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1

Pregabalin  

MedlinePLUS

... medications, or any of the ingredients in pregabalin capsules. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

2

Pregabalin and Simvastatin  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We sought to determine whether a case of rhabdomyolysis was a probable adverse reaction associated with pregabalin (Lyrica) and simvastatin (Zocor). Pregabalin is not recognized as a cause of rhabdomyolysis, but statins are known to cause it. Patient Summary: A 70-year-old man with a history of fibromyalgia, type-2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic back pain presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, limb weakness, twitching, and slurred speech. He was taking multiple pain and neuropathic medications and had recently started taking lisinopril (e.g., Zestril) and simvastatin. His pregabalin dose was also increased from 50 mg to 100 mg three times daily. On admission, serum creatinine (SCr) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were 1.5 mg/dL (normal, 0.7–1.5 mg/dL) and 1,391 units/L (normal, 30–170 units/L), respectively. Metformin (Glucophage) was discontinued, and insulin was started. He was alert and oriented. The review of symptoms was normal except for leg weakness. He had no seizure activity. Simvastatin was discontinued, and the patient was aggressively hydrated. The following day, the SCr level was 1.6 mg/dL and the CPK level was 14,191 units/L. Pregabalin was then discontinued. The rhabdomyolysis resulted from simvastatin and perhaps also pregabalin. The Naranjo Causality Algorithm indicates a probable relationship between rhabdomyolysis and combined therapy. Three days later, the patient had significantly improved, and CPK began to decline. His discharge plan included all prior medications except simvastatin and pregabalin. Conclusion: It is not well known that pregabalin can cause rhabdomyolysis, and there is only one published report on pregabalin-induced hepatotoxicity. When different therapies are combined, the risk of rhabdomyolysis may be increased. The cause of rhabdomyolysis in our patient might be related to decreased renal elimination of both pregabalin and simvastatin (e.g., renal tubular reabsorption). It is important to be aware of this potentially serious and possibly life-threatening reaction especially when medication doses are increased or combined with other agents with similar safety issues. PMID:23115467

Kaufman, Michele B.; Choy, Mary

2012-01-01

3

Direct determination of pregabalin in human urine by nonaqueous CE-TOF-MS.  

PubMed

Determination of pregabalin in urine samples was carried out by nonaqueous CE with TOF-MS via ESI, with a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate and 0.05% acetic acid in methanol. By using TOF-MS, accurate mass information was obtained, thus causing a great improvement in qualitative ability. In order to avoid ionic suppression, urine samples dilution 1:10 was used. This was the only treatment to urine samples before the injection. Despite this dilution, the detection limit was as low as 0.03 ?g/mL for pregabalin. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, and linearity, LOD, and LOQ. This method was applied to the analysis of urine samples from seven different cancer patients undergoing treatment with pregabalin. The developed method may find wide application for the routine determination of pregabalin in biological samples in order to establish a more efficient and safe dosage. PMID:23463484

Rodríguez, Juana; Castañeda, Gregorio; Muñoz, Lorena

2013-05-01

4

[Pregabalin--a drug with abuse potential?].  

PubMed

A case of pregabalin misuse associated with delusional ideas in a drug addict is reported. Pregabalin has been approved as an adjunct therapy for epilepsy, but also for neuropathic pain and generalized anxiety disorders and is widely used today. It has also been used in clinical trials to study its potential utility as a treatment for tobacco, alcohol and benzodiazepine addiction. Web sites, case reports and an epidemiological study (Swedish National Register of Adverse Drug Reactions) suggest that the drug may be abused, especially by substance-dependent individuals. Pregabalin was analyzed by LC/MS/MS following precipitation of serum proteins. Vigabatrin was used as internal standard. The concentration of 25 pg pregabalin/mL serum determined in the present case is the second highest value published so far after misuse of the substance. Due to paradoxical agitation, anxiety attacks and abnormal thinking, the man was exculpated. Further studies are required to assess the actual abuse potential of pregabalin. PMID:22448469

Skopp, Gisela; Zimmer, Gisela

2012-01-01

5

Depression and attempted suicide under pregabalin therapy.  

PubMed

Originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy, pregabalin has become a compound with a wide spectrum of indications comprising anxiety disorders and chronic pain and is therefore largely prescribed. Thus, it is important for clinicians to be aware of rare, but serious adverse effects. The following report illustrates the case of a 20-year-old male with a severe depressive syndrome following pregabalin medication which even led to a suicide attempt. PMID:25489334

Kustermann, Andreas; Möbius, Cornelia; Oberstein, Timo; Müller, Helge H; Kornhuber, Johannes

2014-01-01

6

Pregabalin in the management of partial epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin is a new antiepileptic medication that works by binding to alpha 2 delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channels present in presynaptic neurons. Its pharmacokinetic advantages include rapid and almost complete absorption, lack of protein binding, linear kinetics, absence of enzyme induction, and absence of interactions with other drugs. Pregabalin was found effective as adjunctive therapy for refractory partial-onset seizures, with up to 51% responder at a dose of 600 mg/day. The lowest effective dose was 150 mg/day. Pregabalin is also approved for treatment of painful diabetic polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia and pain with fibromyalgia. Studies also suggest a beneficial effect on sleep and generalized anxiety disorders. Its main adverse effects in randomized adjunctive trials in adults have been mild to moderate. Most common side effects were dizziness, ataxia, somnolence and diplopia. Weight gain was not prominent in pivotal pregabalin trials, but was more problematic in long-term postmarketing analyses in epilepsy patients. Pregabalin, with its potent antiseizure effect, favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and effectiveness in common co-morbidities is an important addition to the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:19721720

Arain, Amir M

2009-01-01

7

Painful legs and moving toes syndrome responsive to pregabalin.  

PubMed

Report three cases of painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome responsive to pregabalin along with a review of its literature. Three patients with PLMT syndrome improved with pregabalin. The first and third patient reported improvement in pain scores, quality of life, and quality of sleep sustained over time. The second and third patient had near complete remission of toe movements, but pregabalin was discontinued in the second patient due to aggravation of leg edema. PLMT is a rare and debilitating disorder characterized by lower limb pain and involuntary toes or feet movements. Its pathophysiology remains unknown and its therapy refractory to most drugs, except for pregabalin, as shown in this case series. PLMT is a rare and incapacitating syndrome due to the lack of an effective pain therapy. We report three patients with PLMT who favorable responded to pregabalin. We propose pregabalin be considered in the management of PLMT. PMID:25766346

Rossi, F H; Liu, W; Geigel, E; Castaneda, S; Rossi, E M; Schnacky, K

2015-01-01

8

Spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of pregabalin in capsules and urine samples.  

PubMed

Three new, simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of the ?-amino-n-butyric acid derivative, pregabalin. Pregabalin as a primary amine reacts with fluorescamine to yield a fluorescent product (Method I), with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (Method II) and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (Method III) in aqueous alkaline buffered media to form colored products which could be measured spectrophotometrically. The optimum conditions for each reaction were ascertained and the methods were applied for the determination of pregabalin over the concentration range of 20-280 ng mL(-1) and 1-7 ?g mL(-1) for spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, respectively with good correlation (?0.999). The limits of assays detection ranged from 9.6 × 10(-4) ?g mL(-1) to 0.42 ?g mL(-1) for spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, respectively. The suggested methods were applied to the determination of the drug in capsules. No interference could be observed from the additives listed to be in capsules. Furthermore, the spectrofluorimetric method was extended to the in-vitro determination of pregabalin in spiked urine, interference from endogenous amino acids could be eliminated through selective complexation with copper acetate; the percentage recovery was found to be 98% ± 1.42 (n=6). Co- administered drugs such as chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam and lamotrigine did not interfere with the assay. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The results obtained were determined to be in good agreement with those obtained using a previously reported method. PMID:23675201

Shaalan, Rasha Abdel-Aziz

2010-09-01

9

Pregabalin effects on neural response to emotional faces  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin has shown promise in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate agents used to treat anxiety, e.g., SSRIs and benzodiazepines, attenuate amygdala, insula, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation during emotional processing. Our prior study has shown that during anticipation of an emotional stimulus, pregabalin attenuates amygdala and insula activation but increases medial PFC activation. In this study, we examined whether, similar to SSRIs and benzodiazepines, pregabalin attenuates amygdala, insula, and medial PFC during emotional face processing. Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a double-blind within-subjects fMRI study investigating effects of placebo, 50 mg, and 200 mg pregabalin on neural activation during an emotional face-matching task. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that pregabalin dose-dependently attenuated left amygdala activation during fearful face-matching and left anterior insula activation during angry face-matching. The 50 mg dose exhibited more robust effects than the 200 mg dose in the right anterior insula and ventral ACC. Thus, pregabalin shares some similarity to SSRIs and benzodiazepines in attenuating anger and fear-related insula and amygdala activation during emotional face processing. However, there is evidence that a subclinical 50 mg dose of pregabalin produced more robust and widespread effects on neural responses in this paradigm than the more clinically relevant 200 mg dose. Taken together, pregabalin has a slightly different effect on brain activation as it relates to anticipation and emotional face processing, which may account for its unique characteristic as an agent for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22470326

Aupperle, Robin L.; Tankersley, Dharol; Ravindran, Lakshmi N.; Flagan, Taru; Stein, Nathan R.; Stein, Murray B.; Paulus, Martin P.

2012-01-01

10

Pregabalin alleviates the nitroglycerin-induced hyperalgesia in rats.  

PubMed

The association between the clinical use of nitroglycerin (NTG) and migraine suggests NTG as an animal model trigger for migraine. NTG-induced hyperalgesia in rats has been extensively used as a migraine model for pre-clinical research. Pregabalin is an anti-epileptic drug and may play a role in the preventive treatment of migraine; however, the mechanism of this action remains to be clarified. Herein, we performed the present study to investigate the effect of pregabalin on the NTG-induced hyperalgesia in rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into six groups. Thirty minutes before NTG injection, the rats were pretreated with pregabalin. von Frey hair testing was employed to evaluate tactile sensitivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in the jugular vein. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons and western blot was performed to detect c-Fos protein expression in trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). We found that pregabalin pretreatment alleviated the NTG-induced hyperalgesia. Moreover, pregabalin suppressed peripheral CGRP release, c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons and the protein expression of c-Fos in TNC as well. These data suggest that pregabalin could alleviate the NTG-induced hyperalgesia. Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms of action for this effect. PMID:25290014

Di, W; Zheng, Z-Y; Xiao, Z-J; Qi, W-W; Shi, X-L; Luo, N; Lin, J-W; Ding, M-H; Zhang, A-W; Fang, Y-N

2015-01-22

11

Perverted head-shaking and positional downbeat nystagmus in pregabalin intoxication.  

PubMed

Dizziness and ataxia are known adverse effects of pregabalin, but characteristic oculomotor signs in pregabalin intoxication have not been reported. Here we describe a patient who displayed perverted head-shaking and positional downbeat nystagmus after prescription of a high dosage of pregabalin. Since pregabalin reduces excitatory neurotransmitter secretion in the central nervous system, decreased excitatory inputs from the brainstem may lead to cerebellar dysfunction, causing perverted head-shaking and positional downbeat nystagmus. PMID:24368013

Choi, Jeong-Yoon; Park, Young-Min; Woo, Yeon Sun; Kim, Sung Un; Jung, Jin-Man; Kwon, Do-Young

2014-02-15

12

Milnacipran combined with pregabalin in fibromyalgia: a randomized, open-label study evaluating the safety and efficacy of adding milnacipran in patients with incomplete response to pregabalin  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adding milnacipran to pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia who have experienced an incomplete response to pregabalin. Methods: In this randomized, multicenter, open-label study, patients received pregabalin 300 or 450 mg/day during a 4- to 12-week run-in period. Patients with weekly recall visual analog scale (VAS) pain score of at least 40 and up to 90, Patient Global Impression of Severity score of at least 4, and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) score of at least 3 were classified as incomplete responders and randomized to continue pregabalin alone (n = 180) or receive milnacipran 100 mg/day added to pregabalin (n = 184). The primary efficacy parameter was responder status based on PGIC score of up to 2. The secondary efficacy parameter was change from randomization in weekly recall VAS pain score. Safety parameters included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, and clinical laboratory tests. Results: The percentage of PGIC responders was significantly higher with milnacipran added to pregabalin (46.4%) than with pregabalin alone (20.8%; p < 0.001). Mean improvement from randomization in weekly recall VAS pain scores was greater in patients receiving milnacipran added to pregabalin (?20.77) than in patients receiving pregabalin alone (?6.43; p < 0.001). During the run-in period, the most common treatment-emergent AEs with pregabalin were dizziness (22.8%), somnolence (17.3%), and fatigue (9.1%). During the randomized period, the most common treatment-emergent AEs with milnacipran added to pregabalin were nausea (12.5%), fatigue (10.3%), and constipation (9.8%). Conclusions: In this exploratory, open-label study, adding milnacipran to pregabalin improved global status, pain, and other symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia with an incomplete response to pregabalin treatment. PMID:23858335

Farmer, Mildred V.; Palmer, Robert H.; Gendreau, R. Michael; Trugman, Joel M.; Wang, Yong

2013-01-01

13

Effect of Pregabalin and Dexamethasone on Postoperative Analgesia after Septoplasty  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of this study was to explore effect of a combination of pregabalin and dexamethasone on pain control after septoplasty operations. Methods. In this study, 90 patients who were scheduled for septoplasty under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into groups that received either placebo (Group C), pregabalin (Group P), or pregabalin and dexamethasone (Group PD). Preoperatively, patients received either pregabalin 300?mg one hour before surgery, dexamethasone 8?mg intravenously during induction, or placebo according to their allocation. Postoperative pain treatment included tramadol and diclofenac sodium 30 minutes before the end of the operation. Numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain assessment, side effects, and consumption of tramadol, pethidine, and ondansetron were recorded. Results. The median NRS score at the postoperative 0 and the 2nd?h was significantly higher in Group C than in Group P and Group PD (P ? 0.004 for both). The 24?h tramadol and pethidine, consumptions were significantly reduced in Groups P and PD compared to Group C (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). The incidence of blurred vision was significantly higher in Group PD compared to Group C within both 0–2?h and 0–24?h periods (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, resp.). Conclusions. We conclude that administration of 300 mg pregabalin preoperatively may be an adequate choice for pain control after septoplasty. Addition of dexamethasone does not significantly reduce pain in these patients. PMID:24876957

Demirhan, Abdullah; Akkaya, Akcan; Tekelioglu, Umit Yasar; Apuhan, Tayfun; Bilgi, Murat; Yurttas, Veysel; Bayir, Hakan; Yildiz, Isa; Gok, Uzeyir; Kocoglu, Hasan

2014-01-01

14

Effect of Pregabalin in Preventing Secondary Damage in Traumatic Brain Injury: An Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

Background In this study we aimed to explore the effects of pregabalin on a traumatic brain injury model in rats. Material/Methods This study included 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats randomized into 4 groups, each of which contained equal numbers of animals. The control group had no head trauma and thus was not treated. The trauma group had head trauma but was not treated. The pregabalin group had no head trauma but was treated by pregabalin. The trauma + pregabalin group had head trauma treated with pregabalin. The biopsy samples taken from the study animals were histopathologically examined for the presence of edema, inflammation, and neuronal damage. Results All animals in the trauma group had edema, inflammation, and neuronal damage. Four subjects in the control group, 6 in the pregabalin group, and 4 in the trauma + pregabalin group had edema; inflammation was present in 1 subject in the control group, 3 subjects in the pregabalin group, and 3 subjects in the trauma + pregabalin group; neuronal damage existed in 1 subject in the control group, 1 subject in the pregabalin group, and 6 subjects in the trauma + pregabalin group. The trauma group had significantly higher edema and neuronal damage scores than the other groups. Similarly, inflammation was significantly more prevalent in the trauma group than the control and trauma + pregabalin groups. Conclusions The results of the present study indicated anti-edema, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of pregabalin in an experimental head trauma model in rats. Pregabalin may thus be beneficial in humans with acute TBI by relieving concomitant edema and inflammation. PMID:25785578

Calikoglu, Cagatay; Aytekin, Hikmet; Akgül, Osman; Akgül, Mehmet Hüseyin; Gezen, Ahmet Ferruh; Akyuz, Feyzullah; Cakir, Murteza

2015-01-01

15

Pregabalin for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: an update  

PubMed Central

A previous review summarized what was then known about the potential role of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in “over-excited” presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD. PMID:23836974

Baldwin, David S; Ajel, Khalil; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Nowak, Magda; Rafiq, Rizwan

2013-01-01

16

Efficacy of Pregabalin in Childhood Refractory Partial Seizure  

PubMed Central

Objective: About one third of partial seizures are refractory to treatment. Several anticonvulsant drugs have entered the market in recent decades but concerns about intolerance, drug interactions, and the safety of the drug are notable. One of these new anticonvulsants is pregabalin, a safe drug with almost no interaction with other antiepileptic drugs. Methods: In this open label clinical trial study, pregabalin was used for evaluation of its efficacy on reducing seizure frequency in 29 children suffering from refractory partial seizures. Average daily and weekly seizure frequency of the patients was recorded during a 6-week period (baseline period). Then, during a period of 2 weeks (titration period), pregabalin was started with a dose of 25-75 mg/d, using method of flexible dose, and was brought to maximum dose of drug that was intended in this study (450 mg/d) based on clinical response of the patients and seizure frequency. Then the patients were given the drug for 12 weeks and the average frequency of daily and weekly seizures were recorded again (treatment period). Findings : Reduction in seizure frequency in this study was 36% and the responder rate or number of patients who gained more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency was 51.7%. Conclusion: This study showed that pregabalin can be used with safety and an acceptable efficacy in treatment of childhood refractory partial seizures.

Zamani, Gholamreza; Tavasoli, Alireza; Zare-Shahabadi, Ameneh; Rezaei, Nima; Ahmadvand, Alireza

2014-01-01

17

Misuse and abuse of pregabalin and gabapentin: cause for concern?  

PubMed

Gabapentinoids (e.g. pregabalin and gabapentin) are widely used in neurology, psychiatry and primary healthcare but are increasingly being reported as possessing a potential for misuse. In fact, increasing levels of both prescriptions and related fatalities, together with an anecdotally growing black market, have been reported from a range of countries. This article reviews the current evidence base of this potential, in an attempt to answer the question of whether there is cause for concern about these drugs. Potent binding of pregabalin/gabapentin at the calcium channel results in a reduction in the release of excitatory molecules. Furthermore, gabapentinoids are thought to possess GABA-mimetic properties whilst possibly presenting with direct/indirect effects on the dopaminergic 'reward' system. Overall, pregabalin is characterized by higher potency, quicker absorption rates and greater bioavailability levels than gabapentin. Although at therapeutic dosages gabapentinoids may present with low addictive liability levels, misusers' perceptions for these molecules to constitute a valid substitute for most common illicit drugs may be a reason of concern. Gabapentinoid experimenters are profiled here as individuals with a history of recreational polydrug misuse, who self-administer with dosages clearly in excess (e.g. up to 3-20 times) of those that are clinically advisable. Physicians considering prescribing gabapentinoids for neurological/psychiatric disorders should carefully evaluate a possible previous history of drug abuse, whilst being able to promptly identify signs of pregabalin/gabapentin misuse and provide possible assistance in tapering off the medication. PMID:24760436

Schifano, Fabrizio

2014-06-01

18

Pregabalin as a neuroprotector after spinal cord injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The over-expression of excitotoxic neurotransmitter, such as glutamate, is an important mechanism of secondary injury after\\u000a spinal cord injury. The authors examined the neuroprotective effect of pregabalin (GP) which is known as to reduce glutamate\\u000a secretion, in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Thirty-two male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly allocated to four groups;\\u000a the control group (contusion injury only),

Kee-Yong Ha; Young-Hoon Kim; Kee-Won Rhyu; Soon-Eok Kwon

2008-01-01

19

Pregabalin in Neuropathic Pain: Evidences and Possible Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin is an antagonist of voltage gated Ca2+ channels and specifically binds to alpha-2-delta subunit to produce antiepileptic and analgesic actions. It successfully alleviates the symptoms of various types of neuropathic pain and presents itself as a first line therapeutic agent with remarkable safety and efficacy. Preclinical studies in various animal models of neuropathic pain have shown its effectiveness in treating the symptoms like allodynia and hyperalgesia. Clinical studies in different age groups and in different types of neuropathic pain (peripheral diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, cancer chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain) have projected it as the most effective agent either as monotherapy or in combined regimens in terms of cost effectiveness, tolerability and overall improvement in neuropathic pain states. Preclinical studies employing pregabalin in different neuropathic pain models have explored various molecular targets and the signaling systems including Ca2+ channel-mediated neurotransmitter release, activation of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), potassium channels and inhibition of pathways involving inflammatory mediators. The present review summarizes the important aspects of pregabalin as analgesic in preclinical and clinical studies as well as focuses on the possible mechanisms. PMID:24533015

Verma, Vivek; Singh, Nirmal; Singh Jaggi, Amteshwar

2014-01-01

20

Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

cebo with those of 150, 300, and 450 mg\\/day pregabalin on pain, sleep, fatigue, and health-related quality of life in 529 patients with FMS. The primary outcome variable was the comparison of end point mean pain scores, derived from daily diary ratings of pain intensity, between each of the pregabalin treatment groups and the placebo group. Results. Pregabalin at 450

Leslie J. Crofford; Michael C. Rowbotham; Philip J. Mease; I. Jon Russell; Robert H. Dworkin; Ann E. Corbin; James P. Young; Linda K. LaMoreaux; Susan A. Martin; Uma Sharma

2005-01-01

21

Pregabalin: latest safety evidence and clinical implications for the management of neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Used mainly for the management of neuropathic pain, pregabalin is a gabapentinoid or anticonvulsant that was initially developed as an antiepileptic agent. After more than a decade of experience with pregabalin, experience and studies have shown that the adverse effect profile of pregabalin is well tolerated for the management of neuropathic pain and other conditions. Its use is associated with benign central nervous system and systemic adverse effects, and there are very limited metabolic, idiosyncratic or known teratogenic adverse effects. Along with its efficacy in particular neuropathic pain conditions, pregabalin’s safety led it to be one of the first pharmacotherapies considered for the management of neuropathic pain. This review discusses the use of pregabalin as well as its potential adverse effects, including the most commonly noted features of sedation, dizziness, peripheral edema and dry mouth. Although other adverse effects may occur, these appear to be uncommon. The review also discusses the clinical implications of pregabalin’s use for the clinician. PMID:25083261

2014-01-01

22

Pregabalin reduces cocaine self-administration and relapse to cocaine seeking in the rat.  

PubMed

Pregabalin (Lyrica™) is a structural analog of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and is approved by the FDA for partial epilepsy, neuropathic pain and generalized anxiety disorders. Pregabalin also reduces excitatory neurotransmitter release and post-synaptic excitability. Recently, we demonstrated that pregabalin reduced alcohol intake and prevented relapse to the alcohol seeking elicited by stress or environmental stimuli associated with alcohol availability. Here, we sought to extend these findings by examining the effect of pregabalin on cocaine self-administration (0.25?mg/infusion) and on cocaine seeking elicited by both conditioned stimuli and stress, as generated by administration of yohimbine (1.25?mg/kg). The results showed that oral administration of pregabalin (0, 10 or 30?mg/kg) reduced self-administration of cocaine over an extended period (6 hours), whereas it did not modify self-administration of food. In cocaine reinstatement studies, pregabalin (10 and 30?mg/kg) abolished the cocaine seeking elicited by both the pharmacological stressor yohimbine and the cues predictive of cocaine availability. Overall, these results demonstrate that pregabalin may have potential in the treatment of some aspects of cocaine addiction. PMID:22734646

de Guglielmo, Giordano; Cippitelli, Andrea; Somaini, Lorenzo; Gerra, Gilberto; Li, Hongwu; Stopponi, Serena; Ubaldi, Massimo; Kallupi, Marsida; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2013-07-01

23

Mesoxalaldehyde acetals  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

1987-11-10

24

Pregabalin determination in hair by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is an antiepileptic and analgesic drug, commercialized under the name of Lyrica, and generally used to treat neuropathic pain. The determination of pregabalin was performed by using spiked hair samples extracted in methanol and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The validation of a quantification method of pregabalin in hair has been successfully achieved (precision, accuracy, matrix effects and extraction yield). The limit of detection was 0.76 pg/mg and the lower limit of quantification was 2.5 pg/mg. A real case of pregabalin in hair has been analyzed using this method. The result showed a concentration of 540 pg/mg. PMID:24055809

Pauly, Caroline; Yegles, Michel; Schneider, Serge

2013-01-01

25

Effects of Single-Dose Pregabalin on Postoperative Pain in Dacryocystorhinostomy Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Postoperative pain of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCA) surgery is one of the serious issues to be considered. Administrating opioids to relieve postoperative pain and facing their increasing side effects in eye surgeries, make the use of non-opioid drugs inevitable. Objectives The present study examined the efficacy of pregabalin in alleviating the postoperative pain of DCA surgery. Patients and Methods The present study has been carried out as a double-blind, randomized clinical trial on the patient candidates for DCR. The patients were randomly divided in to two groups of pregabalin and placebo. Patients in pregabalin group received 300 mg of pregabalin, an hour before the operation in the morning of the surgery. Pain intensity on visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded until 24 hours after the operation; also the rate of administrated opioids and nausea/vomiting frequency were recorded during the first 24-hour period after the operation and the resultsof the two groups were compared. Results Postoperative pain intensity in the pregabalin group at the time of recovery was significantly lower than that of the placebo group (P = 0.001) until 24 hours after the surgery. In the pregabalin group 17.5% of the patients received opioids while in the placebo group the figure was 52.5% (P = 0.001). Nausea frequency was also higher in the placebo group than the pregabalin group (P = 0.003). Conclusions A single 300 mg dose of pregabalin, an hour before DCA can effectively reduce pain intensity and also reduce opioid dose and nausea/vomiting. PMID:24223341

Alimian, Mahzad; Imani, Farnad; Hassani, Valiollah; Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Sharifian, Mahshid; Safari, Saeid

2012-01-01

26

Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of pregabalin in bulk and pharmaceutical preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of the ?-amino-n-butyric acid derivative pregabalin (PGB) in bulk drug and capsule. Pregabalin, as a primary amine compound, reacts with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzofurazon (NBD-Cl) which is a highly sensitive fluorogenic and chromogenic reagent used in many investigations. According to this fact, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the

Arma?an Önal; Olcay Sagirli

2009-01-01

27

The Effectiveness of Pregabalin for Post-Tonsillectomy Pain Control: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although various analgesics have been used, postoperative pain remains one of the most troublesome aspects of tonsillectomy for patients. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of premedication using pregabalin compared with placebo (diazepam) on postoperative pain control in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Methods Forty-eight adult patients were randomly divided into a control group and a pregabalin group. Preoperatively, patients in the control group received 4 mg diazepam orally as placebo, whereas those in the pregabalin group received 300 mg pregabalin orally. All participants were provided with patient-controlled analgesia using fentanyl for 24 hours after surgery. Postoperative pain treatment included acetaminophen 650 mg three times daily for 8 postoperative days. The primary outcome measure was the total amount of patient-controlled fentanyl consumption after tonsillectomy. Secondary outcome measures were the number of injections of ketorolac tromethamine (each 30 mg) requested by patients, pain scores, overall satisfaction scores, drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, headache, and vomiting after the surgery. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The total amount of fentanyl demanded decreased significantly in the pregabalin group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the number of ketorolac tromethamine injections, pain scores, overall satisfaction scores, drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, headache, and vomiting between the two groups. Conclusion Administration of 300 mg pregabalin prior to tonsillectomy decreases fentanyl consumption compared with that after 4 mg diazepam, without an increased incidence of adverse effects. Trial Registration KCT0001215 PMID:25706948

Park, Soo Seog; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Nam, In-Chul; Lee, Il-Hwan; Hwang, Jae-Woong

2015-01-01

28

Evaluation of the effect of pregabalin on simulated driving ability using a driving simulator in healthy male volunteers  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin, a novel agent for treating partial epilepsy and peripheral neuropathic and central pain, was studied for its effect on driving performance in healthy volunteers. Sixteen healthy male volunteers who drove regularly were enrolled in a double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study assessing the effect of pregabalin on driving performance. Subjects received an oral dose of pregabalin 75 mg or placebo, and a second dose 12 hours later. A driving simulator was used to test simple and complicated braking reaction time, and simple and complicated steering-wheel techniques before the first dose, and 1 hour and 3 hours after the second dose of pregabalin or placebo. The effect of training during the driving test on the driving performance of each group was also evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in driving performance between the pregabalin and the placebo groups. However, the pregabalin group showed no significant improvement in steering-wheel skills with training, whereas the placebo group showed a significant (P<0.05) improvement with training. In this study using a driving simulator, pregabalin did not impair driving performance but mildly reduced the training effects of driving experiments. Although pregabalin caused sleepiness, it had no severe effect on driving ability after a second dose of 75 mg after the initial introduction of pregabalin. PMID:24501544

Tujii, Tomoaki; Kyaw, Win Thiri; Iwaki, Hirotaka; Nishikawa, Noriko; Nagai, Masahiro; Kubo, Madoka; Nomoto, Masahiro

2014-01-01

29

Neuropathic Pain in Elderly Patients with Chronic Low Back Painand Effects of Pregabalin: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Study Design Preliminary study. Purpose To assess the association of neuropathic pain with chronic low back pain (LBP) and the effect of pregabalin on neuropathic pain in the elderly. Overview of Literature Of those with chronic LBP, 37% were predominantly presenting with neuropathic pain in young adults. Pregabalin is effective for pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy and peripheral neuralgia. No study has reported on the effects of pregabalin for chronic LBP in elderly patients yet. Methods Pregabalin was administered to 32 patients (age, ?65 years) with chronic LBP for 4 weeks. Pain and activities of daily living were assessed using the Neuropathic Pain Screening Questionnaire (NePSQ), the pain DETECT questionnaire, visual analog scale, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Modic change and spinal canal stenosis were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Altogether, 43.3% of patients had neuropathic pain according to the NePSQ and 15.6% patients had pain according to the pain DETECT. The efficacy rate of pregabalin was 73.3%. A significant effect was observed in patients with neuropathic pain after 4 weeks of administration. Conclusions Neuropathic pain was slightly less frequently associated with chronic LBP in the elderly. Pregabalin was effective in reducing pain in patients with chronic LBP accompanied with neuropathic pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis and lower limb symptoms were observed in patients with neuropathic pain. We recommend the use of pregabalin for patients after evaluating a screening score, clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging studies.

Ito, Kenyu; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Sadayuki; Harada, Atsushi

2015-01-01

30

Pregabalin Versus Pramipexole: Effects on Sleep Disturbance in Restless Legs Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To compare pregabalin versus placebo and pramipexole for reducing restless legs syndrome (RLS)-related sleep disturbance. Design: Randomized, double-blinded, crossover trial. Setting: Twenty-three US sleep centers. Participants: Eighty-five individuals with moderate to severe idiopathic RLS and associated sleep disturbance. Interventions: Participants were randomized across 6 treatment sequences comprising three 4-week periods on pregabalin 300 mg/day (n = 75), pramipexole 0.5 mg/day (n = 76), or placebo (n = 73). Measurements and Results: Polysomnography was conducted over 2 nights at the end of each period. Primary (wake after sleep onset [WASO], pregabalin vs placebo) and key secondary endpoints were analyzed for statistical significance, with descriptive statistics for other endpoints. Pregabalin improved sleep maintenance, demonstrated by reductions in WASO (-27.1 min vs placebo [P < 0.0001]; -26.9 vs pramipexole) and number of awakenings after sleep onset (-2.7 vs placebo; -7.9 vs pramipexole [P < 0.0001]) by polysomnography, and an increase in subjective total sleep time (30.8 min vs placebo [P < 0.0001]; 26.8 vs pramipexole). Pregabalin also increased slow wave sleep duration (20.9 min vs placebo; 32.1 vs pramipexole [P < 0.0001]). Reduction in periodic limb movement arousal index (PLMAI) with pregabalin was similar to pramipexole and greater than placebo (-3.7 PLMA/h [P < 0.0001]), although reduction in total PLM in sleep was less than for pramipexole. Conclusions: This study demonstrated improvements in objective and subjective measures of sleep maintenance and sleep architecture with pregabalin compared with placebo and pramipexole. Effects of pregabalin on periodic limb movement arousal index were comparable to pramipexole. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00991276; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00991276 Citation: Garcia-Borreguero D; Patrick J; DuBrava S; Becker PM; Lankford A; Chen C; Miceli J; Knapp L; Allen RP. Pregabalin versus pramipexole: effects on sleep disturbance in restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2014;37(4):635-643. PMID:24899755

Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Patrick, Jeffrey; DuBrava, Sarah; Becker, Philip M.; Lankford, Alan; Chen, Crystal; Miceli, Jeffrey; Knapp, Lloyd; Allen, Richard P.

2014-01-01

31

The double-edged sword: effects of pregabalin on experimentally induced sciatic nerve transection and crush injury in rats.  

PubMed

Aim: The aim of this study was to research the effects of pregabalin on experimentally induced peripheral nerve crush injuries in rats. Material and method: Forty-two adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups: 1st group: healthy; 2nd group: axonotmesis control; 3rd group: anastomosis control; 4th group: axonotmesis+30 mg/kg of pregabalin; 5th group: axonotmesis+60 mg/kg of pregabalin; 6th group: anastomosis+30 mg/kg of pregabalin; 7th group: anastomosis+60 mg/kg of pregabalin. Evaluation of the sciatic functional index (SFI) was performed one day before and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following surgery. The right sciatic nerves of all animals were examined histopathologically and molecularly. Results: After 28 days post-injury, the histopathological regeneration in peripheral nerve injuries for pregabalin 30 mg/kg treated groups was significantly better than that of the control groups. Also the SFI increases and TGF-? gene expression up-regulation were significantly better in pregabalin 30 mg/kg treated groups. Conclusion: The histopathological, functional and molecular data suggest that pregabalin 30 mg/kg treatment in axonotmesis and anostomosis groups improves nerve regeneration and increases SFI in peripheral nerve injuries by activating antiinflammatory cytokine TGF-?1. PMID:25340254

Celik, Mine; Kose, Ahmet; Kose, Duygu; Karakus, Emre; Akpinar, Erol; Calik, Muhammed; Dostbil, Aysenur; Calikoglu, Cagatay; Aksoy, Mehmet; Ozel, Lutfu

2014-11-14

32

Comparing the effect of pregabalin, gabapentin, and acetaminophen on post-dural puncture headache  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication of lumbar puncture for any purpose. To avoid the need for invasive methods of treating PDPH such as blood patch, the search for novel pharmacological agents to manage PDPH continues. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acetaminophen, gabapentin and pregabalin in controlling PDPH in patients who underwent surgery under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients who underwent elective orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia and suffered from PDPH consequently were enrolled in this randomized trial. Patients were categorized randomly into three groups. Group A, B and C have received Acetaminophen, Gabapentin and Pregabalin (3 times a day for 3 days), respectively. The effect of medications on the severity of PDPH was evaluated and compared using visual analog scale (VAS). Results: The mean VAS score was significantly lower in pregabalin group compared with others 24, 48 and 72 h after the onset of headache (P = 0.001 for all of them) and lower in Gabapentin group compared with Acetaminophen group 24, 48 and 72 h after the onset of headache (P = 0.001 for all analyses). No adverse outcome was reported in groups. Conclusion: Pregabalin and gabapentin are both useful and safe in management of PDPH, but pregabalin is more effective in this regard. PMID:25191190

Mahoori, Alireza; Noroozinia, Heydar; Hasani, Ebrahim; Saghaleini, Hadi

2014-01-01

33

Determination of optical impurity of pregabalin by HPLC with pre-column chiral derivatization.  

