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Sample records for acetate prasterone pregabalin

  1. Pregabalin

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of seizures in people with epilepsy. Pregabalin is in a class of medications called ... you are taking pregabalin for the treatment of epilepsy, mental illness, or other conditions. A small number ...

  2. Assessment of the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin alone or in combination with morphine during acetic acid-induced writhing in mice.

    PubMed

    Shamsi Meymandi, Manzumeh; Keyhanfar, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Visceral pain currently represents one of the most important pain treatment challenges in clinical practice, and investigators across the world are continuously designing and conducting numerous studies in search of new analgesics and new combination therapies. The current study assessed the analgesic effects of saline, pregabalin (2, 5, 17, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (0.25, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) alone or in combination on acetic-acid induced abdominal contractions in mice. The number of writhes and the inhibitory effects (as percentages, %E) were calculated as antinociception indexes. These indexes indicated that both pregabalin (Prg) and morphine (Mrp) produced dose-dependent antinociception. Pregabalin at 5 mg/kg (%E=32.5±4.0) or 2 mg/kg (%E=20.8±4.5) and morphine at 0.25 mg/kg (%E=20.2±7.8) and 0.5 mg/kg (%E=43.6±4.5) exhibited antinociceptive effects, and the combination of pregabalin and morphine produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects (%E=62.4±5.8 for Prg5+Mrp0.25; %E=71.7±4.8 for Prg5+Mrp0.5; and %E=54.1±4.0 for Prg2+Mrp0.25), although this enhancement was not observed when morphine was combined with 17 mg/kg pregabalin. Pre-treatment with 2 mg/kg (i.p.) naloxone did not affect increased analgesia when combined with these drugs. A dose-response curve was established for pregabalin at a fixed morphine dose and revealed that, at low doses, pregabalin dose-dependently enhanced the antinociceptive effects, while the opposite was true at high doses (17 and 25 mg/kg). In conclusion, pregabalin can produce levels of antinociception that are similar to those of morphine in acetic acid-induced viscero-somatic pain. The enhancement of antinociception produced by the co-administration of morphine and pregabalin is termed a supra-additive interaction and occurred at low doses but not at high doses. These findings militate for increased attention and caution in clinical settings. PMID:23921185

  3. [Pregabalin Dependence: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Ebru; Altıntoprak, Ayşe Ender; Coşkunol, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin is a new generation antiepileptic that exerts its effect by decreasing the release of such neurotransmitters as glutamate, noradrenaline, and substance P. Pregabalin can be prescribed in Turkey at 150-600 mg to treat neuropathic pain, generalized anxiety disorder, and fibromyalgia, and as concomitant therapy in adult patients with partial epilepsy. Experimental studies have shown that pregabalin could be beneficial in the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence and withdrawal, as well as for relapse prevention in patients with alcohol dependence. Nonetheless, the number of case reports on the abuse potential of pregabalin has increased. Herein we present a patient with pregabalin dependence. The patient’s underlying alcohol and polysubstance dependence, and symptoms of generalized anxiety were thought to contribute to the development of pregabalin dependence. The patient reported that he had experienced severe withdrawal symptoms when he tried to stop using pregabalin. Bupropion and low-dose quetiapine were added to his paroxetine treatment, and pregabalin was discontinued gradually. Following this treatment the patient had not exhibited any signs of pregabalin dependence for one month. Although pregabalin is a promising drug for various psychiatric disorders, it should be used carefully in patients with a history of substance dependence. PMID:26364177

  4. Evaluation of the acceptability of intravaginal prasterone ovule administration using an applicator.

    PubMed

    Montesino, Marlene; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Zerhouni, Jaâfar; Côté, Isabelle; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Moyneur, Erick; Balser, John

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the acceptability of the intravaginal administration of ovules/suppositories of DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone) for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) in women with moderate to severe dyspareunia who were administered daily for 12 weeks intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA or placebo. There were a total of 373 women in the per-protocol population who responded to the questionnaire for both treatment groups. While it was planned that the applicator would be evaluated as suitable if at least 80% of participants have a global score  ≤ 2 units, 99% and 100% of participants had a score  ≤ 2 units in the placebo and DHEA groups, respectively, for the global score (mean of 5 questions). When asked about like and dislike the technique of drug administration, 284 comments were positive, while 114 women gave no comment. About 92-94% of women indicated that they were very confident to be able use the applicator successfully in the future. The survey shows a high degree of satisfaction and of confidence to use the applicator successfully in the future. PMID:26634942

  5. [Pregabalin and postoperative hyperalgesia. A review].

    PubMed

    Lederer, A J; Bornemann-Cimenti, H; Wejbora, M; Kern-Pirsch, C; Michaeli, K; Sandner-Kiesling, A

    2011-02-01

    Numerous studies support the theory that pregabalin causes an antihyperalgesic effect, which could be potentially beneficial in a perioperative setting. By binding to calcium channels pregabalin reduces the release of excitatory neurotransmitters and therefore inhibits central sensitization. Animal studies clearly demonstrated the antihyperalgesic potency of pregabalin but human experiments are, however, inconclusive. Clinical studies with quantitative sensory testing have not yet been published. Although strongly supported by theoretical considerations the routine preoperative application of pregabalin for the prevention of hyperalgesia cannot be recommended due to the lack of clinical studies. Future studies should incorporate secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia as primary parameters. PMID:21181417

  6. Pregabalin Abuse amongst Opioid Substitution Treatment Patients.

    PubMed

    McNamara, S; Stokes, S; Kilduff, R; Shine, A

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is used in treating epilepsy, nerve pain and anxiety. Pregabalin was initially thought to have a low misuse potential however there are emerging reports of Pregabalin being abused. A study was commenced at the National Drug Treatment Centre's (NDTC) Drug Analysis Laboratory to determine the level of usage of Pregabalin within the addiction services population in Ireland. A total of 498 urine samples representing samples from 440 individual opioid substitution patients, initially screened by immunoassay for drugs of abuse, were subjected to further analysis for Pregabalin by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Of 440 patients tested, 39 tested positive for Pregabalin (9.2%). Only 10 patients from this group were prescribed this drug to our knowledge thus giving an estimated rate of misuse of 7.0%. Other drugs detected in the Pregabalin positive patients were Opiates (31.8%), Cocaine (11.4%), Benzodiazepines (79.5%) and Cannabis (77.8%). Our study confirms that Pregabalin abuse is taking place amongst the addiction services population. We believe that misuse of this prescription drug is a serious emerging issue which should be monitored carefully. PMID:26817289

  7. Pregabalin in Chemotherapy Induced Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Atreya, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents belonging to vinca alkaloids, taxanes, and antitubulins produce peripheral neuropathy for which there is no validated treatment. Pregabalin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid analog, is known to inhibit theα2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. Earlier studies and case reports have shown pregabalin to be effective in treating neuropathic pain. We present a case series of patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy who were successfully treated with pregabalin with reduction in the hyperalgesia, allodynia, and improvement in the quality of life. PMID:26962289

  8. Pregabalin in Chemotherapy Induced Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents belonging to vinca alkaloids, taxanes, and antitubulins produce peripheral neuropathy for which there is no validated treatment. Pregabalin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid analog, is known to inhibit theα2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. Earlier studies and case reports have shown pregabalin to be effective in treating neuropathic pain. We present a case series of patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy who were successfully treated with pregabalin with reduction in the hyperalgesia, allodynia, and improvement in the quality of life. PMID:26962289

  9. Spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of pregabalin in capsules and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Shaalan, Rasha Abdel-Aziz

    2010-09-01

    Three new, simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of the γ-amino-n-butyric acid derivative, pregabalin. Pregabalin as a primary amine reacts with fluorescamine to yield a fluorescent product (Method I), with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (Method II) and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (Method III) in aqueous alkaline buffered media to form colored products which could be measured spectrophotometrically. The optimum conditions for each reaction were ascertained and the methods were applied for the determination of pregabalin over the concentration range of 20-280 ng mL(-1) and 1-7 μg mL(-1) for spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, respectively with good correlation (≥0.999). The limits of assays detection ranged from 9.6 × 10(-4) μg mL(-1) to 0.42 μg mL(-1) for spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, respectively. The suggested methods were applied to the determination of the drug in capsules. No interference could be observed from the additives listed to be in capsules. Furthermore, the spectrofluorimetric method was extended to the in-vitro determination of pregabalin in spiked urine, interference from endogenous amino acids could be eliminated through selective complexation with copper acetate; the percentage recovery was found to be 98% ± 1.42 (n=6). Co- administered drugs such as chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam and lamotrigine did not interfere with the assay. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The results obtained were determined to be in good agreement with those obtained using a previously reported method. PMID:23675201

  10. [Pregabalin for the reduction of opiate withdrawal symptoms].

    PubMed

    Kämmerer, Nina; Lemenager, Tagrid; Grosshans, Martin; Kiefer, Falk; Hermann, Derik

    2012-10-01

    Pregabalin is a substance which modulates monoamine release in "hyper-excited" neurons. It binds potently to the α2-δ subunit of calcium channels. Pilotstudies on alcohol- and benzodiazepine dependent patients reported a reduction of withdrawal symptoms through Pregabalin. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted so far assessing this effect in opiate dependent patients. We report the case of a 43-year-old patient with Pregabalin intake during opiate withdrawal. Multiple inpatient and outpatient detoxifications from maintenance replacement therapy with Buprenorphine in order to reach complete abstinence did not show success because of extended withdrawal symptoms and repeated drug intake. Finally he disrupted his heroine intake with a simultaneously self administration of 300  mg Pregabaline per day and was able to control the withdrawal symptoms. In this time we did control the Pregabalin level in serum and urine in our outpatient clinic. In the course the patient reported that he could treat further relapse with opiate or opioids with Pregabalin successful. This case shows first details for Pregabalin to relief withdrawal symptoms in opiate withdrawal. PMID:22689280

  11. Teratogenic Effects of Pregabalin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Leila; Mohammad, Afshar; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Vahdati Mashhadi, Nasser; Moallem, Seyed Adel

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have the potential to affect fetal development throughout pregnancy. Considering the broad therapeutic indications of pregabalin (PGB), its potential teratogenic effects and the levels of homocysteine have been studied. Materials and Methods: Timed-pregnant mice received one of three doses of PGB (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg/day) or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. The litters were stained and examined for malformations. Total homocysteine (tHcy) was measured in serum from the pregnant mice on GD18. Results: The rate of fetus malformations increased significantly in all treated groups as compared to the control group. The abnormalities included limb, vertebral column and craniofacial abnormalities. The most common abnormality was limb deformity. The percentage of fetal resorption significantly increased at higher doses. There was no significant difference in tHcy concentrations between the treated and control groups. Conclusion: Pregabalin may have potential teratogenic effects even in lower doses, however with less intensity than other AEDs. Therefore, it is suggested that great caution should be taken when prescribing it in pregnancy and further investigation for possible mechaninsms. PMID:24379963

  12. Disturbance of consciousness and involuntary movements caused by pregabalin.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Yoshida, Tsuneyasu; Kitamura, Koichi; Hamada, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A 91-year-old man with chronic low-back pain presented with 1-day history of disturbance of consciousness and myoclonus of all of his extremities and face. Laboratory examinations revealed no abnormalities. Administration of benzodiazepine for the myoclonus resulted in immediate and complete disappearance of the symptoms. He recently started taking pregabalin (Lyrica capsules) which was prescribed for low-back pain 3 days ago. The day following admission, he discontinued pregabalin. He did not experience recurrence of his symptoms any more. We concluded that the neurological symptoms he experienced were possibly due to pregabalin. PMID:23192584

  13. Pregabalin effects on neural response to emotional faces

    PubMed Central

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Tankersley, Dharol; Ravindran, Lakshmi N.; Flagan, Taru; Stein, Nathan R.; Stein, Murray B.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Pregabalin has shown promise in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate agents used to treat anxiety, e.g., SSRIs and benzodiazepines, attenuate amygdala, insula, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation during emotional processing. Our prior study has shown that during anticipation of an emotional stimulus, pregabalin attenuates amygdala and insula activation but increases medial PFC activation. In this study, we examined whether, similar to SSRIs and benzodiazepines, pregabalin attenuates amygdala, insula, and medial PFC during emotional face processing. Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a double-blind within-subjects fMRI study investigating effects of placebo, 50 mg, and 200 mg pregabalin on neural activation during an emotional face-matching task. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that pregabalin dose-dependently attenuated left amygdala activation during fearful face-matching and left anterior insula activation during angry face-matching. The 50 mg dose exhibited more robust effects than the 200 mg dose in the right anterior insula and ventral ACC. Thus, pregabalin shares some similarity to SSRIs and benzodiazepines in attenuating anger and fear-related insula and amygdala activation during emotional face processing. However, there is evidence that a subclinical 50 mg dose of pregabalin produced more robust and widespread effects on neural responses in this paradigm than the more clinically relevant 200 mg dose. Taken together, pregabalin has a slightly different effect on brain activation as it relates to anticipation and emotional face processing, which may account for its unique characteristic as an agent for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22470326

  14. Serum steroid concentrations remain within normal postmenopausal values in women receiving daily 6.5mg intravaginal prasterone for 12weeks.

    PubMed

    Martel, Céline; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Lavoie, Lyne; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-05-01

    This study integrates all data obtained in women aged 40-80years enrolled with moderate to severe symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) who received daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5mg) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) for 12weeks (n=723; ITT-S population) as compared with placebo (n=266; ITT-S population). To this end, serum steroid levels (DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17β-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G)) were measured at Day 1 and Week 12 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following validation performed according to the FDA guidelines [1-6]. In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology where DHEA is exclusively transformed intracellularly into active sex steroids which act and are inactivated locally before being released as glucuronided or sulfated metabolites for elimination by the kidneys and liver, all sex steroids remained well within normal postmenopausal values following administration of intravaginal DHEA. Serum estradiol, the most relevant sex steroid, was measured after 12weeks of treatment at 3.36pg/ml (cITT-S population) or 19% below the normal postmenopausal value of 4.17pg/ml. On the other hand, serum E1-S, the best recognized marker of global estrogenic activity, shows an average value of 209pg/ml at 12 weeks compared to 220pg/ml in normal postmenopausal women. Moreover, serum ADT-G, the main metabolite of androgens, also remains well within normal postmenopausal values. The present data shows that a low daily intravaginal dose (6.5mg) of DHEA (prasterone) which is efficacious on the symptoms and signs of VVA, permits to achieve the desired local efficacy without systemic exposure, in agreement with the stringent mechanisms of menopause established after 500 million years of evolution where each cell in each tissue is the master of its sex steroid exposure. PMID:26972555

  15. Anorgasmia during pregabalin add-on therapy for partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; De Luca, Rosaria; Pollicino, Patrizia; Bramanti, Placido

    2013-09-01

    Anorgasmia is the inability to reach orgasm during sexual intercourse, and, although it is believed that around 90% of anorgasmia problems are related to psychological issues, the use of serotoninergic drugs, including antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics, is a common cause of situational anorgasmia. Pregabalin is a new antiepileptic drug, structurally related to gabapentin, and commonly used as adjunctive therapy for partial epilepsy and treatment of neuropathic pain in adults. Herein, we describe three men with epilepsy, who experienced severe anorgasmia after pregabalin add-on treatment. PMID:23906723

  16. Transient Positive Horizontal Head Impulse Test in Pregabalin Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju-Hoen; Jo, Hyunjin; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2015-12-01

    Head impulse test (HIT) is helpful to understanding high-frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with dizziness and imbalance. There are some reports on abnormal HITs in cerebellar disorder. To our knowledge, there was no report of transient bilateral positive head impulse related to antiepileptic drugs. A 65-year-old woman developed dizziness and imbalance after treatment with pregabalin for pain control of radiation cystitis. Neurological examination exhibited positive bilateral HIT results, in addition to ataxia and gaze-evoked rebound nystagmus. Pregabalin intoxication can evoke transient positive horizontal head impulse test as another indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:26819943

  17. Transient Positive Horizontal Head Impulse Test in Pregabalin Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju-Hoen; Jo, Hyunjin; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Head impulse test (HIT) is helpful to understanding high-frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with dizziness and imbalance. There are some reports on abnormal HITs in cerebellar disorder. To our knowledge, there was no report of transient bilateral positive head impulse related to antiepileptic drugs. A 65-year-old woman developed dizziness and imbalance after treatment with pregabalin for pain control of radiation cystitis. Neurological examination exhibited positive bilateral HIT results, in addition to ataxia and gaze-evoked rebound nystagmus. Pregabalin intoxication can evoke transient positive horizontal head impulse test as another indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:26819943

  18. Potential for pregabalin abuse or diversion after past drug-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Filipetto, Frank A; Zipp, Christopher P; Coren, Joshua S

    2010-10-01

    Pregabalin, primarily used to manage neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia, is categorized as a Schedule V drug (ie, lowest potential for abuse) in the US Drug Enforcement Administration's Controlled Substances Act. Because pregabalin is not recognized as a drug with high-abuse potential, data on pregabalin abuse and addiction are lacking. The authors report a case of a 35-year-old woman with a history of opioid-seeking behavior who was prescribed pregabalin for pain control. The patient requested an increase in her medication 2 months after beginning treatment and, after her physician denied her request, subsequently obtained pregabalin from other sources. Over a 28-day period, the patient received a total of 88,500 mg of pregabalin. After learning of the other prescriptions, the patient's physician became suspicious of pregabalin abuse or diversion. In accordance with state medical board guidelines, the patient was discharged from the practice and referred to a local detoxification center. PMID:21068226

  19. Effect of Pregabalin in Preventing Secondary Damage in Traumatic Brain Injury: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Calikoglu, Cagatay; Aytekin, Hikmet; Akgül, Osman; Akgül, Mehmet Hüseyin; Gezen, Ahmet Ferruh; Akyuz, Feyzullah; Cakir, Murteza

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study we aimed to explore the effects of pregabalin on a traumatic brain injury model in rats. Material/Methods This study included 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats randomized into 4 groups, each of which contained equal numbers of animals. The control group had no head trauma and thus was not treated. The trauma group had head trauma but was not treated. The pregabalin group had no head trauma but was treated by pregabalin. The trauma + pregabalin group had head trauma treated with pregabalin. The biopsy samples taken from the study animals were histopathologically examined for the presence of edema, inflammation, and neuronal damage. Results All animals in the trauma group had edema, inflammation, and neuronal damage. Four subjects in the control group, 6 in the pregabalin group, and 4 in the trauma + pregabalin group had edema; inflammation was present in 1 subject in the control group, 3 subjects in the pregabalin group, and 3 subjects in the trauma + pregabalin group; neuronal damage existed in 1 subject in the control group, 1 subject in the pregabalin group, and 6 subjects in the trauma + pregabalin group. The trauma group had significantly higher edema and neuronal damage scores than the other groups. Similarly, inflammation was significantly more prevalent in the trauma group than the control and trauma + pregabalin groups. Conclusions The results of the present study indicated anti-edema, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of pregabalin in an experimental head trauma model in rats. Pregabalin may thus be beneficial in humans with acute TBI by relieving concomitant edema and inflammation. PMID:25785578

  20. Pregabalin for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: an update

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, David S; Ajel, Khalil; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Nowak, Magda; Rafiq, Rizwan

    2013-01-01

    A previous review summarized what was then known about the potential role of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in over-excited presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD. PMID:23836974

  1. Subjective, Psychomotor, and Physiological Effects of Pregabalin Alone and in Combination With Oxycodone in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Paice, Judith A.; Coalson, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug indicated for neuropathic disorders and fibromyalgia. Some chronic pain patients suffering from these disorders take both this drug and an opioid for pain relief. Pregabalin is a scheduled drug under the Controlled Substance Act. The subjective effects of this drug have not been well-characterized, and the extent to which it alters the subjective effects of opioids has not been studied to the best of our knowledge. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 16 healthy volunteers were administered (in separate sessions) capsules containing placebo, 75 mg pregabalin, 150 mg pregabalin, 10 mg oxycodone, and 75 mg pregabalin combined with 10 mg oxycodone. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological measures were assessed during each of the five sessions. Pregabalin produced dose-related increases in some subjective effects and decreased respiration rate, but did not impact on psychomotor performance. Abuse liability-related subjective effects such as drug liking and desire to take the drug again were not increased by either pregabalin dose. Oxycodone produced increases in several subjective effects, including ratings of drug liking. When 75 mg pregabalin was combined with oxycodone some subjective effects were altered relative to placebo, in contrast to when each drug was tested alone. Liking of oxycodone was not increased by 75 mg pregabalin. However, recent studies have suggested that this drug is abused, and we would recommend that further psychopharmacological studies with pregabalin are warranted, including a study assessing its abuse liability across a range of doses in sedative abusers. PMID:22085697

  2. Safety of pregabalin among hemodialysis patients suffering from uremic pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Alhafez, Abdul Aziz; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Bin Chia, David Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and probability of adverse events associated with the use of 75 mg pregabalin post hemodialysis (pHD) among patients with UP. Methods: A cross-sectional study done among the hemodialysis patients suffering from uremic pruritus (UP) Aljaber Kidney Center (AJKC), Al-Ahsa, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Assessment for the safety profile of pregabalin was done using Naranjo’s algorithm. A predictive model was developed using binary multiple logistic regression to explore association of patients’ demographics and risk factors with the occurrence of AEs. Throughout statistical significance level was considered significant at 0.05. Key findings: Assessment of safety of pregabalin revealed that somnolence and dizziness were the two frequent adverse events followed by constipation, weight gain and edema. However, it was noticed that female patients aged less than 50 years were found to be at a higher risk in comparison with men. Moreover, those patients having one comorbid complication (i.e. hypertension or diabetes mellitus alone) were at a higher risk of somnolence, weight gain and dry mouth. Conclusion: Naranjo’s quantification for the possibility and probability of adverse events reflect that all the events were probable. Age, gender and comorbid medical conditions are some of the factors that might have clinical association with the occurrence of the AEs. PMID:26702255

