a dynamic quenching process based on a proton transfer mechanism induced by acetate anions. This process could represent a serious inconvenience in analytical fluorimetric techniques taking into account that the acetic acid/acetate pair is commonly used as a buffer. Additional fluorescence quenching by H + ions could be involved in acid aqueous mediums. At high concentrations of acetic acid, a value of 2.98×10 -9 M -1 s -1 for the bimolecular constant for the quenching by H + has been calculated.

Quintero Osso, B.; Carazo Rodríguez, F. M.; Morales Domingo, J. J.; Cabeza González, M. C.; Thomas Gómez, J.

1999-02-01

148

Density data for copolymer systems: butyl acrylate\\/vinyl acetate homo- and copolymerization in ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to provide precise density data, badly needed for on-line measurements and control of polymerization reactors, e.g. for densimetry studies. Data was obtained for one copolymer of butyl acrylate\\/vinyl acetate, the homopolymers of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate, plus the two monomers and ethyl acetate. In addition, the hypothesis of the linear dependence of the density of

I Barudio; G Févotte; T. F McKenna

1999-01-01

149

Direct Detection of the Acetate-forming Activity of the Enzyme Acetate Kinase  

PubMed Central

Acetate kinase, a member of the acetate and sugar kinase-Hsp70-actin (ASKHA) enzyme superfamily1-5, is responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to acetyl phosphate utilizing ATP as a substrate. Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya6. The most well characterized acetate kinase is that from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila7-14. An acetate kinase which can only utilize PPi but not ATP in the acetyl phosphate-forming direction has been isolated from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and has thus far only been found in this genus15,16. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is typically measured using the hydroxamate assay, first described by Lipmann17-20, a coupled assay in which conversion of ATP to ADP is coupled to oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase21,22, or an assay measuring release of inorganic phosphate after reaction of the acetyl phosphate product with hydroxylamine23. Activity in the opposite, acetate-forming direction is measured by coupling ATP formation from ADP to the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH by the enzymes hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase24. Here we describe a method for the detection of acetate kinase activity in the direction of acetate formation that does not require coupling enzymes, but is instead based on direct determination of acetyl phosphate consumption. After the enzymatic reaction, remaining acetyl phosphate is converted to a ferric hydroxamate complex that can be measured spectrophotometrically, as for the hydroxamate assay. Thus, unlike the standard coupled assay for this direction that is dependent on the production of ATP from ADP, this direct assay can be used for acetate kinases that produce ATP or PPi.

Fowler, Matthew L.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J.; Smith, Kerry S.

2011-01-01

150

Direct detection of the acetate-forming activity of the enzyme acetate kinase.  

PubMed

Acetate kinase, a member of the acetate and sugar kinase-Hsp70-actin (ASKHA) enzyme superfamily, is responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to acetyl phosphate utilizing ATP as a substrate. Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya. The most well characterized acetate kinase is that from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. An acetate kinase which can only utilize PP(i) but not ATP in the acetyl phosphate-forming direction has been isolated from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and has thus far only been found in this genus. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is typically measured using the hydroxamate assay, first described by Lipmann, a coupled assay in which conversion of ATP to ADP is coupled to oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, or an assay measuring release of inorganic phosphate after reaction of the acetyl phosphate product with hydroxylamine. Activity in the opposite, acetate-forming direction is measured by coupling ATP formation from ADP to the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH by the enzymes hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Here we describe a method for the detection of acetate kinase activity in the direction of acetate formation that does not require coupling enzymes, but is instead based on direct determination of acetyl phosphate consumption. After the enzymatic reaction, remaining acetyl phosphate is converted to a ferric hydroxamate complex that can be measured spectrophotometrically, as for the hydroxamate assay. Thus, unlike the standard coupled assay for this direction that is dependent on the production of ATP from ADP, this direct assay can be used for acetate kinases that produce ATP or PP(i). PMID:22214984

Fowler, Matthew L; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J; Smith, Kerry S

2011-01-01

151

Friction and wear behaviour of acetal and nylon gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper will present an extensive investigation of polymer gear (acetal and nylon) friction and wear behaviour. First, a unique test method for polymer gear wear will be described in brief and later used in the extensive investigation of acetal and nylon gear wear. Initial tests were performed using acetal pinions with acetal gears, and nylon pinions with nylon

K. Mao; W. Li; C. J. Hooke; D. Walton

2009-01-01

152

Calcination of calcium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate: effect of the reacting atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcination process of the calcium acetate (CA) and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was investigated as a previous step for coal gas desulfurisation during sorbent injection at high temperatures because the excellent results demonstrated by these sorbents as sulfur removal agents both in combustion and gasification processes. As pore structure developed during calcination is one of the most important characteristic

J. Adánez; L. F. de Diego; F. Garc??a-Labiano

1999-01-01

153

Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the

E. A. Campanella

2006-01-01

154

Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

1985-01-01

155

Index to Drug-Specific Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Lunesta (eszopiclone) Lupron (leuprolide acetate) Luvox (fluvoxamine) Lyrica (pregabalin) back to top M Magnevist (gadopentetate dimeglumine) Magnesium ... Ponatinib Potiga (ezogabine) Pradaxa (dabigatran etexilate mesylate) Pramipexole Pregabalin Prevacid ... (omeprazole) Prinivil (lisinopril) ...

156

Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus "Acetomonas" was described in 1954 for strains with polar flagellation and no oxidation of acetate. The proposals of the two generic names were due to confusion, and "Acetomonas" was a junior subjective synonym of Gluconobacter. The genus Acetobacter was in 1984 divided into two subgenera, Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter. The latter was elevated to the genus Gluconacetobacter in 1998. In the acetic acid bacteria, ten genera are presently recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacteer, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia and Granulibacter. In contrast, the genus Frateuria, strains of which were once named 'pseudacetic acid bacteria', was classified into the Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Gluconacetobacter was phylogenetically divided into two groups: the Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens group and the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. The two groups were discussed taxonomically. PMID:18199517

Yamada, Yuzo; Yukphan, Pattaraporn

2008-06-30

157

Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro  

PubMed Central

Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1? expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylation, and alterations of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in primary and BV-2 cultured microglia. We found that treatment induced H3K9 hyperacetylation and reversed LPS-induced H3K9 hypoacetylation similar to that found in vivo. LPS also increased IL-1?, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) mRNA and protein, while treatment returned the protein to control levels and only partially attenuated IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, treatment increased mRNA levels of transforming-growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and both IL-4 mRNA and protein. LPS increased p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation at 4 and 2–4 hr respectively, while treatment reduced p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation only at 2 hr. In addition, treatment reversed the LPS-induced elevation of NF-?B p65 protein and phosphorylation at serine 468 and induced acetylation at lysine 310. These data suggest that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling and alters histone and non-histone protein acetylation.

Soliman, Mahmoud L.; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2012-01-01

158

Atmospheric oxidation pathways of acetic acid.  

PubMed

One of the most abundant carboxylic acids measured in the atmosphere is acetic acid (CH(3)C(O)OH), present in rural, urban, and remote marine environments in the low-ppb range. Acetic acid concentrations are not well reproduced in global 3-D atmospheric models because of the poor inventory of sources and sinks to model its global distribution. To understand the complete oxidation of acetic acid in the atmosphere initiated by OH radicals, ab initio calculations are performed to describe in detail the energetics of the reaction potential energy surface (PES). The proposed reaction mechanism suggests that the CH(3)C(O)OH + OH reaction takes place via three pathways: the addition of OH to the central carbon, the abstraction of a methyl hydrogen, and the abstraction of an acidic hydrogen. The PES is characterized by prereactive H-complexes, transition states, and more interestingly unique radical-mediated isomerization reactions. From the analysis of the energetics, acetic acid atmospheric oxidation will proceed mainly via the abstraction of the acidic hydrogen, consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies. The major byproducts from each pathway are identified. Glyoxylic acid is suggested to be a major byproduct of the atmospheric oxidation of acetic acid. The atmospheric fate of glyoxylic acid is discussed. PMID:16571046

Rosado-Reyes, Claudette M; Francisco, Joseph S

2006-04-01

159

Cytenamide trifluoro-acetic acid solvate  

PubMed Central

Cytenamide forms a 1:1 solvate with trifluoro­acetic acid (systematic name: 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo­hepta­triene-5-carboxamide trifluoro­acetic acid solvate), C16H13NO·C2HF3O2. The compound crystallizes with one mol­ecule of cytenamide and one of trifluoro­acetic acid in the asymmetric unit; these are linked by O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds to form an R 2 2(8) motif. The trifluoro­methyl group of the solvent mol­ecule displays rotational disorder over two sites, with site-occupancy factors of 0.964?(4) and 0.036?(4).

Johnston, Andrea; Florence, Alastair J.; Fabbiani, Francesca J. A.; Shankland, Kenneth; Bedford, Colin T.; Bardin, Julie

2008-01-01

160

Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

2007-04-13

161

The physicochemical property characterization of agar acetate.  

PubMed

A series of agar acetates with different degree of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, the gel hardness, the gel fracturability, the gel springiness and the solution apparent viscosity of agar acetates all decreased except that their gel cohesiveness increased with the increase of DS. The variation process of agar molecules in solution from coil to helix could be also observed by measuring solution optical rotation in a lower concentration at which even the solution could not form a gel. The gel skeleton structures of agar acetates were of porous network structures, and the pores became smaller and denser with the increase of DS. After acetylation, the water holding capacity of the agar was improved, but its thermal stability was lowered. PMID:24906725

Xia, Kai; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Jingkun; Zhang, Xiaodong

2014-09-22

162

Leuprolide acetate-induced generalized papular eruption.  

PubMed

Leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. We report a unique case of a disseminated papular rash following leuprolide acetate injections in a 65-year-old man that shares clinical and histopathological features of papuloerythroderma of Ofuji. Leuprolide-induced papuloerythroderma, as well as a limited number of other disseminated cutaneous eruptions caused by this drug, is extremely rare, with only one case previously reported. Our case calls attention to this uncommon side effect in a commonly used hormonal therapy.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(6):755-757. PMID:24918569

Burris, Katy; Ding, Catherine Y; Lim, Geoffrey F S

2014-06-01

163

Efficacy of pregabalin and venlafaxine-XR in generalized anxiety disorder: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic efficacy, and speed of onset of efficacy, of pregabalin (PGB) and venlafaxine-XR (VXR) in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). In this double-blind trial, outpatients, ages 18-65 years, who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for GAD were randomized to 8 weeks of flexible-dose treatment with PGB (300-600 mg/day), VXR (75-225 mg/day), or placebo (PBO). The intent-to-treat sample consisted of 121 patients on PGB [least square (LS) mean ± SE baseline Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), 27.6 ± 0.4], 125 patients on VXR (baseline HAM-A, 27.4 ± 0.4), and 128 patients on PBO (baseline HAM-A, 26.8 ± 0.4). Treatment with PGB was associated with a significantly greater LS mean change in the HAM-A total score at last observation carried forward endpoint versus PBO (-14.5 ± 0.9 vs. -11.7 ± 0.9; P = 0.028). Treatment with VXR was not significant versus PBO at endpoint (-12.0 ± 0.9; -11.7 ± 0.9; P =0.968). Treatment with PGB showed an early onset of improvement, with significantly greater LS mean change in the HAM-A by day 4 versus both PBO (-5.3 ± 0.5 vs. -3.4± 0.5; P = 0.008) and VXR (-2.9 ± 0.5; P = 0.0012). The proportion of patients reporting a severe adverse event was similar for PGB (9.1%) and PBO (7.8%), but higher for VXR (20.0%; P < 0.05). In conclusion, PGB was a safe and effective treatment of GAD, with a significantly earlier onset of anxiolytic activity than VXR. PMID:21456104

Kasper, Siegfried; Herman, Barry; Nivoli, Giancarlo; Van Ameringen, Michael; Petralia, Antonino; Mandel, Francine S; Baldinetti, Francesca; Bandelow, Borwin

2009-03-01

164

Phorbol Myristate Acetate-Induced Macrophage Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) at nanomole concentrations induces a rapid aggregation of guinea pig macrophages. This aggregation is dependent on extracellular Mg2+ (but not Ca2+) for its development. Additionally, it is inhibited by some agents which also inhibit aggregation induced by lymphokines and the ionophore A23187. Although the mechanism of aggregation has not been determined, it does not appear to

P. Badenoch-Jones

1983-01-01

165

21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Ç Food and Drugs Ç 6 Ç 2013-04-01 Ç 2013-04-01 Ç false Ç Calcium acetate. Ç 582.6185 Ç Section 582.6185 Ç Food and Drugs Ç FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) Ç ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Ç SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

2013-04-01

166

Treatment of Pedophilia with Leuprolide Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the literature on the treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offenses has focused primarily on psychotherapeutic interventions and the use of antiandrogens. Recently case reports and small series supporting the efficacy of other psychiatric medication, such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have been published. Only a few publications have looked at the efficacy of leuprolide acetate, an LH-RH

Nancy Raymond; Bean Robinson; Chris Kraft; Barry Rittberg; Eli Coleman

2002-01-01

167

Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C. [Occidental Chemical Corp. Technology Center, Grand Island, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

168

Megestrol acetate in cachexia and anorexia.  

PubMed

The aim is to review major clinical trials that have used megestrol acetate (MA) in the treatment of cachexia across several disease states. A review of general usage and potential side-effects are discussed. A theory that the newly approved nanocrystal formation of MA can better deliver this potent medication for treatment will also be reviewed. PMID:17722275

Yeh, Shing-Shing; Schuster, Michael W

2006-01-01

169

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-02-17

170

Sisal cellulose whiskers reinforced polyvinyl acetate nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sisal nanowhiskers were used as novel reinforcement to obtain nanocomposites with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) as matrix phase. They are seen as attractive materials due to the widespread availability and low cost of the sisal source material. Statistical analysis of the sisal whisker length and diameter resulted in average values of 250 nm and 4 nm, respectively, resulting in an average aspect ratio

Nancy Lis Garcia de Rodriguez; Wim Thielemans; Alain Dufresne

2006-01-01

171

Immunotoxicity of Trenbolone Acetate in Japanese Quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is

Michael James Quinn; Moira McKernan; Emma T. Lavoie; Mary Ann Ottinger

2006-01-01

172

Determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) and ?-butyrolactone (GBL) in whole blood and urine samples by UPLC-MSMS.  

PubMed

The demand of high throughput methods for the determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) as well as for pregabalin is increasing. Here we present two analytical methods using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection for the determination of GHB, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4BD and GBL in whole blood and urine. Using the 96-well formate, the whole blood method is a simple high-throughput method suitable for screening of large sample amounts. With an easy sample preparation for urine including only dilution and filtration of the sample, the method is suitable for fast screening of urine samples. Both methods showed acceptable linearity, acceptable limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The within-day and between-day precisions of all analytes were lower than 10% RSD. The analytes were extracted from matrices with recoveries near 100%, and no major matrix effects were observed. Both methods have been used as routine screening analyses of whole blood and urine samples since January 2010. PMID:22226469

Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Olsen, Kirsten Midtbøen; Strand, Dag Helge

2012-02-15

173

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131-I-Chlorotoxin, 423557; Abatacept, Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, Adalimumab, AE-941, Ambrisentan, AMR-001, Anacetrapib, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate; BAY-639044, Bazedoxifene acetate, Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Botulinum toxin type B, Brivaracetam, Bucindolol hydrochloride; Carfilzomib, Carisbamate, CCX-282, CD20Bi, Ceftobiprole, Certolizumab pegol, CF-101, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Cypher; Darifenacin hydrobromide, Degarelix acetate, Denosumab, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dexlansoprazole, Dexverapamil, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Efalizumab, EPs-7630, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib; Fluticasone furoate, Fondaparinux sodium, Fospropofol disodium; Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir, HIV gp120/NefTat/AS02A, HPV-6/11/16/18; INCB-18424, Incyclinide, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin detemir; KNS-760704, KW-0761; Lacosamide, Lenalidomide, Levetiracetam, Licofelone, Lidocaine/prilocaine; mAb 216, MEDI-528, Men ACWY, Meningococcal C-CRM197 vaccine, Methylnaltrexone bromide; Nemifitide ditriflutate, Nicotine conjugate vaccine, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Octaparin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), Pegaptanib octasodium, Pitrakinra, Prasterone, Pregabalin; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Rasagiline mesilate, Retigabine, Rimonabant, RTS,S/AS02D; Sarcosine, Sitaxentan sodium, Solifenacin succinate, Sunitinib malate; Taranabant, Taxus, Teduglutide, Teriparatide, Ticagrelor, Travoprost, TRU-015; USlipristal acetate, Urocortin 2; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; YM-155, Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zanolimumab, Zoledronic acid monohydrate, Zotarolimus, Zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:18560631

Moral, M A; Tomillero, A

2008-03-01

174

21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...confinement for slaughter â(i) Amount. (A) 120 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate and 24 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 6 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol) per implant dose....

2013-04-01

175

Separating acetic acid from furol (furfural) by electrodialysis method  

SciTech Connect

Furfural production by hydrolysis of fibrous plant materials is accompanied by formation of acetic acid in amounts depending on the material used. The amount of acetic formed in the hydrolysis of the fruit shell of oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleosa) (an oilseed-bearing tree) is equal to the amount of furfural. The acetic acid can be separated from the furfural and concentrated to 10% by electrodialysis. A smaller amount of furfural is separated with acetic acid.

Guan, S.F.; Li, C.S. Ye, S.T.; Shen, S.Y.; Wang, Y.T.; Yu, S.H.

1981-01-01

176

Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives  

PubMed Central

Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate.

Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

2013-01-01

177

l-Lysinium trifluoro-acetate  

PubMed Central

Ions of the title compound, C6H15N2O2 +·C2F3O2 ?, a new organic nonlinear optical crystal, are linked by N—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. Both the amino groups of the l-lysinium cation are protonated. A three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds is observed, forming a closed ring. Inter­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bonds involving l-lysinium cations and trifluoro­acetate anions link the ions into extended chains which run parallel to the [010] direction. The F atoms of the trifluoro­acetate anion are disordered over two sites with site occupancies of 0.423?(18) and 0.577?(18). The asymmetric unit consists of two cations and two anions.

Sun, Zhi Hua; Fan, Jian Dong; Zhang, Guang Hui; Wang, Xin Qiang; Xu, Dong

2008-01-01

178

Acetate kinase: not just a bacterial enzyme.  

PubMed

The bacterial enzymes acetate kinase (AK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) form a key pathway for synthesis of the central metabolic intermediate acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) from acetate or for generation of ATP from excess acetyl-CoA. Putative AK genes have now been identified in some eukaryotic microbes. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Phytophthora species, AK forms a pathway with PTA. AK has also been identified in non-yeast fungi but these fungi do not have PTA. Instead, AK forms a pathway with D-xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase (XFP), a pathway that was also previously found only in bacteria. In Entamoeba histolytica, neither PTA nor XFP was found as a partner for AK. Thus, eukaryotic microbes seem to have incorporated the 'bacterial' enzyme AK into at least three different metabolic pathways. PMID:16678422

Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Martin, Stephen R; Smith, Kerry S

2006-06-01

179

Acetic acid vapor levels associated with facial prosthetics  

SciTech Connect

The use of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A in the fabrication of facial prostheses may cause health hazards to the patient and the operator because of acetic acid emissions. Caution must be exercised to remove acetic acid vapors from the air and unliberated acetic acid from material applied directly to the skin.

McElroy, T.H.; Guerra, O.N.; Lee, S.A.

1985-01-01

180

Phorbol myristate acetate-induced neutrophil autotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), neutrophils kill neoplastic cells as well as themselves. This PMA-induced neutrophil autotoxicity was markedly inhibited by catalase, suggesting that H2O2 directly or indirectly played an important role. In this study we compared PMA and H2O2 toxicity against human neutrophils. The effect of H2O2 was faster and more

Min-Fu Tsan; Rebecca C. Denison

1980-01-01

181

Calcium magnesium acetate production and cost reduction  

SciTech Connect

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (ConEd), the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), Chevron Chemical Company, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MDPW) sponsored a research program to develop technology capable of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA), an alternative road deicer, at a quality and cost which will allow its increased use. The objectives of this program were to determine the feasibility of: (1) producing CMA from regionally available waste and low grade organic feedstocks via biochemical engineering technologies; (2) operating the fermentation at concentrated product levels to reduce energy requirements and minimize drying process costs; (3) using this production approach to produce an environmentally acceptable CMA product; and (4) using and adapting an existing facility for a CMA commercial demonstration plant. The experimental program included:(1) selection of microorganisms for their ability to grow in the absence of sodium chloride and to tolerate high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and acetate ions; (2) analysis of waste feedstocks for their potential conversion to acetate; (3) analysis of waste organic material for impurities in CMA that could carry over into the environment; (4) batch experiments to determine pH tolerance, growth in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), tolerance to magnesium, calcium and acetate ions, effect of substrate concentration, acid distribution, and acid production; and (5) semi-continuous laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments to determine loading rates, conversion efficiencies, and other design data. 67 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

Leuschner, A.P.