PubMed

A new method for determining the optical impurity of Pregabalin is developed. The method is based on Pregabalin, and its isomers can be derivatized with Na-5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-L-alanine amide. These derivated compounds can be separated by an ordinary chromatography column (Inertsil ODS-2.5 microm, 250 mmx4.6 mm i.d.). Phosphoric acid buffer and acetonitrile (55:45, v/v) are used as mobile phase and 1.0 mL/min flow rate at room temperature. The detective wavelength is fixed at 340 nm. The results indicate that the limit of detection of R model optical impurity 1.1x10(-8) g/mL (signal-to-noise=3), accuracy, and repeatability is satisfied. Therefore, the method can be used for the quality control of Pregabalin. PMID:18218187

Chen, Xiaohui; Zhang, Daolin; Deng, Jie; Fu, Xiaotai

2008-01-01

34

Risk of heart failure and edema associated with the use of pregabalin: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Pregabalin is used in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathic pain, partial seizures, anxiety disorders and fibromyalgia. Recognized adverse effects associated with its use include cognitive impairment, somnolence and dizziness. Heart failure associated with pregabalin has been described, however the strength of this association has not been well characterized. To examine this further, we will conduct a systematic review of the risk of heart failure and edema associated with use of pregabalin. Methods/design We will include all studies (experimental, quasi-experimental, observational, case series/reports, drug regulatory reports) that examine the use of pregabalin compared to placebo, gabapentin or conventional care. Our primary outcome is heart failure and the secondary outcomes include edema and weight gain. We will search electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and grey literature sources (trial registries, conference abstracts) to identify relevant studies. To ensure literature saturation, we will contact drug manufacturers, conduct forward citation searching, and scan the reference lists of key articles and included studies. We will not restrict inclusion by language or publication status. Two reviewers will screen citations (titles and abstracts) and full-text articles, conduct data abstraction, and appraise risk of bias. Random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted if the studies are deemed heterogeneous in terms of clinical, statistical and methodological factors but still suitable for meta-analysis. Conclusions The results of this review will assist physicians to better appreciate pregabalin’s risk for edema or congestive heart failure and will be pertinent to the thousands of patients worldwide who are administered this medication. Our protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42012002948). PMID:23641821

2013-01-01

35

Brain microdialysis and PK\\/PD correlation of pregabalin in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Pregabalin [PGB, (S)-3-isobutyl GABA, CI-1008] is a derivative of the inhibitory neurotransmitter g-aminobutyric acid (GABA).\\u000a It has shown anticonvulsant, analgesia and anxiety activity in animal models. In this report, blood-brain barrier (BBB) influx\\u000a and efflux of PGB were investigated with microdialysis at efficacious doses in rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a BBB influx (CLin) and efflux (CLout) permeability for pregabalin were 4.8 and 37.2 ?L\\/min\\/g

MEIHUA ROSE FENGI; Daniel Turluck; Jim Burleigh; Richard Lister; Conglin Fan; Anne Middlebrook; Charley Taylor; Tizi Su

2001-01-01

36

Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer  

PubMed Central

A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin. PMID:24790724

Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martín, Pablo J.; López-López, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

2014-01-01

37

Do Surgical Patients Benefit from Perioperative Gabapentin\\/Pregabalin? A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gabapentin and pregabalin have antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic properties useful for treating neuropathic pain. These properties may also be beneficial in acute postoperative pain. In this study we evaluated randomized, controlled trials examining the analgesic efficacy, adverse effects, and clinical value of gabapentinoids in postoperative pain. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

Elina M. Tiippana; Katri Hamunen; Vesa K. Kontinen; Eija Kalso

2007-01-01

38

First pregabalin and now duloxetine for fibromyalgia syndrome: closer to a brave new world?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is defined by the presence of chronic, widespread pain and tender points. Research implicating hypersensitization of central neural pathways in the pathogenesis of FMS pain has led to the development of medications that treat FMS by modulating synaptic activity, including duloxetine, milnacipran and pregabalin—all of which have undergone successful clinical trials. Duloxetine and milnacipran are selective norepinephrine

Chad S Boomershine

2008-01-01

39

Premedication With Oral Pregabalin for the Prevention of Acute Postsurgical Pain in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: For coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) sternotomy should be performed. The pain after surgery is severe and requires medical intervention. Use of the analgesics is limited by their side effects and studies suggest that prevention with some medications before surgery is effective in controlling the postoperative pain. Objectives: We investigated the efficacy of pregabalin administration before surgery in the treatment of acute postoperative pain after CABG surgery. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients indicated for elective CABG surgery were randomly allocated to two groups. One group received placebo and the other received 150 mg of oral pregabalin before surgery. Heart rates, blood pressure, respiratory rate, intensive care unit (ICU) stay duration, morphine consumption, and pain score according to the visual analog scale (VAS) were measured and recorded at 4, 12, and 24 hours of surgery. Results: Pregabalin consumption did not alter hemodynamic parameters and was safe in patients after CABG. Its consumption was associated with significant reduction in the pain score (P values were 0.035, 0.026, and 0.047 respectively at 4, 12, and 24 hours of surgery). Its use was not associated with changes in the morphine consumption at 4, 12, and 24 hours of surgery (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Premedication with studied dose of pregabalin is effective for the prevention of postoperative pain in patients after CABG and has no adverse effects. Trials with other treating schedule and doses of the drug should be performed to determine the best treatment plan.

Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Mehrabanian, Mohammad Javad; Faritus, Seyedeh Zahra; Khazaei Koohpar, Mehrdad; Ferasatkish, Rasool; Hosseinnejad, Heidar; Mehrabanian, Mohammadreza

2015-01-01

40

The use of pregabalin in the treatment of uraemic pruritus in haemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of pregabalin in the treatment of uraemic pruritus not due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Sixteen haemodialysis patients suffering from uraemic pruritus resistant to conventional treatment started on pregabalin 25 mg/day orally. The parameters recorded were age, time on haemodialysis, haematocrit, Ca, PO? , Ca × PO? product, PTH, spKt/V, eosinophil counts and IgE. The effectiveness of pregabalin on uraemic pruritus was evaluated by using visual analogue scale before and after one month of treatment. Visual analogue scale consisted of a 10-cm horizontal line scored from 0 (no itch) to 10 (worst imaginable itch). Four patients discontinued treatment due to side effects and therefore were excluded from the study. The mean age of the remaining 12 patients was 61.2 ± 12.8 years, and the time on haemodialysis was 38 ± 39.1 months. The haematological and biochemical profile of the patients remained without significant change at the end of the observation period. There was a statistically significant difference between visual analogue scale values before and after the one month treatment period (7.44 ± 2.01 and 1.7 ± 1.31, respectively), p < 0.0003. Uraemic pruritus is a common and distressing symptom in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Pregabalin appears to be an effective alternative treatment. PMID:20969735

Aperis, Georgios; Paliouras, Christos; Zervos, Angelos; Arvanitis, Antonios; Alivanis, Polichronis

2010-12-01

41

Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. IV. prevalence of gabapentin and pregabalin.  

PubMed

Gabapentin and pregabalin are well established for the treatment of seizures and neuropathic pain. Both drugs are eliminated primarily unchanged by renal excretion. As part of an ongoing research program to improve and expand drug testing methods for compliance monitoring of pain patients, the prevalence and concentrations of gabapentin and pregabalin in urine specimens from chronic pain patients were determined by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. A total of 57,542 urine specimens from 231 pain clinics located in 19 states were analyzed over the period of November 24, 2009, through May 2010. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and upper LOQ of the assays for both drugs were 2.5 and 1000 ?g/mL, respectively. Gabapentin was identified in 7013 specimens (12.2% prevalence), and pregabalin was identified in 4799 patients (8.3% prevalence). Generally, gabapentin concentrations were more than twofold higher than pregabalin, consistent with their relative potencies. Interestingly, both drugs were found in specimens from 249 patients, likely representing switching of prescriptions by the prescriber. PMID:21740692

Heltsley, Rebecca; Depriest, Anne; Black, David L; Robert, Tim; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2011-07-01

42

Systemic pregabalin attenuates sensorimotor responses and medullary glutamate release in inflammatory tooth pain model.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have demonstrated that application of inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the tooth pulp induces medullary glutamate release and central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as well as nociceptive sensorimotor responses in craniofacial muscles in rats. There is recent evidence that anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin that influence glutamatergic neurotransmission are effective in several pain states. The aim of this study was to examine whether systemic administration of pregabalin attenuated glutamate release in the medulla as well as these nociceptive effects reflected in increased electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by MO application to the tooth pulp. Male adult rats were anesthetized with isofluorane (1.0-1.2%), and jaw and tongue muscle EMG activities were recorded by needle electrodes inserted bilaterally into masseter and anterior digastric muscles and into the genioglossus muscle, and also the medullary release of glutamate was assessed by in vivo microdialysis. Pregabalin or vehicle control (isotonic saline) was administered 30 min before the pulpal application of MO or vehicle control (mineral oil). Application of mineral oil to the maxillary first molar tooth pulp produced no change in baseline EMG activity and glutamate release. However, application of MO to the pulp significantly increased both the medullary release of glutamate and EMG activity in the jaw and tongue muscles for several minutes. In contrast, pre-medication with pregabalin, but not vehicle control, significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the medullary glutamate release and EMG activity in these muscles after MO application to the tooth pulp (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.05). These results suggest that pregabalin may attenuate the medullary release of glutamate and associated nociceptive sensorimotor responses in this acute inflammatory pulpal pain model, and that it may prove useful for the treatment of orofacial inflammatory pain states. PMID:22609939

Narita, N; Kumar, N; Cherkas, P S; Chiang, C Y; Dostrovsky, J O; Coderre, T J; Sessle, B J

2012-08-30

43

Evaluation of the neurological safety of epidurally-administered pregabalin in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The primary site of action of pregabalin, i.e. the ?-2-? subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, is located at the dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Therefore, the epidural administration of pregabalin could have advantages over oral administration. However, the possibility of its neurotoxicity should be excluded before any attempt at epidural administration. We evaluated the neuronal safety of epidurally-administered pregabalin by observing the sensory/motor changes and examining the histopathology of spinal cord in rats. Methods Sixty rats of 180-230 g were divided into three groups; 3 mg of pregabalin dissolved in 0.3 ml saline (group P, n = 20), 0.3 ml 40% alcohol (group A, n = 20), or 0.3 ml normal saline (group N, n = 20) was administered epidurally to the rats in each group. Pinch-toe test, motor function evaluation, and histopathologic examination of vacuolation, chromatolysis, meningeal inflammation, and neuritis were performed at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 21st day after each epidural administration. Results All rats enrolled in group P, like those in group N, showed neither sensory/motor dysfunction nor any histopathological abnormality over the 3-week observation period. In contrast, in group A, 80% of the rats showed abnormal response to the pinch-toe test and all rats showed decreased motor function during the entire evaluation period. In addition, all histopathologic findings of neurotoxicity were observed exclusively in group A. Conclusions The epidurally administered pregabalin (about 15 mg/kg) did not cause any neurotoxic evidence, in terms of both sensory/motor function evaluation and histopathological examination in rats. PMID:22323956

Lee, Jeong Rim; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Choe, Gheeyoung; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Hyo Min; Kim, Eunjung

2012-01-01

44

Systemic Pregabalin Attenuates Sensorimotor Responses and Medullary Glutamate Release in Inflammatory Tooth Pain Model  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have demonstrated that application to the tooth pulp of the inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) induces medullary glutamate release and central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as well as nociceptive sensorimotor responses in craniofacial muscles in rats. There is recent evidence that anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin that influence glutamatergic neurotransmission are effective in several pain states. The aim of this study was to examine whether systemic administration of pregabalin attenuated glutamate release in the medulla as well as these nociceptive effects reflected in increased electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by MO application to the tooth pulp. Male adult rats were anesthetized with isofluorane (1.0~1.2 %), and jaw and tongue muscle EMG activities were recorded by needle electrodes inserted bilaterally into masseter and anterior digastric muscles and into the genioglossus muscle, and also the medullary release of glutamate was assessed by in vivo microdialysis. Pregabalin or vehicle control (isotonic saline) was administered 30 min before the pulpal application of MO or vehicle control (mineral oil). Application of mineral oil to the maxillary first molar tooth pulp produced no change in baseline EMG activity and glutamate release. However, application of MO to the pulp significantly increased both the medullary release of glutamate and EMG activity in the jaw and tongue muscles for several minutes. In contrast, pre-medication with pregabalin, but not vehicle control, significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the medullary glutamate release and EMG activity in these muscles after MO application to the tooth pulp (ANOVA, p<0.05). These results suggest that pregabalin may attenuate the medullary release of glutamate and associated nociceptive sensorimotor responses in this acute inflammatory pulpal pain model, and that it may prove useful for the treatment of orofacial inflammatory pain states. PMID:22609939

Narita, Noriyuki; Kumar, Naresh; Cherkas, Pavel S.; Chiang, Chen Yu; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Coderre, Terence J.; Sessle, Barry J.

2012-01-01

45

A comprehensive drug safety evaluation of pregabalin in peripheral neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a commonly used therapy currently recommended as first-line treatment for a number of neuropathic pain (NeP) conditions. Since licensure, a number of clinical trials of pregabalin in different NeP conditions have been completed from which additional data on safety and tolerability can be drawn. In this analysis, patient-level data from 31 randomized clinical trials of pregabalin in peripheral NeP sponsored by Pfizer were pooled and assessed for incidence of adverse events (AEs). Incidence by age, disease condition, and race, together with risk differences and time to onset and resolution of AEs, was assessed. In total, 7,510 patients were included: 4,884 on pregabalin (representing 805 patient-years treatment) and 2,626 on placebo. Pregabalin vs. placebo risk analysis identified 9 AEs with a risk difference, for which the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was > 1%: dizziness (risk difference [95% CI]: (17.0 [15.4 to 18.6]), somnolence (10.8 [9.5 to 12.1]), peripheral edema (5.4 [4.3 to 6.4]), weight increase (4.7 [3.9 to 5.5]), dry mouth (2.9 [2.1 to 3.8]), constipation (2.3 [1.5 to 3.2]), blurred vision (2.2 [1.6 to 2.9]), balance disorder (2.0 [1.5 to 2.5]), and euphoric mood (1.6 [1.2 to 2.0]). The most common AEs, dizziness and somnolence, typically emerged within the first 1 to 2 weeks of treatment and resolved 1 to 2 weeks later, without resulting in cessation of treatment. The data from this review provide information, indicating which AEs may be expected in patients treated with pregabalin, and suggest that careful dose titration to the highest tolerable dose is the most appropriate approach in clinical practice. PMID:24279736

Freynhagen, Rainer; Serpell, Michael; Emir, Birol; Whalen, Ed; Parsons, Bruce; Clair, Andrew; Latymer, Mark

2015-01-01

46

A Comprehensive Drug Safety Evaluation of Pregabalin in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin is a commonly used therapy currently recommended as first-line treatment for a number of neuropathic pain (NeP) conditions. Since licensure, a number of clinical trials of pregabalin in different NeP conditions have been completed from which additional data on safety and tolerability can be drawn. In this analysis, patient-level data from 31 randomized clinical trials of pregabalin in peripheral NeP sponsored by Pfizer were pooled and assessed for incidence of adverse events (AEs). Incidence by age, disease condition, and race, together with risk differences and time to onset and resolution of AEs, was assessed. In total, 7,510 patients were included: 4,884 on pregabalin (representing 805 patient-years treatment) and 2,626 on placebo. Pregabalin vs. placebo risk analysis identified 9 AEs with a risk difference, for which the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was > 1%: dizziness (risk difference [95% CI]: (17.0 [15.4 to 18.6]), somnolence (10.8 [9.5 to 12.1]), peripheral edema (5.4 [4.3 to 6.4]), weight increase (4.7 [3.9 to 5.5]), dry mouth (2.9 [2.1 to 3.8]), constipation (2.3 [1.5 to 3.2]), blurred vision (2.2 [1.6 to 2.9]), balance disorder (2.0 [1.5 to 2.5]), and euphoric mood (1.6 [1.2 to 2.0]). The most common AEs, dizziness and somnolence, typically emerged within the first 1 to 2 weeks of treatment and resolved 1 to 2 weeks later, without resulting in cessation of treatment. The data from this review provide information, indicating which AEs may be expected in patients treated with pregabalin, and suggest that careful dose titration to the highest tolerable dose is the most appropriate approach in clinical practice. PMID:24279736

Freynhagen, Rainer; Serpell, Michael; Emir, Birol; Whalen, Ed; Parsons, Bruce; Clair, Andrew; Latymer, Mark

2015-01-01

47

PRECISE - pregabalin in addition to usual care for sciatica: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sciatica is a type of neuropathic pain that is characterised by pain radiating into the leg. It is often accompanied by low back pain and neurological deficits in the lower limb. While this condition may cause significant suffering for the individual, the lack of evidence supporting effective treatments for sciatica makes clinical management difficult. Our objectives are to determine the efficacy of pregabalin on reducing leg pain intensity and its cost-effectiveness in patients with sciatica. Methods/Design PRECISE is a prospectively registered, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin compared to placebo, in addition to usual care. Inclusion criteria include moderate to severe leg pain below the knee with evidence of nerve root/spinal nerve involvement. Participants will be randomised to receive either pregabalin with usual care (n = 102) or placebo with usual care (n = 102) for 8 weeks. The medicine dosage will be titrated up to the participant’s optimal dose, to a maximum 600 mg per day. Follow up consultations will monitor individual progress, tolerability and adverse events. Usual care, if deemed appropriate by the study doctor, may include a referral for physical or manual therapy and/or prescription of analgesic medication. Participants, doctors and researchers collecting participant data will be blinded to treatment allocation. Participants will be assessed at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 26 and 52. The primary outcome will determine the efficacy of pregabalin in reducing leg pain intensity. Secondary outcomes will include back pain intensity, disability and quality of life. Data analysis will be blinded and by intention-to-treat. A parallel economic evaluation will be conducted from health sector and societal perspectives. Discussion This study will establish the efficacy of pregabalin in reducing leg pain intensity in patients with sciatica and provide important information regarding the effect of pregabalin treatment on disability and quality of life. The impact of this research may allow the future development of a cost-effective conservative treatment strategy for patients with sciatica. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, ACTRN 12613000530729 PMID:23845078

2013-01-01

48

Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Determination of Pregabalin in Capsules  

PubMed Central

A simple, precise, specific, and accurate reverse phase HPLC method has been developed for the determination of pregabalin in capsule dosage form. The chromatography was set on Hypersil BDS, C8, 150×4.6 mm, 5 ?m column using photodiode array detector. The mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer pH 6.9 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 95:05 with flow rate of 1 ml/min. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Lower limit of quantification is 0.6 mg/l. The pregabalin sample solution was found to be stable at room temperature for about 26 h. PMID:21218069

Kasawar, G. B.; Farooqui, M. N.

2010-01-01

49

Comparative Efficacy of Zonisamide and Pregabalin as an Adjunctive Therapy in Children with Refractory Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective Approximately one third of epileptic children are resistant to anticonvulsant drugs. This study evaluates the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of pregabalin as adjunctive therapy in epileptic children relative to Zonisamide. Materials & Methods From April 2012 to November 2012,121 children were referred to Mofid Children’s Hospital with intractable epilepsy and enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups (A and B) randomly. Group A was treated with Zonisamide and group B was treated with Pregabalin in addition to prior medication. We assessed seizure frequency and severity during a 4-week interval from the beginning of the drug treatment and compared the efficacy of each in these two groups. Results Group A consists of 61 patients, 26 (42.6%) girls, and35 (57.4%) boys with an age range from 1.5 months–14 years (mean, 73.9± 44.04 months). Group B consists of 60 patients, 31(51.7%) girls, 29 (48.3%) boys with an age range from 6 months–16 years (mean, 71±42.9 months). Age, gender, seizure onset, seizure frequency, seizure type, and previous antiepileptic medications showed that there was no significant difference between the groups (P>0.05). Zonisamide and pregabalin reduced more than 50% of seizure intensity in 40.2%; 45.8% of patients also had a seizure frequency decline between35.8–44.4%, respectively and there was no significant superiority between these two novel anticonvulsants (P>0.05). Conclusion In this survey both pregabalin and Zonisamide were impressive for seizure control in children with intractable epilepsy and well sustained with mild complications that were completely reversible. PMID:25767539

TAGHDIRI, Mohammad Mahdi; BAKHSHANDEH BALI, Mohammad Kazem; KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; ASHRAFI, Mohammad Reza; TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; GHOFRANI, Mohammad

2015-01-01

50

Calcium channel alpha 2-delta type 1 subunit is the major binding protein for pregabalin in neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and spinal cord: An ex vivo autoradiographic study in alpha 2-delta type 1 genetically modified mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregabalin is a synthetic amino acid compound effective in clinical trials for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, generalized anxiety disorder and adjunctive therapy for partial seizures of epilepsy. However, the mechanisms by which pregabalin exerts its therapeutic effects are not yet completely understood. In vitro studies have shown that pregabalin binds with high affinity to the alpha2-delta

Feng Bian; Zheng Li; James Offord; M. Duff Davis; Julie McCormick; Charles P. Taylor; Lary C. Walker

2006-01-01

51

Efficacy and safety of methylcobalamin, alpha lipoic acid and pregabalin combination versus pregabalin monotherapy in improving pain and nerve conduction velocity in type 2 diabetes associated impaired peripheral neuropathic condition. [MAINTAIN]: Results of a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: To assess whether methylcobalamin and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) added to pregabalin provide additional benefit compared to pregabalin alone in type 2 diabetes mellitus associated peripheral neuropathy. Setting and Design: An open label, randomized, controlled parallel-group pilot study. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy for ?6 months were randomized to receive pregabalin 75 mg, methylcobalamin 750 ?g, and ALA 100 mg (PMA, n = 15); or pregabalin 75 mg (PG, n = 15) for 12 weeks. Assessment variables were numeric rating scale (NRS), sleep interference scores (SIS), response rate to pain, and global assessment for the usefulness of therapy. The nerve conduction velocity was assessed for sensory and motor nerves. Safety assessment included adverse events reported by the patients, clinical laboratory, and general medical, neurological examinations. Statistical Analysis: Efficacy analyses were done on per-protocol (PP) population, whereas safety analyses were done on intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Results: Significant improvement was seen in pain and sleep interference in both groups. Mean nerve conduction velocity of left common peroneal nerve (CPN) showed significant improvement in PMA group at week 12 compared to baseline (P = 0.018). For right CPN both groups showed significant improvement. (PMA, P = 0.002, PG, P = 0.007). For sensory testing, at week 12, right superficial peroneal nerve showed reduction in nerve conduction velocity in PG group compared to baseline (P = 0.043). Conclusion: Methylcobalamine, ALA and pregabalin combination provides pain relief and improves sleep interference. Addition of methylcobalamin and ALA to pregabalin improves the nerve function. Due to small sample size, most of the efficacy parameters could not reach significant difference between groups; hence benefit of the 3-drug-combimation should be interpreted with reservation. PMID:24753654

Vasudevan, D.; Naik, Manoj M.; Mukaddam, Qayum I.

2014-01-01

52

Anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure assay in ?2?1 (R217A) and ?2?2 (R279A) mouse mutants.  

PubMed

Pregabalin has been shown to have anticonvulsant, analgesic, and anxiolytic activity in animal models. Pregabalin binds with high affinity to the ?2?1 and ?2?2 subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels. In order to better understand the relative contribution that binding to either the ?2?1 or ?2?2 subunits confers on the anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin, we characterized the anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin in different wild-type (WT) and mutant mouse strains. Two targeted mouse mutants have been made in which either the ?2?1 subunit was mutated (arginine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 217; R217A) or the ?2?2 subunit was mutated (arginine-to-alanine mutation at amino acid 279; R279A). These mutations in ?2?1 or ?2?2 render the subunits relatively insensitive to pregabalin binding. The anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin was assessed in these different mouse lines using the maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. Pregabalin reduced the percentage of seizures and increased the latency to seizure in the MES model in two parental mouse strains used to construct the mutants. Pregabalin also reduced the percentage of seizures and increased latency to seizure similarly in the ?2?2 (R279A) and WT littermate control mice. In contrast, pregabalin's anticonvulsant efficacy was significantly reduced in ?2?1 (R217A) mutants compared with WT littermate control mice. Phenytoin showed anticonvulsant activity across all WT and mutant mice. These data show that the anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin in the MES model requires binding to the ?2?1 subunit. PMID:24698052

Lotarski, Susan; Hain, Heather; Peterson, Jason; Galvin, Stacey; Strenkowski, Bryan; Donevan, Sean; Offord, James

2014-07-01

53

A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of pregabalin in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and in human urine samples.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of pregabalin in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and in human urine samples. The method was based on the reaction of drug with the mixture of potassium iodate and potassium iodide. The method was linear in the range of 0.5-3.5 ?g/ml. There is no official method for the determination of pregabalin. The absorbance was measured at 353 nm. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity, ruggedness, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. This method was used successfully for the quality assessment of five pregabalin drug products and in human urine samples with good precision and accuracy. PMID:23675167

Gujral, Rajinder Singh; Haque, Sk Manirul; Shanker, Prem

2009-12-01

54

Development and Validation of Pregabalin in Bulk, Pharmaceutical Formulations and in Human Urine Samples by UV Spectrophotometry.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive UV spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of pregabalin in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations and in human urine samples. The method was linear in the range of 0.5-5.0 ?g/ml. There is no generally accepted method for the determination of pregabalin. The absorbance was measured at 210 nm. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity, ruggedness, and robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. This method was used successfully for the quality assessment of five pregabalin drug products and in human urine samples with good precision and accuracy. This is found to be simple, specific, precise, accurate, reproducible and low cost UV Spectrophotometric method. PMID:23675132

Gujral, Rajinder Singh; Haque, Sk Manirul; Shanker, Prem

2009-06-01

55

Examining the Time to Improvement of Sleep Interference With Pregabalin in Patients With Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Postherpetic Neuralgia.  

PubMed

Pregabalin has been shown to be a safe, effective treatment for neuropathic pain associated with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), with average time to reduction in pain of 2 days. Pain-related sleep interference is commonly reported in both painful DPN and PHN. These post hoc analyses examined the time to improvement in sleep with pregabalin in patients with painful DPN or PHN, measured by reduction in daily sleep interference (DSI) scores on an 11-point numeric rating scale. A total of 4527 patients from 16 placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin for treatment of painful DPN or PHN were included in the analysis. In these trials, there were a total of 16 pregabalin treatment arms for painful DPN (75-600 mg/d), 10 for PHN (150-600 mg/d), and 3 for painful DPN/PHN (150-600 mg/d). Time to improvement in DSI scores was calculated for all treatment arms that demonstrated statistically significant reductions in DSI scores during the first 14 days of treatment compared with placebo (23 of 29; 79.3%) and was defined as the first day DSI scores for that day and the following day were significantly lower than placebo (P < 0.001). Mean (SD) time to improvement in DSI scores was 1.6 (1.3) days. Sustained improvement (?1-point improvement in mean DSI score) was seen significantly earlier for pregabalin DSI responders than patients receiving placebo. These findings demonstrate that statistically significant and sustained improvement in sleep occurs rapidly (within 1 day for some patients) in response to treatment with pregabalin. PMID:25272094

Parsons, Bruce; Emir, Birol; Knapp, Lloyd

2014-09-30

56

Clinical characteristics and medication uses among fibromyalgia patients newly prescribed amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin or pregabalin  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain disorder with unclear etiology. No definitive treatment is available for fibromyalgia and treatment with antidepressants or antiepileptics is often used for symptom management. Methods Using US health care utilization data, a large population-based cohort study was conducted to describe clinical characteristics and medication use patterns in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia who newly started amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin or pregabalin. Results There were 13,404 amitriptyline, 18,420 duloxetine, 23,268 gabapentin, and 19,286 pregabalin starters. The mean age ranged from 48 to 51 years and 72% to 84% were women in each group. Back pain was the most frequent comorbidity in all four groups (48%-64%) and hypertension, headache, depression, and sleep disorder were also common. Median daily dose at the start of follow-up was 25mg for amitriptyline, 60mg for duloxetine, 300mg for gabapentin, and 75mg for pregabalin and more than 60% of patients remained on the same dose throughout the follow-up period. Only one fifth of patients continued the treatment started for at least one year. The mean number of different prescription drugs at baseline ranged from 8 to 10 across the groups. More than a half of patients used opioids and a third used benzodiazepines, sleep disorder drugs and muscle relaxants. Conclusion Patients who started one of the four common drugs for fibromyalgia similarly had multiple comorbidities and other fibromyalgia-related drug use, but continued the treatment only for a short time. The dose of the four drugs was not increased in most patients during the follow-up. PMID:23861291

Kim, Seoyoung C.; Landon, Joan E.; Solomon, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

57

CAL-B catalyzed desymmetrization of 3-alkylglutarate: "olefin effect" and asymmetric synthesis of pregabalin.  

PubMed

CAL-B catalyzed desymmetrization of prochiral 3-alkylglutaric acid diesters was performed to prepare optically active 3-alkylglutaric acid monoesters bearing various alkyl substituents, including methyl, ethyl, propyl and allyl groups. Allyl esters showed far better stereoselectivity among the alkyl esters, suggesting possible ?-? interactions between the olefin of the substrate and the Trp104 or His224 side chains at the enzyme active site. Based on this reaction, the synthesis of (S)-(+)-3-aminomethyl-5-methylhexanoic acid (pregabalin) was achieved with a 70% overall yield. PMID:23525234

Jung, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Doo-Ha; Kang, Philjun; Lee, Won Koo; Eum, Heesung; Ha, Hyun-Joon

2013-06-14

58

Chemoenzymatic Asymmetric Synthesis of Pregabalin Precursors via Asymmetric Bioreduction of ?-Cyanoacrylate Esters Using Ene-Reductases  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric bioreduction of a library of ?-cyanoacrylate esters using ene-reductases was studied with the aim to provide a biocatalytic route to precursors for GABA analogues, such as pregabalin. The stereochemical outcome could be controlled by substrate-engineering through size-variation of the ester moiety and by employing stereochemically pure (E)- or (Z)-isomers, which allowed to access both enantiomers of each product in up to quantitative conversion in enantiomerically pure form. In addition, stereoselectivities and conversions could be improved by mutant variants of OPR1, and the utility of the system was demonstrated by preparative-scale applications. PMID:23316696

2013-01-01

59

Successful treatment of adult-onset erythromelalgia with steroid pulse and pregabalin.  

PubMed

Adult-onset erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare disease characterized by episodic bouts of burning pain and erythema for which the optimal therapy is unclear. In this report, we describe a 68-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset EM. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1,000 mg/day dramatically improved her pain as evaluated by the visual analog scale. Although the patient's pain gradually developed again, it could be controlled with pregabalin. Our present case might suggest a possible, optimal therapy for adult-onset EM. PMID:23275767

Kakizaki, Aya; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

2012-09-01

60

Pallidol hexa­acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate  

PubMed Central

The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside. PMID:24046702

Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

2013-01-01

61

Population Pharmacokinetic Model of the Pregabalin-Sildenafil Interaction in Rats: Application of Simulation to Preclinical PK-PD Study Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Preliminary evidence has suggested a synergistic interaction between pregabalin and sildenafil for the treatment of neuropathic\\u000a pain. The focus of this study was to determine the influence of sildenafil on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of pregabalin with\\u000a the objective of informing the design of a quantitative pharmacodynamic (PD) study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The pharmacokinetics were determined in rats following 2-hr intravenous infusions of pregabalin

Gregor Bender; James Gosset; Jeff Florian; Keith Tan; Mark Field; Scott Marshall; Joost DeJongh; Robert Bies; Meindert Danhof

2009-01-01

62

Rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of pregabalin in a pharmaceutical dosage form following derivatization with fluorescamine.  

PubMed

A simple, fast, and sensitive HPLC method was developed and validated for the evaluation of pregabalin in a pharmaceutical dosage form using fluorescamine as a derivatization agent for the first time. After a precolumn derivatization (5 min, room temperature), the reaction mixture was chromatographed on a C18 column with isocratic elution using 0.2% of triethylamine in a mixture of methanol and water (10 + 90, v/v). 3-Aminopentanoic acid was used as the internal standard. Using fluorescent detection (lamdaex 395 nm, lamdaem 476 nm), a low detection limit of 0.02 microg/mL was reached. The method was linear (r > 0.999) over the lower (0.125-25 microg/mL) and higher (1.25-250 microg/mL) concentration range. The intraday and interday precision of the QC samples was < 4.3%, and the accuracy was 94.2-102.5%. The samples were stable for 24 h at 4 degrees C. The robustness study showed that the derivatization is more robust than the chromatography method. The method was applied for the analysis of pregabalin content in 25, 75, and 300 mg capsules, and a good agreement was found with the declared amount of pregabalin (the relative error did not exceed 3.2%). Finally, the method was successfully used for dissolution studies of pregabalin capsules. PMID:20922936

Martinc, Bostjan; Grabnar, Iztok; Mrhar, Ales; Vovk, Tomaz

2010-01-01

63

Quantification of pregabalin using hydrophilic interaction HPLC-high-resolution MS in postmortem human samples: eighteen case reports.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a drug for treating epilepsy, anxiety disorders and neuropathic pain. Cases of poisoning are rare, though some have been fatal. Concentrations of pregabalin in postmortem human samples and its distribution have very rarely been documented. As the literature is so scarce, we propose to report the concentrations in autopsy samples of 18 people who had been taking Lyrica(®), including one case of a mixed overdose involving pregabalin. Analysis was carried out using an original Hydrophilic Interaction LIquid Chromatography (HILIC) technique coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer (m/z 160.1334 ± 5 ppm). The sensitivity of the technique enables a quick and simple treatment of the samples by protein precipitation. The method was validated in the whole blood with detection and quantification limits of 0.025 and 0.060 µg/mL, respectively. Pregabalin was a likely factor in the cause of death in 3 of the 18 cases. In the other individuals, the concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 17.0 in the peripheral blood, 1.5 to 11.1 in the central blood, 126.6 to 2004.6 in the urine and 10.5 to 58.3 µg/mL in the bile, with median values of 5.6, 4.6, 534.6 and 17.7, respectively. PMID:24519561

Priez-Barallon, Cédric; Carlier, Jérémy; Boyer, Baptiste; Benslima, Mounir; Fanton, Laurent; Mazoyer, Cédric; Gaillard, Yvan

2014-04-01

64

Efficacy of pregabalin in a case of stiff-person syndrome: clinical and neurophysiological evidence.  

PubMed

Symptomatic treatment of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) might be challenging and a significant improvement of stiffness and rigidity is generally reached with high doses of benzodiazepines or baclofen causing side effects. A 71-year old woman diagnosed with SPS complained of marked stiffness of trunk and lower limb muscles with sudden painful spasms. She was unable to walk and she could not lean on her right leg. Cortical silent period (CSP) duration evaluated from right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) with transcranial magnetic stimulation was shortened. Polygraphic electromyographic (EMG) evaluation from paraspinal and leg muscles disclosed continuous motor unit activity at rest with interference muscular pattern. Symptomatic treatment with diazepam was withdrawn because of excessive sedation. In order to relieve the intense lumbar pain, she was prescribed pregabalin; since the day after, rigidity and painful spasms dramatically improved and she could walk without assistance. The clinical benefit persisted at 3 months follow-up and was paralleled by almost complete disappearance of EMG activity at rest and prolongation of CSP. The clinical and electrophysiological data in this SPS patient suggest the possible efficacy of pregabalin as symptomatic treatment without any significant side effects, which needs to be replicated in larger case series. PMID:22082988

Squintani, G; Bovi, T; Ferigo, L; Musso, A M; Ottaviani, S; Moretto, G; Morgante, F; Tinazzi, M

2012-03-15

65

Simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of pregabalin in capsules through derivatization with fluorescamine.  