  3. Pregabalin in Neuropathic Pain: Evidences and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vivek; Singh, Nirmal; Singh Jaggi, Amteshwar

    2014-01-01

    Pregabalin is an antagonist of voltage gated Ca2+ channels and specifically binds to alpha-2-delta subunit to produce antiepileptic and analgesic actions. It successfully alleviates the symptoms of various types of neuropathic pain and presents itself as a first line therapeutic agent with remarkable safety and efficacy. Preclinical studies in various animal models of neuropathic pain have shown its effectiveness in treating the symptoms like allodynia and hyperalgesia. Clinical studies in different age groups and in different types of neuropathic pain (peripheral diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, cancer chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain) have projected it as the most effective agent either as monotherapy or in combined regimens in terms of cost effectiveness, tolerability and overall improvement in neuropathic pain states. Preclinical studies employing pregabalin in different neuropathic pain models have explored various molecular targets and the signaling systems including Ca2+ channel-mediated neurotransmitter release, activation of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), potassium channels and inhibition of pathways involving inflammatory mediators. The present review summarizes the important aspects of pregabalin as analgesic in preclinical and clinical studies as well as focuses on the possible mechanisms. PMID:24533015

  4. Pharmacokinetic equivalence study of two formulations of the anticonvulsant pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Setiawati, Effi; Putri, Ratih Sofia Ika; Gunawan, Vincent Angga; Ong, Fenny; Susanto, Liana W; Nofiarny, Dwi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study was conducted to evaluate whether the bioavailability of pregabalin capsules 150 mg manufactured by PT Dexa Medica was equivalent to the reference formulation. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, two-period, two-sequence, and crossover study under fasting condition, with a 1-week washout period. Plasma concentrations of pregabalin from 20 subjects were determined by using a validated liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection method. Pharmacokinetic parameters assessed in this study were: area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to last observed quantifiable concentration (AUC0–t), area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to maximum plasma concentration (tmax), and terminal half-life (t1/2). The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean ratios of test formulation/reference formulation were calculated for the AUC and Cmax parameters; while tmax difference was analyzed nonparametrically on the original data using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test, and t1/2 difference was analyzed using Student’s paired t-test. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD]) AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, Cmax, and t1/2 of pregabalin from the test formulation were 27,845.86 (4,508.27) ng · h/mL, 28,311.70 (4,790.55) ng · h/mL, 3,999.71 (801.52) ng/mL, and 5.66 (1.20) hours, respectively; while the mean (SD) AUC0–t, AUC0–∞,Cmax, and t1/2 of pregabalin from the reference formulation were 27,398.12 (4,266.28) ng · h/mL, 27,904.24 (4,507.31) ng · h/mL, 3,849.50 (814.50) ng/mL, and 5.87 (1.25) hours, respectively. The median (range) tmax of pregabalin from the test formulation and reference formulation was 1.00 (0.67–2.00) hours and 1.00 (0.67–3.00) hours, respectively. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of test formulation/reference formulation for pregabalin were 101.54% (98.75%–104.41%) for AUC0–t, 101.35% (98.66%–104.11%) for AUC0–∞, and 104.19% (98.75%–109.93%) for Cmax. Conclusion The study concluded that the two formulations of pregabalin capsules studied were bioequivalent. PMID:25945069

  5. Pregabalin role in inhibition of morphine analgesic tolerance and physical dependency in rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Shakeri, Saeed

    2014-11-01

    Pregabalin is recently proposed as analgesic or adjuvant in pain management. While previous preclinical investigations have evaluated pregabalin-opioid interactions, the effect of pregabalin on opioid tolerance and dependency has not yet been studied. Here we evaluated the effects of different doses of pregabalin (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, s.c.) on morphine-induced tolerance and dependency in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were rendered tolerant to analgesic effect of morphine by injection of morphine (10mg/kg, s.c.) twice daily for 7 days. To develop morphine dependence, rats were given escalating doses of morphine. To determine the effect of pregabalin on the development of morphine tolerance and dependence, different doses of pregabalin were administrated before morphine. The tail-flick and naloxone precipitation withdrawal tests were used to evaluate the degree of tolerance and dependence, respectively. Chronic morphine-injected rats showed significant decrements in the percentage maximum possible effect (%MPE) of morphine on the days 5 and 7 (32.5%±3.5, 21.5%±4, respectively) compared to the first day (100%) which showed morphine tolerance. Pregabalin 200mg/kg completely prevented the development of morphine tolerance. In addition, concomitant treatment of morphine with pregabalin attenuated almost all of the naloxone-induced withdrawal signs which include weight loss, jumping, penis licking, teeth chattering, wet dog shakes, rearing, standing, sniffing, face grooming and paw tremor. These data show that pregabaline has a potential anti-tolerant/anti-dependence property against chronic usage of morphine. Therefore, pregabalin appears to be a promising candidate for the treatment of opioid addiction after confirming by future clinical studies. PMID:25220244

  6. Clinical utility, safety, and efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Bhusal, Santosh; Diomampo, Sherilyn; Magrey, Marina N

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic debilitating medical syndrome with limited therapeutic options. Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant and α-2-Δ subunit receptor ligand, is one of the anchor drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia. The drug has shown clinically meaningful benefits across multiple symptom domains of fibromyalgia. Efficacy of pregabalin in fibromyalgia pain has been evaluated in at least five high-quality randomized trials, two long-term extension studies, a meta-analysis, a Cochrane database systematic review, and several post hoc analyses. These studies also hint towards a meaningful benefit on sleep, functioning, quality of life, and work productivity. Side effects of pregabalin, although common, are mild to moderate in intensity. They are noted early during therapy, improve or disappear with dose reduction, and are not usually life- or organ threatening. In most patients, tolerance develops to the most common side effects, dizziness, and somnolence, with time. With close clinical monitoring at initiation or dose titration, pregabalin can be effectively used in primary care setting. Pregabalin is cost saving with long-term use and its cost-effectiveness profile is comparable, if not better, to that of other drugs used in fibromyalgia. In the present era of limited therapeutic options, pregabalin undoubtedly retains its role as one of cardinal drugs used in the treatment of fibromyalgia. This review intends to discuss the clinical utility of pregabalin in the management of fibromyalgia with a focus on efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:26937205

  7. Clinical utility, safety, and efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Bhusal, Santosh; Diomampo, Sherilyn; Magrey, Marina N

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic debilitating medical syndrome with limited therapeutic options. Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant and α-2-Δ subunit receptor ligand, is one of the anchor drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia. The drug has shown clinically meaningful benefits across multiple symptom domains of fibromyalgia. Efficacy of pregabalin in fibromyalgia pain has been evaluated in at least five high-quality randomized trials, two long-term extension studies, a meta-analysis, a Cochrane database systematic review, and several post hoc analyses. These studies also hint towards a meaningful benefit on sleep, functioning, quality of life, and work productivity. Side effects of pregabalin, although common, are mild to moderate in intensity. They are noted early during therapy, improve or disappear with dose reduction, and are not usually life- or organ threatening. In most patients, tolerance develops to the most common side effects, dizziness, and somnolence, with time. With close clinical monitoring at initiation or dose titration, pregabalin can be effectively used in primary care setting. Pregabalin is cost saving with long-term use and its cost-effectiveness profile is comparable, if not better, to that of other drugs used in fibromyalgia. In the present era of limited therapeutic options, pregabalin undoubtedly retains its role as one of cardinal drugs used in the treatment of fibromyalgia. This review intends to discuss the clinical utility of pregabalin in the management of fibromyalgia with a focus on efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:26937205

  8. Pregabalin: a review of its use in adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2014-09-01

    Pregabalin (Lyrica()), a well established anxiolytic agent, has been approved in the EU for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults. It has a distinct mechanism of action relative to other anti-anxiety agents (?2? binding at presynaptic voltage dependent calcium channels leading to inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission), a rapid onset of effect (typically ?1week) and broad spectrum activity against both the psychic and somatic symptoms of GAD. In long-term studies, pregabalin maintained improvements in anxiety symptoms that occurred in response to short-term treatment and delayed the time to relapse of GAD compared with placebo. Common comorbidities of GAD, such as insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and subsyndromal depression, have no effect on the anxiolytic efficacy of, and moreover are specifically improved by, pregabalin. Treatment with pregabalin is generally well tolerated; the drug has an adverse event profile that includes dizziness, somnolence and weight gain. The potential for abuse of pregabalin is low; the risk of withdrawal symptoms is generally low when the drug is discontinued gradually (over 1week). Alongside selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), pregabalin is considered a first-line agent for the long-term treatment of GAD by the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry. It should be stressed, however, that definitive head-to-head studies comparing pregabalin with SSRI/SNRIs, including in patients with GAD and co-morbid major depressive disorder, are currently lacking. Recently, a study of SSRI/SNRI augmentation with pregabalin yielded positive results, while another study of switching from long-term benzodiazepine therapy to pregabalin was inconclusive; further investigations on these topics are warranted. PMID:25149863

  9. The efficacy of pregabalin in patients with moderate and severe pain due to diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Bruce; Li, Chunming

    2016-05-01

    Objective To compare the therapeutic response to pregabalin in patients with moderate or severe painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN). Research design and methods Data were pooled from 11 placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin flexible or fixed dose (150, 300 or 600 mg/day) in pDPN patients with mean baseline pain scores of ≥4 to <7 (moderate) or ≥7 to ≤10 (severe). Last observation carried forward imputation was used. Study number/ClinicalTrials.gov identifier 1008-014/-, 1008-029/-, 1008-040/-, 1008-131/-, 1008-149/-, 1008-000-155/-, A0081030/NCT00156078, A0081060/NCT00159679, A0081071/NCT00143156, A0081081/NCT00301223, A0081163/NCT00553475. Main outcome measures Pregabalin-mediated change in pain, pain-related sleep interference (PRSI) and patient global impression of change (PGIC) were compared versus placebo and between moderate and severe pain cohorts. Adverse events (AEs) were reported. Results At baseline, 1816 patients had moderate pain (pregabalin, n = 1189) and 1119 patients had severe pain (pregabalin, n = 720). Pregabalin significantly reduced pain scores at endpoint compared with placebo when patients of all pain levels were combined (all doses; p < 0.05). In the moderate and severe pain cohorts, pregabalin treatment (300, 600 mg/day or flexible) significantly reduced mean pain scores at endpoint compared with placebo (p < 0.01). Pain reduction was greatest in patients with severe baseline pain compared with moderate baseline pain (pregabalin 300, 600 mg/day or flexible; p < 0.0001). Pregabalin improved PRSI and PGIC in the moderate and severe cohorts compared with placebo. The greatest improvement in PRSI also occurred in the severe cohort. Treatment-emergent AEs, most commonly dizziness, somnolence and peripheral edema, occurred more frequently in patients treated with pregabalin compared with placebo. Conclusions Pregabalin was effective in pDPN patients with both moderate and severe baseline pain. Patients with severe pain exhibited greater improvements in pain and PRSI than patients with moderate pain. Pain severity may, in part, predict therapeutic response to pregabalin. PMID:26854578

  10. Antinociceptive and hypnotic activities of pregabalin in a neuropathic pain-like model in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Xiao; Yin, Dou; Guo, Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Ya-Dong; Qu, Wei-Min; Han, Wu-Jian; Hong, Zong-Yuan; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the antinociceptive and hypnotic effects of pregabalin, we established a neuropathic pain-like model in mice using partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL), and examined thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, electroencephalogram, rota-rod testing, and c-Fos expression in the anterior cingulate cortex. Gabapentin was used as a reference drug in the study. Pregabalin administered i.g. at 12.5 and 25mg/kg prolonged the duration of thermal latencies by 1.4- and 1.6-fold and increased the mechanical threshold by 2.2- and 3.1-fold 3h after administration, respectively, but did not affect motor coordination in PSNL mice, compared with vehicle control. Pregabalin (12.5 and 25mg/kg) given at 6:30 increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in a 4-h period by 1.3- and 1.4-fold, respectively, in PSNL mice. However, pregabalin (25mg/kg) given at 20:30 did not alter the sleep pattern in normal mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that PSNL increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of anterior cingulate cortex by 2.1-fold, which could be reversed by pregabalin. These results indicate that pregabalin is an effective treatment for both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in PSNL mice. PMID:25989046

  11. Effect of preoperative pregabalin on postoperative pain relief in thyroidectomy patients: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bindu, M.; Kumar, A. Arun; Kesavan, M.; Suresh, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Effective management of postoperative pain leads to increased patient satisfaction, earlier mobilization, reduced hospital stay and costs. One of the methods used for management of postoperative pain is preemptive analgesia-blockade of afferent nerve fibers before a painful stimulus. It modifies peripheral and central nervous system processing of noxious stimuli and reduces postoperative opioid consumption. In this study, we sought to determine whether the preoperative use of pregabalin reduced postoperative pain and morphine consumption in thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: The observation was conducted on patients undergoing thyroidectomy surgery in two groups of 30 each. Of the two groups, one received a single oral dose of pregabalin 1 h preoperatively. Both the group of patients undergoes anesthesia in a similar manner. Following surgery the efficacy of the preoperative dose of pregabalin is observed by measuring the total opioid consumption 6 h postoperatively and assessing verbal numeric pain scales. Results: The mean time to request of rescue analgesia in pregabalin group was 322.07 69.106 min when compared to morphine group 256.33 111.978 min (P < 0.05). The mean pain scores in the postoperative period were also significantly lower in patients receiving pregabalin. Conclusion: Single oral dose of pregabalin was effective in reducing acute postoperative pain in thyroidectomy patients. It prolongs the time to the request of rescue analgesia and also results in lower postoperative pain scores in the immediate postoperative period. However a statistically significant low opioid consumption could not be proved. PMID:26417121

  12. Pregabalin suppresses nociceptive behavior and central sensitization in a rat trigeminal neuropathic pain model

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ye; Wang, Hua; Chiang, Chen-Yu; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pregabalin affects nociceptive behavior and central sensitization in a trigeminal neuropathic pain model. A partial infraorbital nerve transection (p-IONX) or sham operation was performed in adult male rats. Nociceptive withdrawal thresholds were tested with von Frey filaments applied to the bilateral vibrissal pads pre-operatively and post-operatively. On post-operative day 7, the behavioral assessment was conducted before and at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 180 min, and 24hr after pregabalin (0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injection. The effects of pregabalin or saline were also examined on the mechanoreceptive field and response properties of nociceptive neurons recorded in the medullary dorsal horn at post-operative day 7–10. Reduced withdrawal thresholds reflecting bilateral mechanical allodynia were observed in p-IONX rats until post-operative day 28, but not in sham-operated rats. At post-operative day 7, pregabalin significantly and dose-dependently reversed the reduced mechanical withdrawal thresholds in p-IONX rats. Pregabalin also attenuated central sensitization of the neurons, as reflected in reversal of their reduced activation threshold, increased responses to pinch/pressure, and enhanced stimulus-response function. This study provides the first documentation that pregabalin attenuates the mechanical allodynia and central sensitization that characterize this trigeminal neuropathic pain model, and supports its clinical use for treating craniofacial neuropathic pain. PMID:23374941

  13. Preparation and evaluation of floating tablets of pregabalin.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Navjot; Kumar, Rakesh; Sarwal, Amita; Sinha, V R

    2016-04-01

    Floating tablets of pregabalin were prepared using different concentrations of the gums (xanthan gum and guar gum), Carbopol 974P NF and HPMC K100. Optimized formulations were studied for physical tests, floating time, swelling behavior, in vitro release studies and stability studies. In vitro drug release was higher for tablet batches containing guar and xanthan gum as compared to the batches containing Carbopol 974P NF. Tablet batches were subjected to stability studies and evaluated by different parameters (drug release, drug content, FTIR and DSC studies). The optimized tablet batch was selected for in vivo pharmacodynamic studies (PTZ induced seizures). The results obtained showed that the onset of jerks and clonus were delayed and extensor phase was abolished with time in treated groups. A significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in control and treated group behavior indicating an excellent activity of the formulation for a longer period (>12 h). PMID:26146770

  14. Exploratory Polysomnographic Evaluation of Pregabalin on Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Sanne; Otte, Andreas; de Weerd, Al; van Erp, Gerard; Cohen, Adam; van Gerven, Joop

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of adjunctive pregabalin 300 mg/day versus placebo on polysomnographic (PSG) variables in patients with well controlled partial seizures and subjectively reported sleep disturbance. Methods: An exploratory, 4-week, double-blind, randomized study in patients with well controlled partial seizures on AED monotherapy and subjective sleep disturbance over the previous 6 months. Mean changes from baseline to endpoint in PSG and subjective sleep variables (MOS Sleep Scale, Groningen Sleep Questionnaire) in patients on adjunctive pregabalin 300 mg/day (n=8) were compared with patients on placebo (n=7). Results: Baseline PSGs showed sleep fragmentation. Mean sleep efficiency improved significantly in both treatment groups in the mean baseline to endpoint change; there was no significant between-group difference. Pregabalin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in number of awakenings (p = 0.02), and improvement in wake time after sleep onset approached significance (p = 0.055), suggesting improvement in sleep continuity that was not observed in the placebo group. Pregabalin was also associated with significant improvements in the MOS sleep disturbance and sleep quantity subscales compared with placebo (p ≤0.03). There were no changes in self-reported seizure control. Conclusions: This exploratory pilot study suggests that pregabalin may improve sleep continuity in patients with clinically relevant sleep disturbance. The effect on disturbed sleep appears independent of seizure control. The effects of pregabalin on disturbed sleep and seizures and their interrelationships warrant further study. Citation: de Haas S; Otte A; de Weerd A; van Erp G; Cohen A; van Gerven J. Exploratory polysomnographic evaluation of pregabalin on sleep disturbance in patients with epilepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(5):473-478. PMID:17803010

  15. Neuropathic Pain in Elderly Patients with Chronic Low Back Painand Effects of Pregabalin: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenyu; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Sadayuki; Harada, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Preliminary study. Purpose To assess the association of neuropathic pain with chronic low back pain (LBP) and the effect of pregabalin on neuropathic pain in the elderly. Overview of Literature Of those with chronic LBP, 37% were predominantly presenting with neuropathic pain in young adults. Pregabalin is effective for pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy and peripheral neuralgia. No study has reported on the effects of pregabalin for chronic LBP in elderly patients yet. Methods Pregabalin was administered to 32 patients (age, ≥65 years) with chronic LBP for 4 weeks. Pain and activities of daily living were assessed using the Neuropathic Pain Screening Questionnaire (NePSQ), the pain DETECT questionnaire, visual analog scale, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Modic change and spinal canal stenosis were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Altogether, 43.3% of patients had neuropathic pain according to the NePSQ and 15.6% patients had pain according to the pain DETECT. The efficacy rate of pregabalin was 73.3%. A significant effect was observed in patients with neuropathic pain after 4 weeks of administration. Conclusions Neuropathic pain was slightly less frequently associated with chronic LBP in the elderly. Pregabalin was effective in reducing pain in patients with chronic LBP accompanied with neuropathic pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis and lower limb symptoms were observed in patients with neuropathic pain. We recommend the use of pregabalin for patients after evaluating a screening score, clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging studies. PMID:25901238

  16. Comparison of pregabalin versus ketamine in postoperative pain management in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mahran, Essam; Hassan, Mohamed Elsayed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast surgery compromises one of the most common cancer surgeries in females and commonly followed by acute postoperative pain. Pregabalin and ketamine have been used in many previous studies and was found to have a good analgesic profile. We assumed that pregabalin and ketamine can be used in control of postoperative pain in female patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Material and Methods: Ninety female patients scheduled for cancer breast surgery were allocated in three groups (30 patients each), control group (group c) received preoperative placebo, pregabalin group (group p) received oral 150 mg pregabalin 1 h before surgery, ketamine group (group k) received intravenous (IV) 0.5 mg/kg ketamine with induction of anesthesia followed by 0.25 mg/kg/h IV throughout the surgery. All patients received general anesthesia and after recovery, the three groups were assessed in the first postoperative 24 h for postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), total 24 h morphine consumption, incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), sedation score >2 and any complications from the drugs used in the study. Results: The use of pregabalin or ketamine was found to reduce total postoperative morphine consumption with P < 0.001. There was no difference between pregabalin and ketamine groups in opioid requirement. There was no difference between the three groups in postoperative VAS scores or incidence of PONV and sedation score >2. Conclusion: The use of preoperative oral 150 mg pregabalin 1 h before surgery or IV 0.5 mg ketamine with induction of anesthesia can reduce postoperative opioid consumption in breast cancer surgery without change in sedation or PONV and with a good safety profile. PMID:26240541

  17. Double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of pregabalin for neurogenic claudication

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Maria E.; Rast, Shirley A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Gewandter, Jennifer S.; Chowdhry, Amit K.; Czerniecka, Kate; Pilcher, Webster H.; Simon, Lee S.; Dworkin, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effects of pregabalin on the induction of neurogenic claudication. Methods: This study was a randomized, double-blind, active placebo-controlled, 2-period, crossover trial. Twenty-nine subjects were randomized to receive pregabalin followed by active placebo (i.e., diphenhydramine) or active placebo followed by pregabalin. Each treatment period lasted 10 days, including a 2-step titration. Periods were separated by a 10-day washout period, including a 3-day taper phase after the first period. The primary outcome variable was the time to first moderate pain symptom (Numeric Rating Scale score ≥4) during a 15-minute treadmill test (Tfirst). Secondary outcome measures included pain intensity at rest, pain intensity at the end of the treadmill test, distance walked, and validated self-report measures of pain and functional limitation including the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, modified Brief Pain Inventory–Short Form, Oswestry Disability Index, and Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire. Results: No significant difference was found between pregabalin and active placebo for the time to first moderate pain symptom (difference in median Tfirst = −1.08 [95% confidence interval −2.25 to 0.08], p = 0.61). In addition, none of the secondary outcome measures of pain or functional limitation were significantly improved by pregabalin compared with active placebo. Conclusions: Pregabalin was not more effective than active placebo in reducing painful symptoms or functional limitations in patients with neurogenic claudication associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with neurogenic claudication, compared with diphenhydramine, pregabalin does not increase the time to moderate pain during a treadmill test. PMID:25503625