1988-02-01

182

Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this work an irradiation system to be used in the polymerization of the vinyl acetate in methylethylketone and in ethyl alcohol solution using the gamma radiation as initiator was projected and built. The molecular weights of the polymers obtained by irradiation with gamma rays in methylethylketone and in ethyl alcohol solution were 33,000 and 44,000g\\/mol, respectively. >From the characterization

A. C. Mesquita; M. N. Mori; J. M. Vieira; L. G. Andrade e. Silva

2002-01-01

183

Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this work an irradiation system to be used in the polymerization of the vinyl acetate in methylethylketone and in ethyl alcohol solution using the gamma radiation as initiator was projected and built. The molecular weights of the polymers obtained by irradiation with gamma rays in methylethylketone and in ethyl alcohol solution were 33,000 and 44,000g\\/mol, respectively. From the characterization

A. C Mesquita; M. N Mori; J. M Vieira; L. G. Andrade e Silva

2002-01-01

184

Corrosion of Stainless Steel During Acetate Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CHâCOOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the

J. S. Qi; G. C. Lester

1996-01-01

185

Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. PMID:24457001

Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2014-07-01

186

Pervaporation characteristics of ethylene–vinyl acetate copolymer membranes with different composition for recovery of ethyl acetate from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of crystallization, surface property and density of ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer membranes with different vinyl acetate (VA) content were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle meter and pycnometer. The pervaporation (PV) characteristics of the EVA copolymer membranes for recovery of ethyl acetate (EA) from aqueous EA solutions have been investigated. The separation factor (?) decreased with

Yunxiang Bai; Jinwen Qian; Quanfu An; Zhihui Zhu; Peng Zhang

2007-01-01

187

Tumor-promoting Activity of 2,3-Dihydrophorbol Myristate Acetate and Phorbolol Myristate Acetate in Mouse Skin1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phorbolol myristate acetate (PHMA) had been previ ously prepared from the potent mouse skin tumor pro moter phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) by sodium boro- hydride reduction of the C-5 carbonyl group in PMA to a secondary alcohol. PHMA was shown to have an inflam matory effect in mouse skin equal to that of PMA. 2,3- Dihydrophorbol myristate acetate (DPMA), a

A. Segal; B. L. Van Duuren; J. J. Solomon; I. Seidman; A. Smith; S. Melchionne

188

Acetate absorption in the normal and secreting rat jejunum.  

PubMed Central

Acetate absorption was studied in rat jejunum using steady state perfusion in vivo. Absorption conformed to apparent saturation kinetics and was similar in magnitude to glucose absorption. When compared with normal saline, acetate perfusion was associated with luminal alkalinisation. There was no difference in total CO2 secretion when similar rates of acetate and glucose absorption were compared, suggesting that total CO2 secretion was the result of mucosal metabolism. Absorption of acetate and propionate were mutually inhibitory. Acetate absorption was also inhibited by Tris-Hepes pH 7.0. When the gut was pretreated with cholera toxin to induce a secretory state, acetate absorption was reduced by 41.9%. This effect could be reproduced if similar water secretion was osmotically induced by the addition of mannitol. These data suggest that acetate is absorbed, at least, partially by non-ionic diffusion in the rat jejunum and that its absorption is reduced in the secreting intestine by solvent drag.

Watson, A J; Elliott, E J; Rolston, D D; Borodo, M M; Farthing, M J; Fairclough, P D

1990-01-01

189

Calcium Magnesium Acetate at Lower-Production Cost: Production of CMA Deicer from Cheese Whey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), a mixture of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, is used as an environmentally benign roadway deicer. The present commercial CMA deicer made from glacial acetic acid and dolomitic lime or limestone is expensive compared...

H. Zhu S. T. Yang W. Qin Y. Huang Y. L. Huang Z. Jin

1999-01-01

190

Poly(vinyl acetal)s containing electron-donor groups: Synthesis in homogeneous phase and their thermal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The condensation reaction of 1-Naphthaldehyde (NA), 9-Anthraldehyde (ANTA), 9-Ethyl-3-carbazolecarboxaldehyde (ECZA) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to give poly(vinyl acetal)s (PVAcs) was studied in detail using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent for PVA and PVAcs. PVAcs having various degrees of acetalization were obtained. The acetalization reaction under a variety of conditions gave at best a poly[2-(1-naphthyl)-1,3-dioxan-4,6-diylmethylene] (PNA) with 78% acetalization, poly[2-(9-anthryl)-1,3-dioxan-4,6-diylmethylene] (PANTA) with

M. D. Fernández; M. J. Fernández; P. Hoces

2008-01-01

191

Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.

Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2011-01-01

192

Novel degradable polymer networks containing acetal components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel copolymer network with acetal structure was prepared using bis[4-(vinyloxy)butyl] (4-methyl-1,3-phenylene)biscarbamate\\u000a (BECT) as the crosslinking agent. Firstly, a tri-copolymer of maleic anhydride (MAn), n-butyl vinyl ether (BVE) and 4-hydroxybutyl vinyl ether (HBVE) was synthesized via free-radical polymerization with 2,2?-azobisisobutyronitrile\\u000a as the initiator. The tri-copolymer consisted of two sorts of alternating units, MAn-alt-BVE and MAn-alt-HBVE. The linear copolymer Poly((MAn-alt-BVE)-co-(MAn-alt-HBVE)) with

XinCe Sui; Yan Shi; ZhiFeng Fu

2011-01-01

193

MASCULINIZATION OF TILAPIA BY IMMERSION IN TRENBOLONE ACETATE: GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF TRENBOLONE ACETATE-IMMERSED TILAPIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed that the synthetic androgen trenbolone acetate (TA) is a good candidate for masculinizing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry using short immersions. In this study we investigated the effects of TA treatment on the growth performance of Nile tilapia. We tested the potential anabolic effects of two treatments by growing treated and control fish for

Wilfrido M. Contreras-Sánchez; Martin S. Fitzpatrick; Carl B. Schreck

194

MASCULINIZATION OF TILAPIA BY IMMERSION IN TRENBOLONE ACETATE: DETECTION OF TRENBOLONE ACETATE AFTER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous experiments we have found that two 3-hour immersions in trenbolone acetate (TA) can successfully masculinize Nile tilapia fry. In this study we are investigating how the concentration of TA in the immersion water changes before and after treatment to determine the amount of hormone uptake and estimate the potential for reuse of the treatment water. Nile tilapia fry

Wilfrido M. Contreras-Sánchez; Martin S. Fitzpatrick; Carl B. Schreck

195

Micro-mold fabrication using cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer materials offer numerous advantages including flexible, low cost large area displays, lightweight, easy processing, good compatibility with a variety of substrates, and easy for structural modifications. Recently electro-active polymers (EAP) have been attractive due to their potential advantages including ease of processing and control, mechanical flexibility, and economical advantage. Recently electro-active paper (EAPap) was discovered as a smart material and as an actuating material with ionic and piezoelectric effects. Before cellulose acetate (CA) micro-pattern fabrication, solvent effect of micro or nano-pore formation was investigated. Since the micropore scatter the visible light, micropores give negative effect to apply optical device. The solvent mixture of acetone/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) created large amount of micro or nanopores. The resulting films were not transparent. However, volatile single solvent (acetone) did not form pores and gave transparent film. The various shapes of photoresist, such as circle and honeycomb patterns, were fabricated onto the silicon wafer to use as the mold. Cellulose acetate (CA) was poured to the mold and peeled off from the mold. The resulting pattern exhibited uniform size of the circle or honeycomb shape without defect.

Cho, K. Y.; Lim, H. K.; Chen, Y.; Kim, Jaehwan; Kang, K. S.

2007-04-01

196

Dielectric relaxation of ? -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric loss spectra are reported for ? -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The ? -relaxation times, ?? , measured over a 190° range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured ?? . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature Tg show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the ? -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the ? process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the ? -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the ? -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the ? relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

Kaminski, K.; Maslanka, S.; Ziolo, J.; Paluch, M.; McGrath, K. J.; Roland, C. M.

2007-01-01

197

Atmospheric formic and acetic acids: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the role of organic acids as chemical constituents in troposphere has been growing rapidly over the past couple of decades. In addition to their presence in the atmosphere in a variety of phases, organic acids are important constituents of the global troposphere and contribute a large fraction (˜25%) to the nonmethane hydrocarbon atmospheric mixture. They contribute significantly to the acidity of precipitation and cloud water, especially in remote regions. In this review, we consider the information presently available on concentration distribution of formic and acetic acids in multiple phases and their sources in different geographical locations, i.e., midlatitude continental, tropical continental and marine sites. Photochemical reactions (i.e., ozone-olefin reaction, isoprene oxidation, gas phase reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, and aqueous phase oxidation of formaldehyde) are important sources of these acids. In midlatitude continental regions, possible sources of formic and acetic acids, in addition to photochemical reactive vehicular emission, are direct emission from vegetation and biomass burning. In tropical continental sites, direct emission from vehicles, ants, soil, vegetation, and biomass burning are the important source of these species. The probable sources at marine locations are photochemical reactions, biogenic emissions, and long-range transport from continental sites.

Khare, Puja; Kumar, N.; Kumari, K. M.; Srivastava, S. S.

1999-05-01

198

Aspects of the thermal oxidation of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal oxidation of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer [EVA-17 and 28% w\\/w VA (vinyl acetate) units] has been examined by thermo-gravimetric and hydroperoxide analysis, FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) fluorescence spectroscopy and yellowness index. Thermal analysis indicates the initial loss of acetic acid followed by oxidation and breakdown of the main chain. The degradation rate is greater in an oxygen atmosphere as

Norman S. Allen; Michele Edge; Miguel Rodriguez; Cristopher M. Liauw; Eusebio Fontan

2000-01-01

199

Mesophilic syntrophic acetate oxidation during methane formation in biogas reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction pathway for the formation of methane from acetate was investigated in sludge from 13 different biogas reactors. By following the conversion of [2-14C]acetate and [14C]bicarbonate it was shown that methane formation by syntrophic acetate oxidation was the dominating mechanism for acetotrophic methanogenesis in sludge containing high levels of salts, mainly ammonium, and volatile fatty acids. In one biogas

Anna Schnürer; Gerhard Zellner; Bo H. Svensson

1999-01-01

200

Condensation of benzaldehyde diethyl acetal with ethyl vinyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.A study was made of the condensation of benzaldehyde diethyl acetal with ethyl vinyl ether.2.It was shown that in this reaction aliphatic-aromatic ethoxy acetals of general formula C6H5 -(CHOC2H5-CH2)nCH(OC2H5)2 are formed.3.By the hydrolysis of these ethoxy acetals, aliphatic-aromatic ethoxy aldehydes were prepared.

B. M. Mikhailov; L. S. Povarov

1957-01-01

201

Solution behavior and surface properties of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution behavior of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) in acetone and ethyl acetate has been investigated by\\u000a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and capillary viscometry and correlated with the characteristics of CMCAB films. Viscosity\\u000a and SAXS measurements showed that ethyl acetate is a better solvent than acetone for CMCAB. Thin films of CMCAB were deposited\\u000a onto silicon wafers (Si\\/SiO2) by spin coating.

Jorge Amim Jr; Denise F. S. Petri; Francisco C. B. Maia; Paulo B. Miranda

2009-01-01

202

Acetate metabolism and its regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

The amino acid producing Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. Among the substrates metabolized are glucose and acetate which both can also serve as substrates for amino acid production. Based on biochemical, genetic and regulatory studies and on quantitative determination of metabolic fluxes during utilization of acetate and/or glucose, this review summarizes the present knowledge on the different steps of the fundamental pathways of acetate utilization in C. glutamicum, namely, on acetate transport, acetate activation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. It becomes evident that, although the pathways of acetate utilization follow the same theme in many bacteria, important biochemical, genetic and regulatory peculiarities exist in C. glutamicum. Recent genome wide and comparative expression analyses in C. glutamicum cells grown on glucose and on acetate substantiated previously identified transcriptional regulation of acetate activating enzymes and of glyoxylate cycle enzymes. Additionally, a variety of genes obviously also under transcriptional control in response to the presence or absence of acetate in the growth medium were uncovered. These genes, thus also belonging to the acetate stimulon of C. glutamicum, include genes coding for TCA cycle enzymes (e.g. aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase), for gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), for glycolysis (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1) and genes coding for proteins with hitherto unknown function. Although the basic mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the enzymes involved in acetate metabolism is not yet understood, some recent findings led to a better understanding of the adaptation of C. glutamicum to acetate at the molecular level. PMID:12948633

Gerstmeir, Robert; Wendisch, Volker F; Schnicke, Stephanie; Ruan, Hong; Farwick, Mike; Reinscheid, Dieter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

2003-09-01

203

Determination of Indole Acetic Acid by the Salkowsky Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY attention has been focused on the reaction of indole acetic acid with ferric ions. Cohen et al.1 have shown that indole acetic acid forms a chelate with iron at acid pH and this has been confirmed by Recaldin and Heath2. The latter state that at pH 2.6 iron slowly decomposes the indole acetic acid in the solution. The oxidation

A. M. Mayer

1958-01-01

204

Microbial removal of acetate selectively from sugar mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid is an unavoidable constituent of the biomass hydrolysates generated from acetylated hemicellulose and lignin,\\u000a and acetate affects the performance of microbes used to convert these hydrolysates into biofuels or other biochemicals. In\\u000a this study, acetate was selectively removed from synthetic mixtures of glucose and xylose using metabolically engineered Escherichia\\u000a coli strains having mutations in the glucose phosphotransferase system

Arun Lakshmanaswamy; Eashwar Rajaraman; Mark A. Eiteman; Elliot Altman

205

Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.  

PubMed

Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation. PMID:12862234

Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

2003-01-01

206

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol, ethanol, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and o-xylene at 101.3 kPa  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium was measured for the binary systems methanol + o-xylene, ethanol + o-xylene, methyl acetate + o-xylene and ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and for the multicomponent mixtures methanol + methyl acetate + o-xylene, ethanol + ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and methanol + ethanol + methyl acetate + ethyl acetate + o-xylene at 101.3 kPa. The Wilson and Van Laar models were compared with the UNIFAC method. Results show that the correlation was satisfactory.

Costa-Lopez, J.; Garvin, A.; Espana, F.J. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1995-09-01

207

Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.  

PubMed

Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

2012-03-14

208

Polypyrrole based strong acid catalyst for acetalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polypyrrole based acid catalyst has been synthesized through the neutralization reaction of polypyrrole and sulfuric acid. The polypyrrole based acid owned the acidity as high as 6.0 mmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the novel solid acid were investigated through the acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid held high activities for the reactions. Furthermore, the recycled activities of the catalyst indicated that the solid acid owned high stability during the catalytic process and little acid sites dropped from polypyrrole. The high acidity and stability made the novel polypyrrole based acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

Liang, Xuezheng; Cheng, Yuxiao; Qi, Chenze

2011-09-01

209

Dihydro-myricetin hexa-acetate.  

PubMed

In the title compound, C(27)H(24)O(14), also known as 2,3-di-acetoxy-5-[(2RS,3RS)-3,5,7-triacetoxy-4-oxochromen-2-yl]phenyl acetate, the heterocyclic ring adopts a distorted half-chair conformation, with two C atoms displaced by 0.1775?(16) and -0.5950?(16)?Å from the mean plane of the other four atoms. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 57.81?(8)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules inter-act by C-H?O bonds, aromatic ?-? stacking [centroid-centroid separation = 3.6206?(9)?Å] and C-H?? inter-actions. PMID:21587600

Li, Wei; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Hook, James; Zhao, Jian

2010-01-01

210

Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate  

SciTech Connect

Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

1996-11-01

211

Indole-3-acetic Acid in Douglas Fir  

PubMed Central

We sought evidence for the occurrence and seasonal variation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in shoots of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). Collections obtained in December and June were extracted with methanol and diethyl ether. Extracts were purified by solvent partitioning and with Sephadex LH-20. Qualitative and quantitative information was acquired by gas-liquid chromatography of methyl, trimethylsilyl, or both derivatives of plant extract components. Analysis was performed with polar (XE-60) and moderately polar (Hi-Eff-8-BP) stationary phases. Results from three collections demonstrated that IAA does occur in Douglas fir and that amounts vary seasonally. Mass analysis of the proposed endogenous IAA peak from two representative extracts supported gas-liquid chromatography data and established the presence of IAA in Douglas fir.

Deyoe, David R.; Zaerr, Joe B.

1976-01-01

212

Potassium acetate adds flexibility to drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

Potassium acetate (KC/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/, or simply KAC), since 1986, has proven effective as a drilling fluid additive in over 30 wells both onshore and offshore South Texas. KAC has given potassium-base drilling fluids more flexibility, improved efficiency, and offered an environmentally acceptable alternative to potassium chloride (KCl) muds. The use of soluble potassium in drilling fluids has been successful in controlling troublesome shales. The potassium ion has a stabilizing effect that inhibits the swelling and dispersion of water-sensitive shale formations. KAC is completely soluble in fresh or saltwater and provides 40%, by weight, potassium. This compares favorably with other potassium-containing materials.

Gillenwater, K.E.; Ray, C.R.

1989-03-20

213

Chemistry of acetals. Communication 19. Structure of acetals and their reactivity in reaction with ethyl vinyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.From a comparison of data from our own work and from the literature on the yields of the primary products of chain-growth reactions of mono- and di-acetals of various structures it is shown that in the case of saturated acetals the cause of the different reactivities of the acetals lies mainly in the presence or absence of electronaccepting substituents

L. A. Yanovskaya

1965-01-01

214

Toughening of poly(lactic acid) by ethylene- co-vinyl acetate copolymer with different vinyl acetate contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-known bio-based and biocompostable poly(lactic acid), PLA, suffers from brittleness and a low heat distortion temperature. In this paper, we address a possible route to make PLA tough(er) by blending with ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) with different vinyl acetate contents. The compatibility and phase morphology of the PLA\\/EVA blends was controlled by the ratio of vinyl acetate and ethylene in

P. Ma; D. G. Hristova-Bogaerds; J. G. P. Goossens; Y. Zhang; P. J. Lemstra

2012-01-01

215

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

216

Oxidation of Indole-3-Acetic Acid to Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid by an Enzyme Preparation from Zea mays1  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, Dennis M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1988-01-01

217

Contribution of acetate to butyrate formation by human faecal bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetate is normally regarded as an endproduct of anaerobic fermentation, but butyrate-producing bacteria found in the human colon can be net utilisers of acetate. The butyrate formed provides a fuel for epithelial cells of the large intestine and influences colonic health. [1-(13)C]Acetate was used to investigate the contribution of exogenous acetate to butyrate formation. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. grown in the presence of 60 mm-acetate and 10 mm-glucose derived 85-90 % butyrate-C from external acetate. This was due to rapid interchange between extracellular acetate and intracellular acetyl-CoA, plus net acetate uptake. In contrast, a Coprococcus-related strain that is a net acetate producer derived only 28 % butyrate-C from external acetate. Different carbohydrate-derived energy sources affected butyrate formation by mixed human faecal bacteria growing in continuous or batch cultures. The ranking order of butyrate production rates was amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > inulin > pectin (continuous cultures), and inulin > amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > pectin (batch cultures). The contribution of external acetate to butyrate formation in these experiments ranged from 56 (pectin) to 90 % (xylan) in continuous cultures, and from 72 to 91 % in the batch cultures. This is consistent with a major role for bacteria related to F. prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. in butyrate formation from a range of substrates that are fermented in the large intestine. Variations in the dominant metabolic type of butyrate producer between individuals or with variations in diet are not ruled out, however, and could influence butyrate supply in the large intestine. PMID:15182395

Duncan, Sylvia H; Holtrop, Grietje; Lobley, Gerald E; Calder, A Graham; Stewart, Colin S; Flint, Harry J

2004-06-01

218

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1999-04-06

219

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01

220

Combined XPS and contact angle studies of ethylene vinyl acetate and polyvinyl acetate blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we prepared thin films by blending ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) containing 12-33 (wt.%) vinyl acetate (VA) with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and high density polyethylene homopolymers. Large area micropatterns having controlled protrusion sizes were obtained by phase-separation especially for the PVAc/EVA-33 blends using dip coating. These surfaces were characterized by XPS and contact angle measurements. A reasonably linear relation was found between the VA content on the surface (wt.%) obtained from XPS analysis and the VA content in bulk especially for PVAc/EVA-33 blend surfaces. PE segments were more enriched on the surface than that of the bulk for pure EVA copolymer surfaces similar to previous reports and VA enrichment was found on the EVA/HDPE blend surfaces due to high molecular weight of HDPE. Water ? decreased with the increase in the VA content on the blend surface due to the polarity of VA. A good agreement was obtained between ?s- and atomic oxygen surface concentration with the increase of VA content. The applicability of Cassie-Baxter equation was tested and found that it gave consistent results with the experimental water contact angles for the case where VA content was lower than 55 wt.% in the bulk composition.

Ucar, I. O.; Doganci, M. D.; Cansoy, C. E.; Erbil, H. Y.; Avramova, I.; Suzer, S.

2011-09-01

221

Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorene (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one)  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) were measured over the temperature range (283 to 313) K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds of the systems studied for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the two models; experimental data were successfully reproduced. The UNIQUAC model was the most accurate in correlating the overall equilibrium composition of the studied systems. Also the NRTL model satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium composition. Isophorone experimentally resulted in a better extraction capacity for acetic acid and in a lower miscibility with water.

Colombo, A.; Battilana, P.; Ragaini, V.; Bianchi, C.L. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Carvoli, G. [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)] [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)

1999-01-01

222

In vitro solubility, growth and characterization of cholesteryl acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility, supersolubility and nucleation time of cholesteryl acetate in acetone and methanol were reported at physiological temperature. Crystals of 0.2×0.2×0.8 and 0.2×0.3×0.3 cm 3 were grown from acetone and ethanol, respectively. The powder XRD confirms the crystallinity and the SEM analysis reveals the growth layers of cholesteryl acetate.

Sundaram, N. Meenakshi; Arivuoli, D.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Kalkura, S. Narayana

2004-06-01

223

Copolymerization of Vinyl Acetate with Reactive Surfactants in Homogeneous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of extending the homogeneity domains obtained after microemulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate in the presence of polymerizable surfactants was studied. Utilization of the monomaleate of nonyl phenol ethoxylated with 25 moles of ethylene oxide as the reactive surfactant increased the number of homogeneous phases from 18 to 32 for 45 systems studied which contained vinyl acetate, ethanol, water,

Dan Donescu; Liana Fusulan; Kristiana Go?a

1997-01-01

224

Acetic acid production by Dekkera\\/Brettanomyces yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast belonging to the genera Brettanomyces and Dekkera are noted for spoiling cellar and bottled wine through the production of haze, turbidity and acetic acid. However, I was unable to find information on the use of these yeasts for the expressed purpose of acetic acid production. Sixty yeast strains belonging to these, and several other genera, from the ARS Culture

S. N. Freer

2002-01-01

225

Cloud Point Extraction of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new acetic acid separation method was developed through a successful combination of cloud point extraction and complex extraction technology (CPE-SE), where an acetic acid complex compound formed and was solubilized in a surfactant micelle solution, instead of an organic solvent, and then concentrated into one phase by a phase separation process of the CPE technology. Since no organic solvent

Bingjia Yao; Li Yang

2009-01-01

226

Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

Polichnowski, S. W.