PubMed

A new, simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of pregabalin (PG) in capsules. The method is based on the reaction between pregabalin and fluorescamine in borate buffer solution of pH 10 to give a highly fluorescent derivative that is measured at 487?nm after excitation at 390?nm. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the reaction product were carefully studied and optimized. The fluorescence intensity concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.01-0.3?µg?mL?¹ with a lower detection limit of 0.0017?µg?mL?¹ and limit of quantitation of 0.005?µg?mL?¹. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the drug in its commercial capsules. The mean percentage recovery of PG in its capsule was 99.93±1.24 (n = 3). Statistical comparison of the results with those of the comparison method revealed good agreement and proved that there was no significant difference in the accuracy and precision of the two methods. A proposed reaction pathway was postulated. PMID:20737649

Walash, M I; Belal, F; El-Enany, N; El-Maghrabey, M H

2011-01-01

66

Pregabalin and Tranexamic Acid Evaluation by Two Simple and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods  

PubMed Central

This paper demonstrates colorimetric visible spectrophotometric quantification methods for amino acid, namely, tranexamic acid and pregabalin. Both drugs contain the amino group, and when they are reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, they give rise to yellow colored complexes showing absorption maximum at 418?nm and 425?nm, respectively, based on the Lewis acid base reaction. Detailed optimization process and stoichiometric studies were conducted along with investigation of thermodynamic features, that is, association constant and standard free energy changes. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–200?µgmL?1 with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9990 in all of the cases. Limit of detection was in range from 0.0041 to 0.0094?µgmL?1 and limit of quantification was in the range from 0.0137 to 0.0302?µgmL?1. Excellent recovery in Placebo spiked samples indicated that there is no interference from common excipients. The analytical methods under proposal were successfully applied to determine tranexamic acid and pregabalin in commercial products. t-test and F ratio were evaluated without noticeable difference between the proposed and reference methods. PMID:25873964

Sher, Nawab; Fatima, Nasreen; Perveen, Shahnaz; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Wafa Sial, Alisha

2015-01-01

67

A study of the use of carbamazepine, pregabalin and alpha lipoic acid in patients of diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common, symptomatic, long-term complication of diabetes mellitus. Many of the agents used to treat DN have not been compared with each other. This study was, therefore, undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine, pregabalin and alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic neuropathy patients. Methods This was a prospective, observational study. The patients were categorized into three groups, Group I included those patients who were prescribed carbamazepine while group II included those on pregabalin and group III patients received alpha-lipoic acid. Each patient was followed up at every month for total duration of 6 months. Demographic details, presenting symptoms, history of diabetes, laboratory values pertaining to diabetes (Fasting blood sugar, Post prandial blood sugar and HbA1c) were recorded. Intensity of pain, using a visual analogue scale (VAS), diabetic neuropathy symptom (DNS) score and diabetic neuropathy examination (DNE) score were assessed at baseline and then at each monthly follow-up. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was also measured at baseline and then at the end of 3 and 6 months. Results A total of 101 patients were enrolled out of them 96 completed the study. Regarding VAS, the number of patients having pain was reduced substantially however, the speed and the quantum of this reduction were best in group II (pregabalin). Regarding DNS, also group II showed the best response in terms of number of patients as well as the speed of improvement. The results also imply that the relief from diabetic neuropathy (as per DNE score) is superior with pregabalin administration. However, no improvement in NCV was evident in any group. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that treatment with pregabalin gives faster and better improvement in diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24926454

2014-01-01

68

Trazodone plus pregabalin combination in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a two-phase, 24-week, open-label uncontrolled study  

PubMed Central

Background Although trazodone is frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, its efficacy on this disease has not been adequately studied. If effective, pregabalin, whose beneficial effects on pain and sleep quality in fibromyalgia have been demonstrated, could complement the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of trazodone. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of trazodone alone and in combination with pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Methods This was an open-label uncontrolled study. Trazodone, flexibly dosed (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients during 12 weeks; 41 patients who completed the treatment accepted to receive pregabalin, also flexibly dosed (75-450 mg/day), added to trazodone treatment for an additional 12-week period. Outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement scale (PGI). Emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test. Results Treatment with trazodone significantly improved global fibromyalgia severity, sleep quality, and depression, as well as pain interference with daily activities although without showing a direct effect on bodily pain. After pregabalin combination additional and significant improvements were seen on fibromyalgia severity, depression and pain interference with daily activities, and a decrease in bodily pain was also apparent. During the second phase of the study, only two patients dropped out due to side effects. Conclusions Trazodone significantly improved fibromyalgia severity and associated symptomatology. Its combination with pregabalin potentiated this improvement and the tolerability of the drugs in association was good. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00791739 PMID:21575194

2011-01-01

69

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

70

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-03-24

71

Impact of potential pregabalin or duloxetine drug–drug interactions on health care costs and utilization among Medicare members with fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the impact of newly initiated pregabalin or duloxetine treatment on fibromyalgia (FM) patients’ encounters with potential drug–drug interactions (DDIs), the health care cost and utilization consequences of those interactions, and the impact of treatment on opioid utilization. Patients and methods Subjects included those with an FM diagnosis, a pregabalin or duloxetine prescription claim (index event), ?1 inpatient or ?2 outpatient medical claims, and ?12 months preindex and ?6 postindex enrollment. Propensity score matching was used to help balance the pregabalin and duloxetine cohorts on baseline demographics and comorbidities. Potential DDIs were defined based on Micromedex 2.0 software and were identified by prescription claims. Results No significant differences in baseline characteristics were found between matched pregabalin (n=794) and duloxetine cohorts (n=794). Potential DDI prevalence was significantly greater (P<0.0001) among duloxetine subjects (71.9%) than among pregabalin subjects (4.0%). There were no significant differences in all-cause health care utilization or costs between pregabalin subjects with and without a potential DDI. By contrast, duloxetine subjects with a potential DDI had higher mean all-cause costs ($9,373 versus $7,228; P<0.0001) and higher mean number of outpatient visits/member (16.0 versus 13.0; P=0.0009) in comparison to duloxetine subjects without a potential DDI. There was a trend toward a statistically significant difference between pregabalin and duloxetine subjects in their respective pre- versus post-differences in use of ?1 long-acting opioids (1.6% and 3.4%, respectively; P=0.077). Conclusion The significantly higher prevalence of potential DDIs and potential cost impact found in FM duloxetine subjects, relative to pregabalin subjects, underscore the importance of considering DDIs when selecting a treatment. PMID:25339847

Ellis, Jeffrey J; Sadosky, Alesia B; Ten Eyck, Laura L; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Brown, Courtney R; Suehs, Brandon T; Parsons, Bruce

2014-01-01

72

An open-label, long-term study examining the safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose Studies of pregabalin for the treatment of central neuropathic pain have been limited to double-blind trials of 4–17 weeks in duration. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain. The efficacy of pregabalin was also assessed as a secondary measure. Patients and methods This was a 53-week, multicenter, open-label trial of pregabalin (150–600 mg/day) in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral stroke. Results A total of 103 patients received pregabalin (post-stroke =60; spinal cord injury =38; and multiple sclerosis =5). A majority of patients (87.4%) experienced one or more treatment-related adverse events, most commonly somnolence, weight gain, dizziness, or peripheral edema. The adverse event profile was similar to that seen in other indications of pregabalin. Most treatment-related adverse events were mild (89.1%) or moderate (9.2%) in intensity. Pregabalin treatment improved total score, sensory pain, affective pain, visual analog scale (VAS), and present pain intensity scores on the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and ten-item modified Brief Pain Inventory (mBPI-10) total score at endpoint compared with baseline. Improvements in SF-MPQ VAS and mBPI-10 total scores were evident in all patient subpopulations. Mean changes from baseline in SF-MPQ VAS and mBPI-10 scores at endpoint were ?20.1 and ?1.4, respectively. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that pregabalin is generally well tolerated and provides sustained efficacy over a 53-week treatment period in patients with chronic central neuropathic pain. PMID:25114584

Onouchi, Kenji; Koga, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Yoshiyama, Tamotsu

2014-01-01

73

Systemic pregabalin attenuates facial hypersensitivity and noxious stimulus-evoked release of glutamate in medullary dorsal horn in a rodent model of trigeminal neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is effective in treating many neuropathic pain conditions. However, the mechanisms of its analgesic effects remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine whether pregabalin suppresses facial mechanical hypersensitivity and evoked glutamate release in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) in a rodent model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Nociceptive mechanical sensitivity was assessed pre-operatively, and then post-operatively 1h following pregabalin or vehicle (saline) treatment on post-operative days 2 and 5 following infraorbital nerve transection (IONX). In addition, an in vivo microdialysis probe was inserted into the exposed medulla post-operatively and dialysate samples were collected. Glutamate release was then evoked by mustard oil (MO) application to the tooth pulp, and the effects of pregabalin or vehicle were examined on the MDH glutamate release. Glutamate concentrations in the dialysated samples were determined by HPLC, and data analyzed by ANOVA. IONX animals (but not control animals) showed facial mechanical hypersensitivity for several days post-operatively. In addition, tooth pulp stimulation with MO evoked a transient release of glutamate in the MDH of IONX animals. Compared to vehicle, administration of pregabalin significantly attenuated the facial mechanical hypersensitivity as well as the MO-evoked glutamate release in MDH. This study provides evidence in support of recent findings pointing to the usefulness of pregabalin in the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain. PMID:23454190

Kumar, Naresh; Cherkas, Pavel S; Varathan, Vidya; Miyamoto, Makiko; Chiang, Chen Yu; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O; Sessle, Barry J; Coderre, Terence J

2013-05-01

74

Liquid chromatographic separation of pregabalin and its possible impurities with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde.  

PubMed

A rapid procedure based on direct extraction and RP-HPLC separation of pregabalin and its possible impurities with fluorescence detection has been developed. The separation conditions and parameters of derivatization reaction for postcolumn derivatization of pregabalin with o-phtaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol were studied. Purospher STAR RP-8e column with isocratic elution was employed. Fluorescence detection was performed at excitation and emission wavelength of 345 nm and 450 nm, respectively. The proposed method has an advantage of a simple sample pre-treatment and a quick and very sensitive HPLC method. The applicability of developed method was successfully verified during analysis of commercial samples of tablets of Lyrica (Pfizer, USA). PMID:20435423

Dousa, Michal; Gibala, Petr; Lemr, K

2010-11-01

75

Pregabalin for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, 8-week trial (with subsequent open-label phase) evaluated the effectiveness of pregabalin in alleviating pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). For enrollment, patients must have had at baseline: 1- to 5-year history of DPN pain; pain score ?40 mm (Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire [SF-MPQ] visual analogue scale); average daily pain score of ?4 (11-point

Julio Rosenstock; Michael Tuchman; Linda LaMoreaux; Uma Sharma

2004-01-01

76

Efficacy and tolerability of pregabalin as preventive treatment for migraine: a 3-month follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migraine is a common neurological disorder and epidemiological studies have documented its high social and economic impact.\\u000a Unfortunately, preventive treatment is often insufficient to substantially reduce migraine frequency or it is not well tolerated.\\u000a Antiepileptic drugs are increasingly used in migraine prevention. However, data on efficacy and tolerability of pregabalin\\u000a in patients with migraine are still lacking. Our aim was

Raffaella Pizzolato; Veronica Villani; Luca Prosperini; Alessandro Ciuffoli; Giuliano Sette

77

Evaluation of the effects of venlafaxine and pregabalin on the carbon dioxide inhalation models of Generalised Anxiety Disorder and panic.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that subjective and objective symptoms of anxiety induced by 7.5% CO(2) inhalation can be attenuated by anxiolytics such as lorazepam and, to a lesser extent, paroxetine. Venlafaxine and pregabalin, two other licensed treatments for Generalised Anxiety Disorder, were used to further investigate the 7.5% and 35% CO(2) models of anxiety in healthy volunteers. Fifty-four participants were randomised to receive either placebo, venlafaxine or pregabalin. Study treatments were dosed incrementally over a three week period, to reach daily doses of 150 mg venlafaxine and 200mg pregabalin by the CO(2) challenge test day. Participants inhaled air 7.5% CO(2) for 20 minutes (single-blind presentation), and a non-blinded single vital capacity of 35% CO(2). Subjective ratings were recorded before and after each inhalation. Both 7.5% and 35% CO(2) inhalations produced the expected effects of increased ratings of symptoms of panic and anxiety, with increased blood pressure and heart rate. No significant treatment effects were found, although there were trends towards a reduction in feeling tense and nervous by both drugs compared with placebo during the 7.5% CO(2) challenge, and a reduction in alertness generally in the venlafaxine group compared with the pregabalin group. In contrast with the clear anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines reported in several previous CO(2) studies, these findings suggest that the anxiogenic effects of CO(2) challenges are not significantly influenced by these serotonergic and GABAergic anxiolytics. This may be due to a lack of sensitivity of the CO(2) challenges in healthy volunteers to these drug types. PMID:22516666

Diaper, Alison; Osman-Hicks, Victoria; Rich, Ann S; Craig, Kevin; Dourish, Colin T; Dawson, Gerard R; Nutt, David J; Bailey, Jayne E

2013-02-01

78

Quantitation of pregabalin in dried blood spots and dried plasma spots by validated LC-MS/MS methods.  

PubMed

In this paper, novel LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of antiepileptic drug pregabalin in dried matrix spots (DMS) are presented. This attractive technique of sample collection in micro amount was utilized in the form of dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS). Following a pre-column derivatization procedure, using n-propyl chloroformate in the presence of n-propanol, and consecutive liquid-liquid extraction, derivatized pregabalin and its internal standard, 4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid, were detected in positive ion mode by applying two SRM transitions per analyte. A YMC-Pack Octyl column (50mm×4.0mm, 3?m particle size) maintained at 30°C, was utilized with running mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 0.15% formic acid (85:15, v/v). Flow rate was 550?L/min and total run time 2min. Established methods were fully validated over the concentration range of 0.200-20.0?g/mL for DBS and 0.400-40.0?g/mL for DPS, respectively, while specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix-effect, stability, dilution integrity and spot homogeneity were found within acceptance criteria. Validated methods were applied for the determination of pregabalin levels in dried blood and plasma samples obtained from patients with epilepsy, after per os administration of commercial capsules. Comparison of drug level in blood and plasma, as well as correction steps undertaken in order to overcome hematocrit issue, when analyzing DBS, are also given. PMID:25767905

Kosti?, Na?a; Dotsikas, Yannis; Jovi?, Nebojša; Stevanovi?, Galina; Malenovi?, An?elija; Medenica, Mirjana

2015-05-10

79

Selectivity of action of pregabalin on Ca(2+) channels but not on fusion pore, exocytotic machinery, or mitochondria in chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland.  

PubMed

The present study was planned to investigate the action of pregabalin on voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) and novel targets (fusion pore formed between the secretory vesicle and the plasma membrane, exocytotic machinery, and mitochondria) that would further explain its inhibitory action on neurotransmitter release. Electrophysiological recordings in the perforated-patch configuration of the patch-clamp technique revealed that pregabalin inhibits by 33.4 ± 2.4 and 39 ± 4%, respectively, the Ca(2+) current charge density and exocytosis evoked by depolarizing pulses in mouse chromaffin cells. Approximately half of the inhibitory action of pregabalin was rescued by l-isoleucine, showing the involvement of ?2?-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Ca(2+) channel blockers were used to inhibit Cav1, Cav2.1, and Cav2.2 channels in mouse chromaffin cells, which were unselectively blocked by the drug. Similar values of Ca(2+) current charge blockade were obtained when pregabalin was tested in human or bovine chromaffin cells, which express very different percentages of VDCC types with respect to mouse chromaffin cells. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory action of pregabalin on VDCCs and exocytosis does not depend on ?1 Ca(2+) channel subunit types. Carbon fiber amperometric recordings of digitonin-permeabilized cells showed that neither the fusion pore nor the exocytotic machinery were targeted by pregabalin. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) measurements performed with mitochondrial ratiometric pericam demonstrated that Ca(2+) uptake or release from mitochondria were not affected by the drug. The selectivity of action of pregabalin might explain its safety, good tolerability, and reduced adverse effects. In addition, the inhibition of the exocytotic process in chromaffin cells might have relevant clinical consequences. PMID:22537772

Hernández-Vivanco, Alicia; Pérez-Alvarez, Alberto; Caba-González, José Carlos; Alonso, María Teresa; Moreno-Ortega, Ana José; Cano-Abad, María; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; Albillos, Almudena

2012-08-01

80

A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain and tenderness. Prior trials have demonstrated the efficacy of pregabalin for the relief of fibromyalgia symptoms, and it is approved for the treatment of fibromyalgia in the United States. However, prior to this study, there has not been a large-scale efficacy trial in patients with fibromyalgia in Japan. Methods This randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 44 centers in Japan to assess the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for the symptomatic relief of pain in fibromyalgia patients. Patients aged ?18 years who had met the criteria for fibromyalgia were randomized to receive either pregabalin, starting at 150 mg/day and increasing to a maintenance dose of 300 or 450 mg/day, or placebo, for 15 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean pain score at final assessment. Secondary endpoints included Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) together with measures of sleep, physical functioning and quality of life. Results A total of 498 patients (89% female) were randomized to receive either pregabalin (n = 250) or placebo (n = 248). Pregabalin significantly reduced mean pain score at final assessment (difference in mean change from baseline, compared with placebo -0.44; P = 0.0046) and at every week during the study (P <0.025). Key secondary endpoints were also significantly improved with pregabalin treatment compared with placebo, including PGIC (percentage reporting symptoms "very much improved" or "much improved", 38.6% vs 26.7% with placebo; P = 0.0078); pain visual analog scale (difference in mean change from baseline, compared with placebo -6.19; P = 0.0013); Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (-3.33; P = 0.0144); and quality of sleep score (-0.73; P <0.0001). Treatment was generally well tolerated, with somnolence and dizziness the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusions This trial demonstrated that pregabalin, at doses of up to 450 mg/day, was effective for the symptomatic relief of pain in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia. Pregabalin also improved measures of sleep and functioning and was well tolerated. These data indicate that pregabalin is an effective treatment option for the relief of pain and sleep problems in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00830167 PMID:23062189

2012-01-01

81

Concerns about pregabalin: further experience with its potential of causing addictive behaviors.  

PubMed

Pregabalin (PRG) is approved for the treatment of neuropathic pain, partial seizures, and generalized anxiety disorder in many countries. Supported by case reports and a few studies there is an ongoing debate on PRG's potential to cause addictive behaviors. Considering that PRG is currently under investigation for the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence and withdrawal as well as relapse prevention in alcohol dependence, assessment of PRG's abuse and dependence potential is indispensable. We report the case of a 38-year-old female patient with borderline personality disorder and past alcohol abuse who developed PRG abuse. The patient took up to 800 mg PRG per day, initially administered to treat unspecific anxiety, and experienced euphoric feelings after PRG intake. In the further course, she increased the daily PRG dosage and consulted other physicians to receive additional PRG prescriptions. During reduction of PRG, the patient developed a moderate withdrawal syndrome with vegetative symptoms. Because of the early detection of the developing PRG abuse (4 months after first application of PRG), the development of PRG dependence was prevented. This case illustrates the possibility of PRG to trigger the development of addictive behaviors and should encourage physicians to be very careful when administering PRG to patients with current or past substance-related disorders. PMID:23519046

Gahr, Maximilian; Franke, Beate; Freudenmann, Roland W; Kölle, Markus A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

2013-01-01

82

Simultaneous determination of gabapentin, pregabalin, vigabatrin, and topiramate in plasma by HPLC with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been recognized as a useful tool in management of epilepsy. We developed a simple analytical method for simultaneous determination of four second generation AEDs, including gabapentin (GBP), pregabalin (PGB), vigabatrin (VGB), and topiramate (TOP). Analytes were extracted from human plasma using universal solid phase extraction, derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) and analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Using mass spectrometry we confirmed that NBD-Cl reacts with sulfamate group of TOP similarly as with amine group of the other three analytes. The method is linear (r(2)>0.998) across investigated analytical ranges (0.375-30.0?g/mL for GBP, PGB, and VGB; 0.50-20.0?g/mL for TOP). Intraday and interday precision do not exceed 9.40%. The accuracy is from 95.6% to 106%. The recovery is higher than 80.6%, and the lower limit of quantification is at least 0.5?g/mL. The method is selective and robust. For TOP determination the method was compared to a previously published method and the results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. The developed method is suitable for routine TDM. PMID:24907547

Martinc, Boštjan; Roškar, Robert; Grabnar, Iztok; Vovk, Tomaž

2014-07-01

83

Determination of pregabalin in human plasma by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

A rapid, precise, specific, and accurate Electrospray Ionisation Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS / MS) method has been developed and subsequently validated, for the determination of pregabalin (PB) in human plasma. Gabapentin (GB) was used as the internal standard. PB and GB were extracted from the plasma using a combination of deproteinization, using 0.1% formic acid and liquid–liquid extraction, using methylene chloride. PB and GB were separated using the Hypurity advance column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) and mobile phase, consisting of methanol : 0.1% formic acid (80:20 v / v). PB was determined by using ESI-MS / MS in positive ion mode, with the help of the API 2000 spectrophotometer, operated in a multiple reaction monitoring mode. The parent-to-product ion combination of m / z 160.2?55.1 and 172.2?95.0 was used to quantify PB and GB, respectively. The assay was validated in the concentration range of 99.79 – 4019.90 ng / mL for PB. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was identifiable and reproducible at 99.79 ng / mL. The method has been successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of PB in healthy male volunteers. PMID:22247871

Shah, Gaurang R.; Ghosh, Chinmoy; Thaker, Bharat T.

2010-01-01

84

Nanofiltration of model acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes were screened for separating acetic acid from model solutions. Flux increased with pressure and temperature and decreased with pH and concentration of acetate. Rejection increased with pH, probably depending on the degree of dissociation of the acetate. At higher pH, acetate rejection could be correlated with NaCl rejection. Of all the membranes screened, the

I. S. Han; M. Cheryan

1995-01-01

85

Ulipristal acetate: in uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone-receptor modulator, inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of leiomyoma cells in vitro. It also modulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and hormone receptors and modulates extracellular matrix breakdown in leiomyoma cells but not in myometrial cells. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational phase III trials of 13 weeks' duration in women aged 18-50 years with uterine fibroids, a once-daily regimen of oral ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day controlled excessive uterine bleeding (primary endpoint) in ?90% of patients. Ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day was more effective than placebo and was shown to be noninferior to intramuscular leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg once monthly in controlling uterine bleeding. Uterine bleeding was rapidly controlled by ulipristal acetate. Approximately half of recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day became amenorrhoeic within the first 10 days of treatment. Furthermore, uterine bleeding was controlled significantly more rapidly for recipients of ulipristal acetate than recipients of leuprolide acetate. A significantly greater median reduction from baseline in total fibroid volume was observed for recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg once daily than recipients of placebo following 13 weeks' treatment (coprimary endpoint). For patients who did not undergo surgery, the volume reduction was maintained for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment. Ulipristal acetate was generally well tolerated in women with uterine fibroids. The incidence of hot flush occurred with a significantly lower frequency for recipients of ulipristal acetate than for recipients of leuprolide acetate. PMID:22568731

Croxtall, Jamie D

2012-05-28

86

Acetate dependence of tumors.  

PubMed

Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

2014-12-18

87

Process and formulation variables of pregabalin microspheres prepared by w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method and their clinical application by animal modeling studies.  

PubMed

Abstract Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. In conventional therapy recommended dose for pregabalin is 75?mg twice daily or 50?mg three times a day, with maximum dosage of 600?mg/d. To achieve maximum therapeutic effect with a low risk of adverse effects and to reduce often drug dosing, modified release preparations; such as microspheres might be helpful. However, most of the microencapsulation techniques have been used for lipophilic drugs, since hydrophilic drugs like pregabalin, showed low-loading efficiency and rapid dissolution of compounds into the aqueous continous phase. The purpose of this study was to improve loading efficiency of a water-soluble drug and modulate release profiles, and to test the efficiency of the prepared microspheres with the help of animal modeling studies. Pregabalin is a water soluble drug, and it was encapsulated within anionic acrylic resin (Eudragit S 100) microspheres by water in oil in oil (w/o/o) double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Dichloromethane and corn oil were chosen primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. The presence of internal water phase was necessary to form stable emulsion droplets and it accelerated the hardening of microspheres. Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as surfactants to stabilize the water and corn oil phases, respectively. The optimum concentration of Tween 80 was 0.25% (v/v) and Span 80 was 0.02% (v/v). The volume of the continous phase was affected the size of the microspheres. As the volume of the continous phase increased, the size of microspheres decreased. All microsphere formulations were evaluated with the help of in vitro characterization parameters. Microsphere formulations (P1-P5) exhibited entrapment efficiency ranged between 57.00?±?0.72 and 69.70?±?0.49%; yield ranged between 80.95?±?1.21 and 93.05?±?1.42%; and mean particle size were between 136.09?±?2.57 and 279.09?±?1.97?µm. Pregabalin microspheres having better results among all formulations (Table 3) were chosen for further studies such as differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared analysis and dissolution studies. In the last step, the best pregabalin microsphere formulation (P3) was chosen for in vivo animal studies. The pregabalin-loaded microspheres (P3) and conventional pregabalin capsules were applied orally in rats for three days, resulted in clinical improvement of cold allodynia, an indicator of peripheral neuropathy. This result when evaluated together with the serum pregabalin levels and in vitro release studies suggests that the pregabalin microspheres prepared with w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method can be an alternative form for neuropathic pain therapy. Conclusively, a drug delivery system successfully developed that showed modified release up to 10?h and could be potentially useful to overcome the frequent dosing problems associated with pregabalin conventional dosage form. PMID:25119000

Aydogan, Ebru; Comoglu, Tansel; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge; Dogan, Murat; Comoglu, Selcuk; Dogan, Aysegul; Basci, Nursabah

2014-08-14

88

Pregabalin Influences Insula and Amygdala Activation During Anticipation of Emotional Images  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin (PGB) has shown potential as an anxiolytic for treatment of generalized and social anxiety disorder. PGB binds to voltage-dependent calcium channels, leading to upregulation of GABA inhibitory activity and reduction in the release of various neurotransmitters. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines attenuate amygdala, insula, and medial prefrontal cortex activation during anticipation and emotional processing in healthy controls. The aim of this study was to examine whether acute PGB administration would attenuate activation in these regions during emotional anticipation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, 16 healthy controls completed a paradigm involving anticipation of negative and positive affective images during fMRI approximately 1?h after administration of placebo, 50, or 200?mg PGB. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that PGB was associated with (1) decreases in left amygdala and anterior insula activation and (2) increases in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, during anticipation of positive and negative stimuli. There was also a region of the anterior amygdala in which PGB dose was associated with increased activation during anticipation of negative and decreased activation during anticipation of positive stimuli. Attenuation of amygdala and insula activation during anticipatory or emotional processing may represent a common regional brain mechanism for anxiolytics across drug classes. PGB induced increases in ACC activation could be a unique effect related to top–down modulation of affective processing. These results provide further support for the viability of using pharmaco-fMRI to determine the anxiolytic potential of pharmacologic agents. PMID:21430645

Aupperle, Robin L; Ravindran, Lakshmi; Tankersley, Dharol; Flagan, Taru; Stein, Nathan R; Simmons, Alan N; Stein, Murray B; Paulus, Martin P

2011-01-01

89

Gabapentin and (S)-pregabalin decrease intracellular D-serine concentrations in PC-12 cells.  

PubMed

The effects of gabapentin (GBP) and (S)-pregabalin (PGB) on the intracellular concentrations of d-serine and the expression of serine racemase (SR) in PC-12 cells were determined. Intracellular d-serine concentrations were determined using an enantioselective capillary electrophoresis assay with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Increasing concentrations of GBP, 0.1-20?M, produced a significant decrease in d-serine concentration relative to control, 22.9±6.7% at 20?M (*p<0.05), with an IC(50) value of 3.40±0.29?M. Increasing concentrations of PGB, 0.1-10?M, produced a significant decrease in d-serine concentration relative to control, 25.3±7.6% at 10?M (*p<0.05), with an IC(50) value of 3.38±0.21?M. The compounds had no effect on the expression of monomeric-SR or dimeric-SR as determined by Western blotting. The results suggest that incubation of PC-12 cells with GBP and PGB reduced the basal activity of SR, which is most likely a result of the decreased Ca(2+) flux produced via interaction of the drugs with the ?(2)-? subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. d-Serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and reduced d-serine concentrations have been associated with reduced NMDAR activity. Thus, GBP and PGB may act as indirect antagonists of NMDAR, a mechanism that may contribute to the clinical effects of the drugs in neuropathic pain. PMID:23274708

Singh, Nagendra S; Paul, Rajib K; Torjman, Marc C; Wainer, Irving W

2013-02-22

90

Gabapentin and (S)-pregabalin decrease intracellular D-Serine concentrations in PC-12 cells  

PubMed Central

The effects of gabapentin (GBP) and (S)-pregabalin (PGB) on the intracellular concentrations of D-serine and the expression of serine racemase (SR) in PC-12 cells were determined. Intracellular D-serine concentrations were determined using an enantioselective capillary electrophoresis assay with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Increasing concentrations of GBP, 0.1 – 20 ?M, produced a significant decrease in D-serine concentration relative to control, 22.9 ± 6.7% at 20 ?M (*p < 0.05), with an IC50 value of 3.40 ± 0.29 ?M. Increasing concentrations of PGB, 0.1 – 10 ?M, produced a significant decrease in D-serine concentration relative to control, 25.3 ± 7.6% at 10 ?M (*p < 0.05), with an IC50 value of 3.38 ± 0.21 ?M. The compounds had no effect on the expression of monomeric-SR or dimeric-SR as determined by Western blotting. The results suggest that incubation of PC-12 cells with GBP and PGB reduced the basal activity of SR, which is most likely a result of the decreased Ca+2 flux produced via interaction of the drugs with the ?2-? subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. D-serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and reduced D-serine concentrations have been associated with reduced NMDAR activity. Thus, GBP and PGB may act as indirect antagonists of NMDAR, a mechanism that may contribute to the clinical effects of the drugs in neuropathic pain. PMID:23274708

Singh, Nagendra S.; Paul, Rajib K.; Torjman, Marc C.; Wainer, Irving W.

2013-01-01

91

Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300 species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate. PMID:24638105

Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

2014-01-01

92

Biocatalytic synthesis of chiral intermediate of pregabalin with high substrate loading by a newly isolated Morgarella morganii ZJB-09203.  

PubMed

The chemoenzymatic process involving biocatalytic resolution of rac-2-carboxyethyl-3-cyano-5-methylhexanoic acid ethyl ester (CNDE, 1) has been the most competitive and attractive route for pregabalin. A new esterase-producing strain ZJB-09203, which exhibited high hydrolytic activity, excellent enantioselectivity, and diastereoselectivity towards CNDE, has been successfully isolated from soil samples with a pH indicator agar plate method. The isolate was identified as Morgarella morganii by the ATB system (ID 32 GN) and the 16S rDNA sequence. In order to suppress product inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis of CNDE, an adsorptive biocatalytic process was developed by utilizing anion-exchange resin D201 as adsorbent for selective removal of (3S)-2-carboxyethyl-3-cyano-5-methylhexanoic acid (2) from the reaction medium. This approach allowed the substrate loading to be increased up to 1.5 M and the chiral intermediate 2 was produced in 682 mM, 45.3 % conversion, and 95 % ee. These results imply that M. morganii ZJB-09203 esterase is a promising biocatalyst in the development of chemenzymatic manufacturing process for pregabalin. PMID:23504060

Zheng, Ren-Chao; Wang, Tian-Zhen; Fu, De-Jin; Li, Ai-Peng; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Guo

2013-06-01

93

Engineering of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase Lip: creation of novel biocatalyst for efficient biosynthesis of chiral intermediate of Pregabalin.  

PubMed

Efficient and highly enantioselective hydrolysis of 2-carboxyethyl-3-cyano-5-methylhexanoic acid ethyl ester (CNDE) is the most crucial step in chemoenzymatic synthesis of Pregabalin. By using site-saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput screening techniques, lipase Lip from Thermomyces lanuginosus DSM 10635 was engineered to improve its activity towards CNDE. The triple mutant, S88T/A99N/V116D exhibited a 60-fold improvement in specific activity for CNDE (2.35 U/mg) over the wild-type Lip (0.039 U/mg). Modeling and docking studies demonstrated that the mutant could more effectively stabilize oxygen anions in transition states and the lid of Lip in the open conformation. Additionally, the kinetic resolution of CNDE catalyzed by Escherichia coli cell overexpressing S88T/A99N/V116D mutant afforded (3S)-2-carboxyethyl-3-cyano-5-methylhexanoic acid in 42.4 % conversion and 98 % ee within 20 h with a substrate loading of 1 M (255 g/l). These results demonstrated that a novel and promising biocatalyst was created for efficient chemoenzymatic manufacturing of Pregabalin. PMID:23917635

Li, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Ma, Hong-Ye; Zheng, Yu-Guo

2014-03-01

94

Pregabalin versus gabapentin in the management of peripheral neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy: a cost effectiveness analysis for the Greek healthcare setting  

PubMed Central

Background The anticonvulsants pregabalin and gabapentin are both indicated for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. The decision on which treatment provides the best alternative, should take into account all aspects of costs and outcomes associated with the two therapeutic options. The objective of this study was to examine the cost – effectiveness of the two agents in the management of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy or post – herpetic neuralgia, under the third party payer perspective in Greece. Methods The analysis was based on a dynamic simulation model which estimated and compared the costs and outcomes of pregabalin and gabapentin in a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients suffering from painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) or Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN). In the model, each patient was randomly allocated an average pretreatment pain score, measured using an eleven-point visual analogue scale (0 – 10) and was “run through” the model, simulating their daily pain intensity and allowing for stochastic calculation of outcomes, taking into account medical interventions and the effectiveness of each treatment. Results Pregabalin demonstrated a reduction in days with moderate to severe pain when compared to gabapentin. During the 12 weeks the pregabalin arm demonstrated a 0.1178 (SE 0.0002) QALY gain, which proved to be 0.0063 (SE 0.0003) higher than that in the gabapentin arm. The mean medication cost per patient was higher for the pregabalin arm when compared to the gabapentin arm (i.e. €134.40) over the 12 week treatment period. However, this higher cost was partially offset by the reduced direct medical costs (i.e. the cost of specialist visits, the cost of diagnostic tests and the other applied interventions). Comparing costs with respective outcomes, the ICERs for pregabalin versus gabapentin were €13 (95%CI: 8 – 18) per additional day with no or mild pain and €19,320 (95%CI: 11,743 – 26,755) per QALY gained. Conclusions Neuropathic pain carries a great disease burden for patients and society and, is also, associated with a significant economic burden. The treatment of pain associated with DPN and PHN with pregabalin is a cost-effective intervention for the social security in Greece compared to gabapentin. Thus, these findings need to be taken into consideration in the decision – making process when considering which therapy to use for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:23731598

2013-01-01

95

Guidelines in the management of diabetic nerve pain: clinical utility of pregabalin  

PubMed Central

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It presents as a variety of syndromes for which there is no universally accepted unique classification. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common type, affecting about 30% of diabetic patients in hospital care and 25% of those in the community. Pain is the reason for 40% of patient visits in a primary care setting, and about 20% of these have had pain for greater than 6 months. Chronic pain may be nociceptive, which occurs as a result of disease or damage to tissue with no abnormality in the nervous system. In contrast, neuropathic pain is defined as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system.” Persistent neuropathic pain interferes significantly with quality of life, impairing sleep and recreation; it also significantly impacts emotional well-being, and is associated with depression, anxiety, and noncompliance with treatment. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a difficult-to-manage clinical problem, and patients with this condition are more apt to seek medical attention than those with other types of diabetic neuropathy. Early recognition of psychological problems is critical to the management of pain, and physicians need to go beyond the management of pain per se if they are to achieve success. This evidence-based review of the assessment of the patient with pain in diabetes addresses the state-of-the-art management of pain, recognizing all the conditions that produce pain in diabetes and the evidence in support of a variety of treatments currently available. A search of the full Medline database for the last 10 years was conducted in August 2012 using the terms painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, painful diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, painful diabetic neuropathy and pain in diabetes. In addition, recent reviews addressing this issue were adopted as necessary. In particular, reports from the American Academy of Neurology and the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy were included. Unfortunately, the results of evidence-based studies do not necessarily take into account the presence of comorbidities, the cost of treatment, or the role of third-party payers in decision-making. Thus, this review attempts to give a more balanced view of the management of pain in the diabetic patient with neuropathy and in particular the role of pregabalin. PMID:23467255

Vinik, Aaron I; Casellini, Carolina M

2013-01-01

96

[Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].  