  18. Activation of Antioxidative Functions by Radon Inhalation Enhances the Mitigation Effects of Pregabalin on Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Horie, Shunsuke; Etani, Reo; Kanzaki, Norie; Sasaoka, Kaori; Kobashi, Yusuke; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    Radon inhalation brings pain relief for chronic constriction injury- (CCI-) induced neuropathic pain in mice due to the activation of antioxidative functions, which is different from the mechanism of the pregabalin effect. In this study, we assessed whether a combination of radon inhalation and pregabalin administration is more effective against neuropathic pain than radon or pregabalin only. Mice were treated with inhaled radon at a concentration of 1,000 Bq/m(3) for 24 hours and pregabalin administration after CCI surgery. In mice treated with pregabalin at a dose of 3 mg/kg weight, the 50% paw withdrawal threshold of mice treated with pregabalin or radon and pregabalin was significantly increased, suggesting pain relief. The therapeutic effects of radon inhalation or the combined effects of radon and pregabalin (3 mg/kg weight) were almost equivalent to treatment with pregabalin at a dose of 1.4 mg/kg weight or 4.1 mg/kg weight, respectively. Radon inhalation and the combination of radon and pregabalin increased antioxidant associated substances in the paw. The antioxidant substances increased much more in radon inhalation than in pregabalin administration. These findings suggested that the activation of antioxidative functions by radon inhalation enhances the pain relief of pregabalin and that this combined effect is probably an additive effect. PMID:26798431

  19. Activation of Antioxidative Functions by Radon Inhalation Enhances the Mitigation Effects of Pregabalin on Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Shunsuke; Etani, Reo; Kanzaki, Norie; Sasaoka, Kaori; Kobashi, Yusuke; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    Radon inhalation brings pain relief for chronic constriction injury- (CCI-) induced neuropathic pain in mice due to the activation of antioxidative functions, which is different from the mechanism of the pregabalin effect. In this study, we assessed whether a combination of radon inhalation and pregabalin administration is more effective against neuropathic pain than radon or pregabalin only. Mice were treated with inhaled radon at a concentration of 1,000 Bq/m3 for 24 hours and pregabalin administration after CCI surgery. In mice treated with pregabalin at a dose of 3 mg/kg weight, the 50% paw withdrawal threshold of mice treated with pregabalin or radon and pregabalin was significantly increased, suggesting pain relief. The therapeutic effects of radon inhalation or the combined effects of radon and pregabalin (3 mg/kg weight) were almost equivalent to treatment with pregabalin at a dose of 1.4 mg/kg weight or 4.1 mg/kg weight, respectively. Radon inhalation and the combination of radon and pregabalin increased antioxidant associated substances in the paw. The antioxidant substances increased much more in radon inhalation than in pregabalin administration. These findings suggested that the activation of antioxidative functions by radon inhalation enhances the pain relief of pregabalin and that this combined effect is probably an additive effect. PMID:26798431

  20. Pregabalin Versus Pramipexole: Effects on Sleep Disturbance in Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Patrick, Jeffrey; DuBrava, Sarah; Becker, Philip M.; Lankford, Alan; Chen, Crystal; Miceli, Jeffrey; Knapp, Lloyd; Allen, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare pregabalin versus placebo and pramipexole for reducing restless legs syndrome (RLS)-related sleep disturbance. Design: Randomized, double-blinded, crossover trial. Setting: Twenty-three US sleep centers. Participants: Eighty-five individuals with moderate to severe idiopathic RLS and associated sleep disturbance. Interventions: Participants were randomized across 6 treatment sequences comprising three 4-week periods on pregabalin 300 mg/day (n = 75), pramipexole 0.5 mg/day (n = 76), or placebo (n = 73). Measurements and Results: Polysomnography was conducted over 2 nights at the end of each period. Primary (wake after sleep onset [WASO], pregabalin vs placebo) and key secondary endpoints were analyzed for statistical significance, with descriptive statistics for other endpoints. Pregabalin improved sleep maintenance, demonstrated by reductions in WASO (-27.1 min vs placebo [P < 0.0001]; -26.9 vs pramipexole) and number of awakenings after sleep onset (-2.7 vs placebo; -7.9 vs pramipexole [P < 0.0001]) by polysomnography, and an increase in subjective total sleep time (30.8 min vs placebo [P < 0.0001]; 26.8 vs pramipexole). Pregabalin also increased slow wave sleep duration (20.9 min vs placebo; 32.1 vs pramipexole [P < 0.0001]). Reduction in periodic limb movement arousal index (PLMAI) with pregabalin was similar to pramipexole and greater than placebo (-3.7 PLMA/h [P < 0.0001]), although reduction in total PLM in sleep was less than for pramipexole. Conclusions: This study demonstrated improvements in objective and subjective measures of sleep maintenance and sleep architecture with pregabalin compared with placebo and pramipexole. Effects of pregabalin on periodic limb movement arousal index were comparable to pramipexole. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00991276; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00991276 Citation: Garcia-Borreguero D; Patrick J; DuBrava S; Becker PM; Lankford A; Chen C; Miceli J; Knapp L; Allen RP. Pregabalin versus pramipexole: effects on sleep disturbance in restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2014;37(4):635-643. PMID:24899755

  1. Pregabalin's abuse potential: a mini review focusing on the pharmacological profile.

    PubMed

    Papazisis, Georgios; Tzachanis, Dimitrios

    2014-08-01

    Pregabalin, an analogue of the gamma-aminobutyric acid mammalian neurotransmitter and its structurally related compound gabapentin are known as α2δ ligands. They might act as inhibitory modulators of neuronal excitability that reduce ectopic neuronal activation of hyperexcited neurons while normal activation remains unchanged. However, the interaction with Ca²⁺ channel α2δ subunit is not sufficient to account for the broad clinical spectrum of pregabalin effects including the abuse potential. Pregabalin is approved for the treatment of partial epilepsy; generalized anxiety disorder; peripheral and central neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Its prescribing is rapidly increasing and total sales of the drug worldwide reached 4.6 billion US$ in 2012. Since entering widespread clinical use, reports of pregabalin abuse appeared more often, usually involving individuals with a history of abuse of other medications. The purpose of this mini review is to present available published data signaling pregabalin's abuse liability reflecting on the pharmacological characteristics that might enable this agent to trigger addictive behaviors. PMID:24849194

  2. Efficacy of Pregabalin in the Treatment of Radicular Pain: Results of a Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Khalid M.; M. Nelson, Ariana; J. Avram, Michael; Lee Robak, Sabrina; T. Benzon, Honorio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregabalin is commonly used to treat patients with various neuropathic pain syndromes. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin in patients with lumbar or cervical radicular pain. Patients and Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 39 patients with lumbar and cervical radicular pain, who received 3 weeks of either pregabalin (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9) treatment. Baseline pain and disability were evaluated before the treatment and were re-evaluated, along with overall patient satisfaction, after the 3 weeks of treatment. Results: Data on 19 of the 39 patients recruited were available for analysis. No statistically significant differences in the pain, disability, and patient satisfaction scores were found between the groups. When the individual patient scores were assessed, the placebo treatment was found to be efficacious in 4 of the 9 patients and pregabalin was effective in 2 of the 10 patients, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.350). Conclusions: The present data do not suggest that pregabalin is more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of lumbar and cervical radicular pain. However, the small sample size of this study may have affected the ability to detect such a difference. PMID:26478867

  3. Pregabalin modulation of spinal and brainstem visceral nociceptive processing.

    PubMed

    Sikandar, Shafaq; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2011-10-01

    Brainstem and spinal mechanisms mediating visceral nociception are investigated here using electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry techniques in a model of acute visceral pain. Colorectal distension (CRD) produced graded visceromotor responses (VMR) in normal rats, and these were facilitated by intracolonic mustard oil (MO) that generated acute visceral hyperalgesia. The neuropathic pain drug pregabalin (PGB) is thought to have state-dependent effects in attenuating neuropathic, but not acute somatic pain, likely by impairing calcium-channel trafficking. We found that systemic PGB produced antinociceptive effects on CRD-evoked VMRs in naïve rats lacking pathophysiology and in MO-pretreated rats. Systemic PGB also significantly reduced Fos labelling in lumbosacral spinal cords of rats given noxious repetitive CRD; however, PGB did not alter this measure of neural activity in the brainstem. Differential brainstem processing of noxious somatic and visceral stimuli may underlie the unique lack of state-dependent actions of PGB in this visceral pain model. Single-unit recordings in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) verify that brainstem processing of somatic and visceral stimuli differs. The effects of CRD on RVM cells classed as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL were independent of their somatic responses, with surprising changes in RVM cell activity to innocuous visceral stimulation. PGB also markedly reduced the visceral responses of RVM ON-cells to noxious CRD. These results illustrate clear differences in the central processing of visceral and somatic stimuli, yet a common role for descending modulation by brainstem activity in mediating evoked pain measures. PMID:21778018

  4. Pregabalin and gabapentin for the treatment of sciatica.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kelvin; Marshman, Laurence A G; Plummer, David

    2016-04-01

    Whilst pregabalin (PGB) and gabapentin (GBP) are both used to treat neuropathic pain, their relative role in sciatica is unclear. Our aim was to extensively review the roles of PGB and GBP in treating sciatica. The efficacy, side effects (SE) profile and cost of PGB and GBP in neuropathic pain states were reviewed with special reference to sciatica. Eleven articles matched the criteria: seven systematic reviews, one retrospective cross-sectional study, one placebo-controlled-crossover study, one randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study and one case report. GBP and PGB appeared to demonstrate comparable efficacy and SE. However, the amount and quality of evidence was low, and only indirect comparisons were available. Importantly, no direct "head-to-head" study existed. Globally, costs varied widely (by up to 31times) and unpredictably (PGB cheaper than GBP, or vice versa). Formulary regulator rulings were globally disparate; however, many exclusively favoured the more expensive drug (whether GBP or PGB). No studies assessed PGB-GBP interchange. Weak evidence suggests that efficacy and SE with GBP and PGB are probably similar; however, firm conclusions are precluded. Despite weak data, and having cited minor titration, but definite cost, advantages, UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence favoured PGB over GBP. Given that no evidence supports unhindered PGB-GBP interchange, neither drug should probably be favoured. Prospective "head-to-head" studies are urgently required to provide robust evidence-based knowledge for choice of GBP or PGB in sciatica. PMID:26633090

  5. Development and evaluation of in situ gel of pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Jyotsana R; Adokar, Bhushan R; Dua, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Background: Pregabalin (PRG), an analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid, reduces the release of many neurotransmitters, including glutamate, and noradrenaline. It is used for the treatment of epilepsy; simple and complex partial convulsion. The present research work aims to ensure a high drug absorption by retarding the advancement of PRG formulation through the gastrointestinal tract. The work aims to design a controlled release PRG formulation which is administered as liquid and further gels in the stomach and floats in gastric juice. Materials and Methods: In situ gelling formulations were prepared using sodium alginate, calcium chloride, sodium citrate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K100M, and sodium bicarbonate. The prepared formulations were evaluated for solution viscosity, drug content, in vitro gelling studies, gel strength, and in vitro drug release. The final formulation was optimized using a 32 full factorial design. Results: The formulation containing 2.5% w/v sodium alginate and 0.2% w/v calcium chloride were considered optimum since it showed minimum floating lag time (18 s), optimum viscosity (287.3 cps), and gel strength (4087.17 dyne/cm2). The optimized formulation follows Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model with n value 0.3767 representing Fickian diffusion mechanism of drug release. Conclusion: Floating in situ gelling system of PRG can be formulated using sodium alginate as a gelling polymer and calcium chloride as a complexing agent to control the drug release for about 12 h for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:26682193

  6. A randomized trial of pregabalin in patients with neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Nieshoff, Edward C.; Suda, Kota; Goto, Shin-ichi; Sanin, Luis; Kaneko, Takehiko; Sporn, Jonathan; Parsons, Bruce; Soulsby, Matt; Yang, Ruoyong; Whalen, Ed; Scavone, Joseph M.; Suzuki, Makoto M.; Knapp, Lloyd E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of pregabalin for the treatment of central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Patients with chronic, below-level, neuropathic pain due to SCI were randomized to receive 150 to 600 mg/d pregabalin (n = 108) or matching placebo (n = 112) for 17 weeks. Pain was classified in relation to the neurologic level of injury, defined as the most caudal spinal cord segment with normal sensory and motor function, as above, at, or below level. The primary outcome measure was duration-adjusted average change in pain. Key secondary outcome measures included the change in mean pain score from baseline to end point, the percentage of patients with ≥30% reduction in mean pain score at end point, Patient Global Impression of Change scores at end point, and the change in mean pain-related sleep interference score from baseline to end point. Additional outcome measures included the Medical Outcomes Study–Sleep Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Pregabalin treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements over placebo for all primary and key secondary outcome measures. Significant pain improvement was evident as early as week 1 and was sustained throughout the treatment period. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of pregabalin and were mostly mild to moderate in severity. Somnolence and dizziness were most frequently reported. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that pregabalin is effective and well tolerated in patients with neuropathic pain due to SCI. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that pregabalin, 150 to 600 mg/d, is effective in reducing duration-adjusted average change in pain compared with baseline in patients with SCI over a 16-week period (p = 0.003, 95% confidence interval = −0.98, −0.20). PMID:23345639

  7. Profiles of pregabalin and gabapentin abuse by postmortem toxicology.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Margareeta; Vuori, Erkki; Kalso, Eija; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-08-01

    Pregabalin (PRG) and gabapentin (GBP) are used in the treatment of neuropathic pain and epilepsy, and PRG also in generalized anxiety disorder. There is increasing evidence that PRG possesses considerable abuse potential. PRG may have a higher addiction potential than GBP due to its rapid absorption and faster onset of action. Our objective is to estimate the proportion of all PRG- and GBP-related fatalities attributable to PRG and GBP abuse. We investigated all medico-legal death cases in Finland in which PRG or GBP was found in postmortem toxicology during 2010-2011. PRG was found in 316 cases and GBP in 43 cases. Drug abuse was associated with 48.1% of the PRG and 18.6% of the GBP findings. PRG poisoning accounted for 10.1% of all PRG cases and GBP poisoning for 4.7% of all GBP cases. In the drug abuser cases, PRG poisoning represented 19.1%, and GBP poisoning 12.5%. The median blood concentration of PRG was 15 mg/L in the abuser group and 5.8 mg/L in the other cases. For GBP, these concentrations were 12 mg/L and 8.3mg/L, respectively. In the PRG abuser group, 91.4% of cases showed concomitant opioid use, while in the rest of these cases neither alcohol nor opioids were detected, but other central nervous system acting drugs were found in each abuser case. In the GBP abuser group, 87.5% of cases showed concomitant opioid use. PRG abuse with high doses is increasingly common and can be fatal when combined with opioids. PMID:24835028

  8. Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martín, Pablo J; López-López, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J

    2014-04-01

    A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin. PMID:24790724

  9. Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martín, Pablo J.; López-López, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin. PMID:24790724

  10. Effectiveness of posthemodialysis administration of pregabalin (75 mg) in treatment resistance uremia pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Aziz, Abdul; Suleiman, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Uremic pruritus (UP) is one of the complications faced by majority of the patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complex pathophysiology of UP, most of the anti-inflammatory and tropical lubricants often not provide a long lasting control over pruritus. Recently the uses of certain anti-epileptics are found to demonstrate promising relief to UP. To test the effect of 75 mg pregabalin in patients with treatment resistance pruritus. Data was prospectively collected from a patient with ESRD and suffering from treatment resistance pruritus. Intensity of pruritus was recorded using 5D-itching scale (5D-IS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Pre and post assessment was done for this patient, on initial assess the parathyroid hormone level of the patient was 70.5 pg/ml with a serum phosphate level of 2.61 mmol/L. Upon initial assess the VAS score was 8 and 5D-IS score was twenty. After the duration of four weeks of pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis, 5D-IS score reduced to 8 and VAS score move down to 3. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis was found to reduce the intensity of UP. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis can be another option to treat UP. PMID:26957874

  11. Effectiveness of posthemodialysis administration of pregabalin (75 mg) in treatment resistance uremia pruritus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Aziz, Abdul; Suleiman, Amal K

    2016-01-01

    Uremic pruritus (UP) is one of the complications faced by majority of the patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complex pathophysiology of UP, most of the anti-inflammatory and tropical lubricants often not provide a long lasting control over pruritus. Recently the uses of certain anti-epileptics are found to demonstrate promising relief to UP. To test the effect of 75 mg pregabalin in patients with treatment resistance pruritus. Data was prospectively collected from a patient with ESRD and suffering from treatment resistance pruritus. Intensity of pruritus was recorded using 5D-itching scale (5D-IS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Pre and post assessment was done for this patient, on initial assess the parathyroid hormone level of the patient was 70.5 pg/ml with a serum phosphate level of 2.61 mmol/L. Upon initial assess the VAS score was 8 and 5D-IS score was twenty. After the duration of four weeks of pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis, 5D-IS score reduced to 8 and VAS score move down to 3. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis was found to reduce the intensity of UP. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis can be another option to treat UP. PMID:26957874

  12. Pregabalin: latest safety evidence and clinical implications for the management of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Used mainly for the management of neuropathic pain, pregabalin is a gabapentinoid or anticonvulsant that was initially developed as an antiepileptic agent. After more than a decade of experience with pregabalin, experience and studies have shown that the adverse effect profile of pregabalin is well tolerated for the management of neuropathic pain and other conditions. Its use is associated with benign central nervous system and systemic adverse effects, and there are very limited metabolic, idiosyncratic or known teratogenic adverse effects. Along with its efficacy in particular neuropathic pain conditions, pregabalin’s safety led it to be one of the first pharmacotherapies considered for the management of neuropathic pain. This review discusses the use of pregabalin as well as its potential adverse effects, including the most commonly noted features of sedation, dizziness, peripheral edema and dry mouth. Although other adverse effects may occur, these appear to be uncommon. The review also discusses the clinical implications of pregabalin’s use for the clinician. PMID:25083261

  13. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  14. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  15. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  17. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  18. Systemic pregabalin attenuates sensorimotor responses and medullary glutamate release in inflammatory tooth pain model.

    PubMed

    Narita, N; Kumar, N; Cherkas, P S; Chiang, C Y; Dostrovsky, J O; Coderre, T J; Sessle, B J

    2012-08-30

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that application of inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the tooth pulp induces medullary glutamate release and central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as well as nociceptive sensorimotor responses in craniofacial muscles in rats. There is recent evidence that anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin that influence glutamatergic neurotransmission are effective in several pain states. The aim of this study was to examine whether systemic administration of pregabalin attenuated glutamate release in the medulla as well as these nociceptive effects reflected in increased electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by MO application to the tooth pulp. Male adult rats were anesthetized with isofluorane (1.0-1.2%), and jaw and tongue muscle EMG activities were recorded by needle electrodes inserted bilaterally into masseter and anterior digastric muscles and into the genioglossus muscle, and also the medullary release of glutamate was assessed by in vivo microdialysis. Pregabalin or vehicle control (isotonic saline) was administered 30 min before the pulpal application of MO or vehicle control (mineral oil). Application of mineral oil to the maxillary first molar tooth pulp produced no change in baseline EMG activity and glutamate release. However, application of MO to the pulp significantly increased both the medullary release of glutamate and EMG activity in the jaw and tongue muscles for several minutes. In contrast, pre-medication with pregabalin, but not vehicle control, significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the medullary glutamate release and EMG activity in these muscles after MO application to the tooth pulp (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.05). These results suggest that pregabalin may attenuate the medullary release of glutamate and associated nociceptive sensorimotor responses in this acute inflammatory pulpal pain model, and that it may prove useful for the treatment of orofacial inflammatory pain states. PMID:22609939

  19. Perioperative use of pregabalin for acute pain-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eipe, Naveen; Penning, John; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Turner, Lucy; Ahmadzai, Nadera; Ansari, Mohammed Toseef

    2015-07-01

    Evidence supporting postoperative pain management using pregabalin as an adjunct intervention across various surgical pain models is lacking. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate "model-specific" comparative effectiveness and harms of pregabalin following a previously published systematic review protocol. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception through August 2013. Data were screened and single extraction with independent verification and dual risk of bias assessment was performed. Quality of evidence (QoE) was rated using the GRADE approach. Primary outcomes were pain relief at rest and on movement and reduction in postoperative analgesic consumption. A total of 1423 records were screened, and 43 studies were included. Perioperative pregabalin resulted in: 16% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9%-21%) reduction in analgesic consumption (moderate QoE, 24 trials) and a small reduction in the magnitude of pain in surgeries associated with pronociceptive pain. Per 1000 patients, 10 more will experience blurred vision (95% CI, 5-20 more; moderate QoE, 17 trials) and 41 more sedation (95% CI, 13-77 more, 17 trials). To prevent 1 case of perioperative nausea and vomiting, the number needed to treat is 11 (95% CI: 7-28, 25 trials). Inadequate evidence addressed outcomes of enhanced recovery and serious harms. Pregabalin analgesic effectiveness is largely restricted to surgical procedures associated with pronociceptive mechanisms. The clinical significance of observed pregabalin benefits must be weighed against the uncertainties about serious harms and enhanced recovery to inform the careful selection of surgical patients. Recommendations for future research are proposed. PMID:25830925