1986-01-01

227

Proteomic Analysis on Acetate Metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4  

PubMed Central

Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN) using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4) which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using 1H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4.

Kim, Young-Man; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Son, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Young-Mi; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Hur, Sung-Ho; Yum, Jong Hwa

2012-01-01

228

Pesticide Fact Sheet: (E)-9-Dodecenyl Acetate Pheromone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

9-Dodecenyl acetate is a pheromone containing the (E) and (Z) isomers. It is for use in manufacturing pheromone based products to control methods. The (Z) isomer has been already registered. The active ingredient is the (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate pheromone. ...

1999-01-01

229

Glycerol acetals as anti-freezing additives for biodiesel.  

PubMed

Glycerol acetals from butanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal and decanal were prepared with the use of Amberlyst-15 acid resin as catalyst. The glycerol conversion decreases with the size of the hydrocarbon chain. This fact has been associated with formation of micelles and aggregates of the aldehyde to minimize the interaction between the polar glycerol molecule with the hydrocarbon chain. The Z+E mixture of the acetals with five and six-member rings were produced in all cases. The distribution of the acetal isomers varied with the reaction time, especially for the long chain aldehydes. Addition of 5 vol.% of the butanal-glycerol acetal reduced the pour point of animal fat biodiesel (methyl ester) from 18 to 13 degrees C. The decrease in the pour point of the glycerol acetals-biodiesel mixtures were dependent on the size of the hydrocarbon chain and the percent blended. PMID:20304633

Silva, Paulo H R; Gonçalves, Valter L C; Mota, Claudio J A

2010-08-01

230

Methanogenic cleavage of acetate by lysates of Methanosarcina barkeri.  

PubMed Central

Cell lysates of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri 227 were found to cleave acetate to CH4 and CO2. The aceticlastic reaction was identified by using radioactive methyl-labeled acetate. Cell lysates decarboxylated acetate in a nitrogen atmosphere, conserving the methyl group in methane. The rate of methanogenesis from acetate in the cell lysates was comparable to that observed with whole cells. Aceticlastic activity was found in the particulate fraction seperate from methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity, which occurs in the soluble fraction. Pronase treatment eliminated methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity in lysates and stimulated aceticlastic activity, indicating the aceticlastic activity was not derived from unbroken cells, which are unaffected by proteolytic treatment. Images

Baresi, L

1984-01-01

231

Mechanical Properties and a Physical-Chemical Analysis of Acetate Yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate used in the manufacture of acetate yarns is commonly obtained from cotton-linters or wood-pulp cellulose. Varying in the origin and in the manufacturer, cellulose acetate often differs in its processability. The paper belongs to the investigation the properties of acetate yarns manufactured of the cellulose acetate varied in its origin and manufactured by different suppliers. Mechanical properties (including

R. emaitaitien?; A. Vitkauskas

232

Studies on the radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in benzene, chlorobenzene and ethyl acetate by 1 H NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out with AIBN in benzene, chlorobenzene and ethyl acetate, and the resultant polymers were analyzed for terminal group by using 1H NMR technique. The results revealed that a part of the polymer molecules prepared in aromatic solvent contained one solvent fragment at the chain end, indicating the incorporation of aromatic molecule through the chain

Koichi Hatada; Yoshio Terawaki; Tatsuki Kitayama; Mikiharu Kamachi; Masami Tamaki

1981-01-01

233

The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses  

PubMed Central

Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate) has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA) administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1) 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial); or 2) a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial). Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

Waller, Amanda; Lindinger, Michael I

2007-01-01

234

Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

1986-01-01

235

Ester hydrolysis of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate phthalate in aqueous suspension and solution, and solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing usage of aqueous film coating in the pharmaceutical industry has generated interest concerning the stability of polymer film forming agents to ester hydrolysis. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and cellulose acetate (CA) are examples of polymers which either have or are being considered for film coating applications in the form of aqueous dispersions. This study was undertaken to determine

Thomas Patrick Garcia

1989-01-01

236

Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as

P. Evrard; G. Maghuin-Rogister; A. G. Rico

1989-01-01

237

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1984-01-01

238

Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Oxindole-3-acetic Acid to 2,3-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H Indole-3-acetic Acid-7?-O-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Zea mays Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7?-O-?-d-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid ? Oxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

Nonhebel, Heather M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1984-01-01

239

Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of eslicarbazepine acetate.  

PubMed

Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) approved in Europe since 2009 that was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in a phase III clinical program in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one to three AEDs, including carbamazepine (CBZ). ESL shares with CBZ and oxcarbazepine (OXC) the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11 position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Unlike OXC, which is metabolized to both eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine, ESL is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine. The systemic exposure to eslicarbazepine after ESL oral administration is approximately 94% of the parent dose, with minimal exposure to (R)-licarbazepine and OXC. After ESL oral administration, the effective half-life (t(1/2,eff) ) of eslicarbazepine was 20-24 h, which is approximately two times longer than its terminal half-life (t(1/2)). At clinically relevant doses (400-1,600 mg/day) ESL has linear pharmacokinetics (PK) with no effects of gender or moderate liver impairment. However, because eslicarbazepine is eliminated primarily (66%) by renal excretion, dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Eslicarbazepine clearance is induced by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and CBZ and it dose-dependently decreases plasma exposure of oral contraceptive and simvastatin. PMID:22612290

Bialer, Meir; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

2012-06-01

240

Synthesis and properties of cyclic acetal biomaterials.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need to develop new biomaterials as tissue engineering scaffolds. Unfortunately, many of the materials that have been studied for these purposes are polyesters that hydrolytically degrade into acidic products, which may harm the surrounding tissue, and lead to accelerated degradation of the biomaterial. To overcome this disadvantage, a novel class of biomaterials based on a cyclic acetal unit has been created. Specifically, materials based upon the monomer 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD) is examined. This study investigates the effects of fabrication parameters, including initiator content, volume of diluent, and volume of accelerant, on several properties of EHD networks. Twelve different formulations were fabricated by varying the three parameters in a factorial design. The effects of the fabrication parameters on properties of the EHD networks were examined. Results show that the volume of accelerant most affected the EHD network gelation time, while the volume of diluent most affected the maximum reaction temperature, sol fraction, and degree of swelling. Cell viability on the EHD networks varied between (18 +/- 6)% and (57 +/- 10)% of the control at 4 h, and between (36 +/- 14)% and (140 +/- 50)% of the control at 8 h. These results indicate that it is possible to control the properties of the EHD networks by varying the fabrication parameters, and that EHD networks support a viable cell population. PMID:17177269

Moreau, Jennifer L; Kesselman, Dafna; Fisher, John P

2007-06-01

241

Polyvinyl acetate-based film coatings.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl acetate-based colloidal aqueous polymer dispersion Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D results in coatings characterized by moderate swelling behaviour, lipophilicity, pH-independent permeability for actives and high flexibility to withstand mechanical stress and is therefore used for controlled release coating. The colloidal aqueous polymer dispersion of Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D can be easily processed due to an optimal low minimum film forming temperature (MFT) of 18 °C without plasticizer addition and a thermal after-treatment (curing) of coated pellets. The drug release from Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D coated pellets was almost pH independent. Drug release could be easily adjusted by coating level or addition of soluble pore forming polymers. Physically stable Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D dispersions were obtained with the water-soluble polymers Kollidon(®) 30 and Kollicoat(®) IR up to 50% w/w. The addition of only 10% w/w triethyl citrate as plasticizer improved the flexibility of the films significantly and allowed compaction of the pellets. The drug release was almost independent of the compression force and the pellet content of the tablets. The inclusion of various tableting excipients slightly affected the drug release, primarily because of a different disintegration rate of the tablets. A combination of Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D and Kollicoat(®) IR with higher coating levels>10 mg/cm(2) is a relatively new alternative to OROS system which does not require drilling. PMID:24076229

Kolter, K; Dashevsky, A; Irfan, Muhamad; Bodmeier, R

2013-12-01

242

PHA based denitrification: municipal wastewater vs. acetate.  

PubMed

Denitrification of municipal wastewater based on bacterial storage polymers-Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) - was investigated in biofilm sequencing batch reactors, as a part of a two sludge system for wastewater treatment and in comparison to acetate based synthetic wastewater. The results show that PHA based denitrification (PBD) of real wastewater can be a viable alternative, especially for wastewater with low COD/N ratio, without the need for external carbon source addition. High nitrate removal capacity of about 40-50 mg N/L with a low COD/N requirement of about 4-5, were observed. It was found that entrapped particulate organic matter contributed additional reducing power, on top of the storage materials, thus allowing for the high nitrate reduction capacity. Daily removal rates were similar to those of extensive treatment systems (0.24-0.31 gr N/L reactor*d). Large differences in storage yield and composition between biomass grown on synthetic and municipal wastewater were observed. PMID:23395755

Krasnits, Eli; Beliavsky, Michael; Tarre, Sheldon; Green, Michal

2013-03-01

243

Pyruvate and acetate metabolism in termite mitochondria.  

PubMed

Intact mitochondria have been successfully prepared from body tissues from the termites Nasutitermes walkeri and Coptotermes formosanus. This is the first report of the successful isolation of mitochondria from termites (Isoptera: Termitidae). Using an oxygen electrode, oxygen consumption by the mitochondria during the oxidation of various respiratory substrates was determined and their properties measured in terms of respiratory control index and ADP/O. ADP/O was as expected for substrates such as pyruvate, acetylcarnitine and acetyl-CoA and carnitine. Pyruvate and acetate were the major respiratory substrates in both species. The total activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) in the mitochondria from N. walkeri and C. formosanus was determined to be 72.87+/-8.98 and 8.29+/-0.42 nmol/termite/h, respectively. Mitochondria isolated in the presence of inhibitors of PDHc interconversion were used to determine that about 60% of the PDHc was maintained in the active form in both N. walkeri and C. formosanus. The sufficient PDHc activity and high rate of pyruvate oxidation in mitochondria from N. walkeri suggest that pyruvate is rapidly metabolised, whereas the low mitochondrial PDHc activity of C. formosanus suggests that in this species more pyruvate is produced than can be oxidised in the termite tissues. PMID:14511824

Itakura, Shuji; Tanaka, Hiromi; Enoki, Akio; Chappell, Douglas J; Slaytor, Michael

2003-10-01

244

Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.  

PubMed

Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

2010-09-01

245

Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

2008-04-01

246

Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

2014-06-01

247

Methane Production and Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation in the Florida Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane production pathways in the Florida Everglades are influenced by factors such as nutrient levels, H2 concentrations, and temperature. Syntrophic acetate oxidizers can outcompete methanogens for acetate when conditions are right (high temperatures and low H2). During syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO), which becomes more exergonic with increasing temperature, acetate is oxidized to carbon dioxide and H2, which can be utilized to produce methane via CO2 reduction. Everglades soil from along a nutrient gradient was incubated at 25°C and 45°C. The shift to the CO2 reduction pathway for methane formation that would be expected in high temperature incubations due to SAO should result in a decrease in ?13C-CH4 and increase in ?2H-CH4. Instead, we observed higher ?13C and lower ?2H in the methane produced in high temperature incubations. The higher than expected ?13C may be partly explained by lower kinetic isotope effects caused by temperature. Coupling between the syntrophic acetate oxidizers and the CO2 reducers, whereby isotopically light hydrogen from acetate is used in methane formation could lower ?2H-CH4. Separate experiments using 13C-labelled acetate revealed that potential SAO activity is low in soils collected from the Everglades.

Holmes, M. E.; Chanton, J.; Bae, H.; Ogram, A.

2012-12-01

248

A Search for Methyl Acetate in Hot Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to search for methyl acetate, CH3COOCH3, in high mass hot cores. Methyl acetate is possibly synthesized through multiple reaction pathways from molecules previously detected in hot cores, most notably from acetic acid and methanol via esterification. Esterification, beyond the formation of methyl formate, has not yet been observed in the ISM. The project is already underway in nothern sources based on millimeter data from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We hope to study the chemically rich southern source G327.3 (decl B1950=-54.49'15.6"), amongst others, using MOPRA and to search for acetic acid and methyl acetate. Observations are supported by laboratory studies of methyl acetate in the 3 mm and 1 mm and successful spectral fitting by the Blake group at Caltech. If detected, methyl acetate, consisting of 11 atoms, would be one of the larger complex organic molecules detected in the interstellar medium and could point to previously unconsidered reaction mechanisms.

Kelley, Matthew; Braakman, Rogier; Blake, Geoffrey

2006-10-01

249

Abiraterone acetate: in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Oral abiraterone acetate, in combination with prednisone/prednisolone, is used to treat patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who have previously received docetaxel-containing chemotherapy. Abiraterone acetate was developed to specifically inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP)17A1, which is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of testosterone. In a pivotal phase III trial in patients with metastatic CRPC who have previously received docetaxel-containing chemotherapy, abiraterone acetate 1000?mg once daily plus prednisone 5?mg twice daily significantly prolonged overall survival compared with placebo plus prednisone. In this trial, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone was significantly more effective than placebo plus prednisone in prolonging the time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression and in prolonging progression-free survival. Significantly more abiraterone acetate plus prednisone recipients than placebo plus prednisone recipients were considered to be responders, when assessed by PSA levels or radiographic imaging. Treatment with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in the phase III trial was associated with an acceptable tolerability profile, which was generally similar to that of the placebo plus prednisone group. However, adverse events of special interest (e.g. cardiac disorders and liver-function test abnormalities and adverse events resulting from elevated mineralocorticoid levels because of CYP17A1 inhibition [i.e. fluid retention and oedema, hypokalaemia, hypertension]) occurred in significantly more abiraterone acetate plus prednisone than in placebo plus prednisone recipients. PMID:21985170

Yang, Lily P H

2011-10-22

250

40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl...Substances § 721.10448 Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl...identified generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl...substance according to the average number molecular weight section...

2013-07-01

251

Do alkali and alkaline earth acetates form organometallates via decarboxylation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multistage mass spectrometry experiments combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to examine whether the alkali and alkaline earth acetate ions [Metal(O2CCH3)n]?, formed via electrospray ionization, fragment under collision-induced dissociation conditions to yield the organometallic ions [CH3Metal(O2CCH3)n?1]?. The alkali earth acetate ions [Metal(O2CCH3)2]? (Metal=lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium) all fragment via loss of the acetate anion, with

Anne P. Jacob; Patrick F. James; Richard A. J. O’Hair

2006-01-01

252

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

1992-01-01

253

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22

254

The antibacterial activity and stability of acetic acid.  

PubMed

Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against micro-organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined the activity against a range of bacterial pathogens and also assessed any reduction in antibacterial activity due to evaporation or inactivation by organic material in dressings. Acetic acid was active at dilutions as low as 0.166% and the activity was not reduced by evaporation nor by inactivation by cotton swabs. Burn injuries are a major problem in countries with limited resources. Acetic acid is an ideal candidate for use in patients who are treated in those parts of the world. PMID:23747099

Fraise, A P; Wilkinson, M A C; Bradley, C R; Oppenheim, B; Moiemen, N

2013-08-01

255

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen; Ad.muIFN-beta AD-237, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, ALVAC vCP1452, alvimopan hydrate, ambrisentan, anakinra, anti-IFN-gamma MAb; Bimatoprost, BMS-188797, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan, bovine lactoferrin; Caffeine, canertinib dihydrochloride, canfosfamide hydrochloride, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cH36, ChimeriVax-JE, ciclesonide, cilansetron, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, CpG-7909, Cypher; Daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, denufosol tetrasodium, Dexamet, diindolemethane, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, DX-9065a; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, elacridar, eletriptan, emtricitabine, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fludarabine, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gavestinel sodium, gefitinib, granisetron-Biochronomer; Human Albumin, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, interleukin-2 XL, isatoribine, ISS-1018, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lanthanum carbonate, L-arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, LY-450139; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ospemifene; PACAP38, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, patupilone, pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, posaconazole, prasterone, pregabalin; R-112, ramelteon, ranolazine, rasagiline mesilate, rebimastat, roflumilast, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rupatadine fumarate; S-3013, S-3304, semustine, sitaxsentan sodium, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, tamoxifen, Taxus, Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, TH-9507, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, tolvaptan, torcetrapib, TR-14035, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen, treprostinil diethanolamine, troglitazone, troxacitabine; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, VAS-991, veglin, vinflunine, voriconazole; White sweet potato extract; Ximelagatran. PMID:16273137

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-10-01

256

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (PE)HRG214, 1E10, 21-Aminoepothilone B; Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, Ad100-B7.1/HLA, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AMD-070, anhydrovinblastine, aripiprazole, asimadoline, atrasentan, AVE-5883; Bimatoprost, BNP-7787, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BR-1; Canfosfamide hydrochloride, ciclesonide, curcumin, cypher; D0401, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, D-D4FC, dendritic cell-based vaccine, desloratadine, dextrin sulfate, dolastatin 10, drospirenone drospirenone/estradiol, DS-992, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; E-7010, efalizumab, eletriptan, EM-1421, enfuvirtide, entecavir, etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide, ezetimibe; Favid, fidarestat, fingolimod hydrochloride, FK-352; Gefitinib, gemifloxacin mesilate, gepirone hydrochloride, gimatecan; HE-2000; Imatinib mesylate, indisulam, insulin detemir, irofulven, ISIS-5132; Lapatinib, levocetirizine, liraglutide, lumiracoxib; Metformin/Glyburide, methionine enkephalin, MK-0431, morphine hydrochloride, motexafin gadolinium, mycobacterium cell wall complex; Naturasone, neridronic acid, nesiritide; Oblimersen sodium, olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, omalizumab, oral insulin; Paclitaxel poliglumex, PC-515, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pegvisomant, pexelizumab, picoplatin, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Quercetin; Ramelteon, ranirestat, RG228, rhGAD65, roflumilast, rubitecan; Sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate; Tadalafil, taxus, tipifarnib, tolevamer sodium, topixantrone hydrochloride; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vildagliptin, voriconazole; XTL-001; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15632957

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-11-01

257

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, 3-AP, AP-12009, APC-8015, L-Arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arundic acid, avasimibe; Bevacizumab, bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, BMS-184476, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, BRL-55730, bryostatin 1; CEP-1347, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CP-461, CpG-7909; D-003, dabuzalgron hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DHA-paclitaxel, diflomotecan, DN-101, DP-b99, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, duramycin; Eculizumab, Efalizumab, EKB-569, elcometrine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, ezetimibe; Fenretinide, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; GD2L-KLH conjugate vaccine, gefitinib, glufosfamide, GTI-2040; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, hydroquinone, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium; IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; KRN-5500; LY-544344; MDX-210, melatonin, mepolizumab, motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, NSC-330507, NSC-683864; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, ortataxel; Pagoclone, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, plevitrexed, polyphenon E, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PX-12; QS-21; Ragaglitazar, ranelic acid distrontium salt, RDP-58, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, repinotan hydrochloride, rhEndostatin, rh-Lactoferrin, (R)-roscovitine; S-8184, semaxanib, sitafloxacin hydrate, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, synthadotin; Tadalafil, tesmilifene hydrochloride, theratope, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, topixantrone hydrochloride, trabectedin, traxoprodil, Tri-Luma; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vinflunine; Ximelagatran; Ziconotide. PMID:15148527

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-04-01

258

Excess volumes of binary mixtures that contain olive oil with alkyl and vinyl acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports densities and excess molar volumes for ethyl acetate, vinyl acetate, propyl acetate, isopropyl acetate,\\u000a and butyl acetate with olive oil at temperatures from 283.15–298.15 K. Redlich-Kister polynomials were fitted to the results\\u000a of excess volumes. All the systems showed slight deviations from ideality. The excess volumes decreased with the number of\\u000a carbon atoms of the acetate, but

Cristina González; Jos M. Resa; Juan Lanz

2000-01-01

259

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP.

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

2003-01-01

260

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section...1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the...

2009-04-01

261

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section...1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the...

2010-04-01

262

Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.  

PubMed

A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. PMID:21848256

Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

2011-09-20

263

Development, validation and comparison of two microextraction techniques for the rapid and sensitive determination of pregabalin in urine and pharmaceutical formulations after ethyl chloroformate derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

The present article reports first time the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to extract pregabalin (PRG) from urine and pharmaceutical formulations followed by GC-MS analysis after ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization. PRG is an antiepileptic and analgesic drug, which is a structural analogue of ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA). It is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and neuropathic pain. Initially PRG was derivatized with ECF in the presence of pyridine at room temperature for 30s. Experimental parameters were investigated for derivatization, SPME and DLLME conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.019 ?g/ml and 0.063 ?g/ml for SPME and 0.022 ?g/ml and 0.075 ?g/ml for DLLME respectively. The percentage recovery, in case of SPME was in the range of 83-98% while for DLLME it is in the range of 84-98%. The intra and inter-day precisions were found to be less than 6%. The developed methods after ECF derivatization were found to be simple, fast, efficient and inexpensive. DLLME has several advantages like lesser extraction time and cost effectiveness as compared to SPME. The developed methods may find wide application for the routine determination of PRG in biological as well as in quality control samples of pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22677651

Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Fatima, Ghizal; Malhotra, Ekta; Murthy, R C

2012-11-01

264

Expedient Synthesis of ?-(2-Azaheteroaryl) Acetates via the Addition of Silyl Ketene Acetals to Azine-N-oxides.  