PubMed

Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

Lello, S

2009-10-01

97

Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

2004-11-10

98

Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate is a progesterone receptor modulator. As an emergency contraceptive, a 30-mg micronized formulation is effective for use up to 120 h from unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate acts as an antagonist of the progesterone receptor at the transcriptional level and a competitive antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor function. In contrast to other contraceptives, it has little effect on sex hormone-binding globulin. Although a single small study demonstrated some potential endometrial effects after ulipristal acetate administration, the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear. The incidence of adverse events in clinical trials for emergency contraception has typically been minimal, with one study showing a higher than expected incidence of nausea upon ulipristal acetate use. Ulipristal acetate, like other emergency contraceptive products, can lengthen the time to the next expected menstruation. Ulipristal acetate may have several advantages over currently approved emergency contraceptives. When compared to levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate maintains its efficacy for a full 120 h, whereas levonorgestrel formulations have declining efficacy over that time frame. Moreover, although the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is highly effective as an emergency contraceptive, accessibility is an issue since the IUD requires a skilled provider for insertion. PMID:20967297

Russo, J A; Creinin, M D

2010-09-01

99

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

100

Ulipristal acetate: contraceptive or contragestive?  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate is the first selective progesterone receptor modulator approved for postcoital contraception in the US. It appears to be significantly more effective in inhibition of ovulation than other forms of emergency contraception. However, ulipristal acetate is structurally similar to mifepristone, and several lines of evidence suggest that a postfertilization mechanism of action is also operative. This mechanism of action is considered to be contragestive versus contraceptive. Ulipristal acetate administration is contraindicated in a known or suspected pregnancy; however, it could quite possibly be used as an effective abortifacient. Health-care providers should inform patients of the possibility of both mechanisms of action with use of this drug. PMID:21666088

Keenan, Jeffrey A

2011-06-01

101

Changes in cardiovascular function after venlafaxine but not pregabalin in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of orthostatic challenge, blood pressure and heart rate.  

PubMed

It is generally thought that venlafaxine raises blood pressure at higher doses; however, some studies have found no effect or a decrease in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) effects of 3?weeks of dosing with venlafaxine, pregabalin and placebo on young healthy adults. Fifty-four participants, of mean age 23.1?years (sd 4.68), 29 male, were randomised into three parallel groups. Each group received one of the three drugs, dosed incrementally over a 3-week period to reach daily doses of 150?mg/day venlafaxine and 200?mg/day pregabalin. Blood pressure sphygmomanometer measurements, heart rate measurements, and orthostatic challenges recorded continuously beat-to-beat were performed weekly over this period and 5?days after treatment cessation. Results showed resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and resting and standing diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were significantly raised by venlafaxine compared with the pregabalin and placebo groups. SBP drop on standing was larger, the resulting overshoot was smaller, and recovery was slower on venlafaxine. HR recovery was significantly impaired by venlafaxine. CV changes were observed after only 1?week of dosing at 112.5?mg/day. These effects of venlafaxine are likely to be due to its action of noradrenergic reuptake inhibition. PMID:23955418

Diaper, Alison; Rich, Ann S; Wilson, Sue J; Craig, Kevin; Dourish, Colin T; Dawson, Gerry R; Nutt, David J; Bailey, Jayne E

2013-11-01

102

Molecular Structure of Acetic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

2003-06-02

103

The Effects of Pregabalin and the Glial Attenuator Minocycline on the Response to Intradermal Capsaicin in Patients with Unilateral Sciatica  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with unilateral sciatica have heightened responses to intradermal capsaicin compared to pain-free volunteers. No studies have investigated whether this pain model can screen for novel anti-neuropathic agents in patients with pre-existing neuropathic pain syndromes. Aim This study compared the effects of pregabalin (300 mg) and the tetracycline antibiotic and glial attenuator minocycline (400 mg) on capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia in patients with unilateral sciatica on both their affected and unaffected leg. Methods/Results Eighteen patients with unilateral sciatica completed this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Participants received a 10 µg dose of capsaicin into the middle section of their calf on both their affected and unaffected leg, separated by an interval of 75 min. Capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia were recorded pre-injection and at 5, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Minocycline tended to reduce pre-capsaicin injection values of hyperalgesia in the affected leg by 28% (95% CI 0% to 56%). The area under the effect time curves for capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia were not affected by either treatment compared to placebo. Significant limb differences were observed for flare (AUC) (?38% in affected leg, 95% CI for difference ?19% to ?52%). Both hand dominance and sex were significant covariates of response to capsaicin. Conclusions It cannot be concluded that minocycline is unsuitable for further evaluation as an anti-neuropathic pain drug as pregabalin, our positive control, failed to reduce capsaicin-induced neuropathic pain. However, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of minocycline observed pre-capsaicin injection is promising pilot information to support ongoing research into glial-mediated treatments for neuropathic pain. The differences in flare response between limbs may represent a useful biomarker to further investigate neuropathic pain. Inclusion of a positive control is imperative for the assessment of novel therapies for neuropathic pain. PMID:22685578

Sumracki, Nicole M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Gentgall, Melanie; Briggs, Nancy; Williams, Desmond B.; Rolan, Paul

2012-01-01

104

Visible-light-induced synthesis of pH-responsive composite hydrogels for controlled delivery of the anticonvulsant drug pregabalin.  

PubMed

We report here a novel method for the synthesis of a pH-responsive composite using visible light. Formation of the pH-responsive layer is based on poly(methacrylic acid-g-ethylene glycol) as the macromer, eosin Y as the photoinitiator and triethanolamine as the co-initiator. The hydrogel was functionalized with hydrophobic domains through incorporation of crosslinked styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer into the pH-responsive prepolymer. Swelling ratios were decreased with the addition of SBS, and resulted in high hydrogel crosslink density. The composite allowed for controlled release of an anticonvulsant model drug, pregabalin, under neutral pH condition and the release was analyzed to describe the mode of transport through the network. In vitro human fibroblast survival assay and in vivo rabbit implantation experiments demonstrated that this hybrid network is not toxic and has desirable biocompatibility properties. This is the first report about the synthesis of a pH-responsive network incorporating crosslinked SBS synthesized under visible light. The approach for multifunctional membranes could allow the incorporation of molecules with specific functionalities so that sequential molecule delivery in response to specific stimuli could be achieved. PMID:25242648

Cevik, Ozlem; Gidon, Dogan; Kizilel, Seda

2015-01-01

105

Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ? 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

2014-01-01

106

Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines  

E-print Network

= I'7o(w/wk) 11 Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the calcium acetate/water/amuie system with various extractants. (T= TEA, D= DEMA. Initial aqueous-phase calcium acetate concentration= 2%(w/w). ) 27 28 31 34 via FIGURE Page 12 Liquid.... (Calcium acetate/water /amine, TEA:DEMA= I mL:2 mL, initial aqueous calcium acetate= 1% (w/w). ) Equilibrium calcium acetate concentrations in the aqueous phase determined by FTIR and AA measurements. (Calcium acetate/water /amine, TEA:DEMA= I mL;2 m...

Lee, Champion

1993-01-01

107

Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions  

SciTech Connect

The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

1987-01-01

108

Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus “Acetomonas\\

Yuzo Yamada; Pattaraporn Yukphan

2008-01-01

109

Analysis of the long-term actions of gabapentin and pregabalin in dorsal root ganglia and substantia gelatinosa.  

PubMed

The ?2?-ligands pregabalin (PGB) and gabapentin (GBP) are used to treat neuropathic pain. We used whole cell recording to study their long-term effects on substantia gelatinosa and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Spinal cord slices were prepared from embryonic day 13 rat embryos and maintained in organotypic culture for >5 wk (neuronal age equivalent to young adult rats). Exposure of similarly aged DRG neurons (dissociated and cultured from postnatal day 19 rats) to GBP or PGB for 5-6 days attenuated high-voltage-activated calcium channel currents (HVA ICa). Strong effects were seen in medium-sized and in small isolectin B4-negative (IB4-) DRG neurons, whereas large neurons and small neurons that bound isolectin B4 (IB4+) were hardly affected. GBP (100 ?M) or PGB (10 ?M) were less effective than 20 ?M Mn(2+) in suppression of HVA ICa in small DRG neurons. By contrast, 5-6 days of exposure to these ?2?-ligands was more effective than 20 ?M Mn(2+) in reducing spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents at synapses in substantia gelatinosa. Spinal actions of gabapentinoids cannot therefore be ascribed to decreased expression of HVA Ca(2+) channels in primary afferent nerve terminals. In substantia gelatinosa, 5-6 days of exposure to PGB was more effective in inhibiting excitatory synaptic drive to putative excitatory neurons than to putative inhibitory neurons. Although spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents were also attenuated, the overall long-term effect of ?2?-ligands was to decrease network excitability as monitored by confocal Ca(2+) imaging. We suggest that selective actions of ?2?-ligands on populations of DRG neurons may predict their selective attenuation of excitatory transmission onto excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in substantia gelatinosa. PMID:25122705

Biggs, James E; Boakye, Paul A; Ganesan, Naren; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Lantero, Aquilino; Ballanyi, Klaus; Smith, Peter A

2014-11-15

110

Biodegradation of cellulose acetate by Neisseria sicca.  

PubMed

Bacteria capable of assimilating cellulose acetate, strains SB and SC, were isolated from soil on a medium containing cellulose acetate as a carbon source, and identified as Neisseria sicca. Both strains degraded cellulose acetate membrane filters (degree of substitution, DS, mixture of 2.8 and 2.0) and textiles (DS, 2.34) in a medium containing cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34) or its oligomer, but were not able to degrade these materials in a medium containing cellobiose octaacetate. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81 and 2.34) on the basis of biochemical oxygen demand reached 51 and 40% in the culture of N. sicca SB and 60 and 45% in the culture of N. sicca SC within 20 days. A decrease in the acetyl content of degraded cellulose acetate films and powder was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. After 10-day cultivation of N. sicca SB and SC, the number-average molecular weight of residual cellulose acetate decreased by 9 and 5%, respectively. Activities of enzymes that released acetic acid and produced reducing sugars from cellulose acetate were mainly present in the culture supernatant. Reactivity of enzymes for cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81) was higher than that for cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34). PMID:8987659

Sakai, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakasu, F; Ohe, T

1996-10-01

111

Molecular Structure of Ethyl acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ethyl acetate is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild and fragrant odor. It is used as solvent in chemistry laboratories but can also be found in many household products such as paints, coatings, and adhesives. The compound is also used in some extraction processes such as decaffeination or purification of antibiotics. It is present in both nail polish and removers. Some synthetic fruit essences may contain this and other esters. Etymologists like to use this solvent for insect collecting as the vapor kill the insect quickly and keep it soft for mounting.

2006-03-08

112

[Antiovulatory action of chlormadinone acetate].  

PubMed

Antiovulatory action of chlormadinone acetate (5 mg twice daily from day 7 to day 25) has been assessed in 6 healthy volunteers by daily determination of plasma FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone. Hormonal profiles during the second treated cycle show that preovulatory gonadotropin surge is blunted and that no significant progesterone secretion occurs. Estradiol production is variable up to the middle of the cycle, and then homogeneously low normal. Menstrual cyclicity is respected and ovarian function is restored during the first cycle after treatment disruption. PMID:7511024

Pelissier, C; Blacker, C; Feinstein, M C; Cournot, A; Denis, C

1994-01-01

113

Enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol and methyl acetate. Lipases are essential for the catalysis of this reaction. To find the optimum conditions for glycerol acetate production, sequential experiments were designed. Type of lipase, lipase concentration, molar ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and solvents were investigated for the optimum conversion of glycerol to glycerol acetate. As the result of lipase screening, Novozym 435 (Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) was turned out to be the optimal lipase for the reaction. Under the optimal conditions (2.5 g/L of Novozym 435, 1:40 molar ratio of glycerol to methyl acetate, 40 °C and tert-butanol as the solvent), glycerol acetate production was achieved in 95.00% conversion. PMID:25640720

Oh, Seokhyeon; Park, Chulhwan

2015-02-01

114

Acetate kinase: a triple-displacement enzyme.  

PubMed

Facts relating to the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by acetate kinase (ATP:acetate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.1) are reviewed. They point to the existence of at least one experimentally established phosphoenzyme (E-P) intermediate on the reaction pathway. Sterically, the phosphoryl transfer occurs with a net inversion of the configuration of the phosphorus atom. These facts are best in accord with a triple-displacement mode of action for acetate kinase, with two E-P intermediates and three steric inversions on phosphorus. It follows that a second E-P for acetate kinase must exist. PMID:6248856

Spector, L B

1980-05-01

115

Contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate.  

PubMed

Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone(®)) is an immunomodulatory polypeptide used in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It represents a safe treatment option with mild side effects. In this study, we look at a 39-year-old woman who received glatiramer acetate as subcutaneous injections for two months and developed contact dermatitis. The drug had to be stopped, and treatment with topical prednisone was initiated. Prick/scratch testing was negative but the lymphocyte transformation test was highly positive for glatiramer acetate. This is the first report on contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate injections. The treatment consisted of local topical steroids and cessation of the drug. PMID:21729979

Haltmeier, S; Yildiz, M; Müller, S; Anliker, M D; Heinzerling, L

2011-11-01

116

Positron scattering from vinyl acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

2014-09-01

117

Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

1991-01-01

118

Biodegradable Plastics Based on Cellulose Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally known that secondary cellulose acetate (with 53 to 56% acetyl groups) is suitable for thermoplastic processing. With appropriate plasticizers a plastic material is obtained which excels in transparency and pleasant texture, and it is therefore often used for tool handles, combs, spectacle frames, and the like. In principle, cellulose acetate with such a degree of substitution is

Alexander Ach

1993-01-01

119

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131-I-chlorotoxin; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, albumin interferon alfa, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, AR-C126532, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cangrelor tetrasodium, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cinacalcet hydrochloride, collagen-PVP, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, dasatinib, denosumab, desloratadine, dexosome vaccine (lung cancer), dexrazoxane, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, eel calcitonin, efalizumab, entecavir, etoricoxib; Falciparum merozoite protein-1/AS02A, fenretinide, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib, ghrelin (human); hLM609; Icatibant acetate, imatinib mesylate, ipsapirone, irofulven; LBH-589, LE-AON, levocetirizine, LY-450139; Malaria vaccine, mapatumumab, motexafin gadolinium, muraglitazar, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; nab-paclitaxel, nelarabine; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, orbofiban acetate; Panitumumab, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, pleconaril, prasterone, pregabalin; Ranolazine, rebimastat, recombinant malaria vaccine, rosuvastatin calcium; SQN-400; Taxus, tegaserod maleate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, troxacitabine; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Val-Tyr sardine peptidase, VNP-40101M, vorinostat. PMID:16845450

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2006-06-01

120

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131I-chTNT; Abatacept, adalimumab, alemtuzumab, APC-8015, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bortezomib, bosentan, buserelin; Caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, ChAGCD3, ciclesonide, clopidogrel, curcumin, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, dapoxetine hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, denosumab, DMXB-Anabaseine, drospirenone, drospirenone/estradiol, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Edodekin alfa, efaproxiral sodium, elaidic acid-cytarabine, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etonogestrel/testosterone decanoate, exenatide; Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, glycine, GVS-111; Homoharringtonine; ICC-1132, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, i.v. gamma-globulin; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, lintuzumab, liposomal nystatin, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Manitimus, mapatumumab, melatonin, micafungin sodium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Oblimersen sodium, OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), pasireotide, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, phVEGF-A165, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PT-141; Quercetin; Ranolazine, rosuvastatin calcium, rubitecan, rupatadine fumarate; Sardomozide, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, talactoferrin alfa, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, testosterone transdermal patch, TH-9507, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, voriconazole. PMID:16395422

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-12-01

121

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, abarelix, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AdGVVEGF121.10, anastrozole, anecortave acetate, aripiprazole, asulacrine isethionate, atazanavir, ATL-962, 16-Aza-epothilone B; Bevacizumab, bicalutamide, blonanserin, BMS-188667, bosentan; Celecoxib, celmoleukin, cetuximab, cilomilast, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CNTF(Ax15), colesevelam hydrochloride; Daclizumab, delavirdine mesilate, desogestrel, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, emtricitabine, epalrestat, escitalopram oxalate, examorelin, exendin-4, ezetimibe; Fidarestat, frovatriptan; HIV-1 Immunogen; Iloperidone, insulin detemir, insulin lispro, irinotecan hydrochloride; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lasofoxifene tartrate, levetiracetam, levormeloxifene, levosimendan, lumiracoxib, LY-307161 SR; Memantine hydrochloride, MEN-10755, metformin hydrochloride, metreleptin, motexafin gadolinium; Naratriptan hydrochloride, natalizumab, nesiritide, nicotine, NN-2211, NN-414; Olanzapine, omalizumab; Pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegvisomant, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, pramlintide acetate prasterone, pregabalin; Quetiapine fumarate; Rabeprazole sodium, raloxifene hydrochloride, raltitrexed, rDNA insulin, rFGF-2, risedronate sodium, rofecoxib, roflumilast, rosiglitazone maleate; SN-22995; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, tiotropium bromide, tomoxetine hydrochloride, trastuzumab, trimegestone; Voglibose, Voriconazole; Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:12616707

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2002-11-01

122

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

1-Octanol, 9vPnC-MnCc; Abiraterone acetate, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, ARRY-520, AS-1404, Asimadoline, Atazanavir sulfate, AVE-0277, Azelnidipine; Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Boceprevir, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B; Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Clevudine, Contusugene ladenovec, CP-751871, Crofelemer, Cypher, CYT006-AngQb; Darbepoetin alfa, Desmopressin, Dexlansoprazole, DG-041; E-5555, Ecogramostim, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Falecalcitriol, Fampridine, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fingolimod hydrochloride; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GS-7904L, GV-1001; HT-1001; Insulin detemir, ISIS-112989, Istradefylline; Laquinimod sodium, Latanoprost/timolol maleate, Lenalidomide, Levobetaxolol hydrochloride, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liposomal morphine sulfate, Lubiprostone, Lumiracoxib, LY-518674; MEM-1003, Mesna disulfide, Mipomersen sodium, MM-093, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naptumomab estafenatox, Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Pasireotide, Pazufloxacin mesilate, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimagedine, Pimecrolimus, Pramlintide acetate, Prasterone, Pregabalin, Prulifloxacin; QAE-397; Rec-15/2615, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, rhGAD65, Roflumilast, Romiplostim, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine, Rupatadine fumarate; Safinamide mesilate, SIR-Spheres, Sitagliptin phosphate, Sodium phenylacetate, Sodium phenylacetate/Sodium benzoate, Sorafenib, SSR-244738; Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Teduglutide, Tegaserod maleate, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tigecycline, Tiotropium bromide, Trabectedin, Travoprost, Treprostinil sodium; Ustekinumab; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Varenicline tartrate, Vildagliptin; Zofenopril calcium. PMID:18193114

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2007-11-01

123

Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception. PMID:24851646

Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Skrgati?, Lana; Radakovi?, Branko; Vrbi?, Hrvoje; Cani?, Tomislav

2014-03-01

124

Vesicles protect activated acetic acid.  

PubMed

Abstract Methyl thioacetate, or activated acetic acid, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life and an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about 3 orders of magnitude faster (K=0.00663 s(-1); 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration=0.33 mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production, making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, our experiments showed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. Further, we found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid vesicles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic vesicles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule, increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. This model of early energy storage evokes an additional critical function for the earliest cell membranes. PMID:25280019

Todd, Zoe R; House, Christopher H

2014-10-01

125

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

126

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2011-04-01

127

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2012-04-01

128

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2010-04-01

129

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2014-04-01

130

21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1881 Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. (a...suspension contains 25 milligrams of prednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsor . See...

2010-04-01

131

Key components of the mode of action for hemangiosarcoma induction in pregabalin-treated mice: evidence of increased bicarbonate, dysregulated erythropoiesis, macrophage activation, and increased angiogenic growth factors in mice but not in rats.  

PubMed

In carcinogenicity studies, pregabalin increased hemangiosarcoma incidence in mice but not in rats. Investigative studies, ranging in length from 24 h to 12 months, were conducted in mice (1000 or 5000 mg/kg) and rats (900 mg/kg) to evaluate a potential mode-of-action scheme for tumor formation. Three areas were evaluated: (1) hematopoiesis (because endothelial and hematopoietic cells arise from the same precursor and hemangiosarcomas are primarily located in mouse hematopoietic tissues), (2) angiogenic growth factors (because increased angiogenic growth factors may stimulate vascular tumors), and (3) pulmonary/blood gas parameters (because hypoxia is a known driver for endothelial cell proliferation). In mice, pregabalin rapidly increased platelet and megakaryocyte counts, activated platelets and bone marrow erythrophages, decreased the myeloid-to-erythroid (M:E) ratio (49%), and produced bone marrow and splenic congestion and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor immunohistochemical staining were also increased in mouse bone marrow and spleen and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 immunolabeling was increased in liver. Serum bicarbonate was increased within 24 h of pregabalin administration, persisted over time, and was accompanied by decreased respiratory rate (up to 34%) and increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)), resulting in sustained metabolic alkalosis and elevated blood pH in mice. In contrast, in rats, pregabalin decreased overall bone marrow cellularity, including decreased number of megakaryocytes (24%) with no evidence of erythrophages, no change in M:E ratio, no EMH, and no increase in angiogenic growth factors or blood pH. Persistent alterations in serum bicarbonate, respiratory function, and blood gas parameters in mice, without adequate compensatory mechanisms, has the potential to create chronic tissue hypoxia, an accepted driver of endothelial cell proliferation. PMID:22539625

Criswell, Kay A; Wojcinski, Zbigniew; Pegg, David; Albassam, Mudher; Duddy, Steven; Olsen, Eric; Bailie, Marc; Foote, Stephen; Anderson, Timothy

2012-07-01

132

Viscosity of Mixtures of ?-Tocopherol Acetate + Mesitylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents results of the share viscosity measurements performed as a function of temperature and concentration for mixtures of ?-tocopherol acetate (vitamine E acetate) and mesitylene, two liquids of essentially different viscosity (four order of magnitude difference at 280 K). The viscosity/ temperature dependence for pure ?-tocopherol acetate as well as for the mixtures studied can be well described with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The viscosities of the mixtures exhibit a strong negative deviation from the rule of additive dependence on concentration and for increasing temperature the maximum value of the deviation shows an exponential decreasing.

Szwajczaka, El?bieta; Stagraczy?ski, Ryszard; Herba, Henryk; ?wiergielb, Jolanta; Jad?yn, Jan

2009-08-01

133

The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.  

PubMed

Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

2012-04-01

134

Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

135

Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid. PMID:25416587

Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

2015-05-01

136

Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

1985-01-01

137

Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

138

A mammalian acetate switch regulates stress erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2? acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo induction during hypoxia. We now show these processes require acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (Acss2). In Hep3B hepatoma cells and in Epo-generating organs of hypoxic or acutely anemic mice, acetate levels increase and Acss2 is required for HIF-2? acetylation, Cbp/HIF-2? complex formation and recruitment to the Epo enhancer, and efficient Epo induction. In acutely anemic mice, acetate supplementation augments stress erythropoiesis in an Acss2-dependent manner. In acquired and genetic chronic anemia mouse models, acetate supplementation also increases Epo expression and resting hematocrits. Thus, a mammalian stress-responsive acetate switch controls HIF-2 signaling and Epo induction during pathophysiological states marked by tissue hypoxia. PMID:25108527

Xu, Min; Nagati, Jason S.; Xie, Jian; Li, Jiwen; Walters, Holly; Moon, Young-Ah; Gerard, Robert D.; Huang, Chou-Long; Comerford, Sarah A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Horton, Jay D.; Chen, Rui; Garcia, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

139

Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pregabalin, gabapentin and vigabatrin in human serum by precolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde and fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and robust method is presented for the simultaneous determination of the gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) derivatives pregabalin (PGB), gabapentin (GBP) and vigabatrin (VGB) in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum is deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid and aliquots of the supernatant are precolumn derivatized with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA) and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Separation is achieved on a Alltima 3C18 column using isocratic elution; the drugs are monitored using fluorescence detection. Norvaline is used as an internal standard. Within-day precision (COV; n = 10) is 1.2% for PGB (serum concentration 10.0 mg/l), 1.1% for GBP (serum concentration 15.8 mg/l) and 0.3% for VGB (serum concentration 15.5 mg/l). The method is linear up to at least 63 mg/l for PGB, 40 mg/l for GBP and 62 mg/l for VGB. Lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) are 0.13 mg/l for PGB, 0.53 mg/l for GBP and 0.06 mg/l for VGB. No interferences were found from commonly coadministered antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and from endogenous amino acids. Experimental design in combination with statistical evaluation (ANOVA) was used to study the robustness of chromatography and sample preparation. The method is very suitable for routine therapeutic drug monitoring and for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:15380728

Vermeij, T A C; Edelbroek, P M

2004-10-25

140

Gateways to clinical trials. March 2003.  

PubMed

Gateways to clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and devlopment protal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV-CF, adalimumab, ademetionine, afeletecan hydrochloride, agomelatine, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, amdoxovir, aplidine, aranose, arsenic sulfide, atazanavir, atlizumab; Bimatoprost, BMS-181176, BMS-188667, bortezomib, bryostatin 1; Combretastatin A-4 phosphate; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, deferasirox, desloratadine, DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib-vaccine, DTI-0009; Eculizumab, edodekin alfa, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, epoetin, esomeprazole magnesium etoricoxib; Fampridine, fenretinide, FR-146687; Galiximab, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, ganirelix acetate, gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gimatecan; HEA125xOKT3, hIL-13-PE38QQR, HSV-2 theracine, Hu14.18-IL-2, human gammaglobulin; Idraparinux sodium, imatinib mesylate, IMiD3, insulin detemir, interleukin-4, irofulven, ISAtx-247; JT-1001; Levetiracetam, levosimendan, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lixivaptan, lopinavir, lumiracoxib; Maxacalcitol, melatonin, midostaurin, MLN-518; Neridronic acid, nesiritide, nitronaproxen; Oblimersen sodium, oregovomab; PEG-filgrastim polyglutamate paclitaxel, prasterone, pregabalin; Rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; SGN-30; T-1249, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipranavir, TMC-114, trabectedin, transdermal selegiline; UK-427857; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil, vatalanib succinate, vincristine sulfate TCS; Zofenopril calcium. PMID:12731460

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-03-01

141

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

142

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-02-17

143

Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

144

Treatment of Pedophilia with Leuprolide Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the literature on the treatment of individuals who have committed sexual offenses has focused primarily on psychotherapeutic interventions and the use of antiandrogens. Recently case reports and small series supporting the efficacy of other psychiatric medication, such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have been published. Only a few publications have looked at the efficacy of leuprolide acetate, an LH-RH

Nancy Raymond; Bean Robinson; Chris Kraft; Barry Rittberg; Eli Coleman

2002-01-01

145

Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C. [Occidental Chemical Corp. Technology Center, Grand Island, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

146

Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445840

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

147

Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22387848

McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

148

Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22421639

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

149

Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

Slack, D. H.

1986-01-01

150

The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

2014-04-01

151

Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

Hocking, M. B.

1980-01-01

152

Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

2010-03-01

153

Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

1992-01-01

154

Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

2011-01-01

155

Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004  

E-print Network

Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004 Original protocol from Katja until the OD600 is around 0.7-0.8 (~7 hours). Spin down the cells. Resuspend in 5 ml lithium acetate mix. Spin. Resuspend in 0.5 ml lithium acetate mix. Transfer to an eppendorf tube. Incubate 60 minutes

Dunham, Maitreya

156

Influence of lead acetate on hypersensitivity. Experimental study.  

PubMed

Recent studies showed that lead acetate has an important immunotoxicity for the phagocytic activity as well as humoral and cell-mediated immunity. We studied the influence of lead acetate on immediate and delayed hypersensitivity. The lead acetate exerts an important action on hypersensitivity reactions whether on rat mast cells degranulation (immediate hypersensitivity) or on contact hypersensitivity. PMID:6470497

Laschi-Loquerie, A; Descotes, J; Tachon, P; Evreux, J C

1984-01-01

157

Assessment Guidelines for Managing Cellulose Acetate Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created this document. It provides assistance in identification of cellulose acetate (vs. other similar materials) and establishes criteria to assess condition, cultural importance, and use within the library or storage context. The document guides readers through the first step in a strategy for preserving these collections.

2001-01-01

158

Leuprolide Acetate Suppresses Pedophilic Urges and Arousability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA)\\u000a for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36–58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months.\\u000a Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile\\u000a Plethysmography, PPG), as

Justine M. Schober; Phyllis J. Kuhn; Paul G. Kovacs; James H. Earle; Peter M. Byrne; Ruth A. Fries

2005-01-01

159

Interconversion studies of betamethasone acetate polymorphs.  

PubMed

The polymorph interconversions of Betamethasone Acetate (BA) were studied under various pharmaceutical conditions, such as grinding, heating and suspending in water, based on differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction. There existed enantiotropic relationships between the three polymorphs of BA, which were named form II, Ialpha, and Ibeta work, respectively. It was concluded that form II was the most stable form when suspended in water. PMID:16221616

Ke, Xue; Ping, QiNeng; Shi, Hua

2005-09-01

160

Corrosion of Stainless Steel During Acetate Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CHâCOOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the

J. S. Qi; G. C. Lester

1996-01-01

161

Ulipristal acetate: the newest emergency contraceptive.  

PubMed

More than 50 percent of pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Emergency contraception has been shown to possibly reduce the risk of pregnancy by as much as 75 percent. Ulipristal acetate is a selective progesterone receptor modulator that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for emergency contraceptive use in August 2010. This article reviews information on its mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and implications for women's health nurses. PMID:22900810

Wilton, Jeanne M

2012-01-01

162

Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. PMID:24457001

Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2014-07-01

163

Determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) and ?-butyrolactone (GBL) in whole blood and urine samples by UPLC-MSMS.  

PubMed

The demand of high throughput methods for the determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) as well as for pregabalin is increasing. Here we present two analytical methods using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection for the determination of GHB, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4BD and GBL in whole blood and urine. Using the 96-well formate, the whole blood method is a simple high-throughput method suitable for screening of large sample amounts. With an easy sample preparation for urine including only dilution and filtration of the sample, the method is suitable for fast screening of urine samples. Both methods showed acceptable linearity, acceptable limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The within-day and between-day precisions of all analytes were lower than 10% RSD. The analytes were extracted from matrices with recoveries near 100%, and no major matrix effects were observed. Both methods have been used as routine screening analyses of whole blood and urine samples since January 2010. PMID:22226469

Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Olsen, Kirsten Midtbøen; Strand, Dag Helge

2012-02-15

164

Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

2015-02-01

165

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131-I-Chlorotoxin, 423557; Abatacept, Ad.Egr.TNF.11D, Adalimumab, AE-941, Ambrisentan, AMR-001, Anacetrapib, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate; BAY-639044, Bazedoxifene acetate, Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Botulinum toxin type B, Brivaracetam, Bucindolol hydrochloride; Carfilzomib, Carisbamate, CCX-282, CD20Bi, Ceftobiprole, Certolizumab pegol, CF-101, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Cypher; Darifenacin hydrobromide, Degarelix acetate, Denosumab, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dexlansoprazole, Dexverapamil, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Efalizumab, EPs-7630, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib; Fluticasone furoate, Fondaparinux sodium, Fospropofol disodium; Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir, HIV gp120/NefTat/AS02A, HPV-6/11/16/18; INCB-18424, Incyclinide, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin detemir; KNS-760704, KW-0761; Lacosamide, Lenalidomide, Levetiracetam, Licofelone, Lidocaine/prilocaine; mAb 216, MEDI-528, Men ACWY, Meningococcal C-CRM197 vaccine, Methylnaltrexone bromide; Nemifitide ditriflutate, Nicotine conjugate vaccine, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Octaparin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), Pegaptanib octasodium, Pitrakinra, Prasterone, Pregabalin; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Rasagiline mesilate, Retigabine, Rimonabant, RTS,S/AS02D; Sarcosine, Sitaxentan sodium, Solifenacin succinate, Sunitinib malate; Taranabant, Taxus, Teduglutide, Teriparatide, Ticagrelor, Travoprost, TRU-015; USlipristal acetate, Urocortin 2; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; YM-155, Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zanolimumab, Zoledronic acid monohydrate, Zotarolimus, Zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:18560631

Moral, M A; Tomillero, A

2008-03-01

166

Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2011-01-01

167

Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

2007-01-01

168

[Ulipristal acetate, 5mg: a new alternative].  

PubMed

Fibroids have a high prevalence (approaching 50%) in the female population. Although they are a benign entity, they represent a health problem of considerable magnitude, causing hemorrhaging, pain and sterility. Surgical treatment is currently safe and effective, but in recent decades numerous less invasive alternatives have appeared, such as uterine artery embolization and thermal ablation (HIFU and radiofrequency). New possibilities for medical treatment have also emerged, such as GnRh analogues, aromatase inhibitors and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). SPRMs act through progesterone receptors and behave as agonists or antagonists in various target organs. Among them, ulipristal acetate (UA) inhibits the proliferation and induction of apoptosis and cell death pathways in leiomyoma cells, translating at the clinical level to smaller fibroids and lower uterine volumes, with no significant side effects. UA also produces amenorrhea in most patients. Randomized, phase III (PEARL I and II) clinical trials have shown the efficacy and security of UA versus placebo and leuprolide acetate (LA). UA is similar to LA, and superior to placebo in controlling bleeding and decreasing the size of the fibroid, with fewer side effects than LA. The safety and tolerance of UA have been satisfactory. UA is a reality in the preoperative treatment of fibroids, with broad potential for further development. PMID:24314567

Monleón Sancho, Javier; Romaguera, Eugenia; Romero, Ainhoa; Higueras, Gema; Morcillo, Inmaculada; Fuster, Sonia

2013-07-01

169

Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.  

PubMed

Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. PMID:23862653

Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

2014-02-01

170

Acetate absorption and metabolism in the rabbit hindgut.  

PubMed Central

Acetate disappearance from the loops of the hindgut in the rabbit was evaluated by measuring variations in the concentration of acetate in caecocolonic loops and differences in the arterial and venous plasma. In vivo metabolism in gut and liver tissues was studied after introduction of (1-14C) acetate into caecocolonic loops. The rate of disappearance from the loops was quantitatively significant and showed little variation irrespective of the location in the hindgut. Hindgut tissue metabolised acetate and the intensity of the metabolism varied with the segment studied. The distal position of the gut showed by far the highest acetate uptake. Radioactivity was found in a certain number of free amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. Acetate was mainly converted into aspartate and glutamate. These can be considered as 'stock forms' which can be diverted either towards oxidative metabolism or towards protein synthesis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4007603

Marty, J F; Vernay, M Y; Abravanel, G M

1985-01-01

171

Mesophilic syntrophic acetate oxidation during methane formation in biogas reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction pathway for the formation of methane from acetate was investigated in sludge from 13 different biogas reactors. By following the conversion of [2-14C]acetate and [14C]bicarbonate it was shown that methane formation by syntrophic acetate oxidation was the dominating mechanism for acetotrophic methanogenesis in sludge containing high levels of salts, mainly ammonium, and volatile fatty acids. In one biogas

Anna Schnürer; Gerhard Zellner; Bo H. Svensson

1999-01-01

172

Solution behavior and surface properties of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution behavior of carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) in acetone and ethyl acetate has been investigated by\\u000a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and capillary viscometry and correlated with the characteristics of CMCAB films. Viscosity\\u000a and SAXS measurements showed that ethyl acetate is a better solvent than acetone for CMCAB. Thin films of CMCAB were deposited\\u000a onto silicon wafers (Si\\/SiO2) by spin coating.