  20. Effect of pregabalin on contextual memory deficits and inflammatory state-related protein expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sałat, Kinga; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Malikowska, Natalia; Podkowa, Adrian; Lipkowska, Anna; Librowski, Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion or its action. Complications from long-term diabetes consist of numerous biochemical, molecular, and functional tissue alterations, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuropathic pain. There is also a link between diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Hence, it is important to treat diabetic complications using drugs which do not aggravate symptoms induced by the disease itself. Pregabalin is widely used for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain, but little is known about its impact on cognition or inflammation-related proteins in diabetic patients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal (ip) pregabalin on contextual memory and the expression of inflammatory state-related proteins in the brains of diabetic, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. STZ (200 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce diabetes mellitus. To assess the impact of pregabalin (10 mg/kg) on contextual memory, a passive avoidance task was applied. Locomotor and exploratory activities in pregabalin-treated diabetic mice were assessed by using activity cages. Using Western blot analysis, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) p50 and p65, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), as well as glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT4) was assessed in mouse brains after pregabalin treatment. Pregabalin did not aggravate STZ-induced learning deficits in vivo or influence animals' locomotor activity. We observed significantly lower expression of COX-2, cPGES, and NF-κB p50 subunit, and higher expression of AhR and Nrf2 in the brains of pregabalin-treated mice in comparison to STZ-treated controls, which suggested immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of pregabalin. Antioxidant properties of pregabalin in the brains of diabetic animals were also demonstrated. Pregabalin does not potentiate STZ-induced cognitive decline, and it has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties in mice. These results confirm the validity of its use in diabetic patients. Graphical abstract Effect of pregabalin on fear-motivated memory and markers of brain tissue inflammation in diabetic mice. PMID:26984821

  1. Efficacy of Pregabalin in Acute Postoperative Pain Under Different Surgical Categories

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David M.H.; Choi, Siu-Wai; Wong, Stanley S.C.; Irwin, Michael G.; Cheung, Chi-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The efficacy of pregabalin in acute postsurgical pain has been demonstrated in numerous studies; however, the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of using pregabalin in various surgical procedures remain uncertain. We aim to assess the postsurgical analgesic efficacy and adverse events after pregabalin administration under different surgical categories using a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A search of the literature was performed between August 2014 to April 2015, using PubMed, Ovid via EMBASE, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov with no limitation on publication year or language. Studies considered for inclusion were randomized controlled trials, reporting on relevant outcomes (2-, 24-hour pain scores, or 24 hour morphine-equivalent consumption) with treatment with perioperative pregabalin. Seventy-four studies were included. Pregabalin reduced pain scores at 2 hours in all categories: cardiothoracic (Hedge's g and 95%CI, −0.442 [−0.752 to −0.132], P = 0.005), ENT (Hedge g and 95%CI, −0.684 [−1.051 to −0.316], P < 0.0001), gynecologic (Hedge g, 95%CI, −0.792 [−1.235 to −0.350], P < 0.0001), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Hedge g, 95%CI, –0.600 [–0.989 to –0.210], P = 0.003), orthopedic (Hedge g, 95%CI, −0.507 [−0.812 to −0.202], P = 0.001), spine (Hedge g, 95%CI, −0.972 [−1.537 to −0.407], P = 0.001), and miscellaneous procedures (Hedge g, 95%CI, −1.976 [−2.654 to −1.297], P < 0.0001). Pregabalin reduced 24-hour morphine consumption in gynecologic (Hedge g, 95%CI, −1.085 [−1.582 to −0.441], P = 0.001), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Hedge g, 95%CI, –0.886 [–1.652 to –0.120], P = 0.023), orthopedic (Hedge g, 95%CI, −0.720 [−1.118 to −0.323], P < 0.0001), spine (Hedge g, 95%CI, −1.016 [−1.732 to −0.300], P = 0.005), and miscellaneous procedures (Hedge g, 95%CI, −1.329 [−2.286 to −0.372], P = 0.006). Pregabalin resulted in significant sedation in all surgical categories except ENT, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and gynecologic procedures. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was only significant after pregabalin in miscellaneous procedures. Analgesic effects and incidence of adverse effects of using pregabalin are not equal in different surgical categories. PMID:26579802

  2. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Peng, X; Sun, P; Novick, D; Andrews, J; Sun, S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009). Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs) had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years), percentage of women (87%–88%), and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis). In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%). The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05), any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05), and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05). From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort experienced decreases in certain utilization rates, whereas the pregabalin cohort had increases (percentage of patients with a fibromyalgia-related admission, −1.2% versus 0.4% [P<0.01]; number of fibromyalgia-related outpatient claims, −1.7 versus 4.7 [P<0.01]). Conclusion Fibromyalgia patients initiating pregabalin tended to consume more fibromyalgia-related inpatient and outpatient care in the first postinitiation year, whereas fibromyalgia patients initiating duloxetine tended to have lower utilization rates of fibromyalgia-related inpatient care in the postinitiation year than in the preinitiation year. PMID:24470771

  3. Embryo-Fetal Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Mice and Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morse, Dennis C

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was evaluated for potential developmental toxicity in mice and rabbits. Pregabalin was administered once daily by oral gavage to female albino mice (500, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) and New Zealand White rabbits (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg) during organogenesis (gestation day 6 through 15 [mice] or 6 through 20 [rabbits]). Fetuses were evaluated for viability, growth, and morphological development. Pregabalin administration to mice did not induce maternal or developmental toxicity at doses up to 2500 mg/kg, which was associated with a maternal plasma exposure (AUC0-24 ) of 3790 μg•hr/ml, ≥30 times the expected human exposure at the maximum recommended daily dose (MRD; 600 mg/day). In rabbits, treatment-related clinical signs occurred at all doses (AUC0-24 of 1397, 2023, and 4803 μg•hr/ml at 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal toxicity was evident at all doses and included ataxia, hypoactivity, and cool to touch. In addition, abortion and females euthanized moribund with total resorption occurred at 1250 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related malformations at any dose. At 1250 mg/kg, compared with study and historical controls, the percentage of fetuses with retarded ossification was significantly increased and the mean number of ossification sites was decreased, which correlated with decreased fetal and placental weights, consistent with in utero growth retardation. Therefore, the no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in rabbits was 500 mg/kg, which produced systemic exposure approximately 16-times human exposure at the MRD. These findings indicate that pregabalin, at the highest dose tested, was not teratogenic in mice or rabbits. PMID:27044003

  4. Pregabalin, the lidocaine plaster and duloxetine in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients frequently fail to receive adequate pain relief from, or are intolerant of, first-line therapies prescribed for neuropathic pain (NeP). This refractory chronic pain causes psychological distress and impacts patient quality of life. Published literature for treatment in refractory patients is sparse and often published as conference abstracts only. The aim of this study was to identify published data for three pharmacological treatments: pregabalin, lidocaine plaster, and duloxetine, which are typically used at 2nd line or later in UK patients with neuropathic pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CCTR was carried out and supplemented with extensive conference and grey literature searching. Studies of any design (except single patient case studies) that enrolled adult patients with refractory NeP were included in the review and qualitatively assessed. Results Seventeen studies were included in the review: nine of pregabalin, seven of the lidocaine plaster, and one of duloxetine. No head-to-head studies of these treatments were identified. Only six studies included treatments within UK licensed indications and dose ranges. Reported efficacy outcomes were not consistent between studies. Pain scores were most commonly assessed in studies including pregabalin; trials of pregabalin and the lidocaine plaster reported the proportion of responders. Significant improvements in the total, sensory and affective scores of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and in function interference, sleep interference and pain associated distress, were associated with pregabalin treatment; limited or no quality of life data were available for the other two interventions. Limitations to the review are the small number of included studies, which are generally small, of poor quality and heterogeneous in patient population and study design. Conclusions Little evidence is available relevant to the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain despite the clinical need. There is a notable lack of high-quality comparative studies. It is evident that there is a need for future, high quality trials, particularly "gold-standard" RCTs in this refractory patient population. PMID:21092100

  5. Efficacy of pregabalin in depressive symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder: a pooled analysis of 6 studies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Baldwin, David S; Baldinetti, Francesca; Mandel, Francine

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) or dysthymia, and its association with significant disability. As pregabalin, a new alpha(2)-delta anxiolytic treatment for GAD, unlike most other licensed treatments for GAD has not undergone investigation in patients with MDD, we examined its efficacy in depressive symptoms associated with GAD, through a post-hoc analysis of the existing clinical trial database. The results provide consistent evidence that in patients with GAD pregabalin reduced associated symptoms of depression. This was seen in the 150 mg/day, 300-450 mg/day and 600 mg/day dosing groups. Even in subjects with more prominent depressive symptoms, pregabalin remained effective for both sub-syndromal depression and GAD symptoms, with pregabalin 300-450 mg/day demonstrating the most beneficial response. In conclusion, pregabalin, an alternative treatment option for GAD with a novel mechanism of action, also demonstrated efficacy in treating depressive symptoms typically encountered in GAD patients. PMID:18359203

  6. Effect of Pregabalin on Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise and Postexercise Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrea T.; Light, Kathleen C.; Bateman, Lucinda; Hughen, Ronald W.; Vanhaitsma, Timothy A.; Light, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin, an approved treatment for fibromyalgia (FM), has been shown to decrease sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and inhibit sympathetically maintained pain, but its effects on exercise responses have not been reported. Methods. Using a randomized double-blind crossover design, we assessed the effect of 5 weeks of pregabalin (versus placebo) on acute cardiovascular and subjective responses to moderate exercise in 19 FM patients. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise and ratings of pain, physical fatigue, and mental fatigue before, during, and for 48 hours after exercise were compared in patients on pregabalin versus placebo and also versus 18 healthy controls. Results. On placebo, exercise RPE and BP were significantly higher in FM patients than controls (p < 0.04). Pregabalin responders (n = 12, defined by patient satisfaction and symptom changes) had significantly lower exercise BP, HR, and RPE on pregabalin versus placebo (p < 0.03) and no longer differed from controls (p > 0.26). Cardiovascular responses of nonresponders (n = 7) were not altered by pregabalin. In responders, pregabalin improved ratings of fatigue and pain (p < 0.04), but negative effects on pain and fatigue were seen in nonresponders. Conclusions. These preliminary findings suggest that pregabalin may normalize cardiovascular and subjective responses to exercise in many FM patients. PMID:27026828

  7. Delayed onset of rotatory self-motion perception, dysdiadochokinesia and disturbed eye pursuit caused by low-dose pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Hounnou, Patrice; Nicoucar, Keyvan

    2014-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman with chronic foot pain after an orthopaedic surgery and chronic neck pain presented to the emergency department (ED) with a history of self-rotatory vertigo with unsteadiness. She had started low-dose pregabalin, 25 mg two times a day 9 months before experiencing symptoms with the dose gradually increased to 150 mg two times a day over this period. Clinical examination revealed difficulty performing eye pursuit with left eye and dysdiadochokinesia of the left arm. Owing to a suspicion of multiple sclerosis she underwent cerebral MRI, which was normal. Pregabalin was tapered over 2 months with a complete disappearance of the symptoms. We concluded that symptoms were due to pregabalin treatment. PMID:24728890

  8. The safety and efficacy of pregabalin for treating subjects with fibromyalgia and moderate or severe baseline widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Clair, Andrew; Emir, Birol

    2016-03-01

    Objective To evaluate pregabalin's efficacy (≤12 weeks) for pain relief and sleep improvement in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and moderate-to-severe baseline pain. Research design and methods Data were pooled from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trials of pregabalin (300-450 mg/day) for FM treatment. Subjects, aged ≥18 years, had moderate (≥4-<7) or severe (≥7-10) mean baseline pain scores. Analyses included mixed effects repeated measures (MMRM), baseline observation carried forward (for parameters without enough data points for MMRM), or logistic regression. Clinical trial registration Study number/ClinicalTrials.gov number: A0081056/NCT00645398, A0081077/NCT00230776, A0081100/NCT00333866, A0081208/NCT00830167. Main outcomes measures Endpoints included mean change in pain and sleep quality scores (Weeks 8 and 12), patient-reported outcomes, and adverse events (AEs). Results Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable between pregabalin and placebo in both baseline pain severity groups. Mean ± SD baseline pain severity scores were equivalent between pregabalin and placebo within moderate (5.8 ± 0.8) or severe pain (7.9 ± 0.7) subgroups. All subjects reported reduced pain and improved sleep quality through Weeks 8 and 12, with larger effects observed with pregabalin over placebo and with baseline severe over moderate pain (all p < 0.01). Pregabalin was generally well tolerated, AE findings were consistent with previously published trials, and AE profiles were similar between moderate and severe baseline pain subgroups. Limitations of this pooled analysis included differences in individual trial designs (e.g., dosing schedules, racial distribution, exclusion criteria that did not enroll mild severity patients). Conclusions Pregabalin was efficacious through 12 weeks for reducing pain and improving sleep quality in FM patients with baseline moderate or severe pain, with larger effects in the baseline severe pain subgroup. AEs were consistent with pregabalin's known safety profile and did not differ between moderate and severe pain subgroups. PMID:26694975

  9. Sustained-release pregabalin with methylcobalamin in neuropathic pain: an Indian real-life experience

    PubMed Central

    Dongre, Yasmin U; Swami, Onkar C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuropathic pain is intense in nature and difficult to manage. Thus, the primary goal is maximum relief from pain. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of sustained-release pregabalin and methylcobalamin in reducing neuropathic pain in Indian patients, in the real-life situation. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, observational, 14-day study. Patients received fixed dose combination of 75 or 150 mg sustained-release pregabalin combined with 1500 mcg immediate release methylcobalamin, depending on the clinical requirement. Data was collected for pain reduction and other positive and negative symptoms associated with neuropathy, including hyperesthesia, paresthesia, numbness/tingling, burning sensation, muscle weakness, sleep disturbances, and impairment of movement. Pain intensity was measured on a ten-point visual analog scale (VAS) (0 represented “no pain,” and 10 represented “worst pain ever”). The safety of the drug was also evaluated throughout the study duration. Data was analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The overall reduction in mean VAS score over 14 days was 72.3%. The reduction in mean VAS score was significant as early as the first week. Both positive and negative symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were significantly improved in >50% patients within the 2 weeks. Giddiness (4.7%), followed by sedation (3.6%), dizziness (2.9%), drowsiness (2.3%), and nausea (2.3%) were the most commonly observed adverse effects. The overall efficacy and tolerability was rated as good to excellent by >95% of the investigators and patients. Conclusion Fixed dose combination of sustained-release pregabalin and methylcobalamin significantly reduced neuropathic pain, with significant improvement in both the positive and negative symptoms associated with neuropathy, in Indian patients and was well tolerated. PMID:23761981

  10. Dercum's disease (Lipomatosis dolorosa): successful therapy with pregabalin and manual lymphatic drainage and a current overview.

    PubMed

    Lange, Uwe; Oelzner, Peter; Uhlemann, Christine

    2008-11-01

    Dercum's disease which is also termed lipomatosis dolorosa is a rare and relatively unknown disease. In this entity the upper arms, elbows, stomach wall, buttocks, thighs and knees are predominantly affected showing painful subcutaneous adipose tissue deposits. In addition severe hyperalgesia can be triggered by light pressure and touch. Analgesic and/or nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs have usually only a minor or no effect. Here, we report a patient with Dercum's disease who was successfully treated with pregabalin and manual lymphatic drainage, and present a current overview of the literature. PMID:18604537

  11. Pregabalin and Tranexamic Acid Evaluation by Two Simple and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Nawab; Fatima, Nasreen; Perveen, Shahnaz; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Wafa Sial, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates colorimetric visible spectrophotometric quantification methods for amino acid, namely, tranexamic acid and pregabalin. Both drugs contain the amino group, and when they are reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, they give rise to yellow colored complexes showing absorption maximum at 418 nm and 425 nm, respectively, based on the Lewis acid base reaction. Detailed optimization process and stoichiometric studies were conducted along with investigation of thermodynamic features, that is, association constant and standard free energy changes. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–200 µgmL−1 with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9990 in all of the cases. Limit of detection was in range from 0.0041 to 0.0094 µgmL−1 and limit of quantification was in the range from 0.0137 to 0.0302 µgmL−1. Excellent recovery in Placebo spiked samples indicated that there is no interference from common excipients. The analytical methods under proposal were successfully applied to determine tranexamic acid and pregabalin in commercial products. t-test and F ratio were evaluated without noticeable difference between the proposed and reference methods. PMID:25873964

  12. Brainstem facilitations and descending serotonergic controls contribute to visceral nociception but not pregabalin analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Sikandar, Shafaq; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2012-06-21

    Pro-nociceptive ON-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) facilitate nociceptive processing and contribute to descending serotonergic controls. We use RVM injections of neurotoxic dermorphin-saporin (Derm-SAP) in rats to evaluate the role of putative ON-cells, or μ-opioid receptor-expressing (MOR) neurones, in visceral pain processing. Our immunohistochemistry shows that intra-RVM Derm-SAP locally ablates a substantial proportion of MOR and serotonergic cells. Given the co-localization of these neuronal markers, some RVM ON-cells are serotonergic. We measure visceromotor responses in the colorectal distension (CRD) model in control and Derm-SAP rats, and using the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron, we demonstrate pro-nociceptive serotonergic modulation of visceral nociception and a facilitatory drive from RVM MOR cells. The α(2)δ calcium channel ligand pregabalin produces state-dependent analgesia in neuropathy and osteoarthritis models relating to injury-specific interactions with serotonergic facilitations from RVM MOR cells. Although RVM MOR cells mediate noxious mechanical visceral input, we show that their presence is not a permissive factor for pregabalin analgesia in acute visceral pain. PMID:22579856

  13. Efficacy of pregabalin in a case of stiff-person syndrome: clinical and neurophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Squintani, G; Bovi, T; Ferigo, L; Musso, A M; Ottaviani, S; Moretto, G; Morgante, F; Tinazzi, M

    2012-03-15

    Symptomatic treatment of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) might be challenging and a significant improvement of stiffness and rigidity is generally reached with high doses of benzodiazepines or baclofen causing side effects. A 71-year old woman diagnosed with SPS complained of marked stiffness of trunk and lower limb muscles with sudden painful spasms. She was unable to walk and she could not lean on her right leg. Cortical silent period (CSP) duration evaluated from right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) with transcranial magnetic stimulation was shortened. Polygraphic electromyographic (EMG) evaluation from paraspinal and leg muscles disclosed continuous motor unit activity at rest with interference muscular pattern. Symptomatic treatment with diazepam was withdrawn because of excessive sedation. In order to relieve the intense lumbar pain, she was prescribed pregabalin; since the day after, rigidity and painful spasms dramatically improved and she could walk without assistance. The clinical benefit persisted at 3 months follow-up and was paralleled by almost complete disappearance of EMG activity at rest and prolongation of CSP. The clinical and electrophysiological data in this SPS patient suggest the possible efficacy of pregabalin as symptomatic treatment without any significant side effects, which needs to be replicated in larger case series. PMID:22082988

  14. A randomised controlled trial of peri-operative pregabalin vs. placebo for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Konstantatos, A H; Howard, W; Story, D; Mok, L Y H; Boyd, D; Chan, M T V

    2016-02-01

    We allocated 52 participants to oral pregabalin 300 mg and 48 participants to placebo tablets before thoracoscopic surgery and for five postoperative days. The median (IQR [range]) cumulative pain scores at rest for nine postoperative months were 184 (94-274 [51-1454]) after pregabalin and 166 (66-266 [48-1628]) after placebo, p = 0.39. The corresponding scores on deep breathing were 468 (281-655 [87-2870]) and 347 (133-561 [52-3666]), respectively, p = 0.16. After three postoperative months, 29/100 participants had persistent surgical site pain, 19/52 after pregabalin and 10/48 after placebo, p = 0.12, of whom four and five, respectively, attended a pain management clinic, p = 0.24. The median (IQR [range]) morphine equivalent consumption six days after surgery was 273 (128-619 [39-2243]) mg after pregabalin and 319 (190-663 [47-2258]) mg after placebo, p = 0.35. PMID:26566754

  15. Repeated Dosing with NCX1404, a Nitric Oxide-Donating Pregabalin, Re-establishes Normal Nociceptive Responses in Mice with Streptozotocin-Induced Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Targa, Martina; Ravani, Annalisa; Bastia, Elena; Storoni, Laura; Brambilla, Stefania; Almirante, Nicoletta; Impagnatiello, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    NCX1404 [(3S)-5-methyl-3-(((1-(4-(nitrooxy)butanoyloxy)ethoxy)carbonylamino) methyl)hexanoic acid] is a novel nitric oxide (NO)-donating pregabalin that is readily absorbed and processed in vivo to pregabalin and NO. We determined the antiallodynic response of NCX1404 after acute or after 7, 14, and 21 days of repeated daily oral dosing in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Pregabalin and its combination with the NO donor isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) were used for comparison. The blood levels of pregabalin and nitrites, used as surrogate marker of NO release, after NCX1404 or pregabalin dosing were monitored in parallel experiments using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NCX1404 and pregabalin resulted in similar pregabalin levels as it was their antiallodynic activity after acute dosing in STZ mice. However, NCX1404 resulted in disease-modifying properties when administered daily for 21 days, as indicated by the time- and dose-dependent reversal of STZ-induced mechanical allodynia (paw withdrawal threshold [PWT]Veh_21d= 1.3 ± 0.15 g for vehicle; PWTNCX1404_21d= 1.4 ± 0.5 g, 2.9 ± 0.2 g* and 4.1 ± 0.2 g*, respectively for 19, 63, and 190μmol/kg, oral gavage [PO] of NCX1404; *P< 0.05 versus vehicle). This effect was not shared by pregabalin at equimolar doses (190μmol/kg, PO, PWTPregab_21d= 1.4 ± 0.1 g*, *P< 0.05 versus equimolar NCX1404). In addition, the NO donor ISMN (52.3μmol/kg, PO) alone or combined with pregabalin (63μmol/kg) was active at 7 days (PWTVeh_7d= 1.7 ± 0.16 g; PWTISMN_7d= 3.9 ± 0.34 g*; PWTPregab_7d= 1.3 ± 0.07 g; PWTISMN+pregab_7d= 3.8 ± 0.29 g*; *P< 0.05) but not at later time points. The long-term effect of NCX1404 was independent of residual drug exposure and lasted for several days after the treatment was stopped. In summary, like pregabalin, NCX1404 is an effective antiallodynic agent. Differently from pregabalin, repeated dosing of NCX1404 re-established normal nociceptive responses in STZ-induced PDN in mice. PMID:26907623