PubMed

A new and expedient synthesis of ?-(2-azaheteroaryl) acetates is presented. The reaction proceeds rapidly under mild conditions via the addition of silyl ketene acetals to azine-N-oxides in the presence of the phosphonium salt PyBroP. This procedure affords diverse ?-(2-azaheteroaryl) acetates which are highly desirable components/building blocks in molecules of pharmaceutical interest but are traditionally challenging to synthesize via contemporary methods. The reaction optimization and mechanism as well as a novel electronically enhanced PyBroP derivative are described. PMID:24885646

Londregan, Allyn T; Burford, Kristen; Conn, Edward L; Hesp, Kevin D

2014-06-20

265

Lubricating Oil Compositions Containing Calcium Acetate and Lubricating Solids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extreme pressure additive for greases and lubricating compositions for internal combustion engines and metalworking operations combines graphite, stannic sulfide, or molybdenum disulfide with anhydrous calcium acetate. Substantially equal amounts are e...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

266

Environmental Evaluation of Calcium-Magnesium Acetate (CMA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a literature survey and a limited laboratory study on the environmental impacts of Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). Laboratory tests were performed on fish, zooplankton, phytoplankton, common roadside plants and soils. N...

G. R. Winters J. Gidley H. Hunt

1985-01-01

267

Ice-melting characteristics of calcium magnesium acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of the study are to determine the pertinent properties of Calcium/Magnesium Acetate and to determine the pH and ratio of calcium to magnesium that provide optimum road deicing characteristics.

Schenk, R. U.

1986-01-01

268

Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isola...

S. Zinder

1991-01-01

269

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

270

Antibacterial Textile Finishes Utilizing Zirconyl Acetate Complexes of Inorganic Peroxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteriostatic, water-insoluble complexes of zirconyl acetate with inorganic peroxides are disclosed. Peroxides operative in forming these complexes are hydrogen peroxide, alkali metal perborates and alkali metal peroxydiphosphates. Processes for in situ ...

C. Welch G. S. Dana T. Vigo

1977-01-01

271

Storage Stability of Pyrotechnic Compositions Containing Vinyl Alcohol Acetate Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long term storage surveillance was conducted on pyrotechnic compositions employing vinyl alcohol acetate resin (VAAR) as a binder. The storage stability of the composition after it had been exposed to ambient and high temperature (167F) storage conditions...

J. A. Carrazza S. M. Kaye

1966-01-01

272

Antibacterial Textile Finishes Utilizing Zirconyl Acetate Complexes of Inorganic Peroxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteriostatic, water-insoluble complexes of zirconyl acetate with inorganic peroxides are disclosed. Peroxides operative in forming these complexes are hydrogen peroxide, alkali metal perborates and alkali metal peroxydiphosphates. Processes for in situ ...

C. M. Welch G. F. Danna T. L. Vigo

1978-01-01

273

Hydrothermal production of formic and acetic acids from syringol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of formic and acetic acids (or salts) by hydrothermal oxidation of syringol, a model compound for lignin, was\\u000a investigated using a batch reactor. Results show that the highest yields of formic and acetic acids were, respectively, 59.6%\\u000a and 11.3% at the reaction condition of 0.5 mol\\/L NaOH, 120% H2O2 supply and 280 °C. These results will inform studies

Lu-ting Pan; Zheng Shen; Lei Wu; Ya-lei Zhang; Xue-fei Zhou; Fang-ming Jin

2010-01-01

274

Microbial Methanogenesis and Acetate Metabolism in a Meromictic Lake  

PubMed Central

Methanogenesis and the anaerobic metabolism of acetate were examined in the sediment and water column of Knaack Lake, a small biogenic meromictic lake located in central Wisconsin. The lake was sharply stratified during the summer and was anaerobic below a depth of 3 m. Large concentrations (4,000 ?mol/liter) of dissolved methane were detected in the bottom waters. A methane concentration maximum occurred at 4 m above the sediment. The production of 14CH4 from 14C-labeled HCOOH, HCO3?, and CH3OH and [2-14C]acetate demonstrated microbial methanogenesis in the water column of the lake. The maximum rate of methanogenesis calculated from reduction of H14CO3? by endogenous electron donors in the surface sediment (depth, 22 m) was 7.6 nmol/h per 10 ml and in the water column (depth, 21 m) was 0.6 nmol/h per 10 ml. The methyl group of acetate was simultaneously metabolized to CH4 and CO2 in the anaerobic portions of the lake. Acetate oxidation was greatest in surface waters and decreased with water depth. Acetate was metabolized primarily to methane in the sediments and water immediately above the sediment. Sulfide inhibition studies and temperature activity profiles demonstrated that acetate metabolism was performed by several microbial populations. Sulfide additions (less than 5 ?g/ml) to water from 21.5 m stimulated methanogenesis from acetate, but inhibited CO2 production. Sulfate addition (1 mM) had no significant effect on acetate metabolism in water from 21.5 m, whereas nitrate additions (10 to 14,000 ?g/liter) completely inhibited methanogenesis and stimulated CO2 formation.

Winfrey, M. R.; Zeikus, J. G.

1979-01-01

275

Mechanism of calcium accumulation in acetate-fed aerobic granule  

Microsoft Academic Search

High calcium content has been widely reported in acetate-fed aerobic granules, but the reason behind this is unclear yet.\\u000a By SEM–energy dispersive X-ray mapping analysis, this study showed that the majority of calcium was presented in the central\\u000a part of the acetate-fed aerobic granule, and the granule shell part was nearly calcium-free. The elemental analysis of calcium\\u000a ions coupled with

Zhi-Wu Wang; Yong Li; Yu Liu

2007-01-01

276

A spectroscopic study of the mineral paceite (calcium acetate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis consisting of Raman, infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was undertaken on two forms of calcium acetate with differing degrees of hydration. Monohydrate (Ca(CH3COO)2·H2O) and half-hydrate (Ca(CH3COO)2·0.5H2O) species were analysed. Assignments of vibrational bands due to the acetate anion have been made in all three forms of spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of the mineral was undertaken to

Anthony W. Musumeci; Ray L. Frost; Eric R. Waclawik

2007-01-01

277

Production of acetic acid from methanol by thermophilic Methanosarcina sp.: Acetate production as an index in abnormal methane fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of approximately 80–160 ?mol of acetic acid was observed in 1% (w\\/w) methanol culture media (10 ml) of thermophilic Methanosarcina sp. from which essential nutrients such as salts of NH4+, PO43?, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were removed. Similar acetic acid production was found when methane gas formation was controlled to approximately 50% by means of inhibitors of methyl group

Makoto Yamaguchi; Kiyoshi Minami

1998-01-01

278

Tetrazole acetic acid: tautomers, conformers, and isomerization.  

PubMed

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol(-1) energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol(-1)) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol(-1)). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm(-1), where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm(-1), transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed. PMID:24527914

Araujo-Andrade, C; Reva, I; Fausto, R

2014-02-14

279

Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol-1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (˜330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol-1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol-1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm-1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm-1, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I.; Fausto, R.

2014-02-01

280

Effects of acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis on cardiac function in chronic dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis on cardiac function in chronic dialysis patients. Previous studies have suggested that acetate hemodialysis causes myocardial depression. This study examines the acute effects of hemodialysis using, alternately, bicarbonate and acetate in the dialysate, on cardiac function in ten patients. These patients were also studied during acetate dialysis using a large surface area (SA) dialyzer.

B Rai Mehta; Diane Fischer; Masood Ahmad; Thomas D Dubose

1983-01-01

281

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

282

Mechanism of calcium accumulation in acetate-fed aerobic granule.  

PubMed

High calcium content has been widely reported in acetate-fed aerobic granules, but the reason behind this is unclear yet. By SEM-energy dispersive X-ray mapping analysis, this study showed that the majority of calcium was presented in the central part of the acetate-fed aerobic granule, and the granule shell part was nearly calcium-free. The elemental analysis of calcium ions coupled with the chemical titration of carbonate further revealed that the calcium ions that accumulated in the acetate-fed aerobic granule mainly existed in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The formation of the CaCO3 appeared to be highly dependent on the size of the aerobic granule, i.e., the CaCO3 precipitation was found only in aerobic granules with radiuses larger than 0.5 mm. These experimental observations with regard to the formation of CaCO3 in the acetate-fed aerobic granule were further confirmed by the model simulation, which was based on the principles of mass diffusion and carbonate dissociation in liquid phase. This study for the first time showed that the size of the acetate-fed aerobic granule would indeed play an essential role in the CaCO3 formation, and provided experimental evidence that a crystal CaCO3 core was not necessarily required for granulation. PMID:17225105

Wang, Zhi-Wu; Li, Yong; Liu, Yu

2007-02-01

283

Bioenergetics of methanogenesis from acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri.  

PubMed Central

Methane formation from acetate by resting cells of Methanosarcina barkeri was accompanied by an increase in the intracellular ATP content from 0.9 to 4.0 nmol/mg of protein. Correspondingly, the proton motive force increased to a steady-state level of -120 mV. The transmembrane pH gradient however, was reversed under these conditions and amounted to +20 mV. The addition of the protonophore 3,5,3',4'-tetrachlorosalicylanilide led to a drastic decrease in the proton motive force and in the intracellular ATP content and to an inhibition of methane formation. The ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide stopped methanogenesis, and the intracellular ATP content decreased. The proton motive force decreased also under these conditions, indicating that the proton motive force could not be generated from acetate without ATP. The overall process of methane formation from acetate was dependent on the presence of sodium ions; upon addition of acetate to cell suspensions of M. barkeri, a transmembrane Na+ gradient in the range of 4:1 (Na+ out/Na+ in) was established. Possible sites of involvement of the Na+ gradient in the conversion of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide are discussed. Na+ is not involved in the CO dehydrogenase reaction.

Peinemann, S; Muller, V; Blaut, M; Gottschalk, G

1988-01-01

284

Regulation of acetate and acetylCoA converting enzymes during growth on acetate and\\/or glucose in the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haloarcula marismortui formed acetate during aerobic growth on glucose and utilized acetate as growth substrate. On glucose\\/acetate mixtures diauxic growth was observed with glucose as the preferred substrate. Regulation of enzyme activities, related to glucose and acetate metabolism was analyzed. It was found that both glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACD) were upregulated during periods of glucose consumption

Christopher Bräsen; Peter Schönheit

2004-01-01

285

The Metabolism of Acetate by the Blue-green Algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The utilization of acetate by blue-green algae was examined and the activities of enzymes involved in its metabolism measured. Although acetate did not stimulate the endogenous respiration of these organisms, the oxida- tion of acetate was followed by the rate of release of (14C) carbon dioxide from (I-~~CC) and (2-l4CC) sodium acetate. Similarly, sodium acetate did not alter the

J. Pearce; N. G. Carr

1967-01-01

286

Indium chloride catalyzed alkylative rearrangement of propargylic acetates using alkyl chlorides, alcohols, and acetates: facile synthesis of ?-alkyl-?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.  

PubMed

Indium chloride catalyzed alkylative rearrangement of propargylic acetates into ?-alkyl-?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds has been achieved. Propargylic acetates functioned as ?-acylvinyl anion equivalents to react with carbocations generated from alkyl chlorides. Other alkyl electrophiles such as alcohols and acetates were also applicable. PMID:24494976

Onishi, Yoshiharu; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Makoto; Baba, Akio

2014-02-21

287

A spectroscopic study of the mineral paceite (calcium acetate).  

PubMed

A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis consisting of Raman, infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was undertaken on two forms of calcium acetate with differing degrees of hydration. Monohydrate (Ca(CH(3)COO)(2).H(2)O) and half-hydrate (Ca(CH(3)COO)(2).0.5H(2)O) species were analysed. Assignments of vibrational bands due to the acetate anion have been made in all three forms of spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of the mineral was undertaken to follow its decomposition under a nitrogen atmosphere. Three major mass loss steps at approximately 120, 400 and 600 degrees C were revealed. These mass losses correspond very well to firstly, the loss of co-ordinated water molecules, and then the loss of water from the acetate anion, followed by finally the loss of carbon dioxide from the carbonate mineral to form a stable calcium oxide. PMID:17070100

Musumeci, Anthony W; Frost, Ray L; Waclawik, Eric R

2007-07-01

288

Process for the oxidation of butenes to linear acetates  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the production of butene acetates and linear butene-1, 4-diacetates which comprises first activating a supported palladium metal catalyst by contacting it with a C/sub 3/-C/sub 6/ olefin at a temperature of greater than about 50/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to provide at least a small but perceptible quantity of the activated catalyst, in the substantial absence of oxygen, and thereafter contacting the activated catalyst with acetic acid and cis-butene-2, trans-butene-2, or butene-1 admixed with air or oxygen in a liquid metal medium, thereby forming the corresponding butene acetates and linear butene-1, 4-diacetates.

Lyons, J.E.

1986-07-22

289

Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate.  

PubMed

This work has been done to find out the optimum condition of supercritical methyl acetate method in biodiesel production. The reaction temperature, pressure, time and molar ratio in methyl acetate to oil were the key parameters that must all be considered to produce an optimum condition. Evaluation of thermal decomposition on products, cis-trans isomerization and tocopherol content were required to further optimize the reaction condition. It was, therefore, concluded that for the supercritical methyl acetate method, reaction condition of 350 °C/20 MPa/45 min/42 M ratio gave the highest yields of FAME (96.7 wt.%) and triacetin (8.8 wt.%). Yet, at such a reaction condition, the optimum reaction condition was compromised due particularly to the unavoidable thermal decomposition of products, and tocopherols as natural anti-oxidants. PMID:23340101

Goembira, Fadjar; Saka, Shiro

2013-03-01

290

Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".  

PubMed

This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti. PMID:16214251

Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

2006-02-01

291

The assimilation of acetate and propionate by Prototheca zopfi  

PubMed Central

1. The tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles are of major importance in the assimilation of acetate and propionate by Prototheca zopfii. The pattern of assimilation of [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]propionate by whole cells growing with their respective substrates is similar except that, with propionate, ?-hydroxypropionate is the first labelled intermediate detected. 2. Carbon dioxide fixation is of little quantitative importance for the growth of this organism with propionate. 3. The yield of cells obtained/mole of acetate is similar to that obtained/mole of propionate and about half that obtained/mole of n-butyrate, these substrates acting as sole sources of carbon and energy.

Lloyd, D.; Callely, A. G.

1965-01-01

292

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-01-01

293

Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.  

PubMed

The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia. PMID:24333792

Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

2014-02-10

294

A spectroscopic study of the mineral paceite (calcium acetate)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis consisting of Raman, infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was undertaken on two forms of calcium acetate with differing degrees of hydration. Monohydrate (Ca(CH 3COO) 2·H 2O) and half-hydrate (Ca(CH 3COO) 2·0.5H 2O) species were analysed. Assignments of vibrational bands due to the acetate anion have been made in all three forms of spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of the mineral was undertaken to follow its decomposition under a nitrogen atmosphere. Three major mass loss steps at ˜120, 400 and 600 °C were revealed. These mass losses correspond very well to firstly, the loss of co-ordinated water molecules, and then the loss of water from the acetate anion, followed by finally the loss of carbon dioxide from the carbonate mineral to form a stable calcium oxide.

Musumeci, Anthony W.; Frost, Ray L.; Waclawik, Eric R.

2007-07-01

295

Advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation.  

PubMed

Ozone oxidation is an advanced oxidation process for treatment of organic and inorganic wastewater. In this paper, sodium acetate (according to chemical oxygen demand [COD]) was selected as the model pollutant in water, and the degradation efficiencies and mechanism of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation were investigated. The results showed that the ozone oxidation was an effective treatment technology for advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water; the COD removal rate obtained the maximum value of 45.89% from sodium acetate solution when the pH value was 10.82, ozone concentration was 100 mg/L, reaction time was 30 minutes, and reaction temperature was 25 degrees C. The COD removal rate increased first and decreased subsequently with the bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L, the largest decline being 20.35%. The COD removal rate declined by 25.38% with the carbonate (CO3(2-)) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L; CO3(2-) has a more obvious scavenging effect to inhibit the formation of hydroxyl free radicals than HCO3-. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) could enhance the COD removal rate greatly; they could reach 77.35 and 96.53%, respectively, after a reaction time of 30 minutes, which was increased by 31.46 and 50.64%, respectively, compared with only ozone oxidation. It was proved that the main ozone oxidation product of sodium acetate was carbon dioxide (CO2), and the degradation of sodium acetate in the ozone oxidation process followed the mechanism of hydroxyl free radicals. PMID:24645544

Yang, De-Min; Yuan, Jian-Mei

2014-02-01

296

Delineation of LASIK Flaps with Prednisolone Acetate Eyedrops  

PubMed Central

We describe the use and safety of prednisolone acetate eyedrops at the end of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to aid proper positioning of the corneal flap. The LASIK flap is created using the preferred technique. Following laser ablation and flap repositioning, one drop of prednisolone acetate is instilled on the eye. This delineates the flap “gutters” and allows perfect flap positioning and centration. We used this technique in 425 eyes undergoing LASIK for correction of spherocylindrical refractive errors. Flap margins were adequately delineated intraoperatively. The only complication related to the use of the steroid suspension was crystal deposition under the flap in one case which resolved completely in 48 hours.

Fahd, Daoud C; Fahed, Sharbel D

2014-01-01

297

Captive solvent [11C]acetate synthesis in GMP conditions.  

PubMed

Reliable procedure for the production of 1-[(11)C]acetate in GMP conditions was developed based on a combination of the captive-solvent Grignard reaction conducted in the sterile catheter followed by the convenient solid-phase extraction purification on a series of ion-exchange cartridges. The described procedure proved to be reliable in more than 30 patient productions. The process provides stable radiochemical yields (65% EOB) of sodium acetate (1-[(11)C]) of the Ph.Eur. quality (radiochemical purity better than 95%) in a short time (5 min). PMID:16806949

Soloviev, Dmitri; Tamburella, Claire

2006-09-01

298

Abiraterone Acetate and Castration Resistant Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate  

PubMed Central

Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare histological variant that only represents <1% of prostate tumors. This histological variant has several important clinical implications with respect to their evolution, clinical prognosis, and treatment. We report the case of a 64-year-old patient with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer, that was treated with abiraterone acetate with good clinical response, to our knowledge, the first case of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate in treatment with abiraterone acetate.

Linden-Castro, Edgar; Pelayo-Nieto, Marcela; Alias-Melgar, Alejandro; Espinosa-Perezgrovas, Daniel; Ramirez-Galindo, Ivan; Catalan-Quinto, Gabriel

2014-01-01

299

A new automated method for phenotyping arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2) based upon inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate by phenyl acetate.  

PubMed

A new method for phenotyping human serum arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2) is described and evaluated. The aromatic esters, phenyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl acetate, were compared as substrates for spectrophotometric measurement of arylesterase activity. A method for arylesterase phenotyping, based upon inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate by phenyl acetate, was developed. The method was applied to serum samples from 158 blood donors and showed a distinct separation of the three phenotypes defined by a reference method based on the ratio of paraoxonase activity to arylesterase activity using paraoxon and phenyl acetate as substrates. The method was adapted to a Cobas-Fara centrifugal analyser. PMID:1525262

Haagen, L; Brock, A

1992-07-01

300

Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and geraniol-8-carboxylic acid. Resting cell suspensions previously grown with linalyl acetate oxidized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and pyruvic acid. The crude cell-free extract (10,000 g of supernatant), obtained from the sonicate of linalyl acetate-grown cells, was shown to contain enzyme systems responsible for the formation of linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid and linalool-8-carboxylic acid from linalyl acetate. The same supernatant contained NAD-linked alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the formation of linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde and linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, respectively. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, resting cell experiments, growth and manometric studies carried out with the isolated metabolites as well as related synthetic analogs, and the preliminary enzymatic studies performed with the cell-free extract, a probable pathway for the microbial degradation of linalyl acetate with the acetoxy group intact is suggested.

Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K. Madhava

1983-01-01

301

Preparation of poly(vinyl acetate)\\/clay and poly(vinyl acetate)\\/poly(vinyl alcohol)\\/clay microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)\\/poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA)\\/montmorillonite (MMT) clay nanocomposite microspheres with a core\\/shell\\u000a structure have been developed via a suspension polymerization approach. In order to prepare the PVAc\\/MMT and PVAc\\/PVA\\/MMT\\u000a nanocomposite microspheres, which are promising precursor of PVA\\/MMT nanocomposite microspheres, suspension polymerization\\u000a of vinyl acetate with organophilic MMT and heterogeneous saponification were conducted. A quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethylammonium\\u000a bromide, was mixed with

Hye Min Jung; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Chul Ji; Sung Ok Sohn; Han Do Ghim; Hyunju Cho; Young A Han; Jin Hyun Choi; Jae Deuk Yun; Jeong Hyun Yeum

2006-01-01

302

Acetate utilization and butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase in butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine.  

PubMed

Seven strains of Roseburia sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Coprococcus sp. from the human gut that produce high levels of butyric acid in vitro were studied with respect to key butyrate pathway enzymes and fermentation patterns. Strains of Roseburia sp. and F. prausnitzii possessed butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase and acetate kinase activities, but butyrate kinase activity was not detectable either in growing or in stationary-phase cultures. Although unable to use acetate as a sole source of energy, these strains showed net utilization of acetate during growth on glucose. In contrast, Coprococcus sp. strain L2-50 is a net producer of acetate and possessed detectable butyrate kinase, acetate kinase, and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase activities. These results demonstrate that different functionally distinct groups of butyrate-producing bacteria are present in the human large intestine. PMID:12324374

Duncan, Sylvia H; Barcenilla, Adela; Stewart, Colin S; Pryde, Susan E; Flint, Harry J

2002-10-01

303

Effect of phorbol myristate acetate on secretion of parathyroid hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase c, on the secretion of parathyroid hormone from collagenase-dispersed bovine parathyroid cells was tested. The cells were incubated at low or high concentrations of calcium in the medium, and the hormone secreted into the medium was measured by a radioimmunoassay that recognizes both intact and C-terminal fragments of

Morrissey

1988-01-01

304

Ice-Melting Characteristics of Calcium Magnesium Acetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pertinent chemical and physical properties of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) were determined. Included were comparisons of ratios of calcium to magnesium varying from 100% CaAc2 to 100% MgAc2. The objective was to determine the optimum composition of CMA...