Jorge Amim Jr; Denise F. S. Petri; Francisco C. B. Maia; Paulo B. Miranda

2009-01-01

173

Downstream processing of acetate fermentation broths by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate can be separated from fermentation broths and partially purified by nanofiltration (NF). Membrane performance was\\u000a a function of pressure, pH, concentration of acetate, temperature, and the presence of other media components. With Nitto-Denko’s\\u000a NTR729 membrane, average acetate rejection was 60%, glucose rejection was 99%, and flux was 15 L\\/m2\\/h at 200 psig, 30°C, pH 5.6, and 20 g\\/L acetic

In Soo Han; Munir Cheryan

1996-01-01

174

Ulipristal acetate: a new emergency contraceptive.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies. PMID:22114852

Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N

2011-07-01

175

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

176

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01

177

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1999-04-06

178

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Activated protein C concentrate, Ad-CD154, Adeno-Interferon gamma, alemtuzumab, APC-8024, 9-aminocamptothecin, aprepitant, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arsenic trioxide, asimadoline; O6-Benzylguanine, bevacizumab, Bi-20, binodenoson, biphasic insulin aspart, bivatuzumab, 186Re-bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, bryostatin 1; Carboxy- amidotriazole, caspofungin acetate, CB-1954, CC-4047, CDP-860, cerivastatin sodium, clevidipine, CTL-102; 3,4-DAP, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, desloratadine, DHA-paclitaxel, duloxetine hydrochloride; Efalizumab, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, eniluracil, ENMD-0997, eplerenone, eplivanserin, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, FR-901228, FTY-720; Gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gepirone hydrochloride; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, iodine (I131) tositumomab, ISV-205, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, linezolid, liposomal NDDP, lonafarnib, lopinavir, LY-156735; Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt, magnesium sulfate, maxacalcitol, meclinertant, melagatran, melatonin, MENT, mepolizumab, micafungin sodium, midostaurin, motexafin gadolinium; Nesiritide, NS-1209, NSC-601316, NSC-683864; Osanetant; Palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegylated OB protein, pemetrexed disodium, perillyl alcohol, picoplatin, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plevitrexed, polyglutamate paclitaxel, posurdex, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, rostaporfin, rosuvastatin calcium; SDZ-SID-791, sibrotuzumab, sorafenib, SU-11248; Tadalafil, targinine, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, TheraCIM, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Ximelagatran; Zofenopril calcium, Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15071612

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-03-01

179

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abetimus sodium, adefovir dipivoxil, AGI-1067, alefacept, alemtuzumab, ALVAC-p53, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anti-CTLA-4 Mab, AOD-9604, apafant, aprinocarsen sodium, arsenic trioxide; Balaglitazone, BIM-23190, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; Canertinib dihydrochloride, CDP-850, cevimeline hydrochloride, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clenoliximab, clevudine, CN-787; D-003, darusentan, deferasirox, desloratadine dexanabinol, duloxetine hydrochloride; E-5564, edaravone, efaproxiral sodium, elvucitabine emfilermin, EN-101, enfuvirtide, entecavir, epithalon, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, etilefrine pivalate hydrochloride etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide; Fidarestat, fondaparinux sodium; Ganstigmine hydrochloride; Homoharringtonine, HuMax-IL-15, hyperimmune IVIG; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-1C11, Inhaled insulin, irofulven, iseganan hydrochloride, ISIS-14803, ISIS-5132, ivabradine hydrochloride; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lafutidine, lanthanum carbonate, LAS-34475, levocetirizine, liraglutide, LY-307161 SR; Magnesium sulfate, maribavir, melatonin, mycobacterium cell wall complex; NN-414, NO-aspirin, nociceptin, nolomirole hydrochloride; Olmesartan medoxomil oral insulin, ospemifene; PDX, perillyl alcohol, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PRO-542, PV-701, pyrazoloacridine; R-744, ranelic acid distrontium salt, rasburicase, rDNA insulin, resiniferatoxin, reslizumab, ridogrel, riplizumab ropivacaine, rosuvastatin calcium, roxifiban acetate, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate; Satraplatin, Sch-58500, semaxanib, sitaxsentan sodium, SMP-114, SU-6668; Teriparatide, tetrathiomolybdate, tipifarnib, tolvaptan, travoprost, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vatalanib succinate; Ximelagatran; Z-335, ziprasidone hydrochloride, zoledronic acid monohydrate, ZYC-00101. PMID:14571286

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-09-01

180

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com/. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Adalimumab, adenosine triphosphate, alemtuzumab, alendronate sodium/cholecalciferol, aliskiren fumarate, AMGN-0007, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bosentan; Calcipotriol/beta methasone dipropionate, caldaret hydrate, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, cocaine-BSA conjugate, conivaptan hydrochloride, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, delmitide, desloratadine, desmoteplase, desoxyepothilone B, disufenton sodium, DU-176b, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; EBV-specific CTLs, ecogramostim, edodekin alfa, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, entecavir, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, etoricoxib, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fanapanel, fondaparinux sodium; Gefitinib, GTI-2040, GW-501516; Her2 E75-peptide vaccine, human insulin; Ibogaine, icatibant acetate, Id-KLH vaccine, imatinib mesylate, immune globulin subcutaneous [human], indacaterol, inolimomab, ipilimumab, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, lanthanum carbonate, lenalidomide, levocetirizine, levodopa methyl ester hydrochloride/carbidopa, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine; Maraviroc, mecasermin, melevodopa hydrochloride, mepolizumab, mitumomab; Nesiritide; Omalizumab, oral insulin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), patupilone, pegaptanib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, pemetrexed disodium, photochlor, pimecrolimus, posaconazole, prasterone, prasugrel, pregabalin, prilocaine, PRX-00023; QS-21; Ranibizumab, ranirestat, rhodamine 123, rotigaptide; Sarcosine, sirolimus-eluting stent, sitaxsentan sodium, solifenacin succinate, Staphylococcus aureus vaccine; Tadalafil, talactoferrin alfa, talaporfin sodium, Taxus, tecadenoson, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, terutroban sodium, tesaglitazar, tesmilifene hydrochloride, TG-100115, tigecycline, torcetrapib; Ularitide; Valproic acid, sodium, voriconazole; Zotarolimus, zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:16801985

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2006-05-01

181

Subcutaneous Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate versus Leuprolide Acetate in the Treatment of Endometriosis-Associated Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A clinical study compared efficacy and safety of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) with leuprolide for endometriosis-associated pain. METHODS: This multicentre, 18 month, evaluator-blinded, comparator- controlled trial randomized 300 women with laparoscopically diagnosed endometriosis to 6 month treatment with subcutaneous injection of 104 mg\\/0.65 ml DMPA (DMPA-SC 104) every 3 months or leuprolide (3.75 mg monthly or 11.25 mg every

P. G. Crosignani; A. Luciano; A. Ray; A. Bergqvist

2006-01-01

182

Modification of textile acetate yarn with polyethylene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small proportions of polyethylene oxides are known to exert a modifying effect on acetate fibre when added to the common solvent. In the case of textile yarn the effect is optimum (improved fatigue strength) when the polymer solution contains I 2% polyethylene oxide (PEO) of a molecular weight of 4000 - 5000 \\/I\\/. Several batches of modified textile acetate yarn

M. Sh. Tairov; M. V. Polovnikova; D. I. Kalandarov; P. I. Baboshkin; Z. Z. Gulombaev; A. A. Saidov

1975-01-01

183

Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

Polichnowski, S. W.

1986-01-01

184

Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in “traditional balsamic vinegar”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with

Maria Gullo; Cinzia Caggia; Luciana De Vero; Paolo Giudici

2006-01-01

185

Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Itaconic Acid and Enol Acetate Derivatives with  

E-print Network

. A variety of chiral 2-substituted succinic acids and chiral acetates have been obtained in excellent ee)- acrylates.3b Herein we report the applications of TangPhos in asymmetric hydrogenation of itaconic acid of acyclic enol acetates bearing aromatic substituents. Chiral 2-substituted succinic acids have attracted

Zhang, Xumu

186

Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances  

E-print Network

Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances in Drosophila melanogaster: similar maternal) Summary - Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances were studied in a cross between 2 geo- graphic races disappeared in the F2. Further investigations demonstrated that for ethanol tolerance, the large difference

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Gas-phase properties and reactivity of the acetate radical anion. Determination of the CH bond strengths in acetic acid and acetate ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetate radical anion, CH[sub 2]CO[sub 2] [sup [center dot]-], has been generated in the gas phase at room temperature and its thermochemical properties and reactivity have been examined with use of a flowing afterglow-triple quadrupole instrument. This ion is formed in high yield from the reaction between F[sub 2] and the enolate ions of either acetic acid or trimethylsilyl

Paul G. Wenthold; Robert R. Squires

1994-01-01

188

The utilisation of glucose\\/acetate mixtures by Escherichia coli W3110 under aerobic growth conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Byproduct acetate is of major concern when considering the growth of Escherichia coli on glucose. Besides the fact that acetate production detracts from the overall yield, acetate itself is also a growth inhibitor. To further complicate matters, E. coli is capable of growth on acetate via the glyoxylate bypass. In an effort to evaluate the influence of acetate on the

D. O'Beirne; G. Hamer

2000-01-01

189

Diffusion of benzocaine in poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) membranes: Effects of vehicle ethanol concentration and membrane vinyl acetate content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vehicle ethanol concentration and membrane vinyl acetate (VA) content on the diffusion properties of poly (ethylene-vinyl acetate) (EVA) membranes was studied. The maximum flux of a model drug, benzocaine, through EVA membranes increases with increasing ethanol concentration and membrane VA content. The flux enhancement is attributed to the increases of both benzocaine membrane solubility and diffusivity. For

Shirlynn X. Chen; Richard T. Lostritto

1996-01-01

190

The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses  

PubMed Central

Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate) has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA) administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1) 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial); or 2) a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial). Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse. PMID:18096070

Waller, Amanda; Lindinger, Michael I

2007-01-01

191

Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

Todd, Zoe; House, C.

2014-01-01

192

Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.  

PubMed

Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

2010-09-01

193

Eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093).  

PubMed

Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) [(S)-(--)-10-acetoxy-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide], formerly known as BIA 2-093, is a novel central nervous system (CNS)-active compound with anticonvulsant activity. It behaves as a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker and is currently under clinical development for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ESL shares with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11-position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11 epoxide. In pharmacokinetic studies in humans, ESL was rapidly and extensively metabolized to eslicarbazepine (S-licarbazepine), which is responsible for pharmacological activity. ESL has been tested in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures and was found to be efficacious and well tolerated. Monotherapy studies in adult epileptic patients and add-on studies in epileptic children are in the planning process. The efficacy and safety data appear to be very promising considering the refractory nature of the epileptic population enrolled in studies to date. Results of ongoing phase III studies in adult epileptic patients are expected to be available in 2007 and are required to define the position of ESL in the therapy of patients with epilepsy. PMID:17199020

Almeida, Luis; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

2007-01-01

194

Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate  

PubMed Central

Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC) provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA) has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the ‘window of effect’ for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment. PMID:21072297

Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Meng, Chun-Xia

2010-01-01

195

Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate.  

PubMed

Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC) provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA) has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the 'window of effect' for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment. PMID:21072297

Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Meng, Chun-Xia

2010-01-01

196

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride... § 524.1484f Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride...neomycin base, 2.5 milligrams of prednisolone acetate, and 5 milligrams of...

2010-04-01

197

21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin...

2010-04-01

198

Alignment of micro-crystals of Mn12-acetate and direct observation of single molecules thereof  

E-print Network

This dissertation focuses on three separate studies. First, magnetization of the Mn12- acetate was studied by low temperature hysteresis loops and DC magnetization data on magnetically aligned Mn12-acetate micro-crystals. Secondly, Mn12-acetate thin...

Seo, Dongmin

2009-05-15

199

Crystal structure of a mixed solvated form of amoxapine acetate  

PubMed Central

The mixed solvated salt 4-(2-chloro­dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxazepin-11-yl)piperazin-1-ium acetate–acetic acid–cyclo­hexane (2/2/1), C17H17ClN3O+·C2H3O2 ?·C2H4O2·0.5C6H12, crystallizes with one mol­ecule of protonated amoxapine (AXPN), an acetate anion and a mol­ecule of acetic acid together with half a mol­ecule of cyclo­hexane. In the centrosymmetric crystal, both enanti­omers of the protonated AXPN mol­ecule stack alternatively along [001]. Acetate anions connect the AXPN cations through N—H?O hydrogen bonding in the [010] direction, creating a sheet lying parallel to (100). The acetic acid mol­ecules are linked to the acetate anions via O—H?O hydrogen bonds within the sheets. Within the sheets there are also a number of C—H?O hydrogen bonds present. The cyclo­hexane solvent mol­ecules occupy the space between the sheets.

Bhardwaj, Rajni M.; Raval, Vishal; Oswald, Iain D. H.; Florence, Alastair J.

2015-01-01

200

Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers  

PubMed Central

When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking. Seven heavy drinkers, who regularly consumed at least 8 drinks per week and at least 4 drinks per day at least once per week, and 7 light drinkers, who consumed fewer than 2 drinks per week were recruited. The subjects were administered [2-13C]acetate for 2 hours and scanned throughout that time with magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to observe natural 13C abundance of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the appearance of 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, and acetate. Heavy drinkers had approximately 2-fold more brain acetate relative to blood and twice as much labeled glutamate and glutamine. The results show that acetate transport and oxidation are faster in heavy drinkers compared with that in light drinkers. Our finding suggests that a new therapeutic approach to supply acetate during alcohol detoxification may be beneficial. PMID:23478412

Jiang, Lihong; Gulanski, Barbara Irene; De Feyter, Henk M.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Pittman, Brian; Guidone, Elizabeth; Koretski, Julia; Harman, Susan; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Krystal, John H.; Mason, Graeme F.

2013-01-01

201

The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

1996-01-01

202

SAGA Complex Components and Acetate Repression in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism. PMID:23173087

Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A.; Kelly, Joan M.

2012-01-01

203

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

1992-01-01

204

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22

205

Selective Cross-Coupling of Organic Halides with Allylic Acetates  

PubMed Central

A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L.; Prinsell, Michael R.

2012-01-01

206

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP. PMID:14617380

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

2003-01-01

207

Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide  

PubMed Central

The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

2013-01-01

208

Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

209

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

210

Original article Effect of indole-3-acetic acid (plant auxin)  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of indole-3-acetic acid (plant auxin) on the preservation at 15 °C of boar; Effet de l'auxine végétale, l'acide 3-indole-acétique, sur la conservation du sperme de verrat pourl

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Electronic interactions between gold films and mn12-acetate  

E-print Network

Interactions between Mn12–acetate molecular magnets and thin gold films have been explored in light of the theory of weak localization. Low-temperature measurements of the magnetoresistance of gold films of varying thicknesses, with and without...

Means, Joel Lewis

2009-05-15

212

Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

2015-04-01

213

A PROGESTOGEN (CHLORMADINONE ACETATE = CAP) FOR CYCLE CONTROL AND INFERTILITY  

E-print Network

A PROGESTOGEN (CHLORMADINONE ACETATE = CAP) FOR CYCLE CONTROL AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT IN THE MARE, CAP has been used for infertility treatments and cycle control in mares in Austria. In all indications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

2014-10-21

215

Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates\\u000a for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate ? nitrate ? hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of\\u000a the donation of electron density by the

Winnie Chien; Victor Anbalagan; Melvin Zandler; Michael Van Stipdonk; Dorothy Hanna; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold

2004-01-01

216

PREPARATION OF WATER-SOLUBLE AND WATER-SWELLABLE STARCH ACETATES USING MICROWAVE HEATING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch acetates of degree of substitution 0.1-1.5 were prepared by heating corn starch, acetic acid and acetic anhydride in sealed, stirred, Teflon vessels in a microwave reactor. Reaction efficiencies were typically >90% at reaction temperatures of 150-160 deg C for 4-7 minutes. Starch acetates w...

217

Ulipristal acetate: a review of its use in emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate (ellaOne®; ella®) is the first of a new class of selective progesterone receptor modulators, and is indicated for emergency contraception within 120 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. The principal effect of ulipristal acetate is to inhibit or delay ovulation. This effect may result from the drug's ability to delay the onset of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge or postpone LH peak if LH surge has started, or possibly by a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture, when administered in the follicular phase (including just before ovulation). In clinical trials, a single oral dose of ulipristal acetate 30?mg was effective in preventing pregnancies in women requesting emergency contraception after unprotected sexual intercourse and provided sustained efficacy throughout the 120-hour postcoital period in which it is indicated. When compared with levonorgestrel in well designed noninferiority trials, it was no less effective in preventing pregnancies when administered within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, but was more effective when administered later (within 72-120 hours). Results of a meta-analysis suggest that ulipristal acetate may be more effective than levonorgestrel from day 1 and throughout the entire 5-day period following unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate is generally well tolerated, with a similar tolerability profile to that of levonorgestrel. In general, the onset of menses is delayed by 2-3 days following treatment. Although, ulipristal acetate is more expensive than levonorgestrel, it may represent a cost-effective alternative to levonorgestrel for women requesting emergency contraception within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse. Thus, ulipristal acetate provides effective, sustained and well tolerated emergency contraception when taken within 120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse, thereby offering an extended treatment window compared with levonorgestrel, which should be administered within 72 hours. PMID:21568368

McKeage, Kate; Croxtall, Jamie D

2011-05-01

218

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs:(R)-Flurbiprofen, 90Yttrium-DOTA-huJ591; ABT-510, ACP-103, Ad5-FGF4, adalimumab, ademetionine, AG-7352, alemtuzumab, Amb a 1 ISS-DNA, anakinra, apaziquone, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atazanavir sulfate; BAL-8557, bevacizumab, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, brivudine; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, catumaxomab, CERE-120, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cilomilast, cizolirtine citrate, Cypher, cystemustine; Dalbavancin, darifenacin hydrobromide, dasatinib, deferasirox, denosumab, desmoteplase, dihydrexidine, dimethyl fumarate, dutasteride, DW-166HC; Eculizumab, enfuvirtide, entecavir, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, everolimus; Fallypride, febuxostat, fenretinide, fesoterodine, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gabapentin enacarbil, gefitinib; hMaxi-K, human papillomavirus vaccine, HYAL-CT1101; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, inolimomab, ISAtx-247; J591; Lacosamide, landiolol, lasofoxifene tartrate, lestaurtinib, lidocaine/prilocaine, linezolid, lixivaptan, lonafarnib, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib; Natalizumab, nesiritide; OC-108, omalizumab, onercept, OSC; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PD-MAGE-3 vaccine, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegsunercept, pelitinib, pitavastatin calcium, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, prasterone sulfate, pregabalin; Ramelteon, ranelic acid distrontium salt, rasburicase, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine, RSD-1235, rufinamide, rupatadine fumarate; Sarizotan hydrochloride, SHL-749, sirolimus-eluting stent, solifenacin succinate, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, talampanel, tasidotin hydrochloride, Taxus, tegaserod maleate, telavancin hydrochloride, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tiotropium bromide, tocilizumab, tositumomab, treprostinil sodium, tridolgosir hydrochloride, TTS-CD3; Ularitide; Valdecoxib, Val-Tyr sardine peptidase, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, voriconazole; Yttrium (90Y) edotreotide, Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zileuton, zucapsaicin. PMID:16894408

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2006-01-01

219

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, 3-AP, AP-12009, APC-8015, L-Arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arundic acid, avasimibe; Bevacizumab, bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, BMS-184476, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, BRL-55730, bryostatin 1; CEP-1347, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CP-461, CpG-7909; D-003, dabuzalgron hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DHA-paclitaxel, diflomotecan, DN-101, DP-b99, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, duramycin; Eculizumab, Efalizumab, EKB-569, elcometrine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, ezetimibe; Fenretinide, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; GD2L-KLH conjugate vaccine, gefitinib, glufosfamide, GTI-2040; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, hydroquinone, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium; IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; KRN-5500; LY-544344; MDX-210, melatonin, mepolizumab, motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, NSC-330507, NSC-683864; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, ortataxel; Pagoclone, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, plevitrexed, polyphenon E, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PX-12; QS-21; Ragaglitazar, ranelic acid distrontium salt, RDP-58, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, repinotan hydrochloride, rhEndostatin, rh-Lactoferrin, (R)-roscovitine; S-8184, semaxanib, sitafloxacin hydrate, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, synthadotin; Tadalafil, tesmilifene hydrochloride, theratope, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, topixantrone hydrochloride, trabectedin, traxoprodil, Tri-Luma; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vinflunine; Ximelagatran; Ziconotide. PMID:15148527

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-04-01

220

Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol-1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (˜330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol-1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol-1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm-1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm-1, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N2 matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO2 and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I.; Fausto, R.

2014-02-01

221

Development, validation and comparison of two microextraction techniques for the rapid and sensitive determination of pregabalin in urine and pharmaceutical formulations after ethyl chloroformate derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

The present article reports first time the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to extract pregabalin (PRG) from urine and pharmaceutical formulations followed by GC-MS analysis after ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization. PRG is an antiepileptic and analgesic drug, which is a structural analogue of ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA). It is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and neuropathic pain. Initially PRG was derivatized with ECF in the presence of pyridine at room temperature for 30s. Experimental parameters were investigated for derivatization, SPME and DLLME conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.019 ?g/ml and 0.063 ?g/ml for SPME and 0.022 ?g/ml and 0.075 ?g/ml for DLLME respectively. The percentage recovery, in case of SPME was in the range of 83-98% while for DLLME it is in the range of 84-98%. The intra and inter-day precisions were found to be less than 6%. The developed methods after ECF derivatization were found to be simple, fast, efficient and inexpensive. DLLME has several advantages like lesser extraction time and cost effectiveness as compared to SPME. The developed methods may find wide application for the routine determination of PRG in biological as well as in quality control samples of pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22677651

Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Fatima, Ghizal; Malhotra, Ekta; Murthy, R C

2012-11-01

222

Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses  

PubMed Central

Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people allocated zuclopenthixol did not seem to be at more risk of a range of movement disorders (< 20%). Three studies found no difference in the proportion of people getting blurred vision/dry mouth (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70). Similarly, dizziness was equally infrequent for those allocated zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 1.15, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.88). There was no difference between treatments for leaving the study before completion (n = 522, RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.31). One study reported no difference in adverse effects and outcome scores, when high dose (50-100 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate was compared with low dose (25-50 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate. Authors’ conclusions Recommendations on the use of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of psychiatric emergencies in preference to ‘standard’ treatment have to be viewed with caution. Most of the small trials present important methodological flaws and findings are poorly reported. This review did not find any suggestion that zuclopenthixol acetate is more or less effective in controlling aggressive acute psychosis, or in preventing adverse effects than intramuscular haloperidol, and neither seemed to have a rapid onset of action. Use of zuclopenthixol acetate may result in less numerous coercive injections and low doses of the drug may be as effective as higher doses. Well-conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trials are needed. PMID:22513898

Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

2014-01-01

223

Catalytic oxidation of butyl acetate over silver-loaded zeolites.  

PubMed

The performance of silver-loaded zeolite (HY and HZSM-5) catalysts in the oxidation of butyl acetate as a model volatile organic compound (VOC) was studied. The objective was to find a catalyst with superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a packed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV)=15,000-32,000 h(-1), reaction temperature between 150 and 500 degrees C and butyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000-4000 ppm. Both AgY and AgZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of butyl acetate. Despite lower silver content, AgY showed better activity, attributed to better metal dispersion, surface characteristics and acidity, and its pore system. Total conversion of butyl acetate was achieved at above 400 degrees C. The oxidation of butyl acetate followed a simple power law model. The reaction orders, n and m were evaluated under differential mode by varying the VOC partial pressure between 0.004 and 0.018 atm and partial pressure of oxygen between 0.05 and 0.20 atm. The reaction rate was independent of oxygen concentration and single order with respect to VOC concentration. The activation energies were 19.78 kJ/mol for AgY and 32.26 kJ/mol for AgZSM-5, respectively. PMID:18294771

Wong, Cheng Teng; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Bhatia, Subhash

2008-09-15

224

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

Zinder, S.

1991-12-31

225

(Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

Zinder, S.

1991-01-01

226

The Metabolism of Acetate by the Blue-green Algae, Anabaena variabilis and Anacystis nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The utilization of acetate by blue-green algae was examined and the activities of enzymes involved in its metabolism measured. Although acetate did not stimulate the endogenous respiration of these organisms, the oxida- tion of acetate was followed by the rate of release of (14C) carbon dioxide from (I-~~CC) and (2-l4CC) sodium acetate. Similarly, sodium acetate did not alter the

J. Pearce; N. G. Carr

1967-01-01

227

Improvement of productivity in acetic acid fermentation with Clostridium thermoaceticum  

SciTech Connect

Production of acetic acid by a mutant strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum was compared in three types of membrane cell-recycle bioreactors. A modified fed-batch bioreactor (where the product is partially removed at the end of fermentation, but the cells are retained), and a two-stage CSTR (with product being removed continuously and the cells being recycled from the second to the first stage) resulted in better performance than a one-stage CSTR or batch fermenter. The difference in performance was greater at higher acetate concentration. With 45 g/L of glucose in the feed, productivity was 0.75-1.12 g/L-h and acetic acid concentrations were 34-38 g/L. This is more than double the batch system. The nutrient supply rate also appeared to have a strong influence on productivity of the microorganism.

Shah, M.M.; Cheryan, M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

228

Photoionization of small sodium-doped acetic acid clusters.  

PubMed

The uptake of sodium and the fragmentation before and after "soft" photoionization with ultraviolet light are investigated for small acetic acid clusters. The acetic acid clusters are generated in a supersonic expansion and ionized with ultraviolet light after doping with sodium in a pick-up chamber. The composition of the bare acetic acid clusters in the molecular beam is determined independently from complementary photoionization experiments using extreme ultraviolet light. The experimental results are analyzed with the help of density functional calculations for energetics and statistical adiabatic channel calculations for fragmentation kinetics. The study demonstrates that the detected ions originate from fragmentation in the neutral as well as in the ionic state, and in particular that the fragmentation pathway strongly depends on the cluster size. PMID:21384976

Forysinski, Piotr W; Zielke, Philipp; Luckhaus, David; Corbett, Jennifer; Signorell, Ruth

2011-03-01

229

Functionalization of cellulose acetate fibers with engineered cutinases.  

PubMed

In the present work, we describe for the first time the specific role of cutinase on surface modification of cellulose acetate fibers. Cutinase exhibits acetyl esterase activity on diacetate and triacetate of 0.010 U and 0.007 U, respectively. An increase on the hydroxyl groups at the fiber surface of 25% for diacetate and 317% for triacetate, after a 24 h treatment, is estimated by an indirect assay. Aiming at further improvement of cutinase affinity toward cellulose acetate, chimeric cutinases are genetically engineered by fusing the 3'-end coding sequence with a bacterial or a fungal carbohydrate-binding module and varying the linker DNA sequence. A comparative analysis of these genetic constructions is presented showing that, the superficial regeneration of cellulose hydrophilicity and reactivity on highly substituted cellulose acetates is achieved by chimeric cutinases. PMID:20014432

Matamá, Teresa; Araújo, Rita; Gübitz, Georg M; Casal, Margarida; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

2010-01-01

230

Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.  

PubMed

Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:10456753

Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

1999-08-01

231

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-01-01

232

Delineation of LASIK Flaps with Prednisolone Acetate Eyedrops  

PubMed Central

We describe the use and safety of prednisolone acetate eyedrops at the end of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to aid proper positioning of the corneal flap. The LASIK flap is created using the preferred technique. Following laser ablation and flap repositioning, one drop of prednisolone acetate is instilled on the eye. This delineates the flap “gutters” and allows perfect flap positioning and centration. We used this technique in 425 eyes undergoing LASIK for correction of spherocylindrical refractive errors. Flap margins were adequately delineated intraoperatively. The only complication related to the use of the steroid suspension was crystal deposition under the flap in one case which resolved completely in 48 hours. PMID:24982743

Fahd, Daoud C; Fahed, Sharbel D

2014-01-01

233

Investigation of Pyrolyses of Benzyl Benzoate, Acetate and Formate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of benzyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, and benzyl formate has been studied by means of ``toluene carrier gas'' technique. It has been shown that benzyl-benzoate decomposes according to the equation Ph·CH2·O·CO·Ph?Ph·CH2·+Ph·COO. The Ph·CH2&sngbnd;O·CO·Ph bond dissociation energies have been estimated as less than 69 kcal\\/mole. Decompositions of benzyl acetate and of benzyl formate are more complicated; the dissociation into radicals

M. Szwarc; J. Watson Taylor

1953-01-01

234

[Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].  

PubMed

We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale (NRS) to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method (p < 0.001). Further, ice application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain. PMID:24105059

Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

2013-10-01

235

Synthesis of radiolabeled acetyl-coenzyme A from sodium acetate  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of high specific radioactivity (/sup 14/C)-acetyl-Coenzyme A from (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole, and CoA is reported. Starting with 1 mumol of (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, this method yields pure (/sup 14/C)acetyl-CoA in yields approaching 40%. Chromatography on a reversed-phase ODS column was used to separate acetyl-CoA from Coenzyme A and side products. The acetylating agent is apparently a reaction intermediate, acetylimidazole.

Clough, R.C.; Barnum, S.R.; Jaworski, J.G.

1989-01-01

236

First synthesis and characterization for the stereoisomers of Ulipristal acetate.  

PubMed

The three stereoisomers, 11?,17?-isomer I, 11?,17?-isomer II and 11?,17?-isomer III are related substances of the selective progesterone receptor modulator Ulipristal acetate. Herein, we presented an efficient and practical synthesis approach to deliver these three stereoisomers for the first time, and also confirmed the structure of the key intermediate 5a by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Our research will be of immense help for organic chemists to study the impurity profile of Ulipristal acetate. PMID:25554579

Zhao, Yi; Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Hong; Yu, Yongguo; Hai, Li; Guo, Li; Wu, Yong

2015-03-01

237

Kanokonyl acetate-rich Indian valerian from northwestern Himalaya.  

PubMed

The volatile composition of rhizomes of Valeriana wallichii DC has been studied by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Sesquiterpenes were shown to be the main constituents (> 89.3%) comprising kanokonyl acetate (42.4%), gamma-curcumene (10.7%), ar-curcumene (7.2%), (Z)-beta-farnesene (3.2%), xanthorrhizol (4.1%), 7-epi-alpha-selinene (2.2%), valeranone (2.0%) and curcuphenol (1.4%). The unique presence of kanokonyl acetate and the complete absence of the earlier reported chemotype marker constituents of Indian valerian viz. maaliol and patchouli alcohol makes the composition significant. PMID:19831039

Mathela, Chandra S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chanotiya, Chandan S

2009-09-01

238

Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

1989-06-01

239

Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and geraniol-8-carboxylic acid. Resting cell suspensions previously grown with linalyl acetate oxidized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and pyruvic acid. The crude cell-free extract (10,000 g of supernatant), obtained from the sonicate of linalyl acetate-grown cells, was shown to contain enzyme systems responsible for the formation of linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid and linalool-8-carboxylic acid from linalyl acetate. The same supernatant contained NAD-linked alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the formation of linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde and linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, respectively. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, resting cell experiments, growth and manometric studies carried out with the isolated metabolites as well as related synthetic analogs, and the preliminary enzymatic studies performed with the cell-free extract, a probable pathway for the microbial degradation of linalyl acetate with the acetoxy group intact is suggested. PMID:16346182

Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K. Madhava

1983-01-01

240

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING CELLULOSE ACETATE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method of preparation of commercially useful product, cellulose acetate from discarded byproducts such as rice-straw, wheat hull and corn fiber will be discussed. This work will provide potential new markets and applications for low-value agricultural wastes and co-products. By converting the ce...

241

Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

242

Kinetics of acetic acid oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Acetic acid was oxidized in supercritical water in batch microreactors at temperatures between 380 and 440[degrees]C. The acetic acid concentrations ranged from 1.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] to 5.2 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] M, the oxygen concentrations ranged from 5.7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to 7.1 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] M, and the water density ranged from 6.7 to 25 M. Oxygen was always present in at least 3.5 times the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation. Analysis of the kinetics data showed that the global oxidation rate law was first order in acetic acid, 0.6 order in oxygen, and second order in water. The global rate constant has a pre-exponential factor of 10[sup 19.8] M[sup [minus]26] S[sup [minus]1] and an activation energy of 73.6 kcal/mol. This rate law also satisfactorily describes other sets of experimental data in the literature for the oxidation of acetic acid in supercritical water. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Savage, P.E.; Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1995-01-01

243

THERMOREGULATION IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several reports in the literature suggest a relationship between lead intoxication and thermoregulatory capacity. To investigate the effects of lead on the control of body temperature, mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (0 to 100 mg/kg) wh...

244

Separation of acetic acid from xylose by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulose has drawn great attention in the bioethanol industry as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production due to its renewability, abundance and non-food crop characteristics. Acid hydrolyzation of lignocellulose releases sugars (mainly d-xylose) and several derivatives. The sugars in the hydrolyzate are then converted into ethanol by fermentation. Since acetic acid is believed to be one of the inhibitors which

Yu-Hsiang Weng; Hwa-Jou Wei; Tsung-Yen Tsai; Wei-Hsi Chen; Tsong-Yang Wei; Wen-Song Hwang; Chia-Pao Wang; Chin-Pao Huang

2009-01-01

245

Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

246

Spegtrophotometrig Determination of ? Tocopherol Acetate in Soft Capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spectrophotometric methods have been described for the determination of ? -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) in soft capsules. The first method applies the orthogonal function method under least squares. The quadratic coefficients calculated over the wavelength range 277 - 304 nm at 4-nm intervals in chloroform were reproducible and independent of ethyl oleate concentration. The second method applies the second

Magda H. Barary; Mohamed E. Abdel Hamid; Ekram M. Haaaan; Mahmoud A. Elsayed

1985-01-01

247

Reactions of methylenecyclobutanes with silver acetate and iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenecyclobutanes undergo an interesting rearrangement reaction in the presence of silver acetate and iodine at room temperature (20°C) in dichloromethane to give the corresponding aryl-(1-arylcyclobutyl)methanones in good to high yields within short reaction time. A plausible reaction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of control and O18-labeling experiments.

Min Jiang; Le-Ping Liu; Min Shi

2007-01-01

248

Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

249

Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

250

Synthesis of methyl acetate from syngas via dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect

Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as a building block for a variety of specialty chemicals in the petrochemical industry. Its utilization stems mainly from its efficient production from synthesis gas in a single stage. This Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LP-DME) process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, can alleviate the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improve once-through syngas conversion and reactor productivity. Studies in the past have focused on using DME as a feedstock for gasoline range hydrocarbons as well as lower olefins. The focus of this investigation is to study the synthesis of methyl acetate, an important intermediate for acetic acid, from dimethyl ether. In particular, conversion of DME to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of Group VIII metal substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Key aspects of the process such as the effect of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions are examined. Thus, this paper introduces a novel process route for synthesis of methyl acetate from natural gas-based syngas via dimethyl ether as an intermediate.

Tartamella, T.; Sardesai, A.; Lanterman, H.B.; Lee, S.

1999-07-01

251

Recycling Solvent Mixtures of Ethyl Acetate and Hexanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to recycle ethyl acetate-hexanes mixtures from thin-layer or column chromatography experiments is described. The procedure consists of co-distillation of the mixture followed by estimation of the composition by reference to an Rf vs percent composite graph. The mixture is then diluted with the appropriate solvent to achieve the desired composition.