  16. An open-label, long-term study examining the safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Onouchi, Kenji; Koga, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Yoshiyama, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Studies of pregabalin for the treatment of central neuropathic pain have been limited to double-blind trials of 4–17 weeks in duration. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain. The efficacy of pregabalin was also assessed as a secondary measure. Patients and methods This was a 53-week, multicenter, open-label trial of pregabalin (150–600 mg/day) in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral stroke. Results A total of 103 patients received pregabalin (post-stroke =60; spinal cord injury =38; and multiple sclerosis =5). A majority of patients (87.4%) experienced one or more treatment-related adverse events, most commonly somnolence, weight gain, dizziness, or peripheral edema. The adverse event profile was similar to that seen in other indications of pregabalin. Most treatment-related adverse events were mild (89.1%) or moderate (9.2%) in intensity. Pregabalin treatment improved total score, sensory pain, affective pain, visual analog scale (VAS), and present pain intensity scores on the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and ten-item modified Brief Pain Inventory (mBPI-10) total score at endpoint compared with baseline. Improvements in SF-MPQ VAS and mBPI-10 total scores were evident in all patient subpopulations. Mean changes from baseline in SF-MPQ VAS and mBPI-10 scores at endpoint were −20.1 and −1.4, respectively. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that pregabalin is generally well tolerated and provides sustained efficacy over a 53-week treatment period in patients with chronic central neuropathic pain. PMID:25114584

  17. Systemic pregabalin attenuates facial hypersensitivity and noxious stimulus-evoked release of glutamate in medullary dorsal horn in a rodent model of trigeminal neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Cherkas, Pavel S; Varathan, Vidya; Miyamoto, Makiko; Chiang, Chen Yu; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O; Sessle, Barry J; Coderre, Terence J

    2013-05-01

    Pregabalin is effective in treating many neuropathic pain conditions. However, the mechanisms of its analgesic effects remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine whether pregabalin suppresses facial mechanical hypersensitivity and evoked glutamate release in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) in a rodent model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Nociceptive mechanical sensitivity was assessed pre-operatively, and then post-operatively 1h following pregabalin or vehicle (saline) treatment on post-operative days 2 and 5 following infraorbital nerve transection (IONX). In addition, an in vivo microdialysis probe was inserted into the exposed medulla post-operatively and dialysate samples were collected. Glutamate release was then evoked by mustard oil (MO) application to the tooth pulp, and the effects of pregabalin or vehicle were examined on the MDH glutamate release. Glutamate concentrations in the dialysated samples were determined by HPLC, and data analyzed by ANOVA. IONX animals (but not control animals) showed facial mechanical hypersensitivity for several days post-operatively. In addition, tooth pulp stimulation with MO evoked a transient release of glutamate in the MDH of IONX animals. Compared to vehicle, administration of pregabalin significantly attenuated the facial mechanical hypersensitivity as well as the MO-evoked glutamate release in MDH. This study provides evidence in support of recent findings pointing to the usefulness of pregabalin in the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain. PMID:23454190

  18. Modeling the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin on self-reported changes in sleep disturbances in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder managed in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Miguel A; Álvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, Jose L; Olivares, José M; Pérez, María; Rejas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) being one of the most common. Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in GAD patients. While treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across many controlled clinical trials, mediational analysis has suggested that a substantial portion of this effect could be the result of a direct effect of pregabalin. Thus, the objective of this study was to model the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin or usual care (UC) therapies on changes in sleep in outpatients with GAD under routine clinical practice. Methods Male and female GAD outpatients, aged 18 years or above, from a 6-month prospective noninterventional trial were analyzed. Direct and indirect effects of either pregabalin or UC changes in anxiety symptoms (assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale) and sleep disturbances (assessed with Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale [MOS-S]) were estimated by a conditional latent curve model applying structural equation modeling. Results A total of 1,546 pregabalin-naïve patients were analyzed, 984 receiving pregabalin and 562 UC. Both symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly improved in both groups, with higher mean (95% confidence interval) score reductions in subjects receiving pregabalin: −15.9 (−15.2; −16.6) vs −14.5 (−13.5; −15.5), P=0.027, in Hamilton Anxiety Scale; and −29.7 (−28.1; −31.3) vs −24.0 (−21.6; −26.4), P<0.001, in MOS-S. The conditional latent curve model showed that the pregabalin effect on sleep disturbances was significant (γ =−3.99, P<0.001), after discounting the effect on reduction in anxiety symptoms. A mediation model showed that 70% of the direct effect of pregabalin on sleep remained after discounting the mediated effect of anxiety improvement. Conclusion A substantial proportion of the incremental improvements in anxiety-related sleep disturbances with pregabalin vs UC were explained by its direct effect, not mediated by improvements in anxiety symptoms. PMID:26273194

  19. Effectiveness of pregabalin for the treatment of chronic low back pain with accompanying lower limb pain (neuropathic component): a non-interventional study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Toshihiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Watt, Stephen; Parsons, Bruce; Sadosky, Alesia; Nozawa, Kazutaka; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Yoshiyama, Tamotsu; Ebata, Nozomi; Fujii, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of pregabalin on sleep, pain, function, and health status in patients with chronic low back pain with accompanying neuropathic pain (CLBP-NeP) under routine clinical practice. Methods This prospective, non-interventional, observational study enrolled Japanese adults (≥18 years) with CLBP-NeP of duration ≥3 months and severity ≥5 on a numerical rating scale (0= no pain, 10= worst possible pain). Treatment was 8 weeks with pregabalin (n=157) or usual care alone (n=174); choice of treatment was determined by the physician. The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline to 8 weeks in pain-related interference with sleep, assessed using the Pain-Related Sleep Interference Scale (PRSIS; 0= did not interfere with sleep, 10= completely interferes with sleep). Secondary endpoints were changes in PRSIS at week 4, and changes at weeks 4 and 8 in pain (numerical rating scale), function (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire), and quality of life (EuroQol 5D-5L); global assessments of change were evaluated from the clinician and patient perspectives at the final visit. Results Demographic characteristics were similar between cohorts, but clinical characteristics suggested greater disease severity in the pregabalin group including a higher mean (standard deviation) pain score, 6.3 (1.2) versus 5.8 (1.1) (P<0.001). For the primary endpoint, pregabalin resulted in significantly greater improvements in PRSIS at week 8, least-squares mean changes of −1.3 versus −0.4 for usual care (P<0.001); pregabalin also resulted in greater PRSIS improvement at week 4 (P=0.012). Relative to usual care at week 8, pregabalin improved pain and function (both P<0.001), and showed global improvements since beginning study medication (P<0.001). Pregabalin was well tolerated. Conclusion In clinical practice in patients with CLBP-NeP, pregabalin showed significantly greater improvements in pain-related interference with sleep relative to usual care. In addition, pregabalin significantly improved pain, function, and health status, suggesting the benefits of pregabalin for overall health and well-being relative to usual care in these patients. (Clinicaltrials. gov identifier NCT02273908). PMID:26346468

  20. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  1. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  2. [Acetate metabolism: experimental study].

    PubMed

    Girela, E; Hernández-Cueto, C; Calvo, M D; Luna, J D; Villanueva, E

    1993-06-01

    Plasma levels of ethanol and acetate, which is the end product of hepatic ethanol oxidation, have been studied in 60 rats. Animals were divided into two groups: 1) Control rats, and 2) Alcohol-treated rats. Ethanol and acetate were measured without any previous handling (endogenous levels) and after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of ethanol. Blood specimens were taken at 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after ethanol injection. Plasma levels of ethanol and acetate were performed by Head Space Gas Chromatography. Alcohol-treated animals had higher plasma acetate levels than control ones. There were statistically significant differences for acetate between both groups of rats at 0, 30, 120 and 180 minutes. PMID:8378582

  3. Formulation of a modified-release pregabalin tablet using hot-melt coating with glyceryl behenate.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyu Ho; Woo, Hye Seung; Kim, Chae Jin; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Jeon, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Young; Kang, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sangkil; Choi, Young Wook

    2015-11-10

    A modified-release (MR) tablet of the anti-anxiety drug pregabalin (PRE) was prepared by hot-melt coating PRE with glyceryl behenate (GB) as a release retardant and compressing to form a matrix with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a hydrophilic diluent. GB-coated PRE had a size in the range of 177-290 μm with good to acceptable flowability. Tablet hardness decreased slightly as GB content increased. PRE release from the tablet matrices was successfully modified by altering the ratio of MCC and GB, and it was found that dissolution- or diffusion-controlled release depended on the amount of GB used. Drug release was pH-independent. An accelerated stability test on the most promising MR tablet at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for 6 months showed no significant changes in PRE content, and the occurrence of total impurities--including PRE-lactam--was within acceptable limits. After oral administration of the selected MR tablet or a commercial IR capsule (Lyrica) to healthy human volunteers, pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-24, and T1/2 were compared. The confidence interval of AUC0-24 was within the adequate range, but that of Cmax was inadequate. This study demonstrated the potential use of GB for PRE-containing MR formulations. PMID:26315121

  4. Spectroscopic and computational studies on the interaction of DNA with pregabalin drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Amiri, Sara

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of the drug pregabalin (S-3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid) with CT-DNA was studied by using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis, CD, molecular docking study and viscometery. The fluorescence and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated that the drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant and the number of binding sites were 5.6 × 104 L mol-1 and 0.96, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (ΔH = 33.11 kJ mol-1; ΔS = 48.84 J mol-1 K-1). Furthermore, the drug does not induce any changes in DNA viscosity. Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational changes of CT-DNA in the presence of the drug, which verified the groove binding mode. The molecular modeling results illustrated that the drug binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -21.9 kJ mol-1.

  5. Routine prescribing of gabapentin or pregabalin in supportive and palliative care: what are the comparative performances of the medications in a palliative care population?

    PubMed

    Clark, Katherine; Quinn, Stephen J; Doogue, Matthew; Sanderson, Christine; Lovell, Melanie; Currow, David C

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is a prevalent and distressing problem faced by people with life-limiting illness that is often difficult to palliate. Gabapentin and pregabalin are widely prescribed as part of the routine approach to palliating neuropathic pain. Although they are often viewed as interchangeable agents, very little comparative data of their benefits and harms exists in clinical practice. Two previously reported pharmacovigilance studies that had used the same methodology for gabapentin and pregabalin were compared. These studies examined the benefits and harms of gabapentin and pregabalin after the medications had been routinely prescribed by clinicians working in a network of palliative care services using the same data collection tools with the same definitions and the same time points. Data were collected over 21 days from 282 patients prescribed either gabapentin or pregabalin for pain. Items included medication doses, pain scores, and adverse effects. In order to compare the medication responses, the final doses of pregabalin were converted to gabapentin does equivalents using previously published recommendations. The final pain scores were similar for both groups, and the reduction in pain were similar (OR = 11.2; 95 % CI 3.9, 32.7, p < 0.001). However, this was achieved at lower doses of gabapentin compared to pregabalin. Those receiving gabapentin were more likely to experience harms (OR = 3.5; 95 % CI 1.4, 9.1, p = 0.009) with the reported harms including somnolence, ataxia, nausea, tremor and nystagmus This hypothesis-generating work strongly supports the need for further trials to best delineate clinical differences in the GABA analogues. PMID:26162537

  6. Efficacy and safety of premedication with single dose of oral pregabalin in children with dental anxiety: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Soleymanzade, Rojin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety is a relatively frequent problem that can lead to more serious problems such as a child entering a vicious cycle as he/she becomes reluctant to accept the required dental treatments. The aim of this randomized double-blind clinical trial study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effect of pregabalin in children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children were randomized to a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Two visits were scheduled for each patient. At the first visit, 75 mg pregabalin or placebo was given randomly, and the alternative was administered at the next visit. Anxiolytic and sedative effects were measured using the visual analogue scale. The child's behavior was rated with the Frankl behavioral rating scale and the sedation level during the dental procedure was scored using the Ramsay sedation scale. The unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare the mean changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for anxiety in the pregabalin group with that of the placebo group. A repeated measures MANOVA model was used to detect differences in sedation level in the pregabalin and placebo groups regarding the interaction of 3-time measurements; sub-group analysis was performed using Student's t-test. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyze the nonparametric data of the Frankl and Ramsay scales. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The reduction of the VAS-anxiety score from 2 h post-dose was statistically significant in the pregabalin group. From 2 h to 4 h post-dose, the VAS-sedation score increased significantly in the pregabalin group. The child's behavior rating was not significantly different between the groups. The number of “successful” treatment visits was higher in the pregabalin group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: Significant anxiolytic and sedative effects can be anticipated 2 h after oral administration of pregabalin without serious side effects. PMID:26759588

  7. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine, pregabalin, and milnacipran for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine, pregabalin, and milnacipran at the recommended doses in patients with fibromyalgia. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the efficacy and safety of duloxetine 60 mg, pregabalin 300 mg, pregabalin 150 mg, milnacipran 200 mg, and milnacipran 100 mg compared to placebo in patients with fibromyalgia were included in this Bayesian network meta-analysis. Nine RCTs including 5140 patients met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of patients with >30 % improvement from baseline in pain was significantly higher in the duloxetine 60 mg, pregabalin 300 mg, milnacipran 100 mg, and milnacipran 200 mg groups than in the placebo group [pairwise odds ratio (OR) 2.33, 95 % credible interval (CrI) 1.50-3.67; OR 1.68, 95 % CrI 1.25-2.28; OR 1.62, 95 % CrI 1.16-2.25; and OR 1.61; 95 % CrI 1.15-2.24, respectively]. Ranking probability based on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) indicated that duloxetine 60 mg had the highest probability of being the best treatment for achieving the response level (SUCRA = 0.9431), followed by pregabalin 300 mg (SUCRA = 0.6300), milnacipran 100 mg (SUCRA = 0.5680), milnacipran 200 mg (SUCRA = 0.5617), pregabalin 150 mg (SUCRA = 0.2392), and placebo (SUCRA = 0.0580). The risk of withdrawal due to adverse events was lower in the placebo group than in the pregabalin 300 mg, duloxetine 60 mg, milnacipran 100 mg, and milnacipran 200 mg groups. However, there was no significant difference in the efficacy and tolerability between the medications at the recommended doses. Duloxetine 60 mg, pregabalin 300 mg, milnacipran 100 mg, and milnacipran 200 mg were more efficacious than placebo. However, there was no significant difference in the efficacy and tolerability between the medications at the recommended doses. PMID:27000046

  8. The Acetate Switch

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the “acetate switch,” occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the “switch” (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl∼P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl∼P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl∼P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl∼P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to “flip the switch,” the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the “acetate switch” as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described. PMID:15755952

  9. Carboxylic Acids as A Traceless Activation Group for Conjugate Additions: A Three-Step Synthesis of (±)-Pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct application of carboxylic acids as a traceless activation group for radical Michael additions has been accomplished via visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. Photon-induced oxidation of a broad series of carboxylic acids, including hydrocarbon-substituted, α-oxy, and α-amino acids, provides a versatile CO2-extrusion platform to generate Michael donors without the requirement for organometallic activation or propagation. A diverse array of Michael acceptors is amenable to this new conjugate addition strategy. An application of this technology to a three-step synthesis of the medicinal agent pregabalin (commercialized by Pfizer under the trade name Lyrica) is also presented. PMID:25032785

  10. Pregabalin influences insula and amygdala activation during anticipation of emotional images.

    PubMed

    Aupperle, Robin L; Ravindran, Lakshmi; Tankersley, Dharol; Flagan, Taru; Stein, Nathan R; Simmons, Alan N; Stein, Murray B; Paulus, Martin P

    2011-06-01

    Pregabalin (PGB) has shown potential as an anxiolytic for treatment of generalized and social anxiety disorder. PGB binds to voltage-dependent calcium channels, leading to upregulation of GABA inhibitory activity and reduction in the release of various neurotransmitters. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines attenuate amygdala, insula, and medial prefrontal cortex activation during anticipation and emotional processing in healthy controls. The aim of this study was to examine whether acute PGB administration would attenuate activation in these regions during emotional anticipation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, 16 healthy controls completed a paradigm involving anticipation of negative and positive affective images during fMRI approximately 1?h after administration of placebo, 50, or 200?mg PGB. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that PGB was associated with (1) decreases in left amygdala and anterior insula activation and (2) increases in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, during anticipation of positive and negative stimuli. There was also a region of the anterior amygdala in which PGB dose was associated with increased activation during anticipation of negative and decreased activation during anticipation of positive stimuli. Attenuation of amygdala and insula activation during anticipatory or emotional processing may represent a common regional brain mechanism for anxiolytics across drug classes. PGB induced increases in ACC activation could be a unique effect related to top-down modulation of affective processing. These results provide further support for the viability of using pharmaco-fMRI to determine the anxiolytic potential of pharmacologic agents. PMID:21430645

  11. The effect of gabapentin and pregabalin on intestinal incision wound healing in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, M.; Saritas, T. B.; Sevimli, A.; Saritas, Z. K.; Elitok, B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the macroscopic and histologic effects of pregabalin (PG) gabapentin (GB) on longitudinal intestinal wound healing in New Zealand rabbits. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups randomly; the control group (n=6), PG group (n=6) and GB group (n=6). All animals were premedicated with xylazine HCI, 5 mg/kg i.m. and general anaesthesia was performed by ketamine HCI 50 mg/kg i.m injection. A 4 cm incision in the caecum through median laparotomy was achieved under aseptic surgery. Intestinal wound was closed with double-sutured. All animals were received parenteral antibiotic treatment for 5 days. PG and GB groups were treated by PG (30 mg/kg, oral, daily) and GB (30 mg/kg, oral, daily) for 10 days respectively. Control group did not receive any treatment. The animals were euthanized on day 10 and the caecum was examined by laparotomy. Adhesion formation was observed, and tissue samples were taken from suture lines for histologic examination. Cellular infiltration (polymorphonuclear white blood cells and mononuclear cells), accumulation of connective tissue, vascularization and extent of necrosis were evaluated and scored separately for each of mucosal, submucosal, muscular and serosal layers of caecum. Results: Adhesions were more severe in the GB group compared to other groups. No statistically significant differences were detected among the three groups about the wound healing. Conclusion: It was suggested that the use of gabapentinoids had no significant effect on wound healing in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery and further studies with treatment periods longer than 10 days are needed.

  12. Pregabalin Influences Insula and Amygdala Activation During Anticipation of Emotional Images

    PubMed Central

    Aupperle, Robin L; Ravindran, Lakshmi; Tankersley, Dharol; Flagan, Taru; Stein, Nathan R; Simmons, Alan N; Stein, Murray B; Paulus, Martin P

    2011-01-01

    Pregabalin (PGB) has shown potential as an anxiolytic for treatment of generalized and social anxiety disorder. PGB binds to voltage-dependent calcium channels, leading to upregulation of GABA inhibitory activity and reduction in the release of various neurotransmitters. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines attenuate amygdala, insula, and medial prefrontal cortex activation during anticipation and emotional processing in healthy controls. The aim of this study was to examine whether acute PGB administration would attenuate activation in these regions during emotional anticipation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, 16 healthy controls completed a paradigm involving anticipation of negative and positive affective images during fMRI approximately 1 h after administration of placebo, 50, or 200 mg PGB. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that PGB was associated with (1) decreases in left amygdala and anterior insula activation and (2) increases in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, during anticipation of positive and negative stimuli. There was also a region of the anterior amygdala in which PGB dose was associated with increased activation during anticipation of negative and decreased activation during anticipation of positive stimuli. Attenuation of amygdala and insula activation during anticipatory or emotional processing may represent a common regional brain mechanism for anxiolytics across drug classes. PGB induced increases in ACC activation could be a unique effect related to top–down modulation of affective processing. These results provide further support for the viability of using pharmaco-fMRI to determine the anxiolytic potential of pharmacologic agents. PMID:21430645

  13. Joint modeling of dizziness, drowsiness, and dropout associated with pregabalin and placebo treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Frame, Bill; Miller, Raymond; Hutmacher, Matthew M

    2009-12-01

    Dizziness and drowsiness are cited as being predictors of dropout from clinical trials for the medicine pregabalin. These adverse events are typically recorded daily on a four point ordinal scale (0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe), with most subjects never reporting either adverse event. We modeled the dizziness, drowsiness, and dropout associated with pregabalin use in generalized anxiety disorder using piecewise Weibull distributions for the time to first non-zero dizziness or drowsiness score, after which the dizziness or drowsiness was modeled with ordinal regression with a Markovian element. Dropout was modeled with a Weibull distribution. Platykurtosis was encountered in the estimated random effects distributions for the ordinal regression models and was addressed with dynamic John-Draper transformations. The only identified predictor for the time to first non-zero dizziness or drowsiness score was daily titrated dose. Predictors for dropout included creatinine clearance and maximum daily adverse event score. Tolerance to adverse events over time was modeled by including a non-stationary component for the dizziness ordinal Markov regression while the piecewise Weibull distributions allowed a change point in the median time to first non-zero dizziness or drowsiness score. PMID:19904583