R. U. Schenk

1986-01-01

305

Demixing and gelation behavior of ternary cellulose acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demixing behavior on cooling of ternary systems of cellulose acetate\\/solvent\\/water has been examined for CA concentrations up to 40 wt% CA in several solvents. Cloud points have been measured as a function of cooling rate. The rapid process of liquid - liquid demixing can be discriminated from the slow process of aggregate formation by examining the dependence of the

A. J. Reuvers; F. W. Altena; C. A. Smolders

1986-01-01

306

Plasticization of Fibrous Cellulose Acetate I - Synthesis and Characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis and characterisation of fibrous cellulose triacetate -CTA are reported using an acetic acid \\/ anhydride \\/ perchloric acid toluene catalysed route. The fibrous product exhibits a high degree of nano crystallinity. An optimum concentration of the reactants for substitution and minimization of fibre degradation were studied. Chain degradation was promoted by the acetylium ion and lead to a loss

Richard A. Pethrick; Anne Marie Wilton

2012-01-01

307

Activity of octreotide acetate in a total nutrient admixture.  

PubMed

The activity of octreotide acetate in a total nutrient admixture (TNA) and the effect of the drug on the stability of lipid emulsion in the TNA were studied. Octreotide acetate injection was added to a standard solution containing 3% lipids, amino acids, dextrose, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements to achieve a theoretical concentration of 45 micrograms/dL. Samples were stored at room temperature for 48 hours. Octreotide concentrations were determined in triplicate by radioimmunoassay; physical stability of the solutions was assessed by lipid particle-size determination, pH measurement, and visual observation of emulsion integrity at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. The activity of octreotide in two samples of each solution (with and without lipid) was analyzed immediately after preparation and after seven days under refrigeration. There was no evidence of emulsion breakdown or pH change in any solution over the study period. In addition, particle-size distributions at 48 hours and 7 days were comparable to those at time zero, suggesting physical stability. Octreotide acetate activity was not consistently greater than 90% (mean +/- S.D.) after storage for 48 hours. Octreotide acetate at a theoretical concentration of 45 micrograms/dL in a TNA solution containing 3% lipids appeared to be physically compatible for 48 hours at room temperature and for 7 days under refrigeration. However, the chemical activity of octreotide in TNA was not consistent after storage for 48 hours. PMID:1781474

Ritchie, D J; Holstad, S G; Westrich, T J; Hirsch, J D; O'Dorisio, T M

1991-10-01

308

Infrared spectroscopic study of halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been used to study the molecular structure of halloysite and potassium acetate intercalated halloysite and to determine the structural changes of halloysite through intercalation. The MIR spectra show all fundamental vibrations including the hydroxyl units, basic aluminosilicate framework and water molecules in the structure of halloysite and its intercalation complex. Comparison between halloysite and halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation complex shows almost all bands observed for halloysite are also observed for halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation complex apart from bands observed in the 1700-1300 cm -1 region, but with differences in band intensity. However, NIR spectra, based on MIR spectra, provide sufficient evidence to analyze the structural changes of halloysite through intercalation. There are obvious differences between halloysite and halloysite-potassium acetate intercalation complex in all spectral ranges. Therefore, the reproducibility of measurement and richness of qualitative information should be simultaneously considered for proper selection of a spectroscopic method for molecular structural analysis.

Cheng, Hongfei; Liu, Qinfu; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jinshan; Frost, Ray L.; Du, Xiaoman

2011-03-01

309

Contraception with Chlormadinone Acetate in Woman with Previous Contraceptive Jaundice  

PubMed Central

The oral contraceptive chlormadinone acetate has been given for eight months to a woman who had developed jaundice during four pregnancies, and twice while taking a combined contraceptive pill. No side-effects or changes in liver function were observed. This is further evidence that progestogens used for contraception, and in particular those derived from hydroxyprogesterone, are less hepatotoxic than the oestrogenic components.

Thompson, R. P. H.; Williams, Roger

1970-01-01

310

Natural abundance 17O NMR study of ?-substituted methyl acetates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural abundance 17O NMR chemical shift data for 10 substituted methyl acetates and 7 analogs, recorded in acetonitrile at 75°C, are reported. Variation in the carbonyl and single-bond oxygen signal are observed for formal ?-substitution and do not correlate with inductive effects. The data appear to be consistent with ? effects for analogous systems.

Boykin, D. W.; Subramanian, T. S.; Baumstark, A. L.

1989-01-01

311

Sterochemistry of the Acetalization of Hexafluroacetone with a Bromohydrin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetalization of hexafluoroacetone with threo- and erythro-5-bromo-octan-4-ol has been shown to be highly trans-specific by 19F n.m.r., providing a method for establishing the stereochemistry of bromohydrins and their precursors when they are reacted ster...

B. M. Johnson J. W. Taylor

1971-01-01

312

Synthesis and characterization of cyclic acetal based degradable hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many synthetic, hydrolytically degradable hydrogels have been developed for biomedical applications, there are only a few examples whose polymer backbone does not form acidic products upon degradation. In order to address this concern, we proposed to develop a hydrogel based on a cyclic acetal unit that produces diols and propanals upon hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we proposed the fabrication

Sachiko Kaihara; Shuichi Matsumura; John P. Fisher

2008-01-01

313

Lead Acetate One-Year Newborn Rat Catcinogenesis Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead acetate in physiological saline was injected subcutaneously and intraperitoneally in four divided doses in neonatal rats at a level of 110 mg/kg, the maximum tolerated dosage. Animals were sacrificed after six months and at the termination of the stu...

D. C. Jessup

1969-01-01

314

Brain damage and paraphilia: Treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain damage, due to cortical atrophy, brain tumor, epileptic foci, temporal lobectomy, or concussion, is most frequently associated with hyposexuality in males. Sometimes, hypersexuality and atypical sexual interests may be present, as exemplified in a case of a man who developed a paraphilia for his stepdaughter's breasts following traumatic frontal brain injury. Treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera ®) was successful

Gregory K. Lehne

1984-01-01

315

THERMOREGULATION IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several reports in the literature suggest a relationship between lead intoxication and thermoregulatory capacity. To investigate the effects of lead on the control of body temperature, mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (0 to 100 mg/kg) wh...

316

21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

2013-04-01

317

Metastatic Prostate Cancer Treated by Flutamide versus Cyproterone Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of Flutamide (FLU) versus Cyproterone acetate (CPA) in men with metastatic prostate cancer and favourable prognostic factors. The primary endpoint of the trial was overall survival, disease specific survival, time to progression and side effects were secondary endpoints. The results pertaining to sexual function were already reported [Br J Cancer 82(2)

Fritz H. Schröder; Peter Whelan; Theo M. de Reijke; Karl Heinz Kurth; Michele Pavone-Macaluso; Johan Mattelaer; Roland F. van Velthoven; Muriel Debois; Laurence Collette

2004-01-01

318

Studies on Cellulose Acetate Phthalate. 3. Osmotic Pressure Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic pressure measurements of aqueous solutions of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) were carried out with the help of a highspeed membrane osmometer. The value of the osmotic coefficient, g, for different concentrations of CAP, as well as at different degree of neutralization for various concentrations, were estimated. The effect of concentration and degree of neutralization on the value of g

C. P. Patel; H. C. Trivedi; K. C. Patel; R. D. Patel

1986-01-01

319

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol + hexyl acetate  

SciTech Connect

The authors determined the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water + ethanol + hexyl acetate at 101.325 kPa using a distillation apparatus recycling both liquid and vapor phases. The results were compared with those predicted using group contribution methods. The UNIFAC method gave the best predictions.

Arce, A.; Soto, A. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Orge, B.; Tojo, J. [Univ. of Vigo (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1995-09-01

320

Acetic acid: Microwave spectra, internal rotation and substitution structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal rotation splittings in the microwave spectrum of acetic acid have been re-examined, using both principal axis method (PAM) and internal axis method (IAM) treatments. It is shown how individual terms in the PAM equation can be correlated to the first terms in an expansion of the corresponding IAM formula. When centrifugal distortion was allowed for, both methods reproduced

B. P. van Eijck; J. van Opheusden; M. M. M. van Schaik; E. van Zoeren

1981-01-01

321

Lead Acetate, Three-Generation Reproduction Study - Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead acetate was incorporated into basal laboratory diet at concentrations of 0, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm (calculated on the basis of lead) and offered to male and female rats through three parental and three two-litter filial generations. There was no eviden...

D. C. Jessup

1969-01-01

322

Photoelectrochemistry of polyaniline supported in a microporous cellulose acetate membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the photoelectrochemical response of polyaniline dispersed in a microporous membrane structure. Films of the composite were obtained by electropolymerization of aniline on a platinum electrode coated with a microporous cellulose acetate membrane. They were characterized by UV—Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We compared the results with a electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and a composite film

S. das Neves; M.-A. De Paoli

1998-01-01

323

Mass Spectral and Electric Deflection Study of Acetic Acid Clusters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetic acid clusters, (CH3COOH)n, up to n = 10, were produced in a supersonic beam expansion and analyzed in a molecular beam quadrupole mass spectrometer. A general mechanism for their mass spectral fragmentation was deduced. Polarity of the first four c...

R. Sivert I. Cadez J. Van Doren A. W. Castleman

1984-01-01

324

Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

1987-01-01

325

21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. 524.1484c Section 524.1484c...isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. (a) Specifications. The...tetracaine hydrochloride in each gram of ointment. (b) Sponsor. See No....

2009-04-01

326

Efficient, selective deprotection of aromatic acetates catalyzed by Amberlyst-15 or iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic acetates were selectively deprotected in the presence of aliphatic acetates to the corresponding phenols in excellent yields using Amberlyst-15 or iodine as catalysts in methanol at room temperature. The first catalyst can be recovered.

Biswanath Das; Joydeep Banerjee; R. Ramu; Rammohan Pal; N. Ravindranath; C. Ramesh

2003-01-01

327

Roles of Acetate and Pyruvate in the Metabolism of Streptococcus diacetilactis  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus diacetilactis required acetate, contained acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase, and incorporated both radioactive exogenous acetate and acetate from citrate into cell lipids. dl-?-Lipoic acid replaced acetate and was required for the oxidation of pyruvate. Stimulation of S. diacetilactis by citrate was found to depend on pyruvate oxidation. Resting cells of the organism produced acetate from 73% of the pyruvate they utilized. However, molar growth yields from glucose were not greater under aerobic compared to anaerobic conditions or when lipoic acid or citrate plus lipoic acid was used in the medium in place of acetate. Data indicate that the growth of S. diacetilactis is limited by the rate of acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis, that the rate of synthesis from pyruvate is higher than the rate from acetate, and that lack of acetyl-coenzyme A not required for growth limits the production of diacetyl and precludes the formation of adenosine triphosphate from acetyl-coenzyme A.

Collins, E. B.; Bruhn, J. C.

1970-01-01

328

Partitioning of Acetate, Formate and Phosphates Around the Water/Steam Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volatilities of formic acid, acetic acid, sodium acetate, phosphoric acid, sodium dihydrogen phosphate and sodium monohydrogen phosphate have been measured at temperatures up to 350degC using a corrosion-resistant static cell with sampling of both phases....

M. S. Guszkiewicz D. B. Joyce S. L. Marshall D. A. Palmer J. M. Simonson

2000-01-01

329

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate...524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the calcium salt...

2013-04-01

330

Preparation and Monitoring of Lead Acetate Containing Drinking Water Solutions for Toxicity Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The protocols developed and implemented to provide lead acetate containing drinking water solutions for animal toxicity studies are described in detail. The procedure involved preparation of 20 liter batches of high concentration lead acetate solution (20...

W. R. Blair K. L. Jewett F. W. Wang S. B. Schiller

1994-01-01

331

The Effects of Porous and Solid Fillers on the Permeability of Cellulose Acetate Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several types of filled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared to determine the effect of filler properties and polymer properties on permeability of the composite materials. Casting procedures were chosen to give a dense cellulose acetate phase and a ...

P. Harriott J. Wu F. Klunker

1973-01-01

332

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone - 21 - acetate (C24 H31 FO6 ). Betamethasone disodium phosphate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone-21-disodium phosphate...

2013-04-01

333

42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory...84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory...half-mask facepiece for 5 minutes in a test chamber containing 100 parts (by...

2012-10-01

334

Experimental study of aluminum-, calcium-, and magnesium-acetate complexing at 80 degree C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilities of Al-, Ca-, and Mg-acetate complexes were determined separately at 80°C by measuring the solubilities of gibbsite, portlandite, and brucite as functions of acetate concentrations. The experiments were conducted using geologically realistic acetate concentrations in order to observe the acetate complexes that are important in sedimentary basin fluids. The experimental measurements are used to calculate the stoichiometries and

J FEIN

1991-01-01

335

Acetate repression of methane oxidation by supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a peat soil microcosm.  

PubMed

Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-methane and (12)C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples. PMID:21515721

Rahman, M Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

2011-06-01

336

Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ? †  

PubMed Central

Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Helene; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

2011-01-01

337

40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl...The chemical substance identified as acetic acid,...

2010-07-01

338

40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl...The chemical substance identified as acetic acid,...

2009-07-01

339

A freshwater anaerobe coupling acetate oxidation to tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation.  

PubMed Central

Strain TT4B has been isolated from anaerobic sediments known to be contaminated with a variety of organic solvents. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium and grew anaerobically with acetate as the electron donor and tetrachloroethylene as the electron acceptor in a mineral medium. cis-Dichloroethylene was the halogenated product. This strain did not grow fermentatively and used only acetate or pyruvate as electron donors. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were used as electron acceptors, as were ferric nitriloacetate and fumarate. Nitrogen and sulfur oxyanions were not able to substitute as the electron acceptor for this organism. Modest growth occurred in a two-phase system with 1 ml of hexadecane containing 50 to 200 mM tetrachloroethylene (aqueous concentrations, 25 to 100 microM) and 10 ml of anaerobic mineral solution with Na2S as the reducing agent. Growth was completely inhibited at tetrachloroethylene levels above 100 microM.

Krumholz, L R; Sharp, R; Fishbain, S S

1996-01-01

340

[Anti-androgen treatment of hirsutism with cyproterone acetate].  

PubMed

22 female patients suffering from idiopathic hirsutism were treated according to Hammerstein's reversed sequential scheme over 12 months. During each treatment cycle of 21 days, the daily medication consisted of 1 coated tablet containing 0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg cyproterone acetate (Diane-35); in addition, the patients received one i.m. injection of 300 mg cyproterone acetate (Androcur-Depot) on the first day of each cycle. This therapy resulted in improvement of the disease in 19 of our patients (86.4%). The transitory, mild side effects observed did not require interruption of the treatment. The reversed sequential scheme making use of the depot form of CPA can successfully be administered in patients with hirsutism. PMID:2150902

Kása, M; Egyedi, K; Raffai, S; Török, L

1990-12-01

341

Ethyl acetate: X-ray, solvent and computed structures.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate (ethyl ethanoate) was crystallized in situ and the crystal structure was determined. In the solid, the molecule is flat with trans conformation. The geometric details of ethyl acetate as a solvate are analyzed statistically using the Cambridge Structural Database, uncovering a high degree of hidden disorder. Despite the disorder, they exhibit a preference of the trans over the gauche isomer, with a negligible contribution of the cis isomer. These results are compared to ab initio calculations on both solid-state and molecular level. For the molecular structures, the computed energy differences of the isomers match the statistics found as a solvent. Several DFT-D2 methods used to calculate the solid state yield results that differ significantly from the experiment. PMID:23108979

Boese, A Daniel; Kirchner, Michael; Echeverria, Gustavo A; Boese, Roland

2013-03-18

342

Electrospun cellulose acetate-garnet nanocomposite magnetic fibers for bioseparations.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate fibers with magnetic properties have recently attracted much attention because of their potential novel applications in biomedicine such as for cell and protein separations, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and magnetic filters. In this work, as synthesized yttrium iron garnet and gadolinium substituted yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles have been used to generate magnetic filter paper. Garnet nanoparticles dispersed in cellulose acetate polymer solutions were electrospun as free-standing nonwoven fiber mats as well as on cellulose filter paper substrates resulting in magnetic filter papers. The magnetic fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic property measurements. The resulting magnetic polymer nanocomposites can be easily picked up by an external magnet from a liquid medium. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was separated from solution by using the magnetic filter paper. PMID:24341636

Munaweera, Imalka; Aliev, Ali; Balkus, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

343

Cellulose acetate graft copolymers with nano-structured architectures: Synthesis and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate is a very good film-forming polymer with major applications in cigarette filters, photographic films, cosmetics and pharmaceutics formulations and membrane separation processes. Nevertheless, its rigidity and relative hydrophobic character can be limiting drawbacks for some applications. In this work, new cellulose acetate materials with highly flexible and hydrophilic grafts were obtained with different hydrophilic\\/hydrophobic balances. Cellulose acetate was

M. Billy; A. Ranzani Da Costa; P. Lochon; R. Clément; M. Dresch; S. Etienne; J. M. Hiver; L. David; A. Jonquières

2010-01-01

344

40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

2010-07-01

345

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4–6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry,

D C McMillan; S J Wigmore; K C H Wigmore; P O’Gorman; C E Wright; C S McArdle

1999-01-01

346

Performance, blood and carcase characteristics of finishing steers treated with trenbolone acetate and hexoestrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty British Friesian steers were divided into four uniform groups and either not treated or implanted with hexoestrol, trenbolone acetate, or hexoestrol plus trenbolone acetate. Hexoestrol was given 90 days and trenbolone acetate 70 days, before slaughter. Animals in the treatment groups grew significantly faster, converted food to live-weight gain more effciently faster, converted food to live-weight gain more efficiently

H Galbraith; HB Watson

1978-01-01

347

Effect of hexoestrol on the response of finishing steers to treatment with trenbolone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effectiveness of implanting 300 mg trenbolone acetate alone or in combination with either 15, 30 or 45 mg hexoestrol was studied in three 90-day experiments using 64 Friesian steers. In experiment 1 hexoestrol was shown to improve live-weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in steers implanted with trenbolone acetate. In experiments 2 and 3 trenbolone acetate in

H Galbraith; DG Dempster

1979-01-01

348

Phorbol myristate acetate receptors in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-pretreated neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and were fractionated on Percoll density gradients to identify the subcellular location of PMA receptors. Receptors were found in the cytoplasm of resting cells; neither primary nor secondary granules bound (³H)PMA, and the few binding sites located in non-granule membrane fractions appeared to reflect cytosolic contamination. Contrastingly, PMA-pretreated

J. Nishihira; J. T. OFlaherty

1985-01-01

349

Retardation of experimental oral cancer development by retinyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty young adult Syrian hamsters were divided into five groups. Group 1 and Group 2 animals were treated with 0.25% dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), painted on their left buccal pouches thrice weekly for 20 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, at which time there was clinical evidence of leukoplakia and initial tumor formation, Group 2 animals received 10 mg retinyl acetate 3 times\\/week

Gerald Shklar

1983-01-01

350

Copolymerization of vinyl acetate with acrylic monomers in microemulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition domains corresponding to “one phase microemulsions” have been studied for the monomer mixtures consisting in vinyl acetate (VAc)–2-ethyl-hexyl acrylate (EHA) and VAc–ethyl acrylate (EtA). Maleic monoester with nonyl phenol ethoxylated with 25 mol ethylene oxide has been used as surfactant; n-propanol (n-PrOH), t-butanol (t-BuOH) and 2-ethyl-hexanol have been employed as cosurfactants. The number of microemulsions formed in the frame

Dan Donescu; Liana Fusulan; Cristian Petcu; Adrian-Gelu Boborodea; Dan-Sorin Vasilescu

2001-01-01

351

Hydrolysis of ethyl acetate:a pervaporation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature on the separation factor, diffusion process, permeation rate, and permeability coefficient (k) for hydrolysis of ethyl acetate using a standard poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membrane by pervaporation was investigated. The preliminary data presented in this work was obtained using a simple pervaporation technique built in-house. The experiments were conducted at 80, 65, 50 and 35°C. The initial

Habib I. Shaban

1998-01-01

352

Zinc acetate and lyophilized aloe barbadensis as vaginal contraceptive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty samples of fresh ejaculate, donated by healthy volunteers ranging in age from 20–30 years, were obtained from the Center for Fertility & Cryobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Average semen volume was 2.49 ml; average sperm motility was 71.32%; and average sperm density was 113.71 × 106\\/ml. Testing for spermicidal effectiveness of a 1% concentration of zinc acetate, zinc

M. S. Fahim; M. Wang

1996-01-01

353

Structured catalysts for photo-Fenton oxidation of acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work photo-Fenton oxidation of acetic acid, was carried out on perovskites based structured catalysts, in the presence or in the absence of low amounts of Pt. Homogeneous photo-Fenton reaction by ferrioxalate complex has been also performed. The comparison of homogeneous and heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation indicates that the use of a heterogeneous structured catalyst greatly improves the total organic

Diana Sannino; Vincenzo Vaiano; Paolo Ciambelli; Lyubov A. Isupova

2011-01-01

354

Cellulose acetate nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes for forward osmosis processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate (CA) nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes have been fabricated and tested in the forward osmosis (FO) process. A two-step heat-treatment, i.e., 60min at 60°C and 20min at 95°C, effectively shrinks the membrane mean pore radius from 0.63 to 0.30nm. The molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of the resultant CA NF membrane is 186Da. In the NF experiments under

Jincai Su; Qian Yang; Joo Fuat Teo; Tai-Shung Chung

2010-01-01

355

Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

2012-01-01

356

Adaptive cytoprotection against acetic acid induced colonic injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: The phenomenon of prostaglandin dependent adaptive cytoprotection has been well established in the stomach and duodenum but not in the colon. This study investigated whether it also occurs in the colon. Methods: Fisher rats received intracolonic administration (0.5 ml) of saline or acetic acid at low concentrations (0.01-5%) followed by high concentration (25%) at various intervals (10-720

Toru Kono; Masashi Yoneda; Kei Ohara; Tokiyoshi Ayabe; Naoyuki Chisato; Yutaka Kohgo; Shinichi Kasai; Akira Terano; Yvette Taché

2001-01-01

357

Induction of Antifertility with Lupeol Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antifertility activity of the active principle, i.e. lupeol acetate, isolated from benzene extract of Alstonia scholaris in male albino rats. The treatment with lupeol acetateat the dose level of 10 mg\\/rat\\/day did not cause any significant change in the body weights, but significant reduction in the weight of reproductive organs, i.e. testes,

R. S. Gupta; A. K. Bhatnager; Y. C. Joshi; M. C. Sharma; Veena Khushalani; J. B. S. Kachhawa

2005-01-01

358

Potential energy surfaces for proton abstractions from acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abstractions of hydrogen from both carbon and oxygen in acetic acid by hydride, fluoride, and hydroxide anions have been studied using ab initio electronic structure calculations. Molecular structures were optimized at the Hartree-Fock level of theory using the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. For energetics, the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was used, with second- and fourth-order perturbation theory corrections, for both minima

Mark S. Gordon; David R. Gano; Eugene Curtiss

1996-01-01

359

Photocatalytic oxidation and decomposition of acetic acid on titanium silicalite.  