Wilkinson, Timothy J.

1998-12-01

252

Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

253

Intrinsic Hydration of Uranyl-Hydroxide, -Nitrate and -Acetate Complexes  

SciTech Connect

The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate = nitrate >> hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH- to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H2O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)2]+ were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H2O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO2OH)(H2O)2]+ was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate.

Winnie Chien; Dorothy Hanna; Victor Anbalagan; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold; Michael Van Stipdonk

2004-06-01

254

Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations.  

PubMed

The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO(2)A)(+) (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)](+), with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate > or = nitrate > hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH(-) to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H(2)O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)(2)](+) were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H(2)O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO(2)OH)(H(2)O)(2)](+) was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate. PMID:15144967

Chien, Winnie; Anbalagan, Victor; Zandler, Melvin; Van Stipdonk, Michael; Hanna, Dorothy; Gresham, Garold; Groenewold, Gary

2004-06-01

255

Biogas Production through the Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Pathway  

E-print Network

Biogas Production through the Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Pathway Characterisation and Detection Uppsala 2012 #12;Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae 2012:45 #12;Biogas production through 1.1 Aims of the thesis 12 2 Biogas production 15 2.1 Biogas production in Europe 16 2.2 Substrate

256

Acetate: A better astrobiological indicator of life than methane?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emergence of life on the ocean floor of the early Earth has implications for life detection on other rocky planetary bodies having subsurface ocean or ground waters in our solar system. At bottom life hydrogenates carbon dioxide. This is true not only of oxygenic photosynthesis—a relatively late evolutionary invention—but also of autotrophic chemosynthesizers such as the acetogenic bacteria and the methanoarchaea; respectively probably the first and second organisms to have emerged on Earth. Both of these prokaryotes use the acetyl coenzyme-a pathway for biosynthesis, though the variant leading to methanogenesis is substantially more complicated and therefore more highly evolved. Yet serpentinization and volcanism can produce methane with facility—an ambiguity that confounds life detection. In contrast, hydrothermal vent experiments to date along with hot spring analyses have indicated that no significant concentrations of abiotic acetate were produced in spite of the simplicity of the biological pathway. It seems that the geochemical conditions that generate abiotic methane are generally too reducing to produce acetate. Thus, the generation of acetate is solely a biotic process. As there is every reason to believe that the same chemical and electrochemical tensions would occur on other wet rocky planets containing subsurface ocean or ground waters. This encourages us to look into chemical and spectroscopic methods of detecting of acetate (both remotely and in situ) which is a better indicator than methane for the past or present biological activity on planetary bodies such as Mars. We, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have designed laboratory experiments to investigate the feasibility of detecting acetate using conventional chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results and applicability of these techniques for the future astrobiology missions will be discussed.

Kanik, I.; Russell, M. J.; Hodyss, R. P.; Johnson, P. V.

2009-12-01

257

The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

2014-01-01

258

Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The untreated waters were generally cool, low in content of calcium and magnesium, and very low in iron and manganese. At many plants, water was obtained from more than one source, and thus had different quality characteristics. Dissolved solids in all the untreated waters analyzed ranged between 14 and 747 ppm (parts per million) but in those waters used in processing the dissolved solids content was less than 200 ppm. The cooling water used by the industry is also generally of very high quality, principally because the requirements for a high-quality process water necessitate location of the plants in areas where such water is available.

Mussey, Orville Durey

1957-01-01

259

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2012-04-01

260

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2010-04-01

261

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2011-04-01

262

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2013-04-01

263

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2010-04-01

264

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2012-04-01

265

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2013-04-01

266

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2014-04-01

267

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

2011-04-01

268

Mn12-acetate thin film patterns and their interaction with superconductors  

E-print Network

Mn12-acetate single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are nano-scale magnets showing a strong magnetic anisotropy, slow relaxation and stepwise magnetic hysteresis curves. Possible applications of Mn12-acetate, e.g. for ultra high density magnetic information...

Kim, Kyongwan

2009-05-15

269

21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881...AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage...

2010-04-01

270

Preparation, thermal properties, and extrusion of high-amylose starch acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch acetates having degrees of substitution (DS) 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 were prepared by the reaction of high-amylose cornstarch with acetic anhydride and aqueous sodium hydroxide. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that water was an effective plasticizer for the starch acetates. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of dry starch acetates (165–185 °C) were lowered to 35–95 °C in the presence of

Randal L. Shogren

1996-01-01

271

Investigations of sodium acetate trihydrate for solar latent heat storage, controlling the melting point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of different acetate salts and acetamide lowers the melting point of sodium acetate trihydrate. Between 0 and 10 percent of lithium acetate dihydrate a linear relationship was observed between the melting point and the molal concentration, and the cryoscopic constant of Kf = -6.8 C (+ or - 10 percent) was evaluated. Information on dissociation or dimerization of the various additives could be deduced from the results. The positive properties of sodium acetate trihydrate were retained.

Ulman, A.; Valentin, B.

1983-09-01

272

Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

2008-01-01

273

SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF a-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE IN OLIVE OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of '-acetate tocopherol in olive oil. After extracts in n-hexane, acetate '- tocopherol were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC with fluorimetric detector. The presence of acetate '- tocopherol in...

274

Behavior of atmospheric formic and acetic acid in the presence of hydrometeors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of formic and acetic acid between the atmospheric liquid and gaseous phase is modelled for a range of liquid water contents. At low liquid water content, formic acid is dissolved preferentially over acetic acid. Applying these results to the analysis of processes taking place in clouds, one can explain the frequently found enrichment of formic over acetic acid

G. Helas; M. O. Andreae; W. R. Hartmann

1992-01-01

275

Acetate and pyruvate in cell wall polysaccharides of Propionibacterium acnes, P. avidum , and P. granulosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate and acetate residues were detected in hydrolysates of the cell wall polysaccharides of six strains ofPropionibacterium granulosum, whereas the wall polysaccharides ofP. acnes (three strains) andP. avidum (two strains) contained only acetate. In all strains, acetate appeared to be present only as N-acetyl, since it was alkali resistant.

Cecil S. Cummins; Patrick Hall

1986-01-01

276

40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

2013-07-01

277

Combined effects of acute lead acetate exposure and tone exposure of the guinea pig cochlea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead acetate exposure to humans can induce various disorders of the cranial nerves. Although vertigo and sensorineural deafness have been reported in lead workers, the dose effects of lead acetate on the cochlea and eighth cranial nerve are not well documented. We investigated the effects of lead acetate on the male albino Hartley guinea pig cochlea by measuring cochlear microphonics

S. Hotta; T. Sugisawa; T. Matsui; T. Itoh; K. Yamamura

1996-01-01

278

75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0429; FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane...requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane...permissible level for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane...

2010-08-25

279

75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0561;FRL-8833-8] Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance...existing tolerance exemption for acetic acid by establishing an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid, also known as vinegar in or on all...

2010-07-14

280

40 CFR 721.10221 - 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. 721.10221...Substances § 721.10221 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 3-nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)- (PMN...

2012-07-01

281

40 CFR 721.10221 - 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. 721.10221...Substances § 721.10221 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 3- nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)- (PMN...

2013-07-01

282

40 CFR 721.10221 - 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. 721.10221...Substances § 721.10221 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 3-nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)- (PMN...

2011-07-01

283

40 CFR 721.10221 - 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. 721.10221...Substances § 721.10221 3-Nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)-. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified as 3-nonen-1-ol, 1-acetate, (3Z)- (PMN...

2014-07-01

284

Comparative study of the vasoconstrictor activity of halopredone acetate in a modified McKenzie test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vasoconstrictor activity of four steroids, administered in solution and in the commercially available form, were compared in healthy volunteer subjects. Evaluation was based on conventional visual observations and photometric measurement of reflectance. Statistical analysis showed that halopredone acetate had less vasoconstrictor action on healthy skin than fluocinolone acetonide, beta-methasone valerate and hydrocortisone acetate. The halopredone acetate results were identical

E. Rampini; A. Rastelli; P. Cardo

1978-01-01

285

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4–6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry,

D C McMillan; S J Wigmore; K C H Wigmore; P O’Gorman; C E Wright; C S McArdle

1999-01-01

286

The occurrence, control and esoteric effect of acetic acid bacteria in winemaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in the winemaking process. The enumeration, isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria from grapes and wines are discussed. This is followed by an outline of the conditions and measures that can assist the wine producer to inhibit the unwanted growth of acetic acid bacteria in wine, which include the ethanol concentration, low

W. J. DU TOIT; I. S. PRETORIUS

287

40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

2010-07-01

288

Direct Determination of Citric Acid in Milk with an Improved Pyridine-Acetic Anhydride Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The determination of citric acid with pyridine and acetic anhydride has been in- vestigated at reaction temperatures from 17 to 60 ° C. The optimum proportions of pyridine, acetic anhydride, water, and acetic acid for maximum color intensity and stability are given for each temperature. The procedure has been modified to eliminate the violent nature of the reaction, even

J. R. Marier; M. Boulet

1958-01-01

289

Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and todlux  

E-print Network

Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and tod­lux Expression with increasing influent concentrations of ethanol, acetate, or phenol. Three inhibitory mechanisms were) by acetate and ethanol, which was quantified by a decrease in specific bioluminescence; (2) competitive

Alvarez, Pedro J.

290

Vasodilator effects of the sodium acetate in pooled protein fraction.  

PubMed Central

Paradoxical hypotension during rapid infusion of plasma protein fraction (PPF) has been attributed to vasodilation by bradykinin in PPF. This study employed a canine, controlled right heart bypass preparation to assess changes in systemic vascular resistance and venous capacitance during infusion of PPF and other possibly vasoactive mediators. Plasma protein fraction caused consistent vasodilation, whereas purified human albumin did not. This vasodilation could be ascribed entirely to acetate, present in PPF as a buffer. Bradykinin in PPF had no effect during venous infusion. Acetate is used widely as a buffer in intravenous and dialysate solutions. Its vasoactive properties must be recognized when such solutions are administered to patients with limited capacity to compensate for sudden vasodilation. PMID:485604

Olinger, G N; Werner, P H; Bonchek, L I; Boerboom, L E

1979-01-01

291

Electrospun cellulose acetate-garnet nanocomposite magnetic fibers for bioseparations.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate fibers with magnetic properties have recently attracted much attention because of their potential novel applications in biomedicine such as for cell and protein separations, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and magnetic filters. In this work, as synthesized yttrium iron garnet and gadolinium substituted yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles have been used to generate magnetic filter paper. Garnet nanoparticles dispersed in cellulose acetate polymer solutions were electrospun as free-standing nonwoven fiber mats as well as on cellulose filter paper substrates resulting in magnetic filter papers. The magnetic fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic property measurements. The resulting magnetic polymer nanocomposites can be easily picked up by an external magnet from a liquid medium. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was separated from solution by using the magnetic filter paper. PMID:24341636

Munaweera, Imalka; Aliev, Ali; Balkus, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

292

Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

Jadav, Shilpa P; Parmar, Dinesh M

2012-04-01

293

Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception  

PubMed Central

Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

Jadav, Shilpa P.; Parmar, Dinesh M.

2012-01-01

294

Methyl internal rotation in the microwave spectrum of vinyl acetate.  

PubMed

The rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate, CH3(CO)OCH?CH2, was measured using two molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers operating in the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz. Large splittings up to 2 GHz occurred due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group CH3CO with a V3 potential of 151.492(34) cm(-1), much larger than the barrier of approximately 100 cm(-1) often found in acetates. The torsional transitions were fitted using three different programs XIAM, ERHAM, and BELGI-Cs, whereby the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and the internal rotation parameters could be determined with very high accuracy. The experimental results were supported by quantum chemical calculations. For a conformational analysis, potential energy surfaces were calculated. PMID:25423450

Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Jabri, Atef; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

2014-12-26

295

Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions  

PubMed Central

The effects of various compounds on the aerobic stability of silages were evaluated. It has been observed that inoculation of whole-crop maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria leads to silages which have low stability against aerobic deterioration, while inoculation with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus buchneri, increases stability. Acetic acid has been proven to be the sole substance responsible for the increased aerobic stability, and this acid acts as an inhibitor of spoilage organisms. Therefore, stability increases exponentially with acetic acid concentration. Only butyric acid has a similar effect. Other compounds, like lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and 1-propanol, have been shown to have no effect, while fructose and mannitol reduce stability. PMID:12514042

Danner, H.; Holzer, M.; Mayrhuber, E.; Braun, R.

2003-01-01

296

Organisms Associated with Acetic Acid Bacteria in Vinegar Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinegars are the product of scalar fermentations carried out by several groups of microorganisms acting at different moments\\u000a in time. The initial phase is generally represented by an alcoholic fermentation commonly carried out by yeasts. Lactic acid\\u000a bacteria (LAB) can also play a role in releasing ethanol and acetic acid from heterofermentative lactic acid fermentations.\\u000a Depending on the nature of

Sandra Rainieri; Carlo Zambonelli

297

Crosslinkable poly(vinyl acetate) emulsions for wood adhesive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the water resistance and the heat resistance of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) emulsion adhesive, by providing the emulsion with controllable thermosetting capability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Emulsion polymerisation was used to synthesise PVAc\\/VeoVa 10 copolymers with varying proportions of acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AAEM) incorporated in the copolymer chains. The AAEM component provided sites for

Jia Lu; Allan J. Easteal; Neil R. Edmonds

2011-01-01

298

Copper(II) acetate and picrate complexes of sulfa drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Copper(II) acetate and picrate complexes of sulfa drugsviz., sulfanilamide, sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine and sulfamethazine were prepared and characterized with the help of analytical, electronic, i.r. and magnetic moment data. The complexes are paramagnetic, planar or mixed planar and octahedral, insoluble and melt (with decomposition) in the 185°–225° range. The sulfa drugs coordinate through their amino groups and the

Krishna K. Narang; Jai K. Gupta

1977-01-01

299

Carbonic anhydrase activity in acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell extracts (27000xg supernatant) of acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri were found to have carbonic anhydrase activity (0.41 U\\/mg protein), which was lost upon heating or incubation with proteinase K. The activity was inhibited by Diamox (apparent Ki=0.5 mM), by azide (apparent Ki=1 mM), and by cyanide (apparent Ki=0.02 mM). These and other properties indicate that the archaebacterium contains the enzyme

Marion Karrasch; Michael Bott; Rudolf K. Thauer

1989-01-01

300

Hydrolysis of ethyl acetate:a pervaporation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature on the separation factor, diffusion process, permeation rate, and permeability coefficient (k) for hydrolysis of ethyl acetate using a standard poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membrane by pervaporation was investigated. The preliminary data presented in this work was obtained using a simple pervaporation technique built in-house. The experiments were conducted at 80, 65, 50 and 35°C. The initial

Habib I. Shaban

1998-01-01

301

Measurement of acetic acid using a fibre Bragg grating interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol-gel-PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders the interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks changes

C. Jesus; S. F. O. Silva; M. Castanheira; G. González Aguilar; O. Frazão; P. A. S. Jorge; J. M. Baptista

2009-01-01

302

Interconversion kinetic studies of betamethasone acetate polymorphs in water.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effect of polymers on the transformation of polymorphs of betamethasone acetate (BA) when suspended in water. The results showed that the polymers, in particular HPMC E5, retarded the transition of the forms Ialpha and Ibeta. However, the form Ialpha, as the metastable form, with the aid of HPMC E5, was preferred for BA suspension preparation through kinetic studies, while the form Ibeta was not suitable due to its instability in water. PMID:17012114

Ke, Xue; Ping, QiNeng; Liao, ZhengGen

2006-10-01

303

Preirradiation grafting of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylic acid was graft copolymerised on to EVA powdered resins containing 9%, 18% and 28% vinyl acetate. A preirradiation grafting method was used and the effect on graft level of varying the parameters of gamma irradiation dose (2–50 kGy), dose rate (0.5–5 kGy h?1), monomer concentration (2.5–25%) and grafting time (1–4 h) and temperature (35–98°C) was investigated. The graft copolymer resins

B. J Ringrose; E Kronfli

1999-01-01

304

Induction of Antifertility with Lupeol Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antifertility activity of the active principle, i.e. lupeol acetate, isolated from benzene extract of Alstonia scholaris in male albino rats. The treatment with lupeol acetateat the dose level of 10 mg\\/rat\\/day did not cause any significant change in the body weights, but significant reduction in the weight of reproductive organs, i.e. testes,

R. S. Gupta; A. K. Bhatnager; Y. C. Joshi; M. C. Sharma; Veena Khushalani; J. B. S. Kachhawa

2005-01-01

305

Acetic acid accumulation in aerobic growth of recombinant Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between ?HAc (specific acetic acid accumulation rate) and ? (specific growth rate) for a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 strain was defined under typical conditions to achieve high cell densities (fed-batch process, dissolved oxygen concentration higher than 30% saturation, semi-synthetic medium). The feeding rate of glucose was continuously adjusted in order to support constant values of ? (0.4, 0.3,

D. C. Suárez; B. V. Kilikian

2000-01-01

306

The Millimeter-Wave Spectrum of Vinyl Acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discovery of methyl acetate in Orion KL places the vinyl acetate as a potential candidate possibly present in the interstellar medium. The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate has been measured from 125 up to 360 GHz to provide direct frequencies to the astronomical community. Transition lines, corresponding to the most stable conformer, have been observed and assigned on the basis of the previously determined spectroscopic constants. All the rotational transitions reveal the A-E splitting due to the methyl internal rotation and the precise set of the spectroscopic constants obtained from the least-squares fit to a threefold barrier internal rotation Hamiltonian is reported. Additional measurements have been also made using a broadband CP-FTMW spectrometer in the region of 6-18 GHz which made possible to assign all monosubstituted 13C and 18O isotopic species in natural abundance and to derive the molecular structure. B. Tercero, I. Kleiner, J. Cernicharo, H. V. L. Nguyen, A. López, and G. M. Muñoz Caro, Astrophys. J. Lett. 2013, 770, 13. B. Velino, A. Maris, S. Melandri, W. Caminati, J. Mol. Specrosc. 2009, 256, 228.

Kolesniková, Lucie; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.; Cernicharo, Jose; Kleiner, Isabelle

2014-06-01

307

Role of fluoride in accelerating the reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals.  

PubMed

The most common method for achieving the regioselective monoalkylation of diols involves formation of dialkylstannylene acetals as intermediates. Reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals with alkyl halides are slow, but rates are enhanced by addition of fluoride or other nucleophiles. The mechanism of the fluoride-accelerated alkylation of dialkylstannylene acetals was studied at several levels of theory in the gas phase, in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, and in DMF solution in the presence of tetramethylammonium ions. The reactive species were adducts involving addition of fluoride to tin. Under the conditions that most closely simulated experiment, reactions from fluoridated monomers and monofluoridated dimers were calculated to have similar activation energies. In the transition states in the rate-determining steps for the two pathways, carbon-oxygen bond formation was between 60 and 75% complete while tin-oxygen bond cleavage was much less advanced, between 6 and 16% complete. A test of Sn-O bond dissociation indicated that the "Sn-O bond cleavage first" mechanism is not a minimum energy pathway. PMID:25668481

Lu, Simiao; Boyd, Russell J; Grindley, T Bruce

2015-03-20

308

Evaporation kinetics of acetic acid-water solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of water molecules across vapor-liquid interfaces in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the formation and evolution of cloud droplets. Despite decades of study, the effects of solutes on the mechanism and rate of evaporation and condensation remain poorly characterized. The present work aims to determine the effect of atmospherically-relevant solutes on the evaporation rate of water. In our experiments, we create a train of micron-sized droplets and measure their temperature via Raman thermometry as they undergo evaporation without condensation. Analysis of the cooling rate yields the evaporation coefficient (?). Previous work has shown that inorganic salts have little effect on ?, with surface-adsorbing anions causing a slight reduction in the coefficient from that measured for pure water. Organic acids are ubiquitous in aqueous aerosol and have been shown to disrupt the surface structure of water. Here we describe measurements of the evaporation rate of acetic acid solutions, showing that acetic acid reduces ? to a larger extent than inorganic ions, and that ? decreases with increasing acetic acid concentration.

Duffey, K.; Wong, N.; Saykally, R.; Cohen, R. C.

2012-12-01

309

Rose bengal acetate photodynamic therapy-induced autophagy.  

PubMed

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an anticancer therapy requiring the exposure of cells or tissue to a photosensitizing drug followed by irradiation with visible light of the appropriate wavelength, induces cell death by the efficient induction of apoptotic as well as non-apoptotic mechanisms, such as necrosis and autophagy, or a combination of all three mechanisms. However, the exact role of autophagy in photodynamic therapy is still a matter of debate. To understand the role of autophagy in PDT, we investigated the induction of autophagy in HeLa cells photosensitized with Rose Bengal Acetate (RBAc). After incubation with Rose Bengal Acetate (10-5 M), HeLa cells were irradiated for 90 seconds (green LED DPL 305, emitting at 530 +15 nm to obtain 1.6 J/cm2 as the total light dose) and allowed to recover for 72 h. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis were observed with peaks at 8 h and 12 h after irradiation, respectively. Autophagy was detected by biochemical (Western Blotting for the LC3B protein) and morphological criteria (TEM, cytochemistry). In addition, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD, was unable to completely prevent cell death. The simultaneous onset of apoptosis and autophagy following Rose Bengal Acetate PDT is of remarkable interest in light of the findings that autophagy can result in the class II presentation of antigens and thus, explain why low dose PDT can yield anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:20935508

Dini, Luciana; Inguscio, Valentina; Tenuzzo, Bernardetta; Panzarini, Elisa

2010-11-15

310

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-01-01

311

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-05-01

312

Synergistic nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B and cortisone acetate in mice.  

PubMed

Striking mortality in mice receiving amphotericin B and cortisone acetate concomitantly prompted studies to characterize the toxic interaction of these two drugs further. Adult female CD-1 mice received daily injections of cortisone acetate (0--50 mg/kg subcutaneously) and/or amphotericin B (0--12.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in a checkerboard combination dosage pattern for 30 days. Dosages of amphotericin B and cortisone acetate that produced little or no mortality individually produced significant (P less than 0.005) mortality in combination. Light and electron microscopic studies of sections of brain, heart, lung, adrenal gland, liver, and kidney revealed only renal lesions. These appeared within six days, were dose-related in severity, and were not produced by either drug alone. The lesions consisted of focal swelling of proximal, distal, and collecting tubular cells which progressed to necrosis and intraluminal cast formation. These findings may be relevant to the development of nephrotoxicity in patients treated simultaneously with amphotericin B and corticosteroids. PMID:659923

Kisch, A L; Maydew, R P; Evan, A P

1978-06-01

313

Miscibility and dynamical properties of cellulose acetate/plasticizer systems.  

PubMed

Due to its biodegradability and renewability, a great interest has been devoted to investigating cellulose acetate in order to expand its potential applications. In addition, secondary cellulose acetate (CDA) could also be considered as a model system for strongly polar polymer system. The dynamical behavior of CDA is supposed to be governed by H-bonding and dipolar interaction network. Due to their high glass transition temperature, cellulose acetate-based systems are processed when blended with plasticizers. It is thus of utmost importance to study the miscibility and plasticizing effects of various molecules. We prepared CDA films via solvent casting method with diethyl phthalate as the plasticizer. Miscibility diagrams were established by calorimetry and thermo-mechanical (DMTA) experiments. Dynamical properties were analyzed by DMTA and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We could identify the ?-relaxation of these CDA-plasticizer systems in the frequency range from 0.06 Hz to 10(6)Hz, which allowed for describing the dynamics in the so-called Williams-Landel-Ferry/Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann regime. PMID:25458277

Bao, Cong Yu; Long, Didier R; Vergelati, Caroll

2015-02-13

314

Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.  

PubMed Central

Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively. PMID:2285314

Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

1990-01-01

315

Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed Central

Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. PMID:7592320

Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H; Jochimsen, B U

1995-01-01

316

The feeding value of water and acetic acid reconstituted sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows  

E-print Network

(12) from h1gh-moisture grain rations. The addition of 2't acet1c acid through reconstitution d1d not affect milk production. Average acetic acid intake per day 1n this study was 237. 2 g (33. 32 g/100 kg body weight). Jones (13) obtained the same... acid. Ruminal pH was not s1gnificantly altered by treatments. Ruminal acet1c:prop1onic acid ratio of the dry grain ration was higher than the water, 0. 5 and 1. 0/ acetic acid recon- st1tuted gra1n rations, and lower than the 1. 5 and 2. 5? acet1c...

Bade, David Heinie

1972-01-01

317

Catabolism of Indole3Acetic Acid and 4- and 5-Chloroindole- 3Acetic Acid inBradyrhizobium japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic

JOHN BECK JENSEN; HELGE EGSGAARD; HARRY VAN ONCKELEN; ANDBJARNE U. JOCHIMSEN

1995-01-01

318

Acetate treatment increases fatty acid content in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia.  

PubMed

Acetate supplementation increases plasma acetate, brain acetyl-CoA, histone acetylation, phosphocreatine levels, and is anti-inflammatory in models of neuroinflammation and neuroborreliosis. Although radiolabeled acetate is incorporated into the cellular lipid pools, the effect that acetate supplementation has on lipid deposition has not been quantified. To determine the impact acetate-treatment has on cellular lipid content, we investigated the effect of acetate in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on fatty acid, phospholipid, and cholesterol content in BV2 microglia. We found that 1, 5, and 10 mM of acetate in the presence of LPS increased the total fatty acid content in BV2 cells by 23, 34, and 14 % at 2 h, respectively. Significant increases in individual fatty acids were also observed with all acetate concentrations tested with the greatest increases occurring with 5 mM acetate in the presence of LPS. Treatment with 5 mM acetate in the absence of LPS increased total cholesterol levels by 11 %. However, neither treatment in the absence of LPS significantly altered the content of individual phospholipids or total phospholipid content. To determine the minimum effective concentration of acetate we measured the time- and concentration-dependent changes in histone acetylation using western blot analysis. These studies showed that 5 mM acetate was necessary to induce histone acetylation and at 10 mM acetate, the histone acetylation-state increased as early as 0.5 h following the start of treatment. These data suggest that acetate increases fatty acid content in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia that is reflected by an increase in fatty acids esterified into membrane phospholipids. PMID:24852320

Bhatt, Dhaval P; Rosenberger, Thad A

2014-07-01

319

Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

320

Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate.  

PubMed

Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [(13)C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). (13)C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, (13)C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [(13)C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [(13)C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. PMID:25320331

Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A Dean; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Merritt, Matthew E

2014-10-15

321

Effects of electron beam irradiation of cellulose acetate cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to reduce the molecular weight of cellulose acetate used in cigarette filters by using electron beam irradiation is demonstrated. Radiation levels easily obtained with commercially available electron accelerators result in a decrease in average molecular weight of about six-times with no embrittlement, or significant change in the elastic behavior of the filter. Since a first step in the biodegradation of cigarette filters is reduction in the filter material's molecular weight this invention has the potential to allow the production of significantly faster degrading filters.

Czayka, M.; Fisch, M.

2012-07-01

322

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-print Network

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01

323

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailiram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mukherjee, Rudra Palash [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Bantraj, Kandi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Orissa (India)

2010-10-26

324

A simple and convenient synthetic route to Ulipristal acetate.  

PubMed

We set out to describe a new and efficient route for preparing Ulipristal acetate with a good yield. The selected epoxidization conditions gave out 80% of 5?,10?-epoxide 2a in the two diastereoisomers which greatly improved the yield of 11?-substituted isomer 4a. And phenyl-sulfinyl compound 6 was synthesized from ketone 5 directly treated with phenylsulfenyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. These synthetic procedures is only 8 steps, less than currently reported in the literature, but more suitable for industrial process. PMID:24095652

Yu, Yongguo; He, Yun; Zhao, Yi; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong

2013-12-11

325

Radioiron utilization and gossypol acetic acid in male rats  

SciTech Connect

The 24-h incorporation of VZFe into circulating red blood cells, bone marrow, urine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle was measured in splenectomized and sham-splenectomized rats which had received a daily, oral dose of gossypol acetic acid (20 mg GAA/kg body wt) for 91 days. A significant decrease in total body weight gain was observed in all GAA treated animals. Splenectomized rats dosed with GAA exhibited a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte count. A significant increase in VZFe incorporation by red blood cells and a decrease in hepatic incorporation of VZFe indicate a preferential utilization of iron in erythropoiesis among GAA treated animals.

Tone, J.N.; Jensen, D.R.

1985-01-01

326

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

327

Anaerobic microbial biogeochemistry in a northern bog: Acetate as a dominant metabolic end product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements and incubation techniques were used to determine the dynamics of acetate formation, iron reduction, and methanogenesis in surficial peat of an Alaskan bog. Acetate concentrations were ˜100 ?M early in the season and decreased to ˜20 ?M in July when the water table decreased. Acetate levels increased rapidly to ˜1000 ?M when the water table rose to the surface in August. Acetate production in anaerobic slurries occurred at rates of 2.8-420 nmol carbon mL-1 day-1, which was 7-120 times more rapid than CH4 production. Experiments utilizing 14C-acetate confirmed that methanogenesis was not acetoclastic although acetate was converted very slowly to CO2. Peat incubated anaerobically for 4.5 months at 24°C never produced methane from acetate, suggesting that anaerobic acetate accumulation would have occurred all season if the water table had remained high. CO2 production was the most rapid process measured in laboratory incubations (up to 750 nmol mL-1 day-1) and appeared to be due primarily to fermentation. Acetate was the primary organic terminal product of anaerobic decomposition in the bog, and acetate was ultimately oxidized to CO2 via aerobic respiration and to a much lesser extent anaerobically by Fe reduction.

Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Kinney, Monica A.; Kiene, Ronald P.; Hines, Mark E.

2002-12-01

328

Vibrational circular dichroism discrimination of diastereomeric cedranol acetates.  

PubMed

The reliability of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy to discriminate four diastereomeric cedranol acetates 1-4 by means of their absolute configuration is examined. The usage of CompareVOA software to quantify comparisons of the measured infrared (IR) and VCD spectra with the corresponding simulated spectra at the B3LYP/DGDZVP and B3PW91/DGDZVP levels of theory for each diastereomer enabled the B3PW91 functional to be qualified as superior to the B3LYP functional for vibrational calculations of 1-4. Analogously, a set of quantitative VCD spectra cross-comparisons of 1-4 unambiguously distinguished the diastereomers using B3PW91 and failed using B3LYP. Remarkably, quantitative IR spectra cross-comparisons of 1-4 using B3PW91 or B3LYP functionals demonstrated that the achiral spectroscopic IR technique is not able to distinguish cedranol acetate diastereomers. VCD comparisons using anisotropy g-factor values of bands in the 1550-950?cm(-1) region of the spectra were of aid to facilitate visual spectra matching for each diastereomer. PMID:24151034

Gordillo-Román, Bárbara; Camacho-Ruiz, Jorge; Bucio, María A; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

2013-12-01

329

Ion selective permeation through cellulose acetate membranes in forward osmosis.  

PubMed

Solute-solute interactions can have a dramatic impact on the permeation of solutes through dense polymeric membranes. In particular, understanding how solute-solute interactions can affect the design of osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) is critical to the successful development of these emerging water treatment and energy generation processes. In this work, we investigate the influence that solute-solute interactions have on nitrate permeation through an asymmetric cellulose acetate forward osmosis membrane. A series of experiments that included systematic modifications to the cation paired with nitrate, the identity of the draw solute, and the solution pH were conducted. These experiments reveal that in the unique operating geometry of ODMPs, where solute containing solutions are present on both sides of the membrane, nitrate fluxes are significantly higher (>15 times in some cases) than predicted by existing models for solute permeation in ODMPs. The identity of the cation paired with nitrate influences the flux of nitrate; the identity of the cation in the draw solution does not affect the flux of nitrate; however, the identity of the anion in the draw solution has the most significant impact on the flux of nitrate. These results suggest that an ion exchange mechanism, which allows nitrate to switch rapidly with anions from the draw solution, is present when cellulose acetate based membranes are used in ODMPs. PMID:24152190

Irvine, Gavin J; Rajesh, Sahadevan; Georgiadis, Michael; Phillip, William A

2013-12-01

330

Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. PMID:25488041

Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

2014-12-01

331

Electrodeposition of lead from aqueous acetate and chloride solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrodeposition of Pb from electrolyte containing CH3COONH4, CH3COOH, and Cl- was in-vestigated at 25 ‡C in stirred and quiescent solutions on different substrates: Pb, Cu, Al, and C. The deposited lead from the acetate bath was crystalline and showed a marked tendency to form dendrites. The addition of organic additives, phenol, ethyl alcohol, and gelatine, was found necessary in order to obtain a bright, smooth, and compact lead deposit on Pb and Cu electrode. Even with the additives, dendritic lead was observed on Al and C electrodes. Systematic studies of electrodeposition of Pb from these media—such as investigation of the effect of concentration of chemicals in the electrolyte, the effect of temperature, the effect of current density, and the nature of the subtrates—were carried out. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, potentiodynamic studies, chrono-amperometry, and chronopotentiometry have been employed to shed light on the nature of the reaction mechanism. The deposit quality and purity was examined by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, and Auger spectroscopy. The results were compared with those obtained from a fluoborate bath. The quality of a lead deposit from fluoborate bath proved to be similar to that obtained from acetate bath in the presence of organic additives where the deposit was always of a compact, dense, and smooth form.

Ghali, Edward; Girgis, Magdy

1985-09-01

332

Adaptation to alcoholic fermentation in Drosophila: a parallel selection imposed by environmental ethanol and acetic acid.  

PubMed Central

Besides ethanol, acetic acid is produced in naturally fermenting sweet resources and is a significant environmental stress for fruit-breeding Drosophila populations and species. Although not related to the presence of an active alcohol dehydrogenase, adult acetic acid tolerance was found to correlate with ethanol tolerance when sensitive (Afrotropical) and resistant (European) natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster were compared. The same correlation was found when comparing various Drosophila species. Tolerance to acetic acid also correlated with the tolerance to longer aliphatic acids of three, four, or five carbons but did not correlate with the tolerance to inorganic acids (i.e., hydrochloric and sulfuric acids). These observations suggest that acetic acid is detoxified by the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA, a metabolic step also involved in ethanol detoxification. Future investigations on the adaptation of Drosophila to fermenting resources should consider selective effects of both ethanol and acetic acid. PMID:8475110

Chakir, M; Peridy, O; Capy, P; Pla, E; David, J R

1993-01-01

333

Molecular orbital calculations for modeling acetate-aluminosilicate adsorption and dissolution reactions  

SciTech Connect

Possible molecular configurations of acetic acid and acetate adsorbed onto aluminosilicate minerals are examined. Molecular orbital calculations were performed on molecules and dimers; that are intended to mimic inner sphere and outer sphere adsorption complexes on mineral surfaces. The results predict the structure, energetics, and vibrational spectra of the acetic acid and acetate bonded to alumino-silicate groups. The most likely surface complexes are determined by reaction energetics and comparison of theoretical to experimental vibrational spectra. In addition, a reaction pathway of Si-O-Al cleavage by acetic acid and chemisorption of acetate with tetrahedral Al{sup 3+} is predicted. An activation energy for this reaction is estimated from constrained energy minimizations of the reactants along a reaction pathway. 89 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Kubicki, J.D.; Apitz, S.E. [Naval Command Control and Surveillance Center, San Diego, CA (United States)] [Naval Command Control and Surveillance Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Blake, G.A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1997-03-01

334

Water-promoted One-step Anodic Acetoxylation of Benzene to Phenyl Acetate with High Selectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-step anodic acetoxylation of benzene to phenyl acetate was studied in acetic acid-water solution using a one-compartment electrochemical cell in galvanostatic mode. Compared to the anhydrous system, the addition of water improved the current efficiency for the electro-synthesis of phenyl acetate. The maximum efficiency reached 4.8% with the selectivity of 96% to phenyl acetate when the electrolysis was carried out under the optimal conditions. The investigation also indicated that the concentration of phenyl acetate increased linearly in 12 h and reached 1.07 g/L with the selectivity of 95%. Cyclic voltammetry experiments showed that the adsorption of benzene at Pt anode enhanced by the addition of water was critical to the formation of phenyl acetate. An activated benzene mechanism was proposed for the anodic acytoxylation, and the analysis of gas products demonstrated that Kolbe reaction was the main side reaction.