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Capsaicin 8% Patch Compared with Pregabalin for the Treatment of Patients with Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Mankowski, Colette; Patel, Sachin; Trueman, David; Bentley, Anthony; Poole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of capsaicin 8% patch (QUTENZA™) versus pregabalin in patients with PNP from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) and Personal and Social Services in Scotland, UK. A decision-tree cost-effectiveness model was developed for non-diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) who were pregabalin-naïve and had not achieved adequate pain relief or tolerated conventional first- or second-line treatments. Patients entering the model received either a single application of capsaicin 8% patch or titrated daily dosing with pregabalin; after 8 weeks patients were classified as responders, non-responders, or were assumed to discontinue treatment due to intolerable adverse events. Responders continued to receive baseline treatment at intervals observed in clinical practice. Non-responders and those who discontinued treatment were assumed to receive last-line therapy (duloxetine). The base-case time horizon was 2 years. Model inputs for effectiveness, discontinuations and health-state utilities were taken from a head-to-head non-inferiority study (ELEVATE, NCT01713426). Other inputs were obtained from published sources or clinical expert opinion. Costs were expressed in GBP 2013/14. Results were presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), i.e. cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Model assumptions were tested with scenario analyses. Parameter uncertainty was tested using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Compared with dose-optimized pregabalin, capsaicin 8% patch was the dominant treatment strategy (total cost difference, –£11; total QALY gain, 0.049). Capsaicin 8% patch was also the dominant treatment strategy versus pregabalin in 6 out of 7 scenario analyses. The model was most sensitive to variation in time to capsaicin 8% patch retreatment (maximum ICER, £7,951/QALY at lower-bound 95% confidence interval). At a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY, the probability of capsaicin 8% patch being cost-effective versus pregabalin was 97%. Capsaicin 8% patch is a cost-effective treatment option compared with dose-optimized pregabalin in patients with PNP who have failed one or more previous systemic treatments. PMID:26983018

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Capsaicin 8% Patch Compared with Pregabalin for the Treatment of Patients with Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Colette; Patel, Sachin; Trueman, David; Bentley, Anthony; Poole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of capsaicin 8% patch (QUTENZA™) versus pregabalin in patients with PNP from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) and Personal and Social Services in Scotland, UK. A decision-tree cost-effectiveness model was developed for non-diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) who were pregabalin-naïve and had not achieved adequate pain relief or tolerated conventional first- or second-line treatments. Patients entering the model received either a single application of capsaicin 8% patch or titrated daily dosing with pregabalin; after 8 weeks patients were classified as responders, non-responders, or were assumed to discontinue treatment due to intolerable adverse events. Responders continued to receive baseline treatment at intervals observed in clinical practice. Non-responders and those who discontinued treatment were assumed to receive last-line therapy (duloxetine). The base-case time horizon was 2 years. Model inputs for effectiveness, discontinuations and health-state utilities were taken from a head-to-head non-inferiority study (ELEVATE, NCT01713426). Other inputs were obtained from published sources or clinical expert opinion. Costs were expressed in GBP 2013/14. Results were presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), i.e. cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Model assumptions were tested with scenario analyses. Parameter uncertainty was tested using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Compared with dose-optimized pregabalin, capsaicin 8% patch was the dominant treatment strategy (total cost difference, -£11; total QALY gain, 0.049). Capsaicin 8% patch was also the dominant treatment strategy versus pregabalin in 6 out of 7 scenario analyses. The model was most sensitive to variation in time to capsaicin 8% patch retreatment (maximum ICER, £7,951/QALY at lower-bound 95% confidence interval). At a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY, the probability of capsaicin 8% patch being cost-effective versus pregabalin was 97%. Capsaicin 8% patch is a cost-effective treatment option compared with dose-optimized pregabalin in patients with PNP who have failed one or more previous systemic treatments. PMID:26983018

  16. Guidelines in the management of diabetic nerve pain: clinical utility of pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Vinik, Aaron I; Casellini, Carolina M

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It presents as a variety of syndromes for which there is no universally accepted unique classification. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common type, affecting about 30% of diabetic patients in hospital care and 25% of those in the community. Pain is the reason for 40% of patient visits in a primary care setting, and about 20% of these have had pain for greater than 6 months. Chronic pain may be nociceptive, which occurs as a result of disease or damage to tissue with no abnormality in the nervous system. In contrast, neuropathic pain is defined as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system.” Persistent neuropathic pain interferes significantly with quality of life, impairing sleep and recreation; it also significantly impacts emotional well-being, and is associated with depression, anxiety, and noncompliance with treatment. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a difficult-to-manage clinical problem, and patients with this condition are more apt to seek medical attention than those with other types of diabetic neuropathy. Early recognition of psychological problems is critical to the management of pain, and physicians need to go beyond the management of pain per se if they are to achieve success. This evidence-based review of the assessment of the patient with pain in diabetes addresses the state-of-the-art management of pain, recognizing all the conditions that produce pain in diabetes and the evidence in support of a variety of treatments currently available. A search of the full Medline database for the last 10 years was conducted in August 2012 using the terms painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, painful diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, painful diabetic neuropathy and pain in diabetes. In addition, recent reviews addressing this issue were adopted as necessary. In particular, reports from the American Academy of Neurology and the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy were included. Unfortunately, the results of evidence-based studies do not necessarily take into account the presence of comorbidities, the cost of treatment, or the role of third-party payers in decision-making. Thus, this review attempts to give a more balanced view of the management of pain in the diabetic patient with neuropathy and in particular the role of pregabalin. PMID:23467255

  17. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and open-label extension study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with human immunodeficiency virus neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, David M; Rice, Andrew S C; Emir, Birol; Landen, Jaren; Semel, David; Chew, Marci L; Sporn, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The objective of these studies was to assess the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathic pain. Patients with HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) were randomized to treatment with flexible-dose pregabalin (150-600 mg/day) or placebo for 17 weeks in a single-blind, placebo lead-in, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled multinational trial. The primary efficacy outcome was the change in mean pain score on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) from baseline to study endpoint. Participants who completed this trial were invited to participate in a 6-month open-label extension study with pregabalin. Of the 377 patients enrolled in the randomized controlled trial (pregabalin, n=183; placebo, n=194), 68.4% completed treatment. In the open-label extension, 217 patients were treated and 59.4% completed treatment. Both studies were terminated by the sponsor after a preplanned interim analysis indicated trial futility. At endpoint, the change from baseline in least-squares mean NRS pain scores in the intent-to-treat population was -2.04 for pregabalin versus -2.11 for placebo (P=.709). There were no significant differences between the pregabalin and placebo groups in the secondary efficacy measures. Incidence of adverse events was lower than seen in previous pregabalin studies. Overall, this trial did not show pregabalin to be more efficacious than placebo in treating HIV-associated DSP. Studies such as these, which fail to support their primary hypotheses, may be important in informing the methodology of future trials, especially when novel approaches to limit variability in the control group are included. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01049217 and NCT01145417. PMID:24907403

  18. The antiallodynic action of pregabalin may depend on the suppression of spinal neuronal hyperexcitability in rats with spared nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lei; Cai, Jie; Guo, Xiang-Yang; Meng, Xiu-Li; Xing, Guo-Gang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregabalin (PGB) is a novel antiepileptic drug and is also used as a first-line medication for the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, the mechanisms of its analgesic effects remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiallodynic action of PGB in rats with neuropathic pain. METHODS: In a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury, mechanical allodynia, as a behavioural sign of neuropathic pain, was assessed by measuring 50% paw withdrawal threshold with von Frey filaments. Activities of dorsal horn wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined by extracellular electrophysiological recording in vivo. RESULTS: Spinal administration of PGB exerted a significant antiallodynic effect and a prominent inhibitory effect on the hypersensitivity of dorsal horn WDR neurons in rats with spared nerve injury. CONCLUSION: The antiallodynic action of PGB is likely dependent on the suppression of WDR neuron hyperexcitability in rats with neuropathic pain. PMID:24851240

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pregabalin for treatment of chronic low back pain in patients with accompanying lower limb pain (neuropathic component) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Ataru; Akazawa, Manabu; Murata, Tatsunori; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Sadosky, Alesia; Ebata, Nozomi; Willke, Richard; Fujii, Koichi; Doherty, Jim; Kobayashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of pregabalin for the treatment of chronic low back pain with accompanying neuropathic pain (CLBP-NeP) from the health care payer and societal perspectives. Methods The cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus usual care for treatment of CLBP-NeP was evaluated over a 12-month time horizon using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), derived from the five-dimension, five-level EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire, was the measure of effectiveness. Medical costs and productivity losses were both calculated. Expected costs and outcomes were estimated via cohort simulation using a state-transition model, which mimics pain state transitions among mild, moderate, and severe pain. Distributions of pain severity were obtained from an 8-week noninterventional study. Health care resource consumption for estimation of direct medical costs for pain severity levels was derived from a physician survey. The ICER per additional QALY gained was calculated and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of the assumptions across a range of values. Results Direct medical costs and hospitalization costs were both lower in the pregabalin arm compared with usual care. The estimated ICERs in the base case scenarios were approximately ¥2,025,000 and ¥1,435,000 per QALY gained with pregabalin from the payer and societal perspectives, respectively; the latter included indirect costs related to lost productivity. Sensitivity analyses using alternate values for postsurgical pain scores (0 and 5), initial pain severity levels (either all moderate or all severe), and the actual EQ-5D-5L scores from the noninterventional study showed robustness of results, with ICERs that were similar to the base case. Development of a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve showed high probability (≥75%) of pregabalin being cost-effective. Conclusion Using data and assumptions from routine clinical practice, pregabalin is cost-effective for the treatment of CLBP-NeP in Japan. PMID:26504403

  20. Separation and characterization of modified pregabalins in terms of cyclodextrin complexation, using capillary electrophoresis and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Béni, Szabolcs; Sohajda, Tamás; Neumajer, Gábor; Iványi, Róbert; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla

    2010-03-11

    The (S)-(+)-isomer of 3-isobutyl-GABA (pregabalin), the blockbuster drug in the treatment of neuropathic pain has been separated from its R isomer by cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using uncoated fused-silica capillary. Derivatization of the single isomer and the racemate with tosyl- and dansyl-chloride was carried out to introduce strong UV chromophores of different size. CE-pH titrations were performed to determine the dissociation constants for both derivatives. 30 cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives as chiral agents were used at four different pH values to study the enantioseparation of the differently protonated guest molecules. The separation was optimized as a function of CD concentration, buffer type and concentration, pH and applied voltage. For the tosylated derivate the best resolution (R(s)=2.76) was found with 6-monodeoxy-6-mono-(3-hydroxy)-propylamino-beta-cyclodextrin hydrochloride (PA-beta-CD) at pH 6.8, while with the same selector at pH 7.2 enantioseparation with an R(s) value of 4.32 could be achieved for the dansylated pregabalin. At pH 2.5 for the dansylated derivative trimethylated alpha- and beta-CD systems resulted the most significant separation (R(s)=7.38 and R(s)=7.74, respectively). Experiments with dual CD systems were carried out as well. The stoichiometry of the complexes was determined using the Job plot method and resulted in a 1:1 complex in both cases. The structures of the inclusion complexes were elucidated using 2D ROESY NMR experiments. PMID:19914021

  1. Synthesis of new fluorinated analogs of GABA, Pregabalin bioisosteres, and their effects on [(3)H]GABA uptake by rat brain nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Borisova, T; Pozdnyakova, N; Shaitanova, E; Gerus, I; Dudarenko, M; Mironets, R; Haufe, G; Kukhar, V

    2015-08-01

    Fluorinated analogs of natural substances take an essential place in the design of new biologically active compounds. New fluorinated analogs of γ-aminobutyric acid, that is, β-polyfluoroalkyl-GABAs (FGABAs), were synthesized with substituents: β-CF3-β-OH (1), β-CF3 (2); β-CF2CF2H (3). FGABAs are bioisosteres of Pregabalin (Lyrica®, Pfizer's blockbuster drug, β-i-Bu-GABA), and have lipophilicity close to this medicine. The effects of synthesized FGABAs on [(3)H]GABA uptake by isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) were assessed and compared with those of Pregabalin. FGABAs 1-3 (100μM) did not influence the initial velocity of [(3)H]GABA uptake when applied acutely, whereas an increase in this parameter was found after preliminary incubation of FGABAs with synaptosomes. Pregabalin after preliminary incubation with synaptosomes caused unidirectional changes in the initial velocity of [(3)H]GABA uptake. Using specific inhibitors of GAT1 and GAT3, NO-711 and SNAP5114, respectively, the ability of FGABAs 1-3 to influence non-GAT1 and non-GAT3 uptake activity of nerve terminals was analyzed, but no specificity was found. Therefore, new synthesized FGABAs are structural but not functional analogs of GABA (because they did not inhibit synaptosomal [(3)H]GABA uptake). Moreover, FGABAs are able to increase the initial velocity of [(3)H]GABA uptake by synaptosomes, and this effect is higher than that of Pregabalin. PMID:26138193

  2. Formation of acetic anhydride by carbonylation of methyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Mamyan, V.A.; Barsegyan, V.L.; Pirozhkov, S.D.; Sominskii, S.D.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the carbonylation reaction of methyl acetate (MA) with the formation of acetic anhydride, and also elucidates the mechanism of this reaction in the presence of a catalytic system including RhCl/sub 3/, Zn acetate, and MeI. The results obtained show that the metal halides studied can be arranged in order of activity and selectivity: RhCl/sub 3/ greater than RuCl/sub 3/ greater than PdCl/sub 2/. Small quantities of acetaldehyde, butyradehyde, acetic acid, and acetone are found in the reaction products.

  3. Five Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome in Whom an Antidepressant (Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor) Was Not Effective, but Pregabalin Markedly Relieved Pain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikiko; Tokura, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Keizo; Nagashima, Wataru; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Umemura, Eri; Tachibana, Masako; Miyauchi, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Yuka; Arao, Munetaka; Ozaki, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) causes idiopathic pain or a burning sensation in clinically normal oral mucosa. Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic disease with an unknown etiology. Burning mouth syndrome is also idiopathic, and a consensus regarding diagnosis/treatment has not been reached yet. Recent studies have supported the suggestion that BMS is a neuropathic pain disorder in which both the peripheral and central nervous systems are involved. Tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline and amitriptyline), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (duloxetine and milnacipran), and antiepileptic drugs, potential-dependent calcium channel α2δ subunit ligands (gabapentine and pregabalin), are currently recommended as the first-choice drugs for neuropathic pain. In this study, we report 5 patients with BMS in whom there was no response to SNRI (milnacipran or duloxetine), or administration was discontinued because of adverse reactions, but in whom pregabalin therapy markedly reduced or led to the disappearance of pain in a short period. Pregabalin, whose mechanism of action differs from that of SNRIs, may become a treatment option for BMS patients who are not responsive to or are resistant to SNRIs. PMID:26166242

  4. [Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Lello, S

    2009-10-01

    Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

  5. Pregabalin versus SSRIs and SNRIs in benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder: a post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis in usual medical practice in Spain

    PubMed Central

    De Salas-Cansado, Marina; Olivares, José M; Álvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, Jose L; Barrueta, Andoni; Rejas, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent health condition which seriously affects both patient quality of life and the National Health System. The aim of this research was to carry out a post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis of the effect of pregabalin versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in treated benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with GAD. Methods This post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis used secondary data extracted from the 6-month cohort, prospective, noninterventional ADAN study, which was conducted to ascertain the cost of illness in GAD subjects diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. Benzodiazepine-refractory subjects were those who claimed persistent symptoms of anxiety and showed a suboptimal response (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale ≥ 16) to benzodiazepines, alone or in combination, over 6 months. Patients could switch to pregabalin (as monotherapy or addon) or to an SSRI or SNRI, alone or in combination. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years gained, and the perspective was that of the National Health System in the year 2008. A sensitivity analysis was performed using bootstrapping techniques (10,000 resamples were obtained) in order to obtain a cost-effectiveness plane and a corresponding acceptability curve. Results A total of 282 subjects (mean Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score 25.8) were identified, comprising 157 in a pregabalin group and 125 in an SSRI/SNRI group. Compared with SSRI/SNRI, pregabalin (average dose 163 mg/day) was associated with higher quality-adjusted life years gained (0.1086 ± 0.0953 versus 0.0967 ± 0.1003, P = 0.334), but increased health care costs (€1014 ± 762 versus €846 ± 620, P = 0.166) and drug costs (€376 ± 252 versus 220 ± 140, P < 0.001), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €25,304 (95% confidence interval dominant 149,430) per quality-adjusted life years gained for health care costs and €25,454 (dominant 124,562) when drug costs were considered alone. Eighty-six percent of resamples fell below the threshold of €30,000 per quality-adjusted life years. Conclusion This evaluation suggests that pregabalin may be cost-effective in comparison with SSRIs/SNRIs in benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with GAD treated in mental health care settings under usual medical practice in Spain. PMID:22745564

  6. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  7. Analysis of the long-term actions of gabapentin and pregabalin in dorsal root ganglia and substantia gelatinosa.

    PubMed

    Biggs, James E; Boakye, Paul A; Ganesan, Naren; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Lantero, Aquilino; Ballanyi, Klaus; Smith, Peter A

    2014-11-15

    The α2δ-ligands pregabalin (PGB) and gabapentin (GBP) are used to treat neuropathic pain. We used whole cell recording to study their long-term effects on substantia gelatinosa and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Spinal cord slices were prepared from embryonic day 13 rat embryos and maintained in organotypic culture for >5 wk (neuronal age equivalent to young adult rats). Exposure of similarly aged DRG neurons (dissociated and cultured from postnatal day 19 rats) to GBP or PGB for 5-6 days attenuated high-voltage-activated calcium channel currents (HVA ICa). Strong effects were seen in medium-sized and in small isolectin B4-negative (IB4-) DRG neurons, whereas large neurons and small neurons that bound isolectin B4 (IB4+) were hardly affected. GBP (100 μM) or PGB (10 μM) were less effective than 20 μM Mn(2+) in suppression of HVA ICa in small DRG neurons. By contrast, 5-6 days of exposure to these α2δ-ligands was more effective than 20 μM Mn(2+) in reducing spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents at synapses in substantia gelatinosa. Spinal actions of gabapentinoids cannot therefore be ascribed to decreased expression of HVA Ca(2+) channels in primary afferent nerve terminals. In substantia gelatinosa, 5-6 days of exposure to PGB was more effective in inhibiting excitatory synaptic drive to putative excitatory neurons than to putative inhibitory neurons. Although spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents were also attenuated, the overall long-term effect of α2δ-ligands was to decrease network excitability as monitored by confocal Ca(2+) imaging. We suggest that selective actions of α2δ-ligands on populations of DRG neurons may predict their selective attenuation of excitatory transmission onto excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in substantia gelatinosa. PMID:25122705

  8. Long-term cost-effectiveness of initiating treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy with pregabalin, duloxetine, gabapentin, or desipramine.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Brandon K; Nelson, Richard E; Oderda, Gary M; LaFleur, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) affects nearly half of patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of starting patients with PDN on pregabalin (PRE), duloxetine (DUL), gabapentin (GABA), or desipramine (DES) over a 10-year time horizon from the perspective of third-party payers in the United States. A Markov model was used to compare the costs (2013 $US) and effectiveness (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) of first-line PDN treatments in 10,000 patients using microsimulation. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Probabilities and utilities were derived from the published literature. Costs were average wholesale price for drugs and national estimates for office visits and hospitalizations. One-way and probabilistic (PSA) sensitivity analyses were used to examine parameter uncertainty. Starting with PRE was dominated by DUL as DUL cost less and was more effective. Starting with GABA was extendedly dominated by a combination of DES and DUL. DES and DUL cost $23,468 and $25,979, while yielding 3.05 and 3.16 QALYs, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DUL compared with DES was $22,867/QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to the adherence threshold and utility for mild pain. PSA showed that, at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $50,000/QALY, DUL was the most cost-effective option in 56.3% of the simulations, DES in 29.2%, GABA in 14.4%, and PRE in 0.1%. Starting with DUL is the most cost-effective option for PDN when WTP is greater than $22,867/QALY. Decision makers may consider starting with DUL for PDN patients. PMID:26397932

  9. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  16. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  17. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  18. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  3. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  4. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  5. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6185 Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with... C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with... C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. Enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seokhyeon; Park, Chulhwan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we report the enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol and methyl acetate. Lipases are essential for the catalysis of this reaction. To find the optimum conditions for glycerol acetate production, sequential experiments were designed. Type of lipase, lipase concentration, molar ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and solvents were investigated for the optimum conversion of glycerol to glycerol acetate. As the result of lipase screening, Novozym 435 (Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) was turned out to be the optimal lipase for the reaction. Under the optimal conditions (2.5 g/L of Novozym 435, 1:40 molar ratio of glycerol to methyl acetate, 40 °C and tert-butanol as the solvent), glycerol acetate production was achieved in 95.00% conversion. PMID:25640720

  1. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  2. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  3. Gateways to clinical trials. March 2003.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-03-01

    Gateways to clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and devlopment protal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV-CF, adalimumab, ademetionine, afeletecan hydrochloride, agomelatine, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, amdoxovir, aplidine, aranose, arsenic sulfide, atazanavir, atlizumab; Bimatoprost, BMS-181176, BMS-188667, bortezomib, bryostatin 1; Combretastatin A-4 phosphate; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, deferasirox, desloratadine, DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib-vaccine, DTI-0009; Eculizumab, edodekin alfa, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, epoetin, esomeprazole magnesium etoricoxib; Fampridine, fenretinide, FR-146687; Galiximab, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, ganirelix acetate, gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gimatecan; HEA125xOKT3, hIL-13-PE38QQR, HSV-2 theracine, Hu14.18-IL-2, human gammaglobulin; Idraparinux sodium, imatinib mesylate, IMiD3, insulin detemir, interleukin-4, irofulven, ISAtx-247; JT-1001; Levetiracetam, levosimendan, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lixivaptan, lopinavir, lumiracoxib; Maxacalcitol, melatonin, midostaurin, MLN-518; Neridronic acid, nesiritide, nitronaproxen; Oblimersen sodium, oregovomab; PEG-filgrastim polyglutamate paclitaxel, prasterone, pregabalin; Rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; SGN-30; T-1249, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipranavir, TMC-114, trabectedin, transdermal selegiline; UK-427857; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil, vatalanib succinate, vincristine sulfate TCS; Zofenopril calcium. PMID:12731460

  4. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  5. Production and utilization of acetate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S E; Jarrett, I G; Filsell, O H; Ballard, F J