PubMed

Transient reaction of adsorbed monolayers of acetic acid was used to characterize the photocatalytic properties of titanium silicalite zeolites (TS-1). The TS-1 zeolites having Si/Ti ratios of 5, 12.5, and 50 are effective catalysts at room temperature for both photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) and decomposition (PCD) of acetic acid. The rates of PCO are higher than the rates of PCD for each catalyst. Acetic acid oxidized photocatalytically in 0.2% O2 to form gas-phase CO2 and CH4 and adsorbed H2O on the TS-1 catalysts, whereas no CH4 formed on Degussa P25 TiO2. Isotope labeling showed that, on both TiO2 and TS-1 catalysts, the alpha-carbon formed CO2 whereas the beta-carbon formed CH4 and CO2. The rates of oxidation of the two carbons have different dependencies on UV intensity. The catalysts with higher Si/Ti ratios adsorbed significantly more acetic acid, and the PCO rates per gram of titanium are highest on the TS-1 catalyst with the lowest Ti content, apparently because a larger fraction of the Ti atoms are surface atoms on this catalyst. During PCD in an inert atmosphere, CO2, CH4, and C2H6 formed on TiO2 and on the catalyst with a Si/Ti ratio of 5, but C2H6 was not detected on the other catalysts. The CO2/CH4 selectivity during PCD increased with increasing Si/Ti ratio. The first step in PCO and PCD on TS-1 catalysts appears to be similar and involves formation of a CH3 radical. PMID:11347941

Lee, G D; Tuan, V A; Falconer, J L

2001-03-15

360

Use of fibre wastes from production of acetate fibres  

SciTech Connect

The rational use of production wastes is an important part of the Fergana Chemical Fibre Plant in Russia. This recycling reduces the negative effect of the technological process on the environment, increases the economy of production, and produces additional consumer goods. Consumer goods began to be produced at the plant in 1978 with processing of amide-acetate textured fibres into yarn for hand knitting. The need to increase the volumes and expand the variety of goods for the market predetermined an important increase in production of this product. Production of consumer goods has increased since 1990, and both fibre wastes and untreated low-grade fibres and filaments have been used as the starting material. Technological processes for processing wastes and low-grade figured, textured polyamide-acetate fibres into knitting yarn, haberdashery cord, and finishing tape and fringe were created and introduced in subsequent years. The primary technological formulation for production of these materials is well known and is used in light industry. However, production of each type of product in the plant was preceded by research related to selection of the optimum linear density of the filaments used, composition of blends, and the structure of figured fibres, as well as the concrete technological parameters and operating regimes of the equipment to produce articles of the required quality. Development and testing of new decorative textiles are continuing. Low grade and nonstandard acetate semifinished fibre from spinning machines and low grade, bulk dyed acetate fibres have been selected as the raw material for fabrication of these articles.

Askarov, M.I.; Tashpulatova, A.B.

1995-07-01

361

Calcium Acetate as a Phosphorus Binder in Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much interest is currently centered on the use of calcium acetate as a phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure. Therefore, this compound in sub- jects previously stable on calcium carbonate and undergoing high-efficiency hemodialysis with a di- alysate calcium of 2.5 mEq\\/L was evaluated. Twenty subjects were switched from generic calcium car- bonate to a single calcium carbonate preparation

James A. Delmez; Carol A. Tindira; David W. Windus; Kathryn V. Norwood; Karla S. Giles; Tern L. Nighswander; Eduardo Slatopolsky

362

Fire retardant mechanism in intumescent ethylene vinyl acetate compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal and combustion behaviour of an intumescent fire retardant system based on Polyamide 6 (PA6) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP), used to improve flame retardant properties of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA), loaded with Mg(OH)2 (MH) was examined. The study of the interactions between the additives introduced in EVA was focused in particular on the MH-APP interaction. The evolution of water from

A. Riva; G. Camino; L. Fomperie; P. Amigouët

2003-01-01

363

Reproductive toxicity of trenbolone acetate in embryonically exposed Japanese quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the effects of a one time embryonic exposure to trenbolone acetate on reproductive development and function in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Embryos were exposed to either 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50?g trenbolone or a sesame oil vehicle control at embryonic day 4. Onset of puberty, gonadal histopathology, sperm motility, cloacal gland size, and male

Michael J. Quinn; Emma T. Lavoie; Mary Ann Ottinger

2007-01-01

364

The environmental fate of anabolic steroid trenbolone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

17?-trenbolone Acetate (TBA) is a synthetic anabolic hormone widely used in beef cattle across the U.S. TBA is administered as a subcutaneous implant and often in combination with 17?-estradiol (E2) for growth promotion in beef cattle. Implanted cattle excrete primarily 17?-trenbolone along with small amounts of 17?-trenbolone and trendione. Quantifying the fate of these hormones after being land-applied is important

Bushra Khan

2009-01-01

365

Comparison Properties of Natural Rubber (SMR L)\\/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Copolymer Blends and Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR50)\\/Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Copolymer Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing torque, morphology, tensile properties and swelling studies of natural rubber\\/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer blends were studied. Two series of unvulcanized blends, natural rubber\\/ethylene vinyl acetate (SMRL\\/EVA) copolymer blend and epoxidized natural rubber (50% epoxidation)\\/ethylene vinyl acetate (ENR-50\\/EVA) copolymer blend were prepared. Blends were prepared using a laboratory internal mixer, Haake Rheomix polydrive with rotor speed of 50 rpm at 120°C.

M. K. Yong; H. Ismail; Z. M. Ariff

2007-01-01

366

A comparative study of gamma irradiation of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)\\/carbon black mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this comparative study, the effect of gamma rays on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)\\/carbon black mixture (EVA\\/CB) was investigated. EVA, containing 13% vinyl acetate (VA), and EVA\\/CB, containing 13% VA and 1% carbon black (CB), were irradiated with gamma rays at ambient conditions up to 400kGy. Sol–gel analyses were made to determine the percentage gelation of both virgin

Murat ?en; Mehmet Çopuro?lu

2005-01-01

367

Stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate  

SciTech Connect

In isolated perfused rat livers, infusion of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (150 nM) resulted in a three-fold stimulation of the rate of glucose production. This response was maximal at perfusate phorbol ester concentration of 150 nM, and was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of the phorbol ester (e.g. 300 nM). Stimulation of glycogenolysis by phorbol ester was greatly decreased in livers perfused infusion into livers perfused with calcium-free medium. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate infusion into livers perfused in the absence of calcium did not result in calcium efflux from the livers. Additionally, in hepatocytes isolated from livers of fed rats neither the phorbol ester nor 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol, stimulated the rate of glucose production. This last result along with the observations that in isolated perfused rat livers, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate increases portal pressure, and decreases oxygen consumption suggests that stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol ester is the result of increased vasoconstriction, and is not a consequence of a direct effect of the phorbol ester on liver parenchymal cells.

Patel, T.B.

1986-05-01

368

Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate.  

PubMed

An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2-(14)C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for (14)C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 °C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of (14)C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste. PMID:21561944

Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo

2011-07-01

369

Dexamethasone and Acetate Modulate Cytoplasmic Leptin in Bovine Preadipocytes  

PubMed Central

Hormonal and nutrient signals regulate leptin synthesis and secretion. In rodents, leptin is stored in cytosolic pools of adipocytes. However, not much information is available regarding the regulation of intracellular leptin in ruminants. Recently, we demonstrated that leptin mRNA was expressed in bovine intramuscular preadipocyte cells (BIP cells) and that a cytoplasmic leptin pool may be present in preadipocytes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of cytoplasmic leptin protein in BIP cells during differentiation as well as the effects of various factors added to the differentiation medium on its expression in BIP cells. Leptin mRNA expression was observed only at 6 and 8 days after adipogenic induction, whereas the cytoplasmic leptin concentration was the highest on day 0 and decreased gradually thereafter. Cytoplasmic leptin was detected at 6 and 8 days after adipogenic induction, but not at 4 days after adipogenic induction. The cytoplasmic leptin concentration was reduced in BIP cells at 4 days after treatment with dexamethasone, whereas cytoplasmic leptin was not observed at 8 days after treatment. In contrast, acetate significantly enhanced the cytoplasmic leptin concentration in BIP cells at 8 days after treatment, although acetate alone did not induce adipocyte differentiation in BIP cells. These results suggest that dexamethasone and acetate modulate the cytoplasmic leptin concentration in bovine preadipocytes.

Yonekura, Shinichi; Hirota, Shohei; Tokutake, Yukako; Rose, Michael T.; Katoh, Kazuo; Aso, Hisashi

2014-01-01

370

Abiraterone acetate in castration-resistant prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The palliative goal of the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer is to prolong survival and decrease cancer-related complications. Androgen ablation therapy is widely accepted as the initial treatment of choice; when the disease becomes resistant to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), docetaxel-based chemotherapy aids in prolonging overall survival and controlling disease-related symptoms. Until a few years ago, no drug had showed efficacy in docetaxel-resistant patients. Recently, cabazitaxel, a taxane family compound, has been shown to help prolong survival in patients previously treated with docetaxel, even if a high grade of myelotoxicity has been reported. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of CRPC has demonstrated that prostate cancer proliferation is largely mediated through the androgen receptor, which could be reactivated by androgens produced by the adrenal glands. Abiraterone acetate is an orally active acetate salt of the steroidal compound abiraterone with antiandrogen activity. Abiraterone inhibits the enzymatic activity of steroid 17?-monooxygenase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family that catalyzes the 17?-hydroxylation of steroid intermediates involved in testosterone synthesis from the adrenal glands. This review focuses on abiraterone acetate, the first compound that, through the inhibition of adrenal gland production of testosterone, increases the overall survival in CRPC patients. The role of possible predictive biomarkers and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:22123334

Iacovelli, Roberto; Palazzo, Antonella; Procopio, Giuseppe; Gazzaniga, Paola; Cortesi, Enrico

2012-03-01

371

Acetate uptake by PHA-accumulating and non-PHA-accumulating organisms in activated sludge from an aerobic sequencing batch reactor fed with acetate.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate the specific acetate uptake rates of microorganisms with and without polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation. Activated sludge was aerobically incubated with 75 mgC L(-1) radiolabeled or non-labeled acetate, and acetate consumption and PHA accumulation were monitored. Microorganisms were quantified as follows: all microbial cells by DAPI staining, whole acetate utilizing organisms by microautoradiography, and PHA-accumulating organisms by staining with Nile blue A. The abundance of acetate-utilizing organisms without PHA accumulation was also calculated from the outcomes. The estimate of acetate utilized by PHAAOs included both the acetate converted to PHA and that used to supply reducing power and ATP. Acetate utilized by PHAAOs and non-PHAAOs were divided by their respective abundances to obtain their respective specific acetate uptake rates: PHAAOs ranged between 5.3 and 8.0 x 10(-10) mgC cell(-1) h(-1), and non-PHAAOs ranged between 2.8 and 4.2 x 10(-10) mgC cell(-1) h(-1). PMID:20595747

Oshiki, M; Satoh, H; Mino, T

2010-01-01

372

Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.  

PubMed Central

Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively.

Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

1990-01-01

373

On the formation of iron(III) hydroxo acetate complexes.  

PubMed

The formation of hydroxo acetate complexes of iron (III) ion has been studied at 25 degrees C in 3 M (Na)ClO4 ionic medium by measuring with a glass electrode the hydrogen ion concentration in Fe(ClO4)3-HClO4-NaAc mixtures (Ac = acetate ion). The acetate/metal ratio ranged from 0 to 6, the metal concentration varied from 0.005 to 0.06 M, whereas [H+] was stepwise decreased from 0.1 M to initial precipitation of hydroxo-acetates. This occurred, depending on the acetate/metal ratio, in the -log[H+] range 1.85-2.7. The potentiometric data are consistent with the presence of Fe3(OH)3Ac3(3+), Fe2(OH)2(4+), Fe3(OH)4(5+), Fe3(OH)5(4+) and, as minor species, of Fe3(OH)2Ac6+, FeAc2+, FeAc2+, FeOH2+ and Fe(OH)2+. Previously published EMF measurements with redox and glass half-cells were recalculated to refine the stability constants of FeAc2+, FeAc2+ and Fe3(OH)2Ac6+. Formation constants *beta pqr for pFe(3+)+(q-r)H2O + rHAc reversible Fep(OH)(q-r)(Ac)r3p-q + qH+ (in parenthesis the infinite dilution value): log*beta 111 = -1.85 +/- 0.02 (-0.67 +/- 0.15), log*beta 122 = -3.43 +/- 0.02 (-1.45 +/- 0.15); log*beta 363 = -5.66 +/- 0.03 (-2.85 +/- 0.40), log*beta 386 = -8.016 +/- 0.006 (-4.06 +/- 0.15), log*beta 220 = -2.88 +/- 0.02 (-2.84 +/- 0.05), log*beta 340 = -6.14 +/- 0.18 (-6.9 +/- 0.4), log*beta 350 = -8.44 +/- 0.09 (-7.65 +/- 0.15). PMID:11507828

Ciavatta, L; De Tommaso, G; Iuliano, M

2001-01-01

374

Polymerization of vinyl acetate in fatty acids and properties of poly (vinyl alcohols) derived from the poly (vinyl acetates)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) in various fatty acids (carbon numbers 4–18) was carried out. Chain transfer constants to the acids were determined to be 20–35×10-4, from which the constant to a methylene group was obtained to be 0.73×10-4. Viscometry in aqueous solution of derived poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) showed the usual behavior in terms of Huggins’ constant obtained by

Takeshi Ishijima; Yoshiki Mizumori; Kenji Kikuchi; Atsushi Suzuki; Takuji Okaya

2005-01-01

375

Lead acetate action on anaphylactic response of guinea pig smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to evaluate lead acetate effects on the anaphylactic contraction in guinea pigs smooth muscles. Aortic rings from guinea pigs exposed to lead acetate developed an anaphylactic contraction significantly lower than the contraction induced by the antigen in controls. In the smooth muscle of the intestine, lead acetate did not modify the anaphylactic response. Lead induced immunosuppression of the anaphylactic response of aortic rings, whereas sodium acetate had no effect on the anaphylactic reaction of the guinea pig smooth muscle. The amplitude of the norepinephrine contraction was not modified by lead nor by sodium acetate. PMID:11793963

Gijón, E; Cartas, L; García, X

2001-01-01

376

Conversion of glycerol to pyruvate by Escherichia coli using acetate- and acetate/glucose-limited fed-batch processes.  

PubMed

We report the conversion of glycerol to pyruvate by E. coli ALS929 containing knockouts in the genes encoding for phosphoenolpyruvate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and pyruvate oxidase. As a result of these knockouts, ALS929 has a growth requirement of acetate for the generation of acetyl CoA. In steady-state chemostat experiments using excess glycerol and limited by acetate, lower growth rates favored the formation of pyruvate from glycerol (0.60 g/g at 0.10 h(-1) versus 0.44 g/g at 0.25 h(-1)), while higher growth rates resulted in the maximum specific glycerol consumption rate (0.85 g/g h at 0.25 h(-1) versus 0.59 g/g h at 0.10 h(-1)). The presence of glucose significantly improved pyruvate productivity and yield from glycerol (0.72 g/g at 0.10 h(-1)). In fed-batch studies using exponential acetate/glucose-limited feeding at a constant growth rate of 0.10 h(-1), the final pyruvate concentration achieved was about 40 g/L in 36 h. A derivative of ALS929 which additionally knocked out methylglyoxal synthase did not further increase pyruvate productivity or yield, indicating that pyruvate formation was not limited by accumulation of methylglyoxal. PMID:20012884

Zhu, Yihui; Eiteman, Mark A; Lee, Sarah A; Altman, Elliot

2010-03-01

377

Growth substrate effects on acetate and methanol catabolism in Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1.  

PubMed Central

When Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1 is grown in medium in which both methanol and acetate are present, growth is biphasic, with methanol used as the primary catabolic substrate during the first phase. To better understand this phenomenon, we grew cells on methanol or on acetate or on both and examined the abilities of anaerobically washed cells to catabolize these substrates. Washed acetate-grown cells incubated with 10 mM acetate, 10 mM methanol, or both substrates together produced methane at initial rates of 325, 3, and 315 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively. Although the initial rate of methanogenesis from both substrates was nearly identical to the rate for acetate alone, after several hours of incubation the rate was greater for cells provided with both substrates. Studies with 14C-labeled methanol indicated that methanol was catabolized to methane at increasing rates by acetate-grown cells in a manner reminiscent of an induction curve, but only when cells were provided with acetate as a cosubstrate. Acetate was presumably providing energy and carbon for induction of methanol-catabolic enzymes. Methanol-grown cells showed a pattern of substrate utilization significantly different from that of acetate-grown cells, producing methane from 10 mM acetate, 10 mM methanol, or both substrates at initial rates of 10, 280, and 450 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1, respectively. There was significant oxidation of the methyl group of acetate during metabolism of both substrates. Cells grown on methanol-acetate and harvested before methanol depletion (methanol phase) showed catabolic patterns nearly identical to those of methanol-grown cells, including a low rate of methanogenesis from acetate. Cells harvested from methanol-acetate cultures in the acetate phase were capable of significant methanogenesis from either methanol or acetate alone, and the rate from both substrates together was nearly equal to the sum of the rates for the single substrates. When both 10 mM methanol and 10 mM acetate were presented to the acetate-phase cells, there was a preference for the methanol. These results are consistent with a model for regulation in Methanosarcina sp. strain TM-1 in which methanol represses acetate catabolism while methanol catabolism is inducible.

Zinder, S H; Elias, A F

1985-01-01

378

A combination of norethindrone acetate and leuprolide acetate blocks the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonistic response and minimizes cyst formation during ovarian stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol utilizing both leuprolide acetate (LA) and norethindrone acetate (NETA) in subjects undergoing ovarian suppression prior to follicle aspiration proved more effective than LA alone in reducing the incidence of ovarian cyst formation without affecting clinical outcome. Patients (n = 105) undergoing ovarian stimulation followed by follicle aspiration and in-vitro fertilization (TVF) were prospectively randomized and studied. Study measures

Edward C. Ditkoff; Mark V. Sauer

1996-01-01

379

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

380

Effects of electron beam irradiation of cellulose acetate cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to reduce the molecular weight of cellulose acetate used in cigarette filters by using electron beam irradiation is demonstrated. Radiation levels easily obtained with commercially available electron accelerators result in a decrease in average molecular weight of about six-times with no embrittlement, or significant change in the elastic behavior of the filter. Since a first step in the biodegradation of cigarette filters is reduction in the filter material's molecular weight this invention has the potential to allow the production of significantly faster degrading filters.

Czayka, M.; Fisch, M.

2012-07-01

381

1-Carb-oxy-naphthalen-2-yl acetate monohydrate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C13H10O4·H2O, both the carboxylic acid [Car—Car—C—O = ?121.1?(2)°, where ar = aromatic] and the ester [Car—Car—O—C = ?104.4?(3)°] groups lie out of the mean plane of the conjugated aromatic system. In the crystal, the organic mol­ecule is hydrogen bonded to water mol­ecules through the ester and carb­oxy moieties, forming chains along the a-axis direction. The methyl H atoms of the acet­oxy group are disordered over two equally occupied sites.

Souza, Bruno S.; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J.; Nome, Faruk

2014-01-01

382

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi; Maity, Sunil K.