Pei, Juan; Qin, Song; Li, Gui-ying; Hu, Chang-wei

2011-04-01

335

Clostridium lentocellum SG6--a potential organism for fermentation of cellulose to acetic acid.  

PubMed

A cellulolytic, acetic acid producing anaerobic bacterial isolate, Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, terminal oval shaped endospore forming bacterium identified as Clostridium lentocellum SG6 based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. It produced acetic acid as a major end product from cellulose fermentation at 37 degrees C and pH 7.2. Acetic acid production was 0.67 g/g cellulose substrate utilized in cellulose mineral salt (CMS) medium. Yeast extract (0.4%) was the best nitrogen source among the various nitrogenous nutrients tested in production medium containing 0.8% cellulose as substrate. No additional vitamins or trace elemental solution were required for acetic acid fermentation. This is the highest acetic acid fermentation yield in monoculture fermentation for direct conversion of cellulose to acetic acid. PMID:11601540

Ravinder, T; Swamy, M V; Seenayya, G; Reddy, G

2001-12-01

336

Regulation of acetate metabolism in Escherichia coli BL21 by protein N(?)-lysine acetylation.  

PubMed

Acetate production is one of the most striking differences between Escherichia coli K12 and BL21 strains. Transcription of acetate metabolism genes is regulated. Additionally, acetyl-CoA synthetase, which activates acetate to acetyl-CoA, is regulated by post-translational acetylation. The aim of this study was to understand the contribution of reversible protein lysine acetylation to the regulation of acetate metabolism in E. coli BL21. The phenotypic differences between both strains were especially important in the presence of acetate. The high expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) in glucose exponential phase in BL21 allows the simultaneous consumption of acetate and glucose. Lack of catabolite repression also affected its post-translational regulator, the protein acetyltransferase (patZ). The effect of the deletion of cobB (encoding a sirtuin-like protein deacetylase) and patZ genes depended on the genetic background. The deletion of cobB in both strains increased acetate production and decreased growth rate in acetate cultures. The deletion of patZ in BL21 suppressed acetate overflow in glucose medium and increased the growth rate in acetate cultures. Differences on acetate overflow between BL21 and K12 strains are caused by many overlapping factors. Two major contributing effects were identified: (1) the expression of acs during exponential growth is not repressed in the BL21 strain due to concomitant cAMP production and (2) the acetyl-CoA synthetase activity is more tightly regulated by protein acetylation in BL21 than in the K12. Altogether these differences contribute to the lower acetate overflow and the improved ability of E. coli BL21 to consume this metabolite in the presence of glucose. PMID:25524697

Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Röhrig, Teresa; Termeer, Svenja; Cánovas, Manuel

2015-04-01

337

Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photolysis of S2O82- was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H2O2\\/UV system. The SO4- radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S2O82- ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO4- radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results

Justine Criquet; Nathalie Karpel Vel Leitner

2009-01-01

338

Acetate and Formate Stress: Opposite Responses in the Proteome of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate and formate are major fermentation products of Escherichia coli. Below pH 7, the balance shifts to lactate; an oversupply of acetate or formate retards growth. E. coli W3110 was grown with aeration in potassium-modified Luria broth buffered at pH 6.7 in the presence or absence of added acetate or formate, and the protein profiles were compared by two-dimensional sodium

CHRISTOPHER KIRKPATRICK; LISA M. MAURER; NIKKI E. OYELAKIN; YULIYA N. YONCHEVA; RUSSELL MAURER; JOAN L. SLONCZEWSKI

2001-01-01

339

EthylAcetate as a Substitute forDiethyl Etherinthe Formalin-Ether Sedimentation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl acetate appearstobeasatisfactory substitute solvent fordiethyl ether in theFormalin-ether sedimentation technique. Incomparative studies, concentra- tion oforganisms withethyl acetate was equal toorgreater thanthat withdiethyl ether. Nodistortion oralteration ofmorphology was observed witheither solvent, andpreparations were comparable inappearanceandease ofexamination. In addition, ethyl acetate isless flammable andless hazardous tousethandiethyl ether. The Formalin-ether (F-E)sedimentation technique (1), widely usedforconcentrating eggs, larvae, andcysts infecal specimens, isan efficient

KIRKH. YOUNG; SANDRA L. BULLOCK; DOROTHY M. MELVIN

1979-01-01

340

Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof  

DOEpatents

A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

2000-01-01

341

Characterization of the decomposition course of nickel acetate tetrahydrate in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry and infrared spectroscopy showed that Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O decomposes completely at 500°C, giving rise to a mixture of Nio and NiO. The results revealed that the compound undergoes dehydration at 160°C and melts at 310°C. The water thus released\\u000a hydrolyses surface acetate groups, acetic acid being evolved into the gas phase. At 330°C, the anhydrous acetate

G. A. M. Hussein; A. K. H. Nohman; K. M. A. Attyia

1994-01-01

342

Effects of phenoxy acetic herbicides on growth, photosynthesis, and nitrogenase activity in cyanobacteria from rice fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the phenoxy acetic herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4D) and methylchloro-phenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) on growth, photosynthesis, and nitrogenase activity of cyanobacteria has been investigated. Concentrations ranging from 10-9 to 10-3 M did not change significantly the parameters of Anabaena UAM 202. Concentrations higher than 10-3 M of both herbicides were toxic. The primary toxic action of these

F. Leganés; E. Fernández-Valiente

1992-01-01

343

Hydrogen isotopic composition of bacterial methane: CO 2\\/H 2 reduction and acetate fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to discern the ?Dwater-?DCH4 relationship between C02\\/H2 reduction and acetate fermentation in freshwater environments where CH4 is produced from both C02\\/H2 and acetate, incubation experiments of a paddy soil were made, using water with four different SD values. From the observed ?Dwater-?DCH4 relationships and a fractional contribution of acetate estimated from ?13C of CH4, ?Dwater-?DCH4 relationships were obtained

Atsuko Sugimoto; Eitaro Wada

1995-01-01

344

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of vinblastine and high-dose megestrol acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Preclinical data indicate that progestational agents (progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate and megestrol acetate) interact with p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and reverse P-gp-associated resistance to vinca alkaloids and other natural products. Based on these data, we performed a phase I study of high-dose oral megestrol acetate and vinblastine to evaluate the safety of this regimen. Patients and methods. Enrolled in the study were

Khalid Matin; Merrill J. Egorin; Michael F. Ballesteros; David C. Smith; Barry Lembersky; Roger S. Day; Candace S. Johnson; Donald L. Trump

2002-01-01

345

Effects of phenoxy acetic herbicides on growth, photosynthesis, and nitrogenase activity in cyanobacteria from rice fields.  

PubMed

The effects of the phenoxy acetic herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4D) and methylchlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) on growth, photosynthesis, and nitrogenase activity of cyanobacteria has been investigated. Concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-3) M did not change significantly the parameters of Anabaena UAM 202. Concentrations higher than 10(-3) M of both herbicides were toxic. The primary toxic action of these herbicides in Anabaena UAM 202 was on photosynthesis. PMID:1554245

Leganés, F; Fernández-Valiente, E

1992-01-01

346

Acetate Utilization in Lactococcus lactis Deficient in Lactate Dehydrogenase: a Rescue Pathway for Maintaining Redox Balance  

PubMed Central

Acetate was shown to improve glucose fermentation in Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies using [2-13C]glucose and [2-13C]acetate as substrates demonstrated that acetate was exclusively converted to ethanol. This novel pathway provides an alternative route for NAD+ regeneration in the absence of lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:10464231

Hols, Pascal; Ramos, Ana; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Delcour, Jean; de Vos, Willem M.; Santos, Helena; Kleerebezem, Michiel

1999-01-01

347

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues  

SciTech Connect

Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

Reinecke, D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-04-01

348

Vacuum Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectra of Condensed Methyl Acetate on Cold Astrochemical Dust Analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Lo, J.-I.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Mason, N. J.; Cheng, B.-M.; Krishnakumar, E.

2013-12-01

349

Acetate oxidation by syntrophic association between Geobacter sulfurreducens and a hydrogen-utilizing exoelectrogen  

PubMed Central

Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor. PMID:23486252

Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Okabe, Satoshi

2013-01-01

350

Bacterial response to acetate challenge: a comparison of tolerance among species.  

PubMed

Although acetate formation and tolerance are important criteria for various aspects of biotechnological process development, available studies on acetate tolerance in different species are disparate. We evaluate the response of eight bacterial strains, including two variants of Escherichia coli, two variants of Staphylococcus capitis, and one each of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter suboxydans, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, and L. bulgaricus, to acetate challenges under identical conditions. Our findings were: (1) wild-type organisms of species that are considered tolerant of acetate perform only slightly better than E. coli in unadapted shaker cultures; (2) the ability to tolerate acetate is strongly dependent on the carbon source, and is, especially for E. coli, much greater on glycerol than on glucose; (3) respiration is not as important to acetate tolerance in E. coli and S. capitis as has been reported for the acetic acid bacteria; (4) S. capitis was the least affected by acetate under all conditions and grew at up to 44 g/l acetate without any preconditioning; and (5) qualitative high-throughput screening of growth characteristics can be achieved with relatively inexpensive multiwell plate readers. PMID:10968640

Lasko, D R; Zamboni, N; Sauer, U

2000-08-01

351

Selective extraction of acetic acid from the fermentation broth produced by Mannheimia succiniciproducens.  

PubMed

Acetic acid is by-product from fermentation processes for producing succinic acid using Mannheimia succiniciproducens . To obtain pure succinic acid from the final fermentation broth, acetic acid was selectively removed based on the different extractability of succinic acid and acetic acid with pH using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) as extractant. When successive batch extractions were performed using 0.25 mol TOA kg(-1) dissolved in 1-octanol at pH 5, the mol ratio of succinic acid to acetic acid before extraction was 4.9 and the final ratio after the fourth batch was 9.4. PMID:15604800

Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Yeon Ki; Hong, Won Hi; Chang, Ho Nam

2004-10-01

352

Transport of acetate and sodium in sheep omasum: mutual, but asymmetric interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the transport of acetate across the isolated epithelium of sheep omasum; no net transport was observed (J\\u000a ms ? J\\u000a sm) under Ussing chamber conditions. Low mucosal pH (pH 6.4) significantly enhanced J\\u000a ms acetate and the transport rates of acetate increased linearly and significantly (r\\u000a 2=0.99) with the luminal acetate concentration. The presence of another short chain fatty

O. Ali; Z. Shen; U. Tietjen; H. Martens

2006-01-01

353

Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate  

SciTech Connect

Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdhAÂ?::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical catabolic pathway is controlled by mechanisms similar to those employed by the Bacteria and Eukarya, or by a regulatory paradigm that is unique to the Archaea. The mechanism(s) revealed by this investigation will provide insight into the regulatory strategies employed by the aceticlastic methanogenic Archaea to efficiently direct carbon and electron flow in anaerobic consortia during fermentative processes.

Sowers, Kevin R

2013-04-04

354

Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.  

PubMed

Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine. PMID:25704707

Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

2015-07-01

355

Dissolution control of Mg by cellulose acetate-polyelectrolyte membranes.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate (CA)-based membranes are used for Mg dissolution control: the permeability of the membrane is adjusted by additions of the polyelectrolyte, poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). Spin-coated films were characterized with FT-IR, and once exposed to an aqueous solution the film distends and starts acting as a membrane which controls the flow of ions and H2 gas. Electrochemical measurements (linear sweep voltammograms, open-circuit potential, and polarization) show that by altering the CA:PDMAEMA ratio the dissolution rate of Mg can be controlled. Such a control over Mg dissolution is crucial if Mg is to be considered as a viable, temporary biomedical implant material. Furthermore, the accumulation of corrosion products between the membrane and the sample diminishes the undesirable effects of high local pH and H2 formation which takes place during the corrosion process. PMID:25426707

Yliniemi, Kirsi; Wilson, Benjamin P; Singer, Ferdinand; Höhn, Sarah; Kontturi, Eero; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

2014-12-24

356

Ulipristal acetate and its role in emergency contraception: a comment.  

PubMed

The use of selective progesterone modulators (SRMs) has been investigated extensively over the last few years. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is an selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) which has been in use since 2010 as an effective alternative emergency contraception (EC) regimen to Levonorgestrel (LNG). It acts by inhibiting ovulation and delaying implantation. Its effectiveness is active up to 120 h after sexual intercourse. UPA is safe and has a good tolerability profile. Health care practitioners should inform women of all reproductive ages that UPA is an effective alternative agent for those who are dissatisfied with other means of EC, and its activity of up to 120 h after sexual intercourse should also be highlighted. PMID:22873821

Peitsidis, Panagiotis

2012-09-01

357

Bactericidal effect of ADP and acetic acid on Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous soil bacterium used for measuring the beta-lysin activity and in other bioassays. We observed a complete bactericidal effect of ADP on B. subtilis at concentrations of 50-100 microM at pH values <5.5, which disappeared at pH values above 6. The effect was also found for acetic acid at concentrations >17.4 microM and similar pH values. ATP, adenosine, and HCl were not bactericidal. We used BCECF-AM, a pH-sensitive probe, and found that the killing of B. subtilis was due to a change in the intracellular pH caused by the passage across the cell membrane of these weak organic acids when incubated with B. subtilis at pH values near the pK. More experiments are needed to determine the biological meaning of these in vitro findings. PMID:8939804

Asensi, V; Parra, F; Fierer, J; Valle, E; Bordallo, C; Rendueles, P; Gascón, S; Carton, J A; Maradona, J A; Arribas, J M

1997-01-01

358

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate; ACP-103, Ad.Egr.TNF.11 D, adalimumab, AF-IL 12, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, alefacept, alemtuzumab, a-Galactosylceramide, ALVAC vCP 1452, alvimopan hydrate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, antarelix, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic sulfide, asoprisnil, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BrachySil, brivudine; Caffeine, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, capsaicin for injection, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, cetuximab, CGP-36742, clofazimine, CpG-7909, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, dimethylfumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GPI-0100; hA 20, HTU-PA, human insulin, HuOKT 3 gamma 1(Ala 234-Ala 235), hyaluronic acid; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, INKP-100, INKP-102, iodine (I131) tositumomab, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lasofoxifene tartrate, LB-80380, lenalidomide, lidocaine/tetracaine, linezolid, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Maribavir, morphine glucuronide, MVA-5 T 4; NBI-56418, NCX-4016, nesiritide, nicotine conjugate vaccine, NSC-330507; Oglufanide, omalizumab, oxipurinol; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, PEGylated interferon alfacon-1, perospirone hydrochloride, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plerixafor hydrochloride, PowderJect lidocaine, pradefovir mesylate, prasterone, pregabalin, Prostvac VF, PT-141, PTC-124, pyridoxamine; QS-21, quercetin; R-126638, R-411, ralfinamide, rasagiline mesilate, rF-PSA, RG-2077, rhThrombin, rimonabant hydrochloride, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rV-PSA; S-18886, S-303, seocalcitol, SGN-40, sitaxsentan sodium, SPP-301, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenatoprazole, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone MDTS, testosterone transdermal patch, tgAAC-09, TH-9507, thioacetazone, tipifarnib, TQ-1011, trabectedin, travoprost, trimethoprim; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valopicitabine, voriconazole; Xcellerated T cells. PMID:16179960

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2005-01-01

359

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com.This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-263, AC-2307, Aclidinium bromide, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, Agatolimod sodium, Alefacept, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anakinra, Apaziquone, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, ASM-8, Atiprimod hydrochloride, AVE-0277, AVE-1642, AVE-8062, Axitinib, Azacitidine, AZD-0530; Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BI-2536, Biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-387032, BMS-663513, Bortezomib, BQ-123, Brivanib alaninate, BSI-201; Caspofungin acetate, CDX-110, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, CR-011, Cypher; Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Denosumab, Dexlansoprazole, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, Dovitinib, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hibvaccine, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, Emtricitabine, Endothelin, Entecavir, Eplivanserin fumarate, Escitalopram oxalate, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Farletuzumab, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fibrin sealant (human), Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Glufosfamide, GSK-1562902A; Hib-TT; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-11F8, Imidazoacridinone, IMP-321, INCB-18424, Indiplon, Indisulam, INNO-406, Irinotecan hydrochloride/Floxuridine, ITF-2357, Ixabepilone; KRN-951; Lasofoxifene tartrate; Lenalidomide, LGD-4665, Lonafarnib, Lubiprostone, Lumiliximab; MDX-1100, Melan-A/MART-1/gp100/IFN-alfa, Methyl-CDDO, Metreleptin, MLN-2704, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Na-ASP-2, Naproxcinod, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, NPI-2358; Oblimersen sodium, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, PAN-811, Panobinostat, PBI-1402, PC-515, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Perillyl alcohol, Perphenazine 4-aminobutyrate, PeviPRO/breast cancer, PF-03814735, PHA-739358, Pimecrolimus, Plitidepsin, Posaconazole, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Prucalopride, PRX-08066; rAAV2-TNFR:Fc, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranibizumab, rCD154-CLL, Retapamulin, RTS,S/SBAS2, rV-PSA-TRICOM/rF-PSA-TRICOM; SG-2000, Sinecatechins, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, SP-1640, Strontium malonate, Succinobucol, Sunitinib malate; Taxus, Teduglutide, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telbivudine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Tocilizumab; Ustekinumab; V-5 Immunitor, Voriconazole, Vorinostat; Xience V, XL-184, XL-647, XL-765; Y-39983, Zibotentan. PMID:18985183

Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

2008-09-01

360

Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-eth­oxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-di­hydro-1,2,4-oxa­diazol-3-yl)phenyl]benz­yl}-1H-1,3-benzo­diazole-7-carboxyl­ate ethyl acetate hemisolvate), was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z)-2-eth­oxy-1-{(2?-(N?-hy­droxy­carbamimido­yl)-[1,1?-biphen­yl]-4-yl)meth­yl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxyl­ate with diphen­yl carbonate. There are two independent mol­ecules (A and B) with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. In mol­ecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxa­diazole ring is 59.36?(17); the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89?(15) and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06?(11)°. The corres­ponding dihedral angles in mol­ecule B are 58.45?(18), 50.73?(16) and 85.37?(10)°, respectively. The C—O—C—Cm (m = meth­yl) torsion angles for the eth­oxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in mol­ecules A and B are 93.9?(3) and ?174.6?(3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H?N and C—H?O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic ?–? stacking inter­actions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.536?(3)Å] are also observed.

Li, Zhengyi; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Meilan; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoqiang

2015-01-01

361

Sphagnum's coup de grace: Carbon flow to acetate in northern peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic estimates of the microbial pathway of methane formation in acidic northern peatlands conclude that methane is derived from the pathway of CO2 reduction, whereas, microbial incubation and genomic studies have identified an important role played by acetoclastic methanogens in similar acidic systems. We believe our first ever intramolecular acetate isotopic analyses from an acidic wetland in central Pennsylvania resolve the apparent conflicting pathway estimates by indicating that the isotopic and microbial incubation studies are consistent with each other and with a pathway of methane formation through acetate from an isotopically depleted autotrophic acetate source. Intramolecular acetate isotopic measurements allow us to estimate that as much as 1/3 of the acetate in acidic wetlands is derived from autotrophy. Given a simple case of glucose fermentation to acetate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, our acetate production pathway estimate requires that nearly all of the carbon products from fermentation must flow through the acetate pool. Our work confirms the prior hypothesis and prior observations that acetate is an important metabolic end product in northern acidic wetlands. Further, we hypothesize an alternative fate of acetate in peat porewaters that alludes to an ecological role of autotorophic acetogens and acetate oxidizers in creating the impermeable humified peat catotelm unique to sphagnum dominated systems. The diversion of carbon flow to from methane to acetate increases the organic acid production and we hypothesize that the net transport of dissolved fulvic acids into the catotelm allows coupled acetate oxidation and fulvic acid reduction. This process of acetate consumption would create a net addition of hydrophobic, amorphous, and therefore more impermeable organic carbon. We conclude that an ecological strategy of the sphagnum mosses may not simply be to decrease the pH of the environment to slow metabolism, but rather to force the microbial community in the catotelm toward the oxidation of acetate and the reduction of peat humus, thereby aiding production of the characteristic impermeable organic seal. The sensitivity of sphagnum ecosystems to external sources of alkalinity may prove to be an important control on the ancient flux of methane from peatlands and may be an important direction of continued research.

Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; House, C.; Freean, K.

2008-12-01

362

Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications. PMID:25328203

Subari?, Drago; A?kar, Dur?ica; Babi?, Jurislav; Saka?, Nikola; Jozinovi?, Antun

2014-10-01

363

The fate of trenbolone acetate and melengestrol acetate after application as growth promoters in cattle: environmental studies.  

PubMed Central

The steroids trenbolone acetate (TbA) and melengestrol acetate (MGA) are licensed as growth promoters for farm animals in several meat-exporting countries. Although many studies have explored their safety for both animals and consumers, little is known about their fate after excretion by the animal. Our study aimed to determine the residues and degradation of trenbolone and MGA in solid dung, liquid manure, and soil. In animal experiments lasting 8 weeks, cattle were treated with TbA and MGA. Solid dung and, in case of trenbolone, liquid manure were collected and spread on maize fields after 4.5 and 5.5 months of storage, respectively. Determination of the hormone residues in all samples included extraction, clean-up (solid-phase extraction), separation of metabolites and interfering substances by HPLC (RP-18), and quantification by sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Procedures were validated by mass spectrometry (MS) methods. During storage of liquid manure the level of trenbolone decreased from 1,700 to 1,100 pg/g (17alpha-isomer), corresponding to a half-life of 267 days. Before storage, the concentrations in the dung hill ranged from 5 to 75 ng/g TbOH and from 0.3 to 8 ng/g MGA. After storage, levels up to 10 ng/g trenbolone, and 6 ng/g MGA were detected. In the soil samples trenbolone was traceable up to 8 weeks after fertilization, and MGA was detected even until the end of the cultivation period. The results show that these substances should be investigated further concerning their potential endocrine-disrupting activity in agricultural ecosystems. PMID:11713000

Schiffer, B; Daxenberger, A; Meyer, K; Meyer, H H

2001-01-01

364

Diaterebic acid acetate and diaterpenylic acid acetate: atmospheric tracers for secondary organic aerosol formation from 1,8-cineole oxidation.  

PubMed

Detailed organic speciation of summer time PM10 collected in Melbourne, Australia, indicated the presence of numerous monoterpene oxidation products that have previously been reported in the literature. In addition, two highly oxygenated compounds with molecular formulas C9H14O6 (MW 218) and C10H16O6 (MW 232), previously unreported, were detected during a period associated with high temperatures and bushfire smoke. These two compounds were also present in laboratory-produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through the reaction of OH radicals with 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), which is emitted by Eucalyptus trees. The retention times and mass spectral behavior of the highly oxygenated compounds in high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) in parallel to ion trap MS of agree perfectly between the ambient samples and the laboratory-produced SOA samples, suggesting that 1,8-cineole is the precursor of the highly oxygenated compounds. The proposed structure of the compound with molecular formula C10H16O6 was confirmed by synthesis of a reference compound. The two novel compounds were identified as diaterebic acid acetate (2-[1-(acetyloxy)-1-methylethyl]succinic acid, C9H14O6) and diaterpenylic acid acetate (3-[1-(acetyloxy)-1-methylethyl]glutaric acid, C10H16O6) based on the consideration of reaction mechanisms, the structure of a reference compound, and the interpretation of mass spectral data. Depending on the experimental conditions, the SOA yields determined in chamber experiments ranged between 16 and 20% for approximately 25 ppb of hydrocarbon consumed. The concentrations of these compounds were as high as 50 ng m(-3) during the summertime in Melbourne. This study demonstrates the importance and influence of local vegetation patterns on SOA chemical composition. PMID:19238952

Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Keywood, Melita; Gnauk, Thomas; Herrmann, Hartmut

2009-01-15

365

Acetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts  

E-print Network

Acetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts Yafang Fan Æ Chloride methane Á Carbonylation Á Rhodium catalysts 1 Introduction The conversion of natural gas has be carbonylated by carbon monoxide over rhodium-based catalyst to produce acetic acid [14]. The possibility

Bao, Xinhe

366

[Advances in functional genomics studies underlying acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

Industrial microorganisms are subject to various stress conditions, including products and substrates inhibitions. Therefore, improvement of stress tolerance is of great importance for industrial microbial production. Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in the cellulosic hydrolysates, which affects seriously on cell growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive response and tolerance of acetic acid of S. cerevisiae benefit breeding of robust strains of industrial yeast for more efficient production. In recent years, more insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying acetic acid tolerance have been revealed through analysis of global gene expression and metabolomics analysis, as well as phenomics analysis by single gene deletion libraries. Novel genes related to response to acetic acid and improvement of acetic acid tolerance have been identified, and novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance were constructed by modifying key genes. Metal ions including potassium and zinc play important roles in acetic acid tolerance in S. cerevisiae, and the effect of zinc was first discovered in our previous studies on flocculating yeast. Genes involved in cell wall remodeling, membrane transport, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and transport, as well as global transcription regulation were discussed. Exploration and modification of the molecular mechanisms of yeast acetic acid tolerance will be done further on levels such as post-translational modifications and synthetic biology and engineering; and the knowledge obtained will pave the way for breeding robust strains for more efficient bioconversion of cellulosic materials to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. PMID:25007573

Zhao, Xinqing; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Guihong; Xu, Jianren; Bai, Fengwu

2014-03-01

367

The Requirement for Acetate of a Streptomycin-resistant Strain of Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A streptomycin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, which requires haemin for aerobic growth, grew either aerobically or anaerobically in the absence of haemin provided the medium was supplemented with acetate or pyruvate; growth with these organic acids was increased by uracil and purines. The parent drug-sensitive strain grew aerobically without haemin but when grown anaerobically required either uracil or acetate

JOAN F. GARDNER; JUNE LASCELLES

1962-01-01

368

The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

2014-01-01

369

The Fermentation Stress Response Protein Aaf1p/ Yml081Wp Regulates Acetate Production in  

E-print Network

fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to a challenging environment: low pH, hypoxia, high osmotic pressureThe Fermentation Stress Response Protein Aaf1p/ Yml081Wp Regulates Acetate Production The production of acetic acid during wine fermentation is a critical issue for wineries since the sensory quality

Farrell, Anthony P.

370

Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

2012-07-01

371

High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects. The superiority of bicarbonate dialysis (Bi HD) over acetate dialysis (Ac HD) using a high sodium dialysate has not been established to our knowledge. We compared Bi HD to Ac HD over 6 weeks each in ten stable patients using a double-blind crossover design and a

William L Henrich; Terry D Woodard; Barry D Meyer; Timothy R Chappell; Lewis J Rubin

1983-01-01

372

The potentiometric determination of stability constants for zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions to 295C  

SciTech Connect

A potentiometric method was used to determine the formation quotients of zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions from 50 to 295C at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 m. The potentiometric titrations were carried out in an externally heated, Teflon-lined concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. Formal sodium acetate concentrations of the experimental solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 m with acetic acid to sodium acetate ratios ranging from 30 to 300. Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (F{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na) was used as a supporting electrolyte. Stoichiometries and formation quotients for the complexes ZnCH{sub 3}COO{sup +}, Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup {minus}} were derived from the titration data by regression analysis. Stability constants at infinite dilution (K{sub n}) and other relevant thermodynamic quantities were calculated for these three complexes. Calculations of zinc speciation in acetate-chloride solutions show that zinc acetate complexes should have an importance similar to zinc chloride complexes in high acetate waters where chloride to acetate molal ratios are less than about 10.

Giordano, T.H. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (United States)); Drummond, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-09-01

373

Glove Permeation by Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate — A Photoresist Solvent Used in Semiconductor Device Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) has been introduced as a replacement solvent for ethylene glycol ethers and ether acetates in photoresist formulations used in semiconductor processing. While PGMEA does not exhibit the adverse reproductive health effects found with the structurally related ethylene glycol derivatives, it is nevertheless readily absorbed through the skin, and proper protection against dermal absorption is

Edward T. Zellers; Robert Sulewski

1992-01-01

374

Relation between mass transfer and operation parameters in the electrodialysis recovery of acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of acetic acid from dilute wastewater by means of bipolar membrane electrodialysis is studied in more detail. The current efficiency of the electrodialysis recovery of acetic acid from dilute wastewater is related to the current density and other operation parameters. There exists a highest value of current efficiency at optimal current density. The highest concentration of recovered acid

Lixin Yu; Tao Lin; Qingfeng Guo; Jihua Hao

2003-01-01

375

Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

1986-01-01

376

UNIQUE ACETYLATION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY TRICHODERMA REESEI ACETYL ESTERASE IN WATER - VINYL ACETATE MIXTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purified T. reesei RUT C-30 acetyl esterase catalyzes acetyl transfer to a variety of carbohydrates in water in the presence of vinyl acetate as the acetyl group donor. The degree of conversion and the number of formed acetates depended on the acceptor used. With some acceptors, such as methyl or ...

377

Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent system  

E-print Network

Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent / Accepted: 7 February 2010 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract The addition of cellulose-DMA interactions. Keywords Cellulose acetate gels Á Gelation Á Viscoelastic behaviour Á Elastic modulus Á Viscous

Khan, Saad A.

378

Acetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra Ann E. West, Steven K. Schmidt*  

E-print Network

collected from a dry alpine tundra site, the Kobresia myosuroides-dominated plant com- munity of Niwot RidgeAcetate stimulates atmospheric CH4 oxidation by an alpine tundra soil Ann E. West, Steven K CH4 by an alpine tundra soil. Acetate, formate, methanol, trimethylamine and yeast extract were

Schmidt, Steven K.

379

(Prefix) Chemical Company Amount Location Quantity(>1) acetone dimethyl acetal MCB 500g 1013 YC #1  

E-print Network

18-crown-6 Aldrich 1g Dry Box 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimidethermo scientific 5g refridge. 3-mercaptopropionic acid Aldrich 5g Alycia's Bench 4-Bromoacetophenone Fluke 25g Alycia's Bench 4-sulfonyl azide Aldrich 5 g Lauren's Bench Acetic Acid Mallinkrodt 4L Acids 2 Acetic Acid EM Reagents 4L Acids

Turro, Claudia

380

Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1  

E-print Network

Propagation of Avalanches in Mn12-acetate: Magnetic Deflagration Yoko Suzuki,1 M. P. Sarachik,1 E- acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through. This phenomenon, also ob- served in other molecular magnets, has been attributed to a thermal runaway (avalanche

Lombardi, John R.

381

Diastereoselective Prins-type Reaction of Cycloalkenylcyclopropanol Silyl Ethers and ?,?-Unsaturated Aldehyde Acetals  

PubMed Central

Electrophilic addition of 1-(1-cyclohexenyl)-1-cyclopropanol trimethylsilyl ether to ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde acetals under Lewis acidic conditions proceeds with good to excellent diastereoselectivity to afford spirocyclobutanones containing three contiguous stereocenters. A convenient entry to enantioselective syntheses is available by use of a nonracemic C2-symmetric acetal. Elaboration of the resulting adducts provides ready access to medium-sized carbocycles. PMID:17850161

Lysenko, Ivan L.; Oh, Heong-Sub; Cha, Jin

2008-01-01

382

Enzymology of the Pathway for Acetate Conversion to Methane in Methanosarcina thermophilia  

SciTech Connect

These topics are covered: Regulation of enzyme synthesis; Activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA; Biochemistry of acetyl-CoA cleavage; Electron transport; Other enzymes implicated in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane; and publications resulting from this work.

Ferry, James G.

1999-05-04

383

A four-year evaluation of the chronic toxicity of megestrol acetate in dogs.  

PubMed

A 4-year evaluation of the chronic toxicity of megestrol acetate in dogs is reported. .01, .1 or .25 mg of megestrol acetate/kg/day or .25 mg of chlormadinone acetate/kg/day was administered orally for 4 years t o female beagle dogs. The hormone-treated dogs tended to gain more weig ht than did the controls (controls vs. .25 mg megestrol acetate every month after the 3rd p less than .01). All treated dogs revealed decreased evidence of estrus. Mucoid vaginal discharges were more prevalent among the middle and high dose groups. Mean hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte values were slightly decreased while mean total leucocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rates were slightly increased in the middle and high dose groups. Clotting me chanism did not reveal any disturbances. Evidence of diabetes consistin g of bilateral cataracts, elevated serum glucose concentrations and glycosuria after 4 years in 2 of 16 high-dose megestrol acetate and in 6 of 15 chlormadinone acetate-treated dogs was revealed. It is concluded that the effects of megestrol acetate were similar but less severe than those of chlormadinone acetate. PMID:52913

Weikel, J H; Nelson, L W; Reno, F E

1975-09-01

384

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

385

Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

386

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPHALTENES AND ETHYL ACETATE INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF PETROLEUM VACUUM RESIDUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asphaltenes and insoluble fractions of vacuum residues (VRs) of two Indian crude oils (viz. Heera and Jodhpur) of different specific gravity were obtained by precipitation of VRs in n-hexane, n-heptane and ethyl acetate, and also by subsequent reprecipitation of n-heptane and ethyl acetate soluble f...

387

Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

388

Ethanol-induced activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. Evidence for a role of acetate  

SciTech Connect

Consumption of alcohol causes hyperuricemia by decreasing urate excretion and increasing its production. Our previous studies indicate that ethanol administration increases uric acid production by increasing ATP degradation to uric acid precursors. To test the hypothesis that ethanol-induced increased urate production results from acetate metabolism and enhanced adenosine triphosphate turnover, we gave intravenous sodium acetate, sodium chloride and ethanol (0.1 mmol/kg per min for 1 h) to five normal subjects. Acetate plasma levels increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 mM (mean +/- SE) to peak values of 0.35 +/- 0.07 mM and to 0.08 +/- 0.01 mM during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary oxypurines increased to 223 +/- 13% and 316 +/- 44% of the base-line values during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary radioactivity from the adenine nucleotide pool labeled with (8-14C) adenine increased to 171 +/- 27% and to 128 +/- 8% of the base-line values after acetate and ethanol infusions. These data indicate that both ethanol and acetate increase purine nucleotide degradation by enhancing the turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool. They support the hypothesis that acetate metabolism contributes to the increased production of urate associated with ethanol intake.

Puig, J.G.; Fox, I.H.

1984-09-01

389

Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate  

DOEpatents

Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

2010-09-28

390

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Antagonizes Estrogen Up-Regulation of Brain Mitochondrial Function  

E-print Network

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Antagonizes Estrogen Up-Regulation of Brain Mitochondrial Function progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), on glycolysis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function calcium homeostasis and increased oxidative stress ISSN Print 0013-7227 ISSN Online 1945-7170 Printed in U

Brinton, Roberta Diaz

391

Improved isolation of zein from corn gluten meal using acetic acid as solvent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To develop new uses for corn zein, an improved means of isolating zein is needed. We have evaluated the ability of acetic acid to remove zein from corn gluten meal, distillers dried grains and ground corn. Acetic acid removed zein more quickly, at lower temperatures and in higher yields when compa...

392

The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

Allpress, K. N.; And Others

1981-01-01

393

(S)-3-(Ammoniomethyl)-5-methylhexanoate (pregabalin).  