    1974-08-01

    1. In an attempt to define the importance of acetate as a metabolic precursor, the activities of acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1) and acetyl-CoA hydrolase (Ec 3.1.2.1) were assayed in tissues from rats and sheep. In addition, the concentrations of acetate in blood and liver were measured, as well as the rates of acetate production by tissue slices and mitochondrial fractions of these tissues. 2. Acetyl-CoA synthetase occurs at high activities in heart and kidney cortex of both species as well as in rat liver and the sheep masseter muscle. The enzyme is mostly in the cytosol fraction of liver, whereas it is associated with the mitochondrial fraction in heart tissue. Both mitochondrial and cytosol activities have a K(m) for acetate of 0.3mm. Acetyl-CoA synthetase activity in liver was not altered by changes in diet, age or alloxan-diabetes. 3. Acetyl-CoA hydrolase is widely distributed in rat and sheep tissues, the highest activity being found in liver. Essentially all of the activity in liver and heart is localized in the mitochondrial fraction. Hepatic acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity is increased by starvation in rats and sheep and during the suckling period in young rats. 4. The concentrations of acetate in blood are decreased by starvation and increased by alloxan-diabetes in both species. The uptake of acetate by the sheep hind limb is proportional to the arterial concentration of acetate, except in alloxan-treated animals, where uptake is impaired. 5. Acetate is produced by liver and heart slices and also by heart mitochondrial fractions that are incubated with either pyruvate or palmitoyl-(-)-carnitine. Liver mitochondrial fractions do not form acetate from either substrate but instead convert acetate into acetoacetate. 6. We propose that acetate in the blood of rats or starved sheep is derived from the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA. Release of acetate from tissues would occur under conditions when the function of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is restricted, so that the circulating acetate serves to redistribute oxidizable substrate throughout the body. This function is analogous to that served by ketone bodies. PMID:4441381

  6. Acetate metabolism and aging: An emerging connection.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Tadahiro; Hirschey, Matthew D; Huang, Jing-Yi; Ho, Linh T Y; Verdin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that regulate gene silencing, energy metabolism and aging from bacteria to mammals. SIRT3, a mammalian mitochondrial sirtuin, deacetylates acetyl-CoA synthetase (AceCS2) in the mitochondria. AceCS2 is conserved from bacteria to humans, catalyzes the conversion of acetate to acetyl-CoA and enables peripheral tissues to utilize acetate during fasting conditions. Here, we review the regulation of acetate metabolism by sirtuins, the remarkable conservation of this metabolic regulatory pathway and its emerging role in the regulation of aging and longevity. PMID:20478325

  7. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  8. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  9. Density functional theory study of selective deacylation of aromatic acetate in the presence of aliphatic acetate under ammonium acetate mediated conditions.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shijing; Zhang, Haoyu

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic acetates can be selectively deprotected in the presence of aliphatic acetates under ammonium acetate mediated condition. B3LYP/6-31++G** level of theory was demonstrated to be successfully used to model the relative reaction rates for deacylation reactions for aliphatic and aromatic ester systems. On the basis of the mechanistic studies, acetate anion is most likely to be the active catalyst for the ester deacylation reactions under ammonium acetate mediated condition. PMID:24956355

  10. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate. PMID:677881

  11. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

  12. Acetate limitation and nitrite accumulation during denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, J.; Silverstein, J.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrite accumulated in denitrifying activated sludge mixed liquor when the carbon and electron source, acetate, was limited. If acetate was added to obtain a carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the range of 2:1 to 3:1, nitrate was completely consumed at the same rate with no nitrite accumulation, indicating that nitrate concentration controlled the respiration rate as long as sufficient substrate was present. However, when acetate was reduced to a C:N ratio of 1:1, while nitrate continued to be consumed, > 50% of the initial nitrate-nitrogen accumulated as nitrite and 29% persisted as nitrite throughout an endogenous denitrification period of 8--9 h. While nitrite accumulated during acetate-limited denitrification, the specific nitrate reduction rate increased significantly compared with the rate when excess acetate was provided as follows: 0.034 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h versus 0.023 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h, respective. This may be explained by nitrate respiration out-competing nitrite respiration for limited acetate electrons. Complete restoration of balanced denitrification and elimination of nitrite accumulation during denitrification required several weeks after the C:N ratio was increased back to 2:1.

  13. Clinical Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Gabapentin Plus B Complex (B1/B12) versus Pregabalin for Treating Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mimenza Alvarado, Alberto; Aguilar Navarro, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a prevalent and impairing disorder. The objective of this study was to show the efficacy and safety of gabapentin (GBP) plus complex B vitamins: thiamine (B1) and cyanocobalamine (B12) compared to pregabalin in patients with moderate to severe intensity PDN. Method. Multicenter, randomized, blind study. Two hundred and seventy patients were evaluated, 147 with GBP/B1/B12 and 123 with PGB, with a 7/10 pain intensity on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Five visits (12 weeks) were scheduled. The GBP/B1 (100 mg)/B12 (20 mg) group started with 300 mg at visit 1 to 3600 mg at visit 5. The PGB group started with 75 mg/d at visit 1 to 600 mg/d at visit 5. Different safety and efficacy scales were applied, as well as adverse event assessment. Results. Both drugs showed reduction of pain intensity, without significant statistical difference (P = 0.900). In the GBP/B1/B12 group, an improvement of at least 30% on VAS correlated to a 900 mg/d dose, compared with PGB 300 mg/d. Likewise, occurrence of vertigo was lower in the GBP/B1-B12 group, with a significant statistical difference, P = 0.014. Conclusions. Our study shows that GPB/B1-B12 combination is as effective as PGB. Nonetheless, pain intensity reduction is achieved with 50% of the minimum required gabapentin dose alone (800 to 1600 mg/d) in classic NDD trials. Less vertigo and dizziness occurrence was also observed in the GBP/B1/B12 group. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01364298. PMID:26885528

  14. Direct detection of the acetate-forming activity of the enzyme acetate kinase.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Matthew L; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J; Smith, Kerry S

    2011-01-01

    Acetate kinase, a member of the acetate and sugar kinase-Hsp70-actin (ASKHA) enzyme superfamily, is responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to acetyl phosphate utilizing ATP as a substrate. Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya. The most well characterized acetate kinase is that from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. An acetate kinase which can only utilize PP(i) but not ATP in the acetyl phosphate-forming direction has been isolated from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and has thus far only been found in this genus. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is typically measured using the hydroxamate assay, first described by Lipmann, a coupled assay in which conversion of ATP to ADP is coupled to oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, or an assay measuring release of inorganic phosphate after reaction of the acetyl phosphate product with hydroxylamine. Activity in the opposite, acetate-forming direction is measured by coupling ATP formation from ADP to the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH by the enzymes hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Here we describe a method for the detection of acetate kinase activity in the direction of acetate formation that does not require coupling enzymes, but is instead based on direct determination of acetyl phosphate consumption. After the enzymatic reaction, remaining acetyl phosphate is converted to a ferric hydroxamate complex that can be measured spectrophotometrically, as for the hydroxamate assay. Thus, unlike the standard coupled assay for this direction that is dependent on the production of ATP from ADP, this direct assay can be used for acetate kinases that produce ATP or PP(i). PMID:22214984

  15. Acetate Transport and Utilization in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Deelchand, Dinesh K.; Shestov, Alexander A.; Koski, Dee M.; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Acetate, a glial-specific substrate, is an attractive alternative to glucose for the study of neuronal-glial interactions. The present study investigates the kinetics of acetate uptake and utilization in the rat brain in vivo during infusion of [2-13C]acetate using NMR spectroscopy. When plasma acetate concentration was increased, the rate of brain acetate utilization (CMRace) increased progressively and reached close to saturation for plasma acetate concentration > 2-3 mM, whereas brain acetate concentration continued to increase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for brain acetate utilization ( KMutil=0.01±0.14mM) was much smaller than for acetate transport through the blood-brain barrier ( KMt=4.18±0.83mM). The maximum transport capacity of acetate through the blood-brain barrier ( Vmaxt=0.96±0.18μmol/g/min) was nearly two-fold higher than the maximum rate of brain acetate utilization ( Vmaxutil=0.50±0.08μmol/g/min). We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, brain acetate utilization is saturated when plasma acetate concentrations increase above 2-3 mM. At such high plasma acetate concentration, the rate-limiting step for glial acetate metabolism is not the blood-brain barrier, but occurs after entry of acetate into the brain. PMID:19393008

  16. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid. PMID:25416587

  17. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  18. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  19. A mammalian acetate switch regulates stress erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Nagati, Jason S.; Xie, Jian; Li, Jiwen; Walters, Holly; Moon, Young-Ah; Gerard, Robert D.; Huang, Chou-Long; Comerford, Sarah A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Horton, Jay D.; Chen, Rui; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2α acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo induction during hypoxia. We now show these processes require acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (Acss2). In Hep3B hepatoma cells and in Epo-generating organs of hypoxic or acutely anemic mice, acetate levels increase and Acss2 is required for HIF-2α acetylation, Cbp/HIF-2α complex formation and recruitment to the Epo enhancer, and efficient Epo induction. In acutely anemic mice, acetate supplementation augments stress erythropoiesis in an Acss2-dependent manner. In acquired and genetic chronic anemia mouse models, acetate supplementation also increases Epo expression and resting hematocrits. Thus, a mammalian stress-responsive acetate switch controls HIF-2 signaling and Epo induction during pathophysiological states marked by tissue hypoxia. PMID:25108527

  20. Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

    2007-04-13

    For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

  1. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  3. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  4. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  5. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  6. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  7. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  8. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives §...

  11. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  14. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  15. 21 CFR 522.533 - Deslorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deslorelin acetate. 522.533 Section 522.533 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  16. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD...

  17. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD...

  18. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  19. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abetimus sodium, adefovir dipivoxil, AGI-1067, alefacept, alemtuzumab, ALVAC-p53, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anti-CTLA-4 Mab, AOD-9604, apafant, aprinocarsen sodium, arsenic trioxide; Balaglitazone, BIM-23190, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; Canertinib dihydrochloride, CDP-850, cevimeline hydrochloride, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clenoliximab, clevudine, CN-787; D-003, darusentan, deferasirox, desloratadine dexanabinol, duloxetine hydrochloride; E-5564, edaravone, efaproxiral sodium, elvucitabine emfilermin, EN-101, enfuvirtide, entecavir, epithalon, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, etilefrine pivalate hydrochloride etoricoxib, everolimus, exenatide; Fidarestat, fondaparinux sodium; Ganstigmine hydrochloride; Homoharringtonine, HuMax-IL-15, hyperimmune IVIG; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-1C11, Inhaled insulin, irofulven, iseganan hydrochloride, ISIS-14803, ISIS-5132, ivabradine hydrochloride; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lafutidine, lanthanum carbonate, LAS-34475, levocetirizine, liraglutide, LY-307161 SR; Magnesium sulfate, maribavir, melatonin, mycobacterium cell wall complex; NN-414, NO-aspirin, nociceptin, nolomirole hydrochloride; Olmesartan medoxomil oral insulin, ospemifene; PDX, perillyl alcohol, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PRO-542, PV-701, pyrazoloacridine; R-744, ranelic acid distrontium salt, rasburicase, rDNA insulin, resiniferatoxin, reslizumab, ridogrel, riplizumab ropivacaine, rosuvastatin calcium, roxifiban acetate, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate; Satraplatin, Sch-58500, semaxanib, sitaxsentan sodium, SMP-114, SU-6668; Teriparatide, tetrathiomolybdate, tipifarnib, tolvaptan, travoprost, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vatalanib succinate; Ximelagatran; Z-335, ziprasidone hydrochloride, zoledronic acid monohydrate, ZYC-00101. PMID:14571286

  2. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-03-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Activated protein C concentrate, Ad-CD154, Adeno-Interferon gamma, alemtuzumab, APC-8024, 9-aminocamptothecin, aprepitant, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arsenic trioxide, asimadoline; O6-Benzylguanine, bevacizumab, Bi-20, binodenoson, biphasic insulin aspart, bivatuzumab, 186Re-bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, bryostatin 1; Carboxy- amidotriazole, caspofungin acetate, CB-1954, CC-4047, CDP-860, cerivastatin sodium, clevidipine, CTL-102; 3,4-DAP, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, desloratadine, DHA-paclitaxel, duloxetine hydrochloride; Efalizumab, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, eniluracil, ENMD-0997, eplerenone, eplivanserin, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, FR-901228, FTY-720; Gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gepirone hydrochloride; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, iodine (I131) tositumomab, ISV-205, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, linezolid, liposomal NDDP, lonafarnib, lopinavir, LY-156735; Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt, magnesium sulfate, maxacalcitol, meclinertant, melagatran, melatonin, MENT, mepolizumab, micafungin sodium, midostaurin, motexafin gadolinium; Nesiritide, NS-1209, NSC-601316, NSC-683864; Osanetant; Palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegylated OB protein, pemetrexed disodium, perillyl alcohol, picoplatin, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plevitrexed, polyglutamate paclitaxel, posurdex, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, rostaporfin, rosuvastatin calcium; SDZ-SID-791, sibrotuzumab, sorafenib, SU-11248; Tadalafil, targinine, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, TheraCIM, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Ximelagatran; Zofenopril calcium, Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15071612

  3. Expression of Acetate Permease-like (apl) Genes in Subsurface Communities of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H; N'Guessan, A L; Mouser, Paula; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Risso, Carla; Holmes, Dawn; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

    2010-09-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2–10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  4. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  5. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section... § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection. (a) Chemical name. 6-alpha,9-alpha-difluoro - 16 - alpha - methylprednisolone 21-acetate. (b) Specifications. Flumethasone injection is sterile and contains per...

  6. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section... § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection. (a) Chemical name. 6-alpha,9-alpha-difluoro - 16 - alpha - methylprednisolone 21-acetate. (b) Specifications. Flumethasone injection is sterile and contains per...

  7. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section... § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection. (a) Chemical name. 6-alpha,9-alpha-difluoro - 16 - alpha - methylprednisolone 21-acetate. (b) Specifications. Flumethasone injection is sterile and contains per...

  8. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  9. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  10. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  11. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  12. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  13. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The

  14. Acetic acid vapor levels associated with facial prosthetics

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, T.H.; Guerra, O.N.; Lee, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A in the fabrication of facial prostheses may cause health hazards to the patient and the operator because of acetic acid emissions. Caution must be exercised to remove acetic acid vapors from the air and unliberated acetic acid from material applied directly to the skin.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  1. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... § 170.3(n)(10) of this chapter; 0.5 percent for chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this...

  3. Calcium magnesium acetate production and cost reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.

    1988-02-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (ConEd), the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), Chevron Chemical Company, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MDPW) sponsored a research program to develop technology capable of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA), an alternative road deicer, at a quality and cost which will allow its increased use. The objectives of this program were to determine the feasibility of: (1) producing CMA from regionally available waste and low grade organic feedstocks via biochemical engineering technologies; (2) operating the fermentation at concentrated product levels to reduce energy requirements and minimize drying process costs; (3) using this production approach to produce an environmentally acceptable CMA product; and (4) using and adapting an existing facility for a CMA commercial demonstration plant. The experimental program included:(1) selection of microorganisms for their ability to grow in the absence of sodium chloride and to tolerate high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and acetate ions; (2) analysis of waste feedstocks for their potential conversion to acetate; (3) analysis of waste organic material for impurities in CMA that could carry over into the environment; (4) batch experiments to determine pH tolerance, growth in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), tolerance to magnesium, calcium and acetate ions, effect of substrate concentration, acid distribution, and acid production; and (5) semi-continuous laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments to determine loading rates, conversion efficiencies, and other design data. 67 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Access to aldehydo acetals of sugars via palladium-catalyzed oxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclic acetals.

    PubMed

    Fayet, Catherine; Gelas, Jacques; Danková, Katerina; Yokaris, Alexandre

    2002-11-19

    The palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidation of alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclic acetals derived from mono- and disaccharides leads in appreciable yields to new aldehydo acetals which, overall, results in an anti-Markovnikov addition. PMID:12433496

  5. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses. PMID:26874438

  6. Experimental evidence of an acetate transporter protein and characterization of acetate activation in aceticlastic methanogenesis of Methanosarcina mazei.

    PubMed

    Welte, Cornelia; Kröninger, Lena; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Aceticlastic methanogens metabolize acetate to methane and carbon dioxide. The central metabolism and the electron transport chains of these organisms have already been investigated. However, no particular attention has been paid to the mechanism by which acetate enters the archaeal cell. In our study we investigated Methanosarcina mazei acetate kinase (Ack) and the acetate uptake reaction. At a concentration of 2 mM acetate, the Ack activity in cell extract of M. mazei was not limiting for the methane formation rate. Instead, the methanogenesis rate was controlled by the substrate concentration and increased 10-fold at 10 mM acetate. Subsequently, we analyzed the involvement of the putative acetate permease MM_0903 using a corresponding deletion mutant. At 2 mM acetate, only 25% of the wild-type methane formation rate was measured in the mutant. This indicated that the supply of acetate to Ack was limiting the rate of methane formation. Moreover, the mutant revealed an increased acetate kinase activity compared with the wild type. These results show for the first time that an acetate transporter is involved in aceticlastic methanogenesis and may be an important factor in the acetate threshold concentration for methanogenesis of Methanosarcina spp. PMID:25088360

  7. A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NeP) is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB) on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS) in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia), refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7) years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44%) switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm), 589 (44%) received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on), and 167 (12%) patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB). Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively) than in non-PGB group (34%), p < 0.001. Incremental drug costs, particularly in PGB subgroups [€34.6 (80.3), €160.7 (123.9) and €154.5 (133.0), for non-PGB, PGBm and PGBadd-on, respectively (p < 0.001)], were off-set by higher significant reductions in all other components of health costs yielding to a greater total cost reductions: -€1,045.3 (1,989.6),-€1,312.9 (1,543.0), and -€1,565.5 (2,004.1), for the three groups respectively (p = 0.03). Conclusion In Spanish primary care settings, PGB given either add-on or in monotherapy in routine medical practice was associated with pain alleviation leading to significant longitudinal reductions in resource use and total costs during the 12-week period of the study compared with non-PGB-therapy of patients with chronic NeP of peripheral origin. The use of non-appropriate analgesic therapies for neuropathic pain in a portion of subjects in non-PGB group could explain partially such findings. PMID:21251268

  8. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

  9. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange of knowledge can open the door to the design of novel approaches aiming the development of acetic acid-tolerant strains with increased industrial robustness in a synthetic biology perspective. PMID:26142387

  10. Can Palladium Acetate Lose Its "Saltiness"? Catalytic Activities of the Impurities in Palladium Acetate.

    PubMed

    Carole, William A; Bradley, Jonathan; Sarwar, Misbah; Colacot, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Commercially available palladium acetate often contains two major impurities, whose presence can impact the overall catalytic efficacy. This systematic study provides a comparison of the differences in catalytic activity of pure palladium acetate, Pd3(OAc)6, with the two impurities: Pd3(OAc)5(NO2) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2]n in a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The solid state (13)C NMR spectra of all three compounds in conjunction with DFT calculations confirm their reported geometries. PMID:26507318

  11. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  12. Effect of acetate on hypoglycemic seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Urion, D; Vreman, H J; Weiner, M W

    1979-11-01

    In order to determine the effects of acetate on signs and symptoms of hypoglycemic seizures, Swiss Webster albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with solutions of NaCl, NaHCO3, NH4Cl, Na-acetate, or NH4-acetate, followed by subcutaneous injection of 7 U of insulin/kg body wt. Administration of Na- or NH4-acetate delayed and reduced the incidence of hypoglycemic reactions. Reinjection with Na-acetate or repeated injections with NH4-acetate caused a return to normal behavior patterns for 60 and 75%, respectively, of the affected hypoglycemic experimental animals. Injections of control animals with NaHCO3 or NH4Cl showed that the results were not due to alkalosis or acidosis. Acetate administration significantly increased plasma acetate and citrate, but not glucose, lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, or acetoacetate concentrations. The results indicate that intraperitoneal administration of acetate directly acted to prevent signs of hypoglycemia from occurring and reversed its manifestations when they were present. The protective effect of acetate suggests that it may serve as a fuel for the brain. PMID:488541

  13. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 744-753. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416641

  14. Platinum acetate blue: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Cherkashina, Natalia V; Kochubey, Dmitry I; Kanazhevskiy, Vladislav V; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I; Ivanov, Vladimir K; Markov, Alexander A; Klyagina, Alla P; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna V; Kozitsyna, Natalia Yu; Baranovsky, Igor B; Ellert, Olga G; Efimov, Nikolai N; Nefedov, Sergei E; Novotortsev, Vladimir M; Vargaftik, Michael N; Moiseev, Ilya I

    2014-08-18

    Platinum acetate blue (PAB) of the empirical formula Pt(OOCMe)2.5±0.25, a byproduct in the synthesis of crystalline platinum(II) acetate Pt4(OOCMe)8, is an X-ray amorphous substance containing platinum in the oxidation state between (II) and (III). Typical PAB samples were studied with X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetochemistry, and combined quantum chemical density functional theory-molecular mechanics modeling to reveal the main structural features of the PAB molecular building blocks. The applicability of PAB to the synthesis of platinum complexes was demonstrated by the preparation of the new homo- and heteronuclear complexes Pt(II)(dipy)(OOCMe)2 (1), Pt(II)(μ-OOCMe)4Co(II)(OH2) (2), and Pt(III)2(OOCMe)4(O3SPhMe)2 (3) with the use of PAB as starting material. PMID:25102316

  15. Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. PMID:23862653

  16. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  17. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael James; McKernan, Moira; Lavoie, Emma T; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch. PMID:17162502

  18. Atmospheric formic and acetic acids in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Eugenio; Figueroa, Luis; Santana, Magaly

    Gas, phase and rain concentrations of HCOOH and CH 3COOH have been measured at various sites in the savannah climatic region, a cloud forest site and a coastal site in Venezuela. Gas phase and rain water were sampled using the aqueous scrubber technique and a wet only collector, respectively. Analyses were made by ion chromatography. The results indicate that formic and acetic acids are important components of the Venezuelan atmosphere. They are homogeneously distributed, suggesting a widespread source. Boundary layer concentrations during the dry season (HCOOH, 1.8 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 1.25 ppbv) are higher than in the wet season (HCOOH, 1.0 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 0.7 ppbv), mainly due to a longer lifetime of the acid during the dry season (˜6 days) compared with the wet season (˜2 days). The overall concentrations in rain are 7.0 and 4.0 μM for formic and acetic acids, respectively. The estimated annual total depositions are: HCOOH, 17 mmol m -2 yr -1 and CH 3COOH,10 mmol m -2 yr -1; around half of the acids are removed by dry deposition. It is established that a larger source (˜1.8 times) of both acids is present during the wet season. We speculate that atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons should be the main source of HCOOH and CH 3COOH in the Venezuelan atmosphere; soil emissions could make a significant contribution during the dry season.