2010-10-01

383

Environmental Risk Limits for Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and negligible\\u000aconcentration (NC) in water are derived for Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic\\u000aacid (EDTA; CAS No. 64-02-8, EINECS No. 200-573-9), based on the EU\\u000arisk assessment report for this compound. The Maximum Permissible\\u000aConcentration (MPC) for the water compartment is 2.2 mg\\/l, and the\\u000aNegligible Concentration (NC) is 0.022 mg\\/l. Calculation of

Kalf DF; Hoop van den MAGT; Rila JP; Posthuma C; Traas TP

2007-01-01

384

Indole 3-acetic acid production by ectomycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Ability of 8 ectomycorrhizal fungi to synthesise indole 3-acetic acid from L-tryptophan and their growth rate were studied. Differences in the levels of IAA synthesis and biomass production among the 8 mycorrhizal fungi were observed. A positive correlation was recorded between IAA level and mycelial growth. The synthesis of IAA and mycelial biomass were maximum on 30th day after incubation. Pisolithus tinctorius and Laccaria laccata exhibited higher amounts of IAA production than other fungi, whereas Amanita muscaria and Rhizopogon luteolus showed least quantity of IAA. PMID:1521864

Gopinathan, S; Raman, N

1992-02-01

385

Abiraterone acetate: redefining hormone treatment for advanced prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer has long since been recognised as being hormonally driven via androgen receptor signalling. Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a rationally designed CYP17 inhibitor that blocks the conversion of androgens from non-gonadal precursors effectively, thus reducing testosterone to undetectable levels. AA has recently been proved to extend survival for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have progressive disease after first-line chemotherapy treatment. In addition, it is currently being tested in a Phase III trial in the pre-chemotherapy setting. This paper will review the preclinical discovery and clinical development of AA and will outline the strategy of parallel translational research. PMID:22198164

Pezaro, Carmel J; Mukherji, Deborah; De Bono, Johann S

2012-03-01

386

Indole-3-acetic acid in plant-microbe interactions.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetonitrile pathways. This chapter reviews the factors that effect the production of this phytohormone, the role of IAA in bacterial physiology and in plant-microbe interactions including phytostimulation and phytopathogenesis. PMID:24445491

Duca, Daiana; Lorv, Janet; Patten, Cheryl L; Rose, David; Glick, Bernard R

2014-07-01

387

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate; ACP-103, Ad.Egr.TNF.11 D, adalimumab, AF-IL 12, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, alefacept, alemtuzumab, a-Galactosylceramide, ALVAC vCP 1452, alvimopan hydrate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, antarelix, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic sulfide, asoprisnil, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BrachySil, brivudine; Caffeine, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, capsaicin for injection, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, cetuximab, CGP-36742, clofazimine, CpG-7909, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, dimethylfumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GPI-0100; hA 20, HTU-PA, human insulin, HuOKT 3 gamma 1(Ala 234-Ala 235), hyaluronic acid; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, INKP-100, INKP-102, iodine (I131) tositumomab, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lasofoxifene tartrate, LB-80380, lenalidomide, lidocaine/tetracaine, linezolid, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Maribavir, morphine glucuronide, MVA-5 T 4; NBI-56418, NCX-4016, nesiritide, nicotine conjugate vaccine, NSC-330507; Oglufanide, omalizumab, oxipurinol; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, PEGylated interferon alfacon-1, perospirone hydrochloride, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plerixafor hydrochloride, PowderJect lidocaine, pradefovir mesylate, prasterone, pregabalin, Prostvac VF, PT-141, PTC-124, pyridoxamine; QS-21, quercetin; R-126638, R-411, ralfinamide, rasagiline mesilate, rF-PSA, RG-2077, rhThrombin, rimonabant hydrochloride, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rV-PSA; S-18886, S-303, seocalcitol, SGN-40, sitaxsentan sodium, SPP-301, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenatoprazole, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone MDTS, testosterone transdermal patch, tgAAC-09, TH-9507, thioacetazone, tipifarnib, TQ-1011, trabectedin, travoprost, trimethoprim; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valopicitabine, voriconazole; Xcellerated T cells. PMID:16179960

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-01-01

388

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com.This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-263, AC-2307, Aclidinium bromide, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, Agatolimod sodium, Alefacept, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anakinra, Apaziquone, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, ASM-8, Atiprimod hydrochloride, AVE-0277, AVE-1642, AVE-8062, Axitinib, Azacitidine, AZD-0530; Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BI-2536, Biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-387032, BMS-663513, Bortezomib, BQ-123, Brivanib alaninate, BSI-201; Caspofungin acetate, CDX-110, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, CR-011, Cypher; Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Denosumab, Dexlansoprazole, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, Dovitinib, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hibvaccine, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, Emtricitabine, Endothelin, Entecavir, Eplivanserin fumarate, Escitalopram oxalate, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Farletuzumab, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fibrin sealant (human), Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Glufosfamide, GSK-1562902A; Hib-TT; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-11F8, Imidazoacridinone, IMP-321, INCB-18424, Indiplon, Indisulam, INNO-406, Irinotecan hydrochloride/Floxuridine, ITF-2357, Ixabepilone; KRN-951; Lasofoxifene tartrate; Lenalidomide, LGD-4665, Lonafarnib, Lubiprostone, Lumiliximab; MDX-1100, Melan-A/MART-1/gp100/IFN-alfa, Methyl-CDDO, Metreleptin, MLN-2704, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Na-ASP-2, Naproxcinod, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, NPI-2358; Oblimersen sodium, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, PAN-811, Panobinostat, PBI-1402, PC-515, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Perillyl alcohol, Perphenazine 4-aminobutyrate, PeviPRO/breast cancer, PF-03814735, PHA-739358, Pimecrolimus, Plitidepsin, Posaconazole, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Prucalopride, PRX-08066; rAAV2-TNFR:Fc, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranibizumab, rCD154-CLL, Retapamulin, RTS,S/SBAS2, rV-PSA-TRICOM/rF-PSA-TRICOM; SG-2000, Sinecatechins, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, SP-1640, Strontium malonate, Succinobucol, Sunitinib malate; Taxus, Teduglutide, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telbivudine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Tocilizumab; Ustekinumab; V-5 Immunitor, Voriconazole, Vorinostat; Xience V, XL-184, XL-647, XL-765; Y-39983, Zibotentan. PMID:18985183

Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

2008-09-01

389

Inhibition of acetate ester biosynthesis in banana (Musa sapientum L.) fruit pulp under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of anaerobic conditions on acetate ester biosynthesis in ripened banana pulp was investigated. Incubation of the pulp in less than 1% O(2) resulted in a significant reduction in the formation of ethyl acetate. Regardless of the presence of a large amount of endogenous ethanol and the remaining exogenous isobutyl alcohol after complete anaerobic incubation with the pulp, the production of acetate ester decreased. The effect of addition of pyruvate, isobutyl alcohol, acetate, and methyl hexanoate on acetate ester formation in 100% N(2) was also investigated. The addition of pyruvate and isobutyl alcohol to the pulp gave lower acetate esters in N(2) than in air, whereas the pulp incubated with acetate and isobutyl alcohol produced more acetate ester in both conditions. Therefore, the lack of acetyl CoA, or more precisely acetate, in the tissue is the main reason for the inhibition of acetate ester formation under anaerobic conditions. The activity of beta-oxidation measured by incubation with methyl hexanoate was detected only in the samples incubated in air. The formation of acetyl CoA, derived from pyruvate through mitochondria and through beta-oxidation, was inhibited by anaerobic conditions, which suggests that mitochondrial activity and/or beta-oxidation are essential for ester biosynthesis. PMID:15030220

Wendakoon, Sumithra K; Ueda, Yoshinori; Imahori, Yoshihiro; Ishimaru, Megumi

2004-03-24

390

Metabolism, compartmentation, transport and production of acetate in the cortical brain tissue slice.  

PubMed

Acetate is a two carbon intermediate in metabolism. It is an accepted marker of astrocytic metabolism, and a substrate for production of metabolites such as glutamine, glutamate and GABA. However, anomalies exist in the current explanations of compartmentation and metabolism of acetate. Here, we investigated these anomalies by examining transport, production and metabolism of acetate. Acetate is a good substrate for the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 (K(M) = 2.58 ± 0.8) and the glial MCT1 but a poor substrate for the glial MCT4. Acetate is accumulated by brain cortical tissue slices to concentrations in excess of those in the media, suggesting active transport, possibly via the sodium dependent SMCT. [2-(13)C]Acetate is produced from [3-(13)C]pyruvate, [3-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]glucose with the rate of production related to acetyl-CoA levels, which is likely generated in a ubiquitous cytosolic compartment via acetyl-CoA hydrolase. Citrate breakdown occurs in response to demand for acetyl-CoA units; this citrate is not derived from acetate carbon but its fate is influenced by acetate levels. Finally, use of acetate is altered by levels of nicotinamide or NAD(+). This suggests that metabolism of acetate is controlled rigorously at the enzyme level, via changes in the acetylation status of acetyl-CoA synthetase and is not regulated by restriction of uptake. PMID:22851350

Rae, Caroline; Fekete, Aurélie D; Kashem, Mohammed A; Nasrallah, Fatima A; Bröer, Stefan

2012-11-01

391

Levoglucosan, cellobiose and their acetates as model compounds for the thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation of cellulose and cellulose acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-?-d-glucopyranose), cellobiose (?-d-glucopyranosyl-[1?4]-d-glucopyranose), tri-O-acetyl-levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-?-d-glucopyranose-2,3,4-triacetate) and cellobiose octaacetate have been studied with regard to their suitability as model compounds for thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide of cellulose and cellulose acetate. In addition, the results of analytical pyrolysis of methyl cellulose were compared with those of thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation, to distinguish between products arising from

C Schwarzinger; I Tanczos; H Schmidt

2002-01-01

392

Transport Parameters in a Porous Cellulose Acetate Membrane  

PubMed Central

The transport parameters of a cellulose acetate membrane prepared from a mixture of cellulose acetate, formamide, and acetone, 25:25:50 by weight, were studied. The membrane consists of a thin, porous layer, the skin, in series with a thick, highly porous layer, the coarse support. In the skin the diffusional permeability coefficient, ?, of a number of small amides and alcohols depends critically upon the partition coefficient, Ks, the size of the molecule, and the apparent hydrogen-bonding ability, Ns, of the solute. These observations are in general agreement with our earlier conclusions on the properties of nonporous membranes. On the other hand, the corrected reflection coefficient, ?', is not a very sensitive function of either Ns or Ks taken separately. The correlation between ?' and molecular diameter is reasonably good; however, it is much improved when both Ns and Ks are taken into consideration. Isotope interaction was also studied in the present preparation and was found to provide only a small (5–8%) contribution to the diffusional permeability coefficient of ethylene glycol. The contribution of solute-water friction was found to be less than 24% of the total solute friction.

DiPolo, R.; Sha'afi, R. I.; Solomon, A. K.

1970-01-01

393

Ion selective permeation through cellulose acetate membranes in forward osmosis.  

PubMed

Solute-solute interactions can have a dramatic impact on the permeation of solutes through dense polymeric membranes. In particular, understanding how solute-solute interactions can affect the design of osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) is critical to the successful development of these emerging water treatment and energy generation processes. In this work, we investigate the influence that solute-solute interactions have on nitrate permeation through an asymmetric cellulose acetate forward osmosis membrane. A series of experiments that included systematic modifications to the cation paired with nitrate, the identity of the draw solute, and the solution pH were conducted. These experiments reveal that in the unique operating geometry of ODMPs, where solute containing solutions are present on both sides of the membrane, nitrate fluxes are significantly higher (>15 times in some cases) than predicted by existing models for solute permeation in ODMPs. The identity of the cation paired with nitrate influences the flux of nitrate; the identity of the cation in the draw solution does not affect the flux of nitrate; however, the identity of the anion in the draw solution has the most significant impact on the flux of nitrate. These results suggest that an ion exchange mechanism, which allows nitrate to switch rapidly with anions from the draw solution, is present when cellulose acetate based membranes are used in ODMPs. PMID:24152190

Irvine, Gavin J; Rajesh, Sahadevan; Georgiadis, Michael; Phillip, William A

2013-12-01

394

Induction of antifertility with lupeol acetate in male albino rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antifertility activity of the active principle, i.e. lupeol acetate, isolated from benzene extract of Alstonia scholaris in male albino rats. The treatment with lupeol acetate at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day did not cause any significant change in the body weights, but significant reduction in the weight of reproductive organs, i.e. testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, was observed. Testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility were found significantly declined when compared with controls, which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Arrest of spermatogenesis was noted at various stages with production of primary spermatocytes (preleptotene and pachytene), secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatids were decreased by 52.36, 54.91, 55.67 and 69.65%, respectively. The seminiferous tubules appeared reduced in size by 24.62%. Cross-sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as their counts were found to be significantly depleted. Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 27.65 and 35.47%. Biochemical parameters of tissues i.e. protein, sialic acid, glycogen and cholesterol content of testes and seminal vesicular fructose also showed significant reduction. PMID:16015025

Gupta, R S; Bhatnager, A K; Joshi, Y C; Sharma, M C; Khushalani, Veena; Kachhawa, J B S

2005-10-01

395

Facile pulping of lignocellulosic biomass using choline acetate.  

PubMed

Treating ground bagasse or Southern yellow pine in the biodegradable ionic liquid (IL), choline acetate ([Cho][OAc]), at 100°C for 24h led to dissolution of hemicellulose and lignin, while leaving the cellulose pulp undissolved, with a 54.3% (bagasse) or 34.3% (pine) reduction in lignin content. The IL solution of the dissolved biopolymers can be separated from the undissolved particles either by addition of water (20wt% of IL) followed by filtration or by centrifugation. Hemicellulose (19.0wt% of original bagasse, 10.2wt% of original pine, containing 14-18wt% lignin) and lignin (5.0wt% of original bagasse, 6.0wt% of original pine) could be subsequently precipitated. The pulp obtained from [Cho][OAc] treatment can be rapidly dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (e.g., 17h for raw bagasse vs. 7h for pulp), and precipitated as cellulose-rich material (CRM) with a lower lignin content (e.g., 23.6% for raw bagasse vs. 10.6% for CRM). PMID:24874879

Cheng, Fangchao; Wang, Hui; Chatel, Gregory; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

2014-07-01

396

DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

2013-06-10

397

Metabolic analysis of acetate accumulation during xylose consumption by Paenibacillus polymyxa.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 12321 produced more acetic acid and less butanediol from xylose than from glucose. The product yields from xylose were ethanol (0.72 mol/mol sugar), (R,R)-2,3-butanediol (0.31 mol/mol sugar), and acetate (0.38 mol/mol sugar) while those from glucose were ethanol (0.74 mol/mol sugar), (R,R)-2,3-butanediol (0.46 mol/mol sugar), and acetate (0.05 mol/mol sugar). Higher acetate kinase activity and lower acetate uptake ability were found in xylose-grown cells than in glucose-grown cells. Furthermore, phosphoketolase activity was higher in xylose-grown cells than in glucose-grown cells. In fed-batch culture on xylose, glucose feeding raised the butanediol yield to 0.56 mol/mol sugar and reduced acetate accumulation to 0.04 mol/mol sugar. PMID:14556038

Marwoto, B; Nakashimada, Y; Kakizono, T; Nishio, N

2004-03-01

398

Cell morphology variations of Klebsiella pneumoniae induced by acetate stress using biomimetic vesicle assay.  

PubMed

Supplementation with acetate under low levels was used as a novel approach to control the morphological development of Klebsiella pneumoniae aimed to improve 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production. A full range of morphological types formed from rod shape to oval shape even round shape in response to different concentrations of acetate. The cell growth and 1,3-PD productions in the shake flasks with 0.5 g/L acetate addition were improved by 9.4 and 28.37%, respectively, as compared to the control, while the cell became shorter and began to lose its original shape. The cell membrane penetration by acetate was investigated by the biomimetic vesicles, while higher concentration of acetate led to more moderate colorimetric transitions. Moreover, the percentage composition of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was increased as well as the increased concentrations of acetate, whereas higher UFA percentage, higher fluidity of bacterial cell membrane. PMID:23892619

Lu, Shengguo; Han, Yuwang; Duan, Xujia; Luo, Fang; Zhu, Lingyan; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

2013-10-01

399

A new process for producing calcium acetate from vegetable wastes for use as an environmentally friendly deicer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for producing calcium acetate, a non-corrosive deicer, is proposed. The process consists of a two-step continuous-flow hydrothermal conversion of vegetable wastes into acetic acid and the production of calcium acetate, followed by the separation and condensation of the product. The experiments for acetic acid production showed that there were almost no significant differences in acetic acid yields

Fangming Jin; Guangyi Zhang; Yujia Jin; Yosiyuki Watanabe; Atsushi Kishita; Heiji Enomoto

2010-01-01

400

Aspects of the thermal oxidation, yellowing and stabilisation of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal oxidation of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer [EVA-17 and 28% w\\/w VA (vinyl acetate) units] has been examined by thermo-gravimetric and hydroperoxide analysis, FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red), fluorescence spectroscopy and yellowness index. Thermal analysis indicates the initial loss of acetic acid followed by oxidation and breakdown of the main chain. The degradation rate is greater in an oxygen atmosphere as

Norman S. Allen; Michele Edge; Miguel Rodriguez; Cristopher M. Liauw; Eusebio Fontan

2000-01-01

401

1 H and 13 C NMR observation of the reaction of acetic acid with titanium isopropoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen and carbon NMR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the chemical modification process of titanium isopropoxide by acetic acid. The spectra confirm the belief that the titanium isopropoxide exchanges isopropyl groups with modifying acetate groups to form a molecule with approximate stoichiometry Ti(OiPr)2(OAc)2. This stoichiometry results even when enough acetic acid is present in solution to allow for significantly

Dunbar P Birnie III; Norbert J. Bendzko

1999-01-01

402

Influence of calcium acetate or calcium citrate on intestinal aluminum absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of calcium acetate or calcium citrate on intestinal aluminum absorption. The risk of aluminum (Al) accumulation in patients with chronic renal failure has led to use of non-Al phosphate binders. Frequently, Al and non-Al phosphate binders are co-administered. Unfortunately, calcium citrate (Ca citr), when given with Al-gel, markedly enhances Al absorption. To determine whether calcium acetate (Ca acetate) also

Charles R Nolan; Joseph R Califano; Clifford A Butzin

1990-01-01

403

Redox-Neutral ?-Sulfenylation of Secondary Amines: Ring-Fused N,S-Acetals.  

PubMed

Secondary amines react with thiosalicylaldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of acetic acid to generate ring-fused N,S-acetals in redox-neutral fashion. A broad range of amines undergo ?-sulfenylation, including challenging substrates such morpholine, thiomorpholine, and piperazines. Computational studies employing density functional theory indicate that acetic acid reduces the energy barriers of two separate steps, both of which involve proton transfer. PMID:24927364

Jarvis, Claire L; Richers, Matthew T; Breugst, Martin; Houk, K N; Seidel, Daniel

2014-07-01

404

A proposed citramalate cycle for acetate assimilation in the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

During phototrophic growth on acetate and CO2Rhodospirillum rubrum 2R contained malate synthase but lacked isocitrate lyase. Acetate assimilation by R. rubrum cells was stimulated by pyruvate, propionate glyoxylate, CO2 and H2. Acetate photoassimilation by R. rubrum cells in the presence of bicarbonate was accompanied by glyoxylate secretion, which increased after addition of fluoroacetate and decreased after addition of malonate. When

Ruslan N Ivanovsky; Elena N Krasilnikova; Ivan A Berg

1997-01-01

405

Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data  

SciTech Connect

Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

2005-05-01

406

Electrochemical characterization of platinum black electrodeposited from electrolyte including lead acetate trihydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lead acetate trihydrate on platinum black coating has been examined for the electrolyte free of or including lead acetate trihydrate using cyclic potential–current curves and a multi-pulse current measurement. The current–potential curves measured with a cyclic sweep of a current density in the electrolyte including lead acetate trihydrate show that no peak assigned to the reduction of

M. Saitou

2006-01-01

407

Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof  

DOEpatents

A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

2000-01-01

408

Nanoporous In2O3-based cataluminescence sensor for acetic acid vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we reported a cataluminescence (CTL) sensor using nanoporous In2O3 as sensing material to determine trace acetic acid in air. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity to acetic acid at optimal temperature of 293degC. Quantitative analysis was performed at a wavelength of 440 nm. The linear range of CTL intensity versus concentration of acetic acid

Xiaoan Cao; Yanqin Hu; Ying Tao

2008-01-01

409

Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photolysis of S2O82- was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H2O2\\/UV system. The SO4- radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S2O82- ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO4- radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results

Justine Criquet; Nathalie Karpel Vel Leitner

2009-01-01

410

Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China  

SciTech Connect

The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

Alperowicz, N.

1993-01-27

411

Clinical development of two innovative pharmaceutical forms of leuprorelin acetate  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Two innovative pharmaceutical forms of leuprorelin acetate have been developed as 1-month and 3-month implants for the treatment of advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer. These products contain active substance dispersed homogeneously in a biodegradable polymer. Here we present the key results from the clinical development of these slow-release implant formulations of leuprorelin. Methods: Two therapeutic studies of the 1-month implant were performed: a randomized, controlled study comparing the leuprorelin implant with leuprorelin prolonged-release microspheres (Enantone) as the active control; and a single-arm study of the leuprorelin implant. For the 3-month implant, four therapeutic studies were performed: a randomized, controlled study comparing the leuprorelin implant with leuprorelin prolonged-release microspheres (Trenantone) as the active control; a single-arm study of the leuprorelin implant; and two long-term studies with the 3-month implant administered twice, either 12 or 16 weeks apart. A pooled analysis of data from the comparator-controlled and single-arm studies of the 3-month implant was also conducted. The main inclusion criterion for all studies was histologically confirmed advanced prostate cancer, with primary endpoints based around successful testosterone suppression (?0.5 ng/ml). Results: In the comparator-controlled studies, both implants were as effective as the microspheres for achieving successful testosterone suppression and normalization of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the single-arm and long-term studies were consistent with those from the comparator-controlled studies. In the pooled analysis, significantly more patients treated with the 3-month implant achieved successful testosterone suppression compared with the comparator (p ? 0.01). The safety profile of the implants in the comparator-controlled studies was similar to that of the prolonged-release microsphere formulation, and consistent with that of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist class. Conclusions: The innovative 1-month and 3-month implants of leuprorelin acetate are at least as effective as leuprorelin acetate prolonged-release microspheres for achieving successful testosterone suppression and normalization of PSA in men with advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer, with a comparable safety profile.

Geiges, Goetz; Schapperer, Elisabeth; Thyroff-Friesinger, Ursula; Engert, Zoltan Vendel

2013-01-01

412

Antioxidative response of Lemna minor plants exposed to thallium(I)-acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological effects of thallium(I)-acetate on the duckweed Lemna minor after 1-, 4-, 7- and 14-d exposure were analyzed. High bioaccumulation of Tl (221mgkg?1 dry wt at 2.0?M Tl-acetate) caused an inhibition of plant growth. After 14-d exposure, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0?M Tl-acetate reduced the frond-number growth rate by 21.1%, 39.4%, 66% and 83.1%, respectively. Tl-acetate also induced a

Marija Babi?; Sandra Radi?; Petra Cvjetko; Vibor Roje; Branka Pevalek-Kozlina; Mirjana Pavlica

2009-01-01

413

Acetate oxidation by syntrophic association between Geobacter sulfurreducens and a hydrogen-utilizing exoelectrogen  

PubMed Central

Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor.

Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Okabe, Satoshi

2013-01-01

414

Isotope fractionation during the anaerobic consumption of acetate by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the anaerobic degradation of organic matter in anoxic sediments and soils acetate is the most important substrate for the final step in production of CO2 and/or CH4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea both compete for the available acetate. Knowledge about the fractionation of 13C/12C of acetate carbon by these microbial groups is still limited. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope fractionation in different cultures of acetate-utilizing SRB (Desulfobacter postgatei, D. hydrogenophilus, Desulfobacca acetoxidans) and methanogens (Methanosarcina barkeri, M. acetivorans). Including literature values (e.g., Methanosaeta concilii), isotopic enrichment factors (epsilon) ranged between -35 and +2 permil, possibly involving equilibrium isotope effects besides kinetic isotope effects. The values of epsilon were dependent on the acetate-catabolic pathway of the particular microorganism, the methyl or carboxyl position of acetate, and the relative availability or limitation of the substrate acetate. Patterns of isotope fractionation in anoxic lake sediments and rice field soil seem to reflect the characteristics of the microorganisms actively involved in acetate catabolism. Hence, it might be possible using environmental isotopic information to determine the type of microbial metabolism converting acetate to CO2 and/or CH4.

Gövert, D.; Conrad, R.

2009-04-01

415

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by electron irradiation of silver acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and facile route to synthesize crystalline silver nanoparticles is presented, which is based on electron irradiation technique. Only by irradiating an electron beam onto silver acetate precursor material, silver nanocrystals with the sizes of 15-40 nm were synthesized. The morphology and chemical composition of the irradiated samples were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and EELS. The precursor material was decomposed by the energetic electrons and consequently the chemical composition of the material was changed. As the electron fluence was gradually increased, the precursor was converted to silver (I) oxide and finally into silver nanocrystals. Thus, besides silver nanoparticles, silver oxide film can also be synthesized using the electron irradiation technique by controlling the electron fluence. The technique can be useful for mass production of silver nanoparticles and for patterned silver nanoparticle film.

Li, Yue; Kim, Yong Nam; Lee, Eun Je; Cai, Wei Ping; Cho, Sung Oh

2006-10-01

416

[Abiraterone acetate (AA): current guidelines of prescription of abiraterone].  

PubMed

Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a selective inhibitor of cytochrom p450 (CYP)17 which is required for androgen biosynthesis, and can block the androgens synthesis by testicles, surrenals and intratumoral secretion. In phase I and II studies in patients with prostate cancer, therapy with AA 250-2000 ?mg once daily demonstrated reductions in prostate specific antigen (PSA), and/or circulating tumor cells (CTCs). In two large phase III trials in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in post-docetaxel and pre-docetaxel setting, AA plus prednisone compared with placebo plus prednisone demonstrated a significant superior overall survival in post-docetaxel setting, and a superior radiological PFS in pre-docetaxel setting. Based of these results, AA is approved in metastatic CRPC patients in post-docetaxel setting or pre-docetaxel setting in 2013. PMID:24793632

Boissier, Emilie; Loriot, Yohann; Vignot, Stéphane; Massard, Christophe

2014-04-01

417

Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) genotoxicity profile: relevance for carcinogenicity.  

PubMed

Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) is a site-of-contact carcinogen in rodents. It is also DNA reactive and mutagenic, but only after its carboxylesterase mediated conversion to acetaldehyde (AA), a metabolic reaction that also produces acetic acid and protons. As VAM's mutagenic metabolite, AA is normally produced endogenously; detoxification by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is required to maintain intra-cellular AA homeostasis. This review examines VAM's overall genotoxicity, which is due to and limited by AA, and the processes leading to mutation induction. VAM and AA have both been universally negative in mutation studies in bacteria but both have tested positive in several in vitro studies in higher organisms that usually employed high concentrations of test agents. Recently however, in vitro studies evaluating submillimolar concentrations of VAM or AA have shown threshold dose-responses for mutagenicity in human cultured cells. Neither VAM nor AA induced systemic mutagenicity in in vivo studies in metabolically competent mice when tested at non-lethal doses while treatments of animals deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh in animals) did induce both gene and chromosome level mutations. The results of several studies have reinforced the critical role for aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 in humans) in limiting AA's (and therefore VAM's) mutagenicity. The overall aim of this review of VAM's mutagenic potential through its AA metabolite is to propose a mode of action (MOA) for VAM's site-of-contact carcinogenesis that incorporates the overall process of mutation induction that includes both background mutations due to endogenous AA and those resulting from exogenous exposures. PMID:23985073

Albertini, Richard J

2013-09-01

418

Synthesis and characterization of cyclic acetal based degradable hydrogels.  

PubMed

While many synthetic, hydrolytically degradable hydrogels have been developed for biomedical applications, there are only a few examples whose polymer backbone does not form acidic products upon degradation. In order to address this concern, we proposed to develop a hydrogel based on a cyclic acetal unit that produces diols and propanals upon hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we proposed the fabrication of hydrogels formed by the free radical polymerization of two diacrylate monomers, 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD), a cyclic acetal having two acryl groups, and poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA). However, the hydrophobicity of the EHD monomer inhibits hydrogel fabrication. Therefore this work develops a strategy to form hydrogels with a co-monomer system, one of which is hydrophobic, and subsequently describes the properties of the resulting hydrogel. Using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine as an accelerator, the EHD and PEGDA monomers were reacted in an acetone/water co-solvent system. The chemical structure of the resulting EH-PEG [5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol-co-PEG] hydrogel was then characterized by FT-IR. Physicochemical properties of the EH-PEG hydrogel, including swelling degree, sol fraction, and contact angle, were determined so as to characterize the properties of these materials and ultimately investigate their use in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Results showed that EH-PEG hydrogel may be formed using the co-solvent system. Further results indicated that swelling degree is dependent upon initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and molar ratios of monomers, while sol fraction significantly depended on initiator concentration and monomer concentration, only. These results demonstrate the ability to fabricate hydrogels using EHD and PEGDA system as well as to control the properties of the resulting hydrophilic networks. PMID:17888640

Kaihara, Sachiko; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fisher, John P

2008-01-01

419

Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects, as well as their association with different plants and contribution through BNF are described as an overview. PMID:18177965

Pedraza, Raúl O

2008-06-30

420

Nomegestrol acetate and vascular reactivity: nonhuman primate experiments.  

PubMed

Prevention of coronary artery disease has been recognized as a major benefit of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in postmenopausal women. However, endometrial hyperplasia induced by unopposed ERT has raised important safety concerns. Progesterone or synthetic progestins have been used in combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to prevent endometrial cancer risk. Therefore, a major concern has been to ensure that the vascular beneficial effects of estrogens are not opposed when combined with progestins. Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is an orally active progestin widely prescribed for HRT. Its vascular effects were evaluated in two models of coronary vascular reactivity in primates: 1) the paradoxical vasoconstriction to acetylcholine (Ach) coronary infusion after 5 months of mildly atherogenic diet in ovariectomized (OVX) Cynomolgus monkeys and 2) the pharmacologically evoked coronary vasospasm in the OVX Rhesus monkey. In the first model, after 3 months of continuous oral administration in the diet at 0.1 mg/kg/day, E2 prevented the paradoxical response to Ach, alone as well as combined with 0.25 mg/kg/day NOMAC, whereas NOMAC counteracted the endometrial stimulation. In the second model, after one artificial cycle consisting of 28 days of E2 subcutaneous (s.c.) implant and of daily oral gavage with 1 mg/kg/day of NOMAC for the last 14 days, no vasospasm (0 of 11 tested animals) occurred when the complete challenge protocol, including serotonin and the thromboxane agonist U46619, was administered to OVX Rhesus monkeys. In the balanced crossover design, identical artificial cycles with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) at the same dose resulted in 7 vasospasms in 12 animals. In parallel, effective progestative activity was demonstrated by a secretory pattern in endometrial sections obtained at the end of the cycle. In these two nonhuman primate cardiovascular models, NOMAC did not have the negating effects observed with MPA. PMID:11108868

Paris, J M; Williams, K J; Hermsmeyer, K R; Delansorne, R

2000-01-01

421

Synthesis using microwave irradiation and antibacterial evaluation of new N,O-acetals and N,S-acetals derived from 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinones.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel series of N,O-acetals and N,S-acetals (7a-o) derived from 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinones that were synthesized and evaluated as potential antimicrobial agents. These compounds were obtained in good yields using microwave irradiation, and several of them showed promising antibacterial profiles. Three of our biologically active 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone N,O-acetals and N,S-acetals tested against hospital bacterial strains were identified as potential lead compounds. Characterization of all compounds was performed using one-dimensional NMR techniques ((1)H, (13)C-APT), IR spectra, elemental analyses and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). PMID:23474905

Jordão, Alessandro K; Novais, Juliana; Leal, Bruno; Escobar, Ana C; dos Santos, Helvécio M; Castro, Helena C; Ferreira, Vitor F

2013-05-01

422

Revising Estimates of the Methane Production Pathway in Peatland Porewater Using Intramolecular Isotopic Analyses of Acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopic measurements of methane and carbon dioxide are routinely applied to environmental samples to assess the relative importance of methane production by either aceticlastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Such estimates rely upon assumptions about isotopic fractionation during methane production and oxidation. Rigorous isotope-based pathway estimates require knowledge of the carbon isotopic composition of both carbon dioxide and acetate. In practice, technical barriers have limited measurements of the isotopic composition of whole acetate in natural samples. Yet, the estimate of whole acetate isotopic values, even when available, may not represent accurately the composition of the methyl carbon, which is, in fact, the precursor to methane. It is exceedingly rare to find carbon isotopic measurements of acetate-methyl in the literature, and, to our knowledge, the d13C of the acetate-methyl precursor to methane has never before been reported from peatland porewater samples. Extremely 13C-depleted methane, -70 permil VPDB, and 13C-enriched carbon dioxide from acidic northern peat bogs are typically interpreted as signatures of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The hypothesized dominance of methane production from hydrogen in acidic bogs contrasts with the vast majority of freshwater wetlands in which aceticlastic methanogenesis dominates. Using a new technique for the online analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of acetate in natural samples, we find the acetate-methyl in peat porewaters can be significantly depleted relative to bulk organic matter. In porewater profiles from both winter and summer, acetate is as much as 15 permil depleted relative to bulk carbon. We hypothesize that acetate- methyl isotopic depletion results from conditions that favor autotrophic acetogenesis and subsequent acetate consumption by aceticlastic methanogens. Porewater depth profiles during winter and summer illustrate depth- dependent increases in the fraction of methane derived from carbon dioxide, with deeper peat dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, but shallow peat dominated by aceticlastic methanogens. Significant aceticlastic methane production from autotrophically produced acetate challenges the ability of hydrogen isotopic measurements of methane to represent the pathway of methanogenesis. Supplementing our field observations, intramolecular acetate measurements of incubation experiments confirm that an aceticlastic methanogen can facilitate significant acetate-carboxyl exchange with DIC. This novel technique confirms two caveats associated with whole acetate carbon isotopic data: 1, the carboxyl carbon isotopic composition may not accurately reflect the composition of the parent molecule, and 2, the acetate methyl may be derived from inorganic carbon or the fractionation effect of fermentation in acidic porewaters may be significant.

Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

2007-12-01

423

Sphagnum's coup de grace: Carbon flow to acetate in northern peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic estimates of the microbial pathway of methane formation in acidic northern peatlands conclude that methane is derived from the pathway of CO2 reduction, whereas, microbial incubation and genomic studies have identified an important role played by acetoclastic methanogens in similar acidic systems. We believe our first ever intramolecular acetate isotopic analyses from an acidic wetland in central Pennsylvania resolve the apparent conflicting pathway estimates by indicating that the isotopic and microbial incubation studies are consistent with each other and with a pathway of methane formation through acetate from an isotopically depleted autotrophic acetate source. Intramolecular acetate isotopic measurements allow us to estimate that as much as 1/3 of the acetate in acidic wetlands is derived from autotrophy. Given a simple case of glucose fermentation to acetate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, our acetate production pathway estimate requires that nearly all of the carbon products from fermentation must flow through the acetate pool. Our work confirms the prior hypothesis and prior observations that acetate is an important metabolic end product in northern acidic wetlands. Further, we hypothesize an alternative fate of acetate in peat porewaters that alludes to an ecological role of autotorophic acetogens and acetate oxidizers in creating the impermeable humified peat catotelm unique to sphagnum dominated systems. The diversion of carbon flow to from methane to acetate increases the organic acid production and we hypothesize that the net transport of dissolved fulvic acids into the catotelm allows coupled acetate oxidation and fulvic acid reduction. This process of acetate consumption would create a net addition of hydrophobic, amorphous, and therefore more impermeable organic carbon. We conclude that an ecological strategy of the sphagnum mosses may not simply be to decrease the pH of the environment to slow metabolism, but rather to force the microbial community in the catotelm toward the oxidation of acetate and the reduction of peat humus, thereby aiding production of the characteristic impermeable organic seal. The sensitivity of sphagnum ecosystems to external sources of alkalinity may prove to be an important control on the ancient flux of methane from peatlands and may be an important direction of continued research.

Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; House, C.; Freean, K.

2008-12-01

424

Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems  

PubMed Central

Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA) and monobromoacetate (MBA). While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA) were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems.

2012-01-01

425

AinS quorum sensing regulates the Vibrio fischeri acetate switch.  

PubMed

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing systems. The earlier signal, octanoyl-HSL, produced by AinS, is required for normal colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes and, in culture, is necessary for a normal growth yield. In examining the latter requirement, we found that during growth in a glycerol/tryptone-based medium, wild-type V. fischeri cells initially excrete acetate but, in a metabolic shift termed the acetate switch, they subsequently utilize the acetate, removing it from the medium. In contrast, an ainS mutant strain grown in this medium does not remove the excreted acetate, which accumulates to lethal levels. The acetate switch is characterized by the induction of acs, the gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase, leading to uptake of the excreted acetate. Wild-type cells induce an acs transcriptional reporter 25-fold, coincident with the disappearance of the extracellular acetate; in contrast, the ainS mutant did not display significant induction of the acs reporter. Supplementation of the medium of an ainS mutant with octanoyl-HSL restored normal levels of acs induction and acetate uptake. Additional mutant analyses indicated that acs regulation was accomplished through the regulator LitR but was independent of the LuxIR quorum-signaling pathway. Importantly, the acs mutant of V. fischeri has a competitive defect when colonizing the squid, indicating the importance of proper control of acetate metabolism in the light of organ symbiosis. This is the first report of quorum-sensing control of the acetate switch, and it indicates a metabolic connection between acetate utilization and cell density. PMID:18487321

Studer, Sarah V; Mandel, Mark J; Ruby, Edward G

2008-09-01

426

Thermal decarboxylation of acetate. Part I. The kinetics and mechanism of reaction in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to understand the kinetics of the thermal decarboxylation of acetate and the role of catalysis, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the rate constants for the decomposition of acetate (acetic acid and sodium acetate) in the presence of titanium, silica, stainless steel, gold, and magnetite. Activation energies for decarboxylation of acetic acid and acetate ion range from about 8 kcal mol -1 in stainless steel vessels to 69 kcal mol -1 in silica tubes. Extrapolated rate constants at 100°C for acetic acid differ by more than fourteen orders of magnitude between the experiments conducted in stainless steel and the catalytically least active titanium vessels. Gold and titanium were the least active catalysts for the acetic acid substrate, while stainless steel, silica, and magnetite showed marked catalytic effects. Methane and carbon dioxide were the predominant reaction products of most of these experiments, although mass spectrometric analyses of the gas phase revealed concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (apparent mass range from 29 to 56) amounting to as much as 55 mole percent of the total volatile products, depending on the catalyst. The reactions were generally first order in acetic acid or acetate ion, except for those involving the acid over silica and magnetite which were zero order. These results and the observed effects of variations in surface area are rationalized in terms of changes in the mode of surface catalysis. The mechanistic assignment is simplified by the existence of three unique straight lines on an isokinetic plot ( i.e., activation enthalpy versus activation entropy) which fit all the respective first- and zeroorder reactions. The results described here provide the nucleus for the discussion in Part II of the role of acetate in the primary migration of methane and the transportation of metals in hydrothermal solutions.

Palmer, Donald A.; Drummond, S. E.

1986-05-01

427

Phase Equilibria in the Systems Oxolane + Vinyl Acetate, Oxolane + Ethyl 1,1-Dimethylethyl Ether and Vinyl Acetate + Ethyl 1,1-Dimethylethyl Ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-liquid equilibrium at 94kPa has been determined for the binary systems oxolane (THF) + vinyl acetate, oxolane + ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether (ETBE) and vinyl acetate + ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether. The three systems present slight to moderate positive deviations from ideal behavior and, to a first approximation, can be considered to behave like regular solutions. An azeotrope is present in the

Jaime Wisniak; Hugo Segura

2000-01-01

428

Performances of poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate)-cellulose acetate blend membranes in the pervaporation of ethanol–ethyl tert-butyl ether mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance pervaporation membranes for the selective removal of ethanol from ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE) were prepared by blending cellulose acetate with poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) in different proportions and studied in sorption and pervaporation of ethanol–ETBE mixtures of compositions ranging from 5 to 25wt% ethanol. The membrane performances are improved when the copolymer content is higher due to strong flux enhancement.

Quang-Trong Nguyen; Robert Clément; Irwan Noezar; Pierre Lochon

1998-01-01

429

Combined sorption\\/transport of sodium dodecyl sulfate and hydrochloric acid in a blend of cellulose acetate butyrate with cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of hydrochloric acid (0.001–0.1 M) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.001–0.1 M) has been measured through a membrane consisting of a blend of cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate. The cellulose derivative blend is suggested to suffer an alteration in the degree of hydrophobicity when in equilibrium with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) through hemimicelle formation. An increase

Artur J. M. Valente; Hugh D. Burrows; Alexandre Ya. Polishchuk; Maria G. Miguel; Victor M. M. Lobo

2004-01-01

430

Serum Concentrations of Trenbolone17b and Estradiol17b and Performance of Heifers Treated With Trenbolone Acetate, Melengestrol Acetate, or Estradiol17b1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the growth-promoting steroids estradiol-17b (E2) , trenbolone acetate (TBA), and melengestrol acetate (MGA) in heifers on serum concentrations of E2 and trenbolone-17b (TBOH) were examined. Feed intake and growth performance were also measured. Serum concentra- tions of E2 and TBOH were measured on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 13, 21, 28, 42, 56, 84, 112, and

D. M. Henricks; R. T. Brandt; E. C. Titgemeyer; C. T. Milton

431

The fate of trenbolone acetate and melengestrol acetate after application as growth promoters in cattle: environmental studies.  

PubMed Central

The steroids trenbolone acetate (TbA) and melengestrol acetate (MGA) are licensed as growth promoters for farm animals in several meat-exporting countries. Although many studies have explored their safety for both animals and consumers, little is known about their fate after excretion by the animal. Our study aimed to determine the residues and degradation of trenbolone and MGA in solid dung, liquid manure, and soil. In animal experiments lasting 8 weeks, cattle were treated with TbA and MGA. Solid dung and, in case of trenbolone, liquid manure were collected and spread on maize fields after 4.5 and 5.5 months of storage, respectively. Determination of the hormone residues in all samples included extraction, clean-up (solid-phase extraction), separation of metabolites and interfering substances by HPLC (RP-18), and quantification by sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Procedures were validated by mass spectrometry (MS) methods. During storage of liquid manure the level of trenbolone decreased from 1,700 to 1,100 pg/g (17alpha-isomer), corresponding to a half-life of 267 days. Before storage, the concentrations in the dung hill ranged from 5 to 75 ng/g TbOH and from 0.3 to 8 ng/g MGA. After storage, levels up to 10 ng/g trenbolone, and 6 ng/g MGA were detected. In the soil samples trenbolone was traceable up to 8 weeks after fertilization, and MGA was detected even until the end of the cultivation period. The results show that these substances should be investigated further concerning their potential endocrine-disrupting activity in agricultural ecosystems.

Schiffer, B; Daxenberger, A; Meyer, K; Meyer, H H

2001-01-01

432

Protein kinase C-? 1b-adrenoceptor coimmunoprecipitation: effect of hormones and phorbol myristate acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

?1b-Adrenoceptors immunoprecipitated with protein kinase C ?, ?, and ? isoforms under basal conditions and such coimmunoprecipitations were increased in cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate. The increased coimmunoprecipitations induced by phorbol myristate acetate were concentration-dependent and reached their maxima 1 to 2 min after the addition of the tumor promoter. No coimmunoprecipitation of protein kinase C ? and ?1b-adrenoceptors

Roc??o Alcántara-Hernández; Dinorah Leyva-Illades; J. Adolfo Garc??a-Sáinz

2001-01-01

433

DNA Strand Breakage in Human Leukocytes Exposed to a Tumor Promoter, Phorbol Myristate Acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated respiratory burst in human peripheral blood leukocytes in associated with extensive DNA strand breakage. Damage to DNA occurs before gross cellular damage is evident and may be related to the action of phorbol myristate acetate as a skin tumor promoter in animals.

Birnboim, H. C.

1982-03-01

434

Investigations of photo-induced decomposition of palladium acetate for electroless copper plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-induced decomposition of palladium acetate films has been performed by using argon and xenon excimer vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) sources that emit radiation peaking at wavelengths of 126 and 172 nm, respectively. VUV irradiation of a substrate treated with palladium acetate results in the formation of palladium, which acts as a catalyst for subsequent copper plating by means of an electroless