PubMed

The title compound, C(8)H(17)NO(2), exists as a zwitterion, adopting a propeller conformation. Molecules self-assemble to form a hydrogen-bonded layer parallel to the ab crystallographic plane connected by N+-H...O- and C-H...O- hydrogen bonds. These layers are stacked along the c axis and are stabilized by van der Waals interactions. PMID:17478919

Venu, Nalivela; Vishweshwar, Peddy; Ram, Thaimattam; Surya, Devarakonda; Apurba, Bhattacharya

2007-05-01

394

Complexation of chitosan with acetic acid according to Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the interaction between the protonated chitosan (CHI) macromolecule and the acetate ion in dilute acetic acid solutions were studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical modeling. The complexation of CHI with the acetate ion showed itself as the 934 cm-1 band in the Raman spectrum, which suggests the formation of [CHI+ · CH3COO-] type ion pairs. It was concluded that a comparative analysis of the integrated intensities of the Raman bands in the range 880-940 cm-1 makes it possible to judge about the relative content of hydrated acetate ions, CHI macromolecules of the [CHI+ · CH3COO-] complex, and acetic acid molecules not involved in CHI protonation.

Mikhailov, G. P.; Tuchkov, S. V.; Lazarev, V. V.; Kulish, E. I.

2014-06-01

395

Effect of methylazoxymethanol acetate on bluegill sunfish cell cultures in vitro  

SciTech Connect

An epithelioid cell line derived from fin tissue of bluegill sunfish (designated BG/F) exhibited early indications of cell transformation upon exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM acetate). Such changes included the induction of polyploidy, increased colony-forming efficiency, loss of contact inhibition, and formation of transformed foci. Unlike later transformation characteristics observed with mammalian cells, the MAM acetate-treated BG/F cells could not be propagated under conditions of anchorage independence in soft agar. Incubation of BG/F cells with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, followed by exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, was not observed to cause cell transformation under the experimental conditions. The controls of a fibroblastic cell culture derived from gill tissue of bluegill sunfish showed spontaneous transformation after 6 months of passage, similar to the transformation observed in the experimental MAM acetate treated gill cultures.

Borenfreund, E.; Babich, H.; Martin-Alguacil, N.

1989-06-01

396

Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process  

SciTech Connect

It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

2009-06-30

397

C-13 Stable Isotope Probing of Biostimulation Experiments to Identify Acetate Utilizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine which microorganisms take up acetate during biostimulation and how the uptake of acetate by specific organisms, especially Geobacter species, changes over time, a 120-day column biostimulation experiment was performed. A total of eight columns were loaded with Rifle sediments and operated under continuous flow conditions using Rifle groundwater, amended with 3 mM C-12 acetate. At regular time intervals, C-12 acetate flow into a specific column was switched to C-13 acetate. That column was then operated under C-13 acetate amendment for 36 hours before it was sacrificed for detailed geochemical and microbiological analyses. Column operation started under iron reduction (based on the measured Fe(II) in the column effluent), while sulfate reduction (based on removal of sulfate between influent and outflow), was noted at about 25 days of operation. The microbial characterization consisted of phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP). All microbial characterization was done to differentiate between the C-12 and C-13 incorporation into the biomass. Results showed that there was a differentiation between the community that was taking up acetate actively throughout the 120 days of operation and the overall microbial community. Of interest was that the fraction of Geobacter population remained fairly constant throughout the duration of the experiment, as well as its acetate uptake. Results also showed that of the acetate incorporated into the overall biomass, about 40% was incorporated into Geobacter biomass. These results are key for the proper numerical simulations of biostimulation via acetate amendment and the biostimulation of Geobacter.

Jaffe, P. R.; Tan, H.; Kerkhof, L.; McGuinness, L.; Peacock, A.; Long, P. E.

2011-12-01

398

Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed that employ either UV-radiation or 'active substances' to reduce the concentration of living cells to below the IMOs standards. One such active substance is a chemical mixture known as Peraclean(®) Ocean. The residual of Peraclean(®) Ocean is acetate that might be present at high concentrations in discharged ballast water. In cold coastal waters the breakdown of acetate might be slow, causing a buildup of acetate concentrations in the water if regularly discharged by ships. To study the potential environmental impact, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were measured in discharge water from a Peraclean(®) Ocean treatment system in illuminated microcosms. In addition, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were studied at -1, 4, 10, 15 and 25°C in dark microcosms that simulated enclosed ballast water tanks. Acetate breakdown indeed occurred faster at higher temperatures. At 25°C the highest bacteria growth, fastest nutrient and oxygen consumption and highest DOC reduction occurred. On the other hand, at -1°C bacterial growth was strongly delayed, only starting to increase after 12 days. Furthermore, at 25°C the acetate pool was not depleted, probably due to nutrient and oxygen limitation. This means that not all acetate will be broken down in ballast water tanks, even during long voyages in warm waters. In addition, at low temperatures acetate breakdown in ballast water tanks and in discharged water will be extremely slow. Therefore, regular discharge of acetate enriched ballast water in harbors and bays may cause eutrophication and changes in the microbial community, especially in colder regions. PMID:23871568

Stehouwer, Peter Paul; van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis

2013-10-01

399

Evaluation of the morphological changes of gastric mucosa induced by a low concentration of acetic acid using a rat model.  

PubMed

Oral ingestion of concentrated acetic acid causes corrosive injury of the gastrointestinal tract. To assess the effects of a low concentration of acetic acid on gastric mucosa, we examined the gastric mucosal changes in rats at 1 and 3 days after the injection of 5% or 25% acetic acid into the gastric lumen. The area of the gastric ulcerative lesions in the 25% acetic acid group was significantly larger than that in the 5% acetic acid group. The lesion area was reduced significantly at 3 days after injection in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas no significant difference in lesion area was observed at 1 and 3 days in the 25% acetic acid group. Histologically, corrosive necrosis was limited to the mucosal layer in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas necrosis extended throughout the gastric wall in the 25% acetic acid group. At 3 days post-injection, the 25% acetic acid group showed widespread persistent inflammation, whereas the 5% acetic acid group showed widespread appearance of fibroblasts indicative of a healing process. These results indicate that a low concentration of acetic acid damages the gastric mucosa and that the degree of mucosal damage depends on the concentration of acetic acid. PMID:24485432

Nakao, Ken-ichiro; Ro, Ayako; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko

2014-02-01

400

Electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate in acetic acid solutions  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical reduction of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} has been studied by polarography on a mercury cathodes in CH{sub 3}COOH solutions. It has been found that UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}) is reduced to U(IV) by a mechanism similar to reduction in nitric acid solutions at pH>2. The polarograms have been recorded with various solid cathodes. The cathodes having current density of uranyl reduction close to that on mercury cathode have been further investigated. The most suitable cathode materials for reducing 1-2 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions have been found to be Hg, Ti, and stainless steel. The use of a stainless steel cathode is complicated by minor corrosion; as a result, iron ions appear in the solution, which catalyze the oxidation of U(IV) with air oxygen and nitrate ions. On a titanium cathode at a potential of -0.24 V 1.6 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution in 5 m CH{sub 3}COOH is reduced in the presence of 0.5 g 1{sup -1} of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} with 90% current efficiency and 99.3% extent of reduction. In the case of a mercury cathode 1.9 M UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution in 4-6 M CH{sub 3}COOH is reduced to U(IV) in the presence of 0.5 g 1{sup -1} of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} with 97{plus_minus}2% current efficiency and 99.7% extent of reduction. The formal potential of the U(VI)/U(IV) couple is equal to 0.32{plus_minus}0.01 V and only slightly depends on temperature T and concentration of acetic acid [CH{sub 3}COOH] over 20-0{degrees}C and 0.5-4 M ranges respectively. The acetic acid solutions of U(IV) thus obtained from UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are considerably more stable than nitric acid solutions of U(IV), even in the presence of much smaller amounts of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} or other stabilizers.

Fedoseev, A.M.; Shilov, V.P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-07-01

401

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08

402

Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5). Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are novel candidate genes for genetic engineering to obtain more robust yeast strains against acetic acid toxicity. Among these genes there are number of transcription factors that are documented regulators of a large percentage of the genes found to exert protection against acetic acid thus being considered interesting targets for subsequent genetic engineering. The increase of potassium concentration in the growth medium was found to improve the expression of maximal tolerance to acetic acid, consistent with the idea that the adequate manipulation of nutrient concentration of industrial growth medium can be an interesting strategy to surpass the deleterious effects of this weak acid in yeast cells. PMID:20973990

2010-01-01

403

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOEpatents

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

2004-06-22

404

Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth  

DOEpatents

A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

2007-03-27

405

Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L(-1)min(-1) at 10 mg L(-1) concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO>Evonik TiO2 P25>Hombikat TiO2>WO3. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO2 P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min(-1), lower than that obtained for TiO2 P25 (0.040 min(-1)). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO2 P25 and S2O8(2-) (0.071 min(-1)) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC-MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA. PMID:24953705

Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

2015-01-23

406

Rheological study of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils.  

PubMed

Rheological properties of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils (n-chitin) and biocompatible plasticizers intended for preparation of biodegradable films are reported in the steady, oscillatory and transient shear flow. The experiments were performed on slurries with an optimum proportion of 65/35 wt.% between chitosan and n-chitin in the films which was determined from our results of mechanical properties and absorption of water vapor. The time-dependent dynamic experiments revealed the chitin nanofibrils as an effective "gelling agent" of chitosan phase. The phenomenon is explained by a chitosan-like surface of n-chitin and by the interactions inducing orientational cooperativity of chitosan molecules dissolved in close neighborhood of the anisotropic chitin nanofibrils. Additions of glycerol or poly(ethylene glycol), improving mechanical properties of the films, delay significantly the onset of gelation of chitosan/n-chitin slurries. The effect is induced by an increase in viscosity of the slurries and by their enhanced chaotropic character. PMID:25129805

Mikešová, Jana; Hašek, Jind?ich; Tishchenko, Galina; Morganti, Pierfrancesco

2014-11-01

407

Crystallization in Thin Films of Poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallization of spun cast poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) thin films was investigated as a function of film thickness, temperature and time. The morphology was studied with scanning probe microscopy, crystallinity was analyzed by TEM and FTIR, and the melting point was measured using shear modulation force microscopy (SMFM)[1] and a home built micro DSC unit. The results show that melting point decreases abruptly by more than 15oC when the film thickness becomes less than the crystalline lamellar height. This effect appears to be correlated with a change in morphology from ordered spherulites structure with a central nucleation site to a random fibril structure with many nucleation sites. The degree of crystallinity was also drastically reduced in the fibril structure. The presence of exfoliated clay platelets increased the number of nucleation sites and decreased the spherulite diameter. Tm was not affected, but the lateral force of the film was reduced. The observed phenomena are consistent with a lamella orientation parallel to the film surface. Supported in part by the NSF-MRSEC program. [1] S.Ge, Y. Pu, W. Zhang, M. Rafailovich, and J. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 2340(2000)

Wang, Yantian; Zhang, Wenhua; Ge, Shouren; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

2002-03-01

408

Cellulose acetate electrospun fiber mats for controlled release of silymarin.  

PubMed

In this research, the silymarin-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers were prepared which containing silymarin in various amounts (i.e., 2.5-20 wt.% based on the weight of CA powder). Incorporation of silymarin in the neat CA solution did not affect the morphology of the resulting fibers, as both the neat and the silymarin-loaded CA fibers were smooth. The average diameters of silymarin-loaded CA fiber ranged between 550-900 nm. No presence of the silymarin aggregates of any kind was observed on the surfaces of these fibers, suggesting that the silymarin was encapsulated well within the fibers. These results were confirmed by lowering the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature of the silymarin-loaded electrospun CA fibers which is determined by DSC technique. The release characteristic of silymarin from the silymarin-loaded CA fiber mats was investigated by the total immersion in the solution of 1/1 phosphate buffer/methanol medium pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C. The silymarin release from the silymarin-loaded electrospun CA fiber mat is monotonously increased to reach the maximum value at 480 min. The maximum amount of silymarin released from these materials increases with the increasing of initial silymarin loading in the spinning CA solutions. Since no aggregation of silymarin was found on the surface of the silymarin-loaded fibers, the release of the silymarin from fiber mats was mainly by the diffusion. PMID:22524059

Phiriyawirut, Manisara; Phaechamud, Thawatchai

2012-01-01

409

Effect of phorbol myristate acetate on secretion of parathyroid hormone  

SciTech Connect

The influence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase c, on the secretion of parathyroid hormone from collagenase-dispersed bovine parathyroid cells was tested. The cells were incubated at low or high concentrations of calcium in the medium, and the hormone secreted into the medium was measured by a radioimmunoassay that recognizes both intact and C-terminal fragments of hormone. A stimulatory effect of PMA at high calcium, seen at PMA concentrations as low as 1.6 nM, did not occur with a biologically inactive 4{alpha}-isomer of phorbol ester, and was independent of changes in cellular adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate levels. Examination of {sup 32}P-labeled phosphoproteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed acidic proteins of {approximately}20,000 and 100,000 Da that were phosphorylated at low and high calcium + 1.6 {mu}M PMA but not at high calcium alone. The protein kinase c activity associated with the membrane fraction of parathyroid cells significantly decreased 40% when the cells were incubated at high vs. low calcium. The data suggest that calcium may regulate parathyroid hormone secretion through changes in protein kinase c activity of the membrane fraction of the cell and protein phosphorylation.

Morrissey, J.J. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

1988-01-01

410

Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

Jerry D. Cohen

2009-11-01

411

Successful pregnancy after treatment with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

2014-01-01

412

Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids  

PubMed Central

This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5?mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

Monleón, Javier; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

2014-01-01

413

[Abiraterone acetate(ZYTIGA®)-development and literature review].  

PubMed

Abiraterone acetate(AA)has been approved in more than 80 countries for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer(mCRPC). In July 2013, a marketing approval application for AA was submitted to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. AA is a selective inhibitor of CYP17A1, a crucial enzyme for androgen biosynthesis. AA exerts its anti-tumor activity by directly inhibiting androgen production at all three sources, i. e., the testes, adrenal glands, and tumor itself. Data from international phase III studies and phase I and II studies in Japan have indicated that AA improves the overall survival and quality of life(QoL)of patients with mCRPC. Herein, we have summarized the development of AA and the results of important international and local clinical trials in Japan. In addition, the effect of food on AA bioavailability, concomitant steroid use, and liver function test abnormalities have been discussed regarding the appropriate use of AA. PMID:25131865

Nishimura, Yukiko; Mukai, Harumi; Suzukawa, Kazumi; Oyama, Ryo

2014-07-01

414

Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

2007-01-01

415

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Provera) in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cancer*  

PubMed Central

Eighty patients with advanced metastatic renal cancer have been treated with hormones, chiefly medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera). This progestational compound is remarkably free from side-effects and can be given in high dosage for long periods without serious complications. Ninety per cent of cases had multiple metastases: in 76% more than one organ was involved and nearly 50% were seriously ill or “terminal”. Subjective improvement occurred in at least 55%. In 11 patients there was marked improvement in the radiological or clinical signs of tumour within 2 to 6 weeks of commencing treatment or changing to a different hormone. In two further cases improved general health was associated with stationary metastases for 20 months. A significant objective response occurred in 16% of the total series. A favourable response was seen more often in men (21%) than in women (8%). If deaths within 6 weeks are excluded the objective response rate in men is increased to 27%. Although the response of advanced renal cancer to hormonal treatment is usually incomplete and of brief duration, it is possible for such treatment to offer a “new lease of life” to a seriously ill patient, even in old age, for 2 to 3 years. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 2Figs. 3-4 PMID:5115827

Bloom, H. J. G.

1971-01-01

416

Effect of Acetate on Blood Metabolites and Glucose Tolerance during Haemodialysis in Uraemic Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined changes in blood concentrations of glucose, acetate and other blood intermediary metabolites as well as the disposal of an intravenous glucose load during successive glucose-free acetate and control bicarbonate haemodialysis in random order, in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Plasma acetate levels increased about 10-fold in both the diabetic and non-diabetic subjects during the 1st hour of acetate dialysis.

Abayomi O. Akanji; Steven Sacks

1991-01-01

417

40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

2012-07-01

418

40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

2010-07-01

419

The acetate switch of an intestinal pathogen disrupts host insulin signaling and lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae is lethal to the model host Drosophila melanogaster through mechanisms not solely attributable to cholera toxin. To examine additional virulence determinants, we performed a genetic screen in V. cholerae-infected Drosophila and identified the two-component system CrbRS. CrbRS controls transcriptional activation of acetyl-CoA synthase-1 (ACS-1) and thus regulates the acetate switch, in which bacteria transition from excretion to assimilation of environmental acetate. The resultant loss of intestinal acetate leads to deactivation of host insulin signaling and lipid accumulation in enterocytes, resulting in host lethality. These metabolic effects are not observed upon infection with ?crbS or ?acs1 V. cholerae mutants. Additionally, uninfected flies lacking intestinal commensals, which supply short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, also exhibit altered insulin signaling and intestinal steatosis, which is reversed upon acetate supplementation. Thus, acetate consumption by V. cholerae alters host metabolism, and dietary acetate supplementation may ameliorate some sequelae of cholera. PMID:25525791

Hang, Saiyu; Purdy, Alexandra E; Robins, William P; Wang, Zhipeng; Mandal, Manabendra; Chang, Sarah; Mekalanos, John J; Watnick, Paula I

2014-11-12

420

Choline acetate enhanced the catalytic performance of Candida rogusa lipase in AOT reverse micelles.  

PubMed

Choline acetate is an ionic liquid composed of a kosmotropic anion and a chaotropic cation. According to Hofmeister series, a kosmotropic anion and/or a chaotropic cation could stabilize an enzyme, thereby facilitating the retention of the catalytic activity of the enzyme. In this work, we first report the influence of choline acetate on the activity and stability of lipase in AOT/water/isooctane reverse micelles. The indicator reaction is the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl butyrate. The results show that a low level of choline acetate does not affect the microstructure of the AOT reverse micelles, but the ionic liquid can improve the catalytic efficiency of lipase. Fluorescence spectra show that a high level of choline acetate has an impact on the conformation of lipase, so the activation is mainly due to the influence of choline acetate on the nucleophilicity of water. Infrared spectra demonstrate that choline acetate can form stronger hydrogen bonds with water surrounding lipase, and therefore enhance the nucleophilicity of the water, which makes it easier to attack the acyl enzyme intermediate, thereby increasing the activity of the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester. A study on the stability of lipase in AOT reverse micelles indicates that the ionic liquid is able to maintain the activity of lipase to a certain extent. The effect of choline acetate is consistent with that predicted based on Hofmeister series. PMID:23352950

Xue, Luyan; Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lijie; Sun, Yanwen; Yan, Keqian; Li, Ying; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo

2013-05-01

421

Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats.  

PubMed

Rats were treated with 0, 8, 16 and 24 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) (i.p.) for 35 days with or without Maca. Maca was co-administrated orally from day 18 to day 35. The lengths of stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination. Also, sex organ weights, testicular and epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, daily sperm production, sperm transit rate and serum testosterone levels were measured. Lead acetate treatment resulted in a dose-response reduction of lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI, and serum testosterone levels. However, rats treated with 8 and 16 mg/kg but not 24 mg/kg of lead acetate showed a low number of testicular spermatids, low daily sperm production (DSP) and low epididymal sperm count. Administration of Maca to rats treated with lead acetate resulted in higher lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI with respect to lead acetate-treated rats. Moreover, treatment with Maca to lead acetate-treated rats resulted in lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI similar to the control group. Maca administration also reduced the deleterious effect on DSP caused by lead acetate treatment. Maca prevented LA-induced spermatogenic disruption in rats and it may become in a potential treatment of male infertility associated with lead exposure. PMID:16510228

Rubio, Julio; Riqueros, Marissa I; Gasco, Manuel; Yucra, Sandra; Miranda, Sara; Gonzales, Gustavo F

2006-07-01

422

Thermodynamic modeling of neptunium(V)-acetate complexation in concentrated NaCl media  

SciTech Connect

The complexation of neptunium(V), Np(V), with the acetate anion, Ac{sup -}, was measured in sodium chloride media to high concentration using an extraction technique. The data were interpreted using the thermodynamic formalism of Pitzer, which is valid to high electrolyte concentrations. A consistent model for the deprotonation constants of acetic acid in NaCl and NaClO{sub 4} media was developed. For the concentrations of acetate expected in a waste repository, only the neutral complex NpO{sub 2}Ac(aq) was important in describing the interactions between the neptunyl ion and acetate. The thermodynamic stability constant log {beta}{sup 0}{sub 101} for the reaction NpO{sub 2}{sup +} + Ac{sup -} {leftrightarrow} NpO{sub 2}Ac was calculated to be 1.46{plus_minus}0.11. This weak complexing behavior between the neptunyl ion and acetate indicates that acetate will not significantly enhance dissolved Np(V) concentrations in ground waters associated with nuclear waste repositories that may contain acetate.

Novak, C.F.; Borkowski, M.; Choppin, G.R.

1995-09-01

423

Paradigm for industrial strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance loci in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The application of systems biology tools holds promise for rational industrial microbial strain development. Here, we characterize a Zymomonas mobilis mutant (AcR) demonstrating sodium acetate tolerance that has potential importance in biofuel development. The genome changes associated with AcR are determined using microarray comparative genome sequencing (CGS) and 454-pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing analysis is employed to validate genomic differences and to investigate CGS and 454-pyrosequencing limitations. Transcriptomics, genetic data and growth studies indicate that over-expression of the sodium-proton antiporter gene nhaA confers the elevated AcR sodium acetate tolerance phenotype. nhaA over-expression mostly confers enhanced sodium (Na+) tolerance and not acetate (Ac-) tolerance, unless both ions are present in sufficient quantities. NaAc is more inhibitory than potassium and ammonium acetate for Z. mobilis and the combination of elevated Na+ and Ac- ions exerts a synergistic inhibitory effect for strain ZM4. A structural model for the NhaA sodium-proton antiporter is constructed to provide mechanistic insights. We demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae sodium-proton antiporter genes also contribute to sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and ammonium acetate tolerances. The present combination of classical and systems biology tools is a paradigm for accelerated industrial strain improvement and combines benefits of few a priori assumptions with detailed, rapid, mechanistic studies. PMID:20484677

Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L.; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Martin, Stanton L.; Guo, Hao-Bo; Smith, Jeremy C.; Brown, Steven D.

2010-01-01

424

Effect of Lead Acetate on the Susceptibility of Rats to Bacterial Endotoxins  

PubMed Central

Selye, H. (Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada), B. Tuchweber, and L. Bertók. Effect of lead acetate on susceptibility of rats to bacterial endotoxins. J. Bacteriol. 91:884–890. 1966.—A single, normally well-tolerated, intravenous injection of lead acetate increases the sensitivity of the rat to the endotoxins of various gram-negative bacteria about 100,000 times above normal. Under the conditions of these experiments, the mortality and organ changes normally produced by the intravenous injection of 100 ?g of Escherichia coli endotoxin were essentially the same as those obtained by use of 1 nanogram in lead-sensitized rats. The sensitizing effect of lead acetate for E. coli endotoxin is greatest when the two agents are given simultaneously. However, considerable sensitization is still detectable when endotoxin is injected up to 1 hr before or 7 hr after sensitization with lead. No sensitization was noted when the endotoxin was administered 24 hr before or after lead acetate. Under our experimental conditions, the minimal dose of lead acetate which could still induce significant sensitization to E. coli endotoxin was 1 mg per 100 g of body weight. Although lead acetate induces a high degree of susceptibility to various endotoxins, other reticuloendothelial blocking agents did not acquire unusual toxicity after pretreatment with lead. Finally, none of the other metals or reticuloendothelial blocking agents tested could duplicate the pronounced decrease in endotoxin resistance induced by lead acetate. Images PMID:5327235

Selye, H.; Tuchweber, B.; Bertok, L.

1966-01-01

425

Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.  

PubMed

In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production. PMID:24891733

Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

2014-09-01

426

Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate  

SciTech Connect

Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering

2007-09-15

427

Enhancement of Acetic Acid Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the HAA1 Gene, Encoding a Transcriptional Activator  

PubMed Central

Haa1 is a transcriptional activator required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to weak acids. Here we show that the constitutive HAA1-overexpressing strain acquired a higher level of acetic acid tolerance. Under conditions of acetic acid stress, the intracellular level of acetic acid was significantly lower in HAA1-overexpressing cells than in the wild-type cells. PMID:22961896

Tanaka, Koichi; Ishii, Yukari; Ogawa, Jun

2012-01-01

428

Measurement of acetate in human blood by gas chromatography: effects of sample preparation, feeding, and various diseases.  

PubMed

We measured acetate concentrations in whole blood, serum, and plasma by a modification of a previously described method involving vacuum distillation and gas chromatography. The mean acetate concentration of fresh venous plasma from 27 normal subjects was 51 +/- 5 mumol/L (95% confidence limits ranged from 0 to 103 mumol/L). The acetate concentrations of serum and plasma incubated for 2 h at either 4 degrees C or 27 degrees C were the same. The acetate concentration of whole blood incubated at 27 degrees C was significantly greater than that of blood incubated at 4 degrees C. This change may have resulted from the production of acetate by erythrocytes or from the hydrolysis of acetate esters. Storage of plasma at -20 degrees C for 24 h significantly increased acetate concentrations from 26 +/- 6 mumol/L to 63 +/- 4 mumol/L. After the subjects consumed a standard breakfast, venous plasma acetate concentrations increased from 58 to 97 mumol/L at 30 min. Acetate concentrations in arterial plasma exceeded those in venous plasma. Plasma acetate concentrations were not significantly altered in patients with malignancy or diabetes mellitus, but severe liver disease and severe acidosis were both associated with increased acetate concentrations. These preliminary observations suggest that plasma acetate concentrations may be altered in several disease states. PMID:476928

Tollinger, C D; Vreman, H J; Weiner, M W

1979-10-01

429

Viscoelastic Behavior of Cellulose Acetate in a Mixed Solvent Collins Appaw, Richard D. Gilbert, and Saad A. Khan*,  

E-print Network

,8 Cellulose acetates are extensively used in filtration/mem- brane13,14 and encapsulation15 applicationsViscoelastic Behavior of Cellulose Acetate in a Mixed Solvent System Collins Appaw, Richard D composition on the rheological and microstructural behavior of a ternary cellulose acetate (CA

Khan, Saad A.

430

Age-specific titer and antennal perception of acetic acid, a component of male Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.) hairpencil secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairpencil secretion ofPseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.) contains acetic acid as well as previously identified benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol. Age-specific titers of acetic acid were significantly greater than those of benzaldehyde and, at 25 °C, accumulation of both compounds in the hairpencils peaked on the second day after emergence. Excised antennae of males and females perceived both compounds. Antennal response to acetic

Sheila M. Fitzpatrick; Jeremy N. Mcneil; David Miller

1989-01-01

431

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The...base). (b) Agencies must inspect cellulose-acetate film periodically for...

2011-07-01

432

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The...base). (b) Agencies must inspect cellulose-acetate film periodically for...

2010-07-01

433

Long-term effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in clinical practice conditions.  

PubMed

Glatiramer acetate currently represents one of the main treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the information available about its long-term effect in clinical practice is still limited. Thus, this multicenter retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in this setting. The study population included RRMS patients treated with glatiramer acetate for at least 5 years after its marketing authorization and the primary endpoint was long-term clinical effectiveness, defined as absence of disability progression for at least five consecutive years. A total of 149 patients were included into the study, who had received glatiramer acetate for a mean of 6.9 ± 1.4 years (5 years, n=149; 6 years, n=112; 7 years, n=63; 8 years, n=32; 9 years, n=21). More than 85% of patients remained free from disability progression through years 1 to 9 of glatiramer acetate treatment, and 75.2% showed absence of disability progression for at least five consecutive years. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were maintained, with most patients showing stable/improved EDSS and 92.6% sustaining EDSS <6. Decreased annual relapse rates and increased proportion of relapse-free patients were maintained during the whole glatiramer acetate treatment compared to the year prior to its authorization (p<0.001). The number of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted lesions also decreased from pre-glatiramer-acetate assessment to last follow-up whilst on glatiramer acetate (p<0.05). In conclusion, administration of glatiramer acetate shows long-term clinical effectiveness for RRMS treatment; its effect under clinical practice conditions slowed disability progression and reduced relapse occurrence for up to 9 years. PMID:25257663

Arnal-García, Carmen; Amigo-Jorrin, Maria Del Campo; López-Real, Ana Maria; Lema-Devesa, Carme; Llopis, Noemi; Sanchez-de la Rosa, R

2014-12-01

434

Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

2012-01-01

435

Putative ABC Transporter Responsible for Acetic Acid Resistance in Acetobacter aceti  

PubMed Central

Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid. PMID:16391084

Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

2006-01-01

436

¹¹C-acetate PET/CT imaging: physiologic uptake, variants, and pitfalls.  

PubMed

(11)C-acetate PET is used in the assessment of various cardiologic and oncologic diseases. This article describes the physiologic uptake of (11)C-acetate and presents the common benign findings in different anatomic parts of the body. Salivary glands, tonsils, thyroid, meningeal tuberculoma, meningiomas, and macroadenomas of pituitary gland are sites of mild to moderate tracer uptake in the head and neck region. Parenchymal diseases of the lung and reactive and/or inflammatory mediastinal lymphadenopathies cause benign (11)C-acetate uptake in the thorax. Liver, spleen, pancreas, and rectum show an increased uptake. Urinary tract and prostate gland show faint tracer uptake. PMID:25030397

Karanikas, Georgios; Beheshti, Mohsen

2014-07-01

437

Online Measurement of the Intramolecular Isotopic Composition of Acetate in Natural Porewater Samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide and methane are traditionally considered to be the dominant end products of anaerobic metabolism while acetate is thought to be a rapidly consumed intermediate. However, in some settings, recent evidence has grown to suggest that, at least transiently, acetate can be a major metabolic end product. In natural systems, isotopic mass balances can be used to partition the flow of carbon to methane, CO2, and acetate. However, these isotopic estimates require intramolecular measurements of acetate in addition to isotopic measurements of the gaseous species, CO2 and CH4. In practice, the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate is rarely measured because the analysis is technically challenging and traditionally requires prior separation and offline pyrolysis of purified acetate. As a result of these technical challenges, acetate methyl carbon is usually assumed to be a few permil depleted relative to the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter. In environments where acetate may be produced by autotrophic acetogens this assumption can be devastatingly false. This work describes the use of an online method for the analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of dissolved acetate from dilute surface water samples with a detection limit of injected sample down to 500uM. Preconcentration of samples via lyophilization has resulted in detection limits as low as 30uM. In 2002, at Penn State, Dias et al. (Organic Geochemistry Vol. 33, p161-168) reported a technique to examine the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate from oil-prone source rocks using SPME extraction with an online GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. We have adapted the Dias method to be used with direct injection of dilute natural water samples. Briefly, this procedure protonates acetate with a .1M addition of oxalic acid and vaporizes the sample in the GC inlet at low temperatures. This prevents oxalic acid decomposition and provides sufficient separation of acetate from other volatile acids and water on a polar column (Nukol, Supelco). Following the GC, the acetic acid is reacted with either a combustion furnace (for total acetate) or a pyrolysis furnace for the carboxyl carbon only. The pyrolysis furnace operates at 600°C with Pd wire catalyst and a continuous trickle of H2. The resulting CO2 is then analyzed by conventional IRMS. This GC-PY-IRMS technique is coupled to a GC-C-IRMS such that switching between oxidation and pyrolysis is accomplished by a simple switch followed by a short stabilization period. The above pyrolysis conditions result in a small but characterizable oxidation of methyl carbon to CO2. The cross-contamination of acetate methyl into the acetate carboxyl signal is estimated to be approximately 15 to 20% of the IRMS signal and an isotope dilution series is used to estimate and correct for this contamination. Since this technique is online and allows for the injection of water samples the need for sample extraction and separation are eliminated. This method also significantly improves detection limits over the Dias 2002 method by avoiding SPME injections which have unfavorable partition coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetate.

Thomas, R. B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

2006-12-01

438

Experimental Determination of Densities and Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate with Alcohols (C3 and C4) at 0.3 MPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for the methyl acetate + 1-propanol, methyl acetate + 1-butanol, and ethyl acetate + 1-butanol mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibria data at 0.3 MPa for these binary systems were obtained using a stainless steel equilibrium still. The activity coefficients were obtained from the experimental data using the Hayden and O’Connell method and the Yen and Woods equation. The binary systems in this study showed positive deviations from ideality. The experimental VLE data were verified with the point-to-point test of van Ness using the Barker routine and the Fredenslund criterion. The different versions of the UNIFAC and the ASOG group contribution models were applied.

Susial, Pedro; Estupiñan, Esteban J.; Castillo, Victor D.; Rodríguez-Henríquez, José J.; Apolinario, José C.

2013-10-01

439

Photoluminescence of cellulose acetate and silica sphere composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong blue and green light emission has been observed from the cellulose acetate (CA) and silica sphere composite. Two different amounts of silica spheres were mixed in the CA solution to fabricate large area super-hydrophobic films. The silica spheres and CA solution ratios were 0.07:4.0 (SSCA-A) and 0.14:4.0 (SSCA-B). The milky color solution of SSCA-A and SSCA-B slowly turned to light yellow and red, respectively, with the time passed. The colors became intense yellow and red for the SSCA-A and SSCA-B, respectively, after 38 days. FTIR spectra show more absorption at 3478 cm-1 corresponding sbnd OH stretching vibration, at 2963 cm-1 caused by sbnd CH stretching vibration, at 1746 and 1713 cm-1 representing the Cdbnd O stretching vibration, and at 1100 cm-1 corresponding sbnd Rsbnd OH and Sisbnd Osbnd Si stretching vibration for CA and silica. Therefore, aged SSCA-A and SSCA-B have more sbnd OH, sbnd CH, sbnd Cdbnd O, and Sisbnd Osbnd Si groups than pure CA. UV-visible spectra show the absorption peaks at 410 nm for both SSCA-A and SSCA-B. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks were shifted toward longer wavelength with the increase of the excitation wavelength and became maximum at approximately 470 nm with excitation wavelength at 400 nm for the SSCA-A. There were two maximum luminescence peaks at 470 and 530 nm with the excitation wavelength at 400 and 470 nm, respectively, for the SSCA-B. The luminescence peak shift was due to the multiple emission center proved by the different excitation energy.

Kang, Kwang-Sun

2014-08-01

440

Central vasopressin receptors are upregulated by deoxycorticosterone acetate.  

PubMed

Studies were performed to characterize the regulation of central vasopressin (AVP) receptors in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-NaCl-treated and control rats, and in DOCA-treated primary neuronal enriched cell cultures. Uninephrectomized rats were given NaCl to drink and implanted subcutaneously with a silastic implant containing 200 mg/kg DOCA. [3H]AVP binding to a diencephalic block of tissue was examined. Whereas DOCA-NaCl treatment did not affect the affinity of [3H]AVP binding, the total number of AVP receptors was increased between 3 and 14 days following DOCA-NaCl administration. No differences in the number of binding sites were present in the established (35-56 days after DOCA-NaCl administration) stages of hypertension. To determine whether the increase in [3H]AVP binding was a direct effect of DOCA on neurons or related to the hormonal, volume or other physiologic changes that DOCA-NaCl treatment causes in the whole animal, [3H]AVP binding was examined in neurons grown in culture that was treated with DOCA. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that DOCA treatment (compared to control) produced an increase in the number but no change in the affinity of the AVP binding sites in primary neuron-enriched cultures. Treatment of cultured neurons with other steroids (estrogen, corticosterone, or aldosterone), did not change the kinetics of [3H]AVP binding, suggesting that the effects of DOCA on the AVP receptor were specific for this steroid. These data indicate that, in comparison to control rats, DOCA-NaCl hypertensive rats, have an enhanced number of AVP receptors in the diencephalon, perhaps as a direct result of an interaction between DOCA and AVP receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1838296

Swords, B H; Wyss, J M; Berecek, K H

1991-09-13