  19. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol, ethanol, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and o-xylene at 101.3 kPa

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Lopez, J.; Garvin, A.; Espana, F.J.

    1995-09-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium was measured for the binary systems methanol + o-xylene, ethanol + o-xylene, methyl acetate + o-xylene and ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and for the multicomponent mixtures methanol + methyl acetate + o-xylene, ethanol + ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and methanol + ethanol + methyl acetate + ethyl acetate + o-xylene at 101.3 kPa. The Wilson and Van Laar models were compared with the UNIFAC method. Results show that the correlation was satisfactory.

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen; Ad.muIFN-beta AD-237, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, ALVAC vCP1452, alvimopan hydrate, ambrisentan, anakinra, anti-IFN-gamma MAb; Bimatoprost, BMS-188797, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan, bovine lactoferrin; Caffeine, canertinib dihydrochloride, canfosfamide hydrochloride, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cH36, ChimeriVax-JE, ciclesonide, cilansetron, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, CpG-7909, Cypher; Daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, denufosol tetrasodium, Dexamet, diindolemethane, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, DX-9065a; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, elacridar, eletriptan, emtricitabine, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fludarabine, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gavestinel sodium, gefitinib, granisetron-Biochronomer; Human Albumin, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, interleukin-2 XL, isatoribine, ISS-1018, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lanthanum carbonate, L-arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, LY-450139; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ospemifene; PACAP38, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, patupilone, pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, posaconazole, prasterone, pregabalin; R-112, ramelteon, ranolazine, rasagiline mesilate, rebimastat, roflumilast, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rupatadine fumarate; S-3013, S-3304, semustine, sitaxsentan sodium, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, tamoxifen, Taxus, Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC, TH-9507, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, tolvaptan, torcetrapib, TR-14035, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen, treprostinil diethanolamine, troglitazone, troxacitabine; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, VAS-991, veglin, vinflunine, voriconazole; White sweet potato extract; Ximelagatran. PMID:16273137

  1. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-04-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, 3-AP, AP-12009, APC-8015, L-Arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arundic acid, avasimibe; Bevacizumab, bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, BMS-184476, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, BRL-55730, bryostatin 1; CEP-1347, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CP-461, CpG-7909; D-003, dabuzalgron hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DHA-paclitaxel, diflomotecan, DN-101, DP-b99, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, duramycin; Eculizumab, Efalizumab, EKB-569, elcometrine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, ezetimibe; Fenretinide, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; GD2L-KLH conjugate vaccine, gefitinib, glufosfamide, GTI-2040; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, hydroquinone, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium; IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; KRN-5500; LY-544344; MDX-210, melatonin, mepolizumab, motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, NSC-330507, NSC-683864; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, ortataxel; Pagoclone, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, plevitrexed, polyphenon E, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PX-12; QS-21; Ragaglitazar, ranelic acid distrontium salt, RDP-58, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, repinotan hydrochloride, rhEndostatin, rh-Lactoferrin, (R)-roscovitine; S-8184, semaxanib, sitafloxacin hydrate, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, synthadotin; Tadalafil, tesmilifene hydrochloride, theratope, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, topixantrone hydrochloride, trabectedin, traxoprodil, Tri-Luma; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vinflunine; Ximelagatran; Ziconotide. PMID:15148527

  2. Potassium acetate adds flexibility to drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gillenwater, K.E.; Ray, C.R.

    1989-03-20

    Potassium acetate (KC/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/, or simply KAC), since 1986, has proven effective as a drilling fluid additive in over 30 wells both onshore and offshore South Texas. KAC has given potassium-base drilling fluids more flexibility, improved efficiency, and offered an environmentally acceptable alternative to potassium chloride (KCl) muds. The use of soluble potassium in drilling fluids has been successful in controlling troublesome shales. The potassium ion has a stabilizing effect that inhibits the swelling and dispersion of water-sensitive shale formations. KAC is completely soluble in fresh or saltwater and provides 40%, by weight, potassium. This compares favorably with other potassium-containing materials.

  3. Gold staining in cellulose acetate membranes.

    PubMed

    Righetti, P G; Casero, P; Del Campo, G B

    1986-06-15

    A novel method for revealing proteins after electrophoresis on cellulose acetate is described, based on adsorption of mixed gold-Tween 20 micelles onto TCA-fixed protein bands. The sensitivity is 2-300 times higher than conventional Coomassie Blue staining and ca. 10 fold higher than silver coloring, detecting barely 1 ng protein/mm2 gel. Acidic and ammoniacal silver dyeing, based on ionic silver, perform very poorly on cellulose matrices, while a new variant, colloidal silver, stains protein bands on a clear background, but with a sensitivity ca. 10 times lower than micellar gold. Urines, cerebrospinal fluid and other biological liquids can be revealed without resorting to a concentration step prior to electrophoresis. The method is simple to perform and does not require any destaining step. PMID:2424644

  4. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  5. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, Dorai; Waller, Francis Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  6. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  7. Combined XPS and contact angle studies of ethylene vinyl acetate and polyvinyl acetate blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucar, I. O.; Doganci, M. D.; Cansoy, C. E.; Erbil, H. Y.; Avramova, I.; Suzer, S.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we prepared thin films by blending ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) containing 12-33 (wt.%) vinyl acetate (VA) with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and high density polyethylene homopolymers. Large area micropatterns having controlled protrusion sizes were obtained by phase-separation especially for the PVAc/EVA-33 blends using dip coating. These surfaces were characterized by XPS and contact angle measurements. A reasonably linear relation was found between the VA content on the surface (wt.%) obtained from XPS analysis and the VA content in bulk especially for PVAc/EVA-33 blend surfaces. PE segments were more enriched on the surface than that of the bulk for pure EVA copolymer surfaces similar to previous reports and VA enrichment was found on the EVA/HDPE blend surfaces due to high molecular weight of HDPE. Water θ decreased with the increase in the VA content on the blend surface due to the polarity of VA. A good agreement was obtained between γs- and atomic oxygen surface concentration with the increase of VA content. The applicability of Cassie-Baxter equation was tested and found that it gave consistent results with the experimental water contact angles for the case where VA content was lower than 55 wt.% in the bulk composition.

  8. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  9. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  10. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  11. Origin and fate of acetate in an acidic fen.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, Anke; Heuer, Verena B; Herrmann, Martina; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2012-08-01

    Acetate is a central intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter, and the resolution of its metabolism necessitates integrated strategies. This study aims to (1) estimate the contribution of acetogenesis to acetate formation in an acidic fen (pH ~ 4.9), (2) assess the genetic potential for acetogenesis targeting the fhs gene encoding formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) and (3) unravel the in situ turnover of acetate using stable carbon isotope pore-water analysis. H(2)/CO(2)-supplemented peat microcosms yielded (13)C-depleted acetate (-37.2‰ vs. VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite standard) compared with -14.2‰ vs. VPDB in an unamended control), indicating the potential for H(2)-dependent acetogenesis. Molecular analysis revealed a high diversity and depth-dependent distribution of fhs phylotypes with the highest number of operational taxonomic units in 0-20 cm depth, but only few and distant relationships to known acetogens. In pore waters, acetate concentrations (0-170 μM) and δ(13)C-values varied widely (-17.4‰ to -3.4‰ vs. VPDB) and did not indicate acetogenesis, but pointed to a predominance of sinks, which preferentially consumed (12)C-acetate, like acetoclastic methanogenesis. However, depth profiles of methane and δ(13)C(CH4) revealed a temporarily and spatially restricted role of this acetate sink and suggest other processes like sulfate and iron reduction played an important role in acetate turnover. PMID:22404042

  12. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  15. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 721.303 Acetic acid, 2-methoxy-, methyl... identified as acetic acid, 2-methoxy-, methyl ester (PMN P-99-0365, CAS No. 6290-49-9) is subject...

  16. Chemistry of Ketene N,S-Acetals: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Dong, Jinhuan; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2016-01-27

    Push-pull alkenes, which bear electron-donating and -accepting group(s) at both termini of a C═C double bond, respectively, are of interest not only for their unique electronic properties but also for their importance as versatile building blocks in organic synthesis. In the world of ketene acetals having the push-pull alkene skeleton, ketene N,S-acetal is most likely the biggest family according to the number and types of these compounds. The first ketene N,S-acetal compound was reported in 1956. As a cyclic ketene N,S-acetal compound, nithiazine, the first lead structure of neonicotinoid insecticides, was reported in 1978. The characteristics of ketene N,S-acetals, which have the structural feature of ketene S,S-acetals and enaminones, make them versatile and easy to use, especially in cyclization and multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems and related natural products. There has been an increasing wealth of information about the synthesis and synthetic applications of ketene N,S-acetals, especially, in recent years. This review provides comprehensive knowledge on the chemistry of ketene N,S-acetals. PMID:26760899

  17. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 522.2477, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (C) 200 mg... containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (F) 80 mg trenbolone acetate and 16 mg estradiol...

  18. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 522.2477, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (C) 200 mg... containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (F) 80 mg trenbolone acetate and 16 mg estradiol...

  19. Kinetics of Sulfate and Acetate Uptake by Desulfobacter postgatei

    PubMed Central

    Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Jørgensen, Bo B.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of sulfate and acetate uptake was studied in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacter postgatei (DSM 2034). Kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were estimated from substrate consumption curves by resting cell suspensions with [35S]sulfate and [14C]acetate. Both sulfate and acetate consumption followed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. The half-saturation constant (Km) for acetate uptake was 70 μM with cells from either long-term sulfate- or long-term acetate-limited chemostat cultures. The average Km value for sulfate uptake by D. postgatei was about 200 μM. Km values for sulfate uptake did not differ significantly when determined with cells derived either from batch cultures or sulfate- or acetate-limited chemostat cultures. Acetate consumption was observed at acetate concentrations of ≤1 μM, whereas sulfate uptake usually ceased at 5 to 20 μM. The results show that D. postgatei is not freely permeable to sulfate ions and further indicate that sulfate uptake is an energy-requiring process. PMID:16346478

  20. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 522.2477, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (C) 200 mg... containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (F) 80 mg trenbolone acetate and 16 mg estradiol...

  1. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 522.2477, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (C) 200 mg... containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (F) 80 mg trenbolone acetate and 16 mg estradiol...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 522.2477, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (C) 200 mg... containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (F) 80 mg trenbolone acetate and 16 mg estradiol...

  3. Acetate addition to an immobilized yeast column for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1987-03-01

    Acetate, a by-product of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been shown to inhibit cell growth if present in high concentrations. Consequently, acetate has been considered undesirable in systems where the production rate depends upon steady-state growth. Acetate, however, may be desirable in some systems since it increases the specific rate of ethanol production by increasing the maintenance requirements of the yeast. In immobilized cell reactors using crosslinking method, steady state is not achieved and cell overgrowth is a problem. This article presents the results of a study aimed at taking advantage of the use of acetate, both to reduce cell overgrowth and increase productivity. Various concentrations of acetate were added to batch and plug flow systems, while monitoring the effects on cell growth and ethanol production. The productivity was increased by as much as 50% in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), while cell growth was greatly reduced. 19 references.

  4. Development, validation and comparison of two microextraction techniques for the rapid and sensitive determination of pregabalin in urine and pharmaceutical formulations after ethyl chloroformate derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Fatima, Ghizal; Malhotra, Ekta; Murthy, R C

    2012-11-01

    The present article reports first time the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to extract pregabalin (PRG) from urine and pharmaceutical formulations followed by GC-MS analysis after ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization. PRG is an antiepileptic and analgesic drug, which is a structural analogue of ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA). It is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and neuropathic pain. Initially PRG was derivatized with ECF in the presence of pyridine at room temperature for 30s. Experimental parameters were investigated for derivatization, SPME and DLLME conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.019 ?g/ml and 0.063 ?g/ml for SPME and 0.022 ?g/ml and 0.075 ?g/ml for DLLME respectively. The percentage recovery, in case of SPME was in the range of 83-98% while for DLLME it is in the range of 84-98%. The intra and inter-day precisions were found to be less than 6%. The developed methods after ECF derivatization were found to be simple, fast, efficient and inexpensive. DLLME has several advantages like lesser extraction time and cost effectiveness as compared to SPME. The developed methods may find wide application for the routine determination of PRG in biological as well as in quality control samples of pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22677651

  5. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:26916368

  6. Morphological diversity of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-preserved stool samples stained with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, D W; MacQueen, W M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the morphological characteristics of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-Formalin-preserved stool samples. Routinely processed samples were examined for morphological detail, including size, shape, nuclear detail, and central body characteristics. Morphological findings revealing the importance of recognizing B. hominis in the diagnostic laboratory are described. PMID:7510311

  7. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  8. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  9. Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

  10. Synthesis and properties of cyclic acetal biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Jennifer L; Kesselman, Dafna; Fisher, John P

    2007-06-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new biomaterials as tissue engineering scaffolds. Unfortunately, many of the materials that have been studied for these purposes are polyesters that hydrolytically degrade into acidic products, which may harm the surrounding tissue, and lead to accelerated degradation of the biomaterial. To overcome this disadvantage, a novel class of biomaterials based on a cyclic acetal unit has been created. Specifically, materials based upon the monomer 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD) is examined. This study investigates the effects of fabrication parameters, including initiator content, volume of diluent, and volume of accelerant, on several properties of EHD networks. Twelve different formulations were fabricated by varying the three parameters in a factorial design. The effects of the fabrication parameters on properties of the EHD networks were examined. Results show that the volume of accelerant most affected the EHD network gelation time, while the volume of diluent most affected the maximum reaction temperature, sol fraction, and degree of swelling. Cell viability on the EHD networks varied between (18 +/- 6)% and (57 +/- 10)% of the control at 4 h, and between (36 +/- 14)% and (140 +/- 50)% of the control at 8 h. These results indicate that it is possible to control the properties of the EHD networks by varying the fabrication parameters, and that EHD networks support a viable cell population. PMID:17177269

  11. Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate

    PubMed Central

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Meng, Chun-Xia

    2010-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC) provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA) has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the ‘window of effect’ for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment. PMID:21072297

  12. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2–Acetic Acid Interface

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC. PMID:27110318

  13. Nomegestrol acetate: pharmacology, safety profile and therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lello, Stefano

    2010-03-26

    This review summarizes the pharmacology, safety and clinical efficacy of nomegestrol acetate, based on the available published literature, and assesses the pharmacological characteristics that underlie a role in different gynaecological disorders and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and a potential role in combination estrogen/progestogen oral contraception. Nomegestrol acetate is a potent, orally active progestogen with a favourable tolerability profile and neutral metabolic characteristics. Unlike the majority of older progestogens, which were 19-nortestosterone derivatives synthesized primarily for their antigonadotropic activity as a component of hormonal contraception in combination with an estrogen, nomegestrol acetate is a 19-norprogesterone derivative designed to bind specifically to the progesterone receptor, and is relatively lacking in affinity for other steroid receptors. Nomegestrol acetate exerts strong antiestrogenic effects at the level of the endometrium and has potent antigonadotropic activity, but without any residual androgenic or glucocorticoid properties. At a dosage of 1.25 mg/day, nomegestrol acetate inhibits ovulation while permitting follicle growth, whereas at dosages of 2.5 or 5 mg/day, both ovulation and follicle development are suppressed. The antigonadotropic action of nomegestrol acetate is mediated, like other progestins, at the hypothalamic and pituitary level. Moreover, nomegestrol acetate has partial antiandrogenic activity. Absorption of nomegestrol acetate is rapid after oral administration, reaching a peak serum concentration within 4 hours, with a terminal half-life of approximately 50 hours. Nomegestrol acetate has been used successfully for the treatment of some gynaecological disorders (menstrual disturbances, dysmenorrhoea, premenstrual syndrome) and as a component of HRT in combination with estradiol for the relief of menopausal symptoms; it has been approved in Europe as monotherapy for the treatment of the menopausal syndrome, uterine diseases and menorrhagia, and in combination with an estrogen for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. In vitro data suggest that nomegestrol acetate preserves the beneficial haemostatic effects of estrogen; furthermore, nomegestrol acetate has a neutral or beneficial effect on lipid profiles, and does not adversely affect glucose metabolism or bodyweight. Nomegestrol acetate has shown a lack of profilerative activity in normal and cancerous breast tissue, and does not have a deleterious effect on bone remodelling. These potent antigonadotropic properties, and other beneficial metabolic and pharmacological characteristics, suggest that nomegestrol acetate can be an effective progestogen for use in combination with an estrogen in oral estrogen/progestogen contraceptive treatment and in HRT, while it also provides some non-contraceptive benefits for women's health. PMID:20329803

  14. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  15. Methane Production and Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M. E.; Chanton, J.; Bae, H.; Ogram, A.

    2012-12-01

    Methane production pathways in the Florida Everglades are influenced by factors such as nutrient levels, H2 concentrations, and temperature. Syntrophic acetate oxidizers can outcompete methanogens for acetate when conditions are right (high temperatures and low H2). During syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO), which becomes more exergonic with increasing temperature, acetate is oxidized to carbon dioxide and H2, which can be utilized to produce methane via CO2 reduction. Everglades soil from along a nutrient gradient was incubated at 25°C and 45°C. The shift to the CO2 reduction pathway for methane formation that would be expected in high temperature incubations due to SAO should result in a decrease in δ13C-CH4 and increase in δ2H-CH4. Instead, we observed higher δ13C and lower δ2H in the methane produced in high temperature incubations. The higher than expected δ13C may be partly explained by lower kinetic isotope effects caused by temperature. Coupling between the syntrophic acetate oxidizers and the CO2 reducers, whereby isotopically light hydrogen from acetate is used in methane formation could lower δ2H-CH4. Separate experiments using 13C-labelled acetate revealed that potential SAO activity is low in soils collected from the Everglades.

  16. Formate and acetate in monsoon rainwater of Agra, India

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Kulshrestha, U.C.; Saxena, A.; Kumari, K.M.; Srivastava, S.S. )

    1993-03-20

    Formate and acetate concentrations were estimated using ion chromatography in 19 precipitation samples collected on an eventwise basis during the monsoon season (July through September), 1991, at Dayalbagh, Agra. Volume-weighted average (VWA) concentrations for formate and acetate were 5.8 and 6.55 [mu]molL[sup [minus]1], respectively. The VWA hydrogen ion concentration was 0.084 [mu]eq L[sub [minus]1] (pH 7.07) and the correlation coefficient between the two ions was 0.85. The average formate to acetate ratio was low (0.88), possibly due to an increase in acetate contribution from direct emissions associated with heavy vehicular traffic load and/or indirect acetate formation by alkaline hydrolysis of PAN. Widespread local use of biomass as a domestic fuel may also contribute acetate. In 4 of the 19 precipitation events studied, higher values of both species were recorded. Contributions from soil in addition to vegetation, were suspected in these samples. Inputs from soil and combustion activities were supported by correlations among formate, acetate and Ca[sup 2+] (terrigenous species), K[sup +], SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  17. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  18. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  19. Acetate absorption in the normal and secreting rat jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A J; Elliott, E J; Rolston, D D; Borodo, M M; Farthing, M J; Fairclough, P D

    1990-01-01

    Acetate absorption was studied in rat jejunum using steady state perfusion in vivo. Absorption conformed to apparent saturation kinetics and was similar in magnitude to glucose absorption. When compared with normal saline, acetate perfusion was associated with luminal alkalinisation. There was no difference in total CO2 secretion when similar rates of acetate and glucose absorption were compared, suggesting that total CO2 secretion was the result of mucosal metabolism. Absorption of acetate and propionate were mutually inhibitory. Acetate absorption was also inhibited by Tris-Hepes pH 7.0. When the gut was pretreated with cholera toxin to induce a secretory state, acetate absorption was reduced by 41.9%. This effect could be reproduced if similar water secretion was osmotically induced by the addition of mannitol. These data suggest that acetate is absorbed, at least, partially by non-ionic diffusion in the rat jejunum and that its absorption is reduced in the secreting intestine by solvent drag. PMID:2107132

  20. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  1. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in rice field soil during acetate turnover by syntrophic acetate oxidation or acetoclastic methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie

    2011-03-01

    Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. In Italian rice field soil CH 4 is produced either by hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis, or by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation when temperatures are below and above about 40-45 °C, respectively. In order to see whether these acetate consumption pathways differently discriminate the stable carbon isotopes of acetate, we measured the δ 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl as well as the δ 13C of CO 2 and CH 4 in rice field soil that had been pre-incubated at 45 °C and then shifted to different temperatures between 25 and 50 °C. Acetate transiently accumulated to about 6 mM, which is about one-third of the amount of CH 4 produced, irrespective of the incubation temperature and the CH 4 production pathway involved. However, the patterns of δ 13C of the CH 4 and CO 2 produced were different at low (25, 30, 35 °C) versus high (40, 45, 50 °C) temperatures. These patterns were consistent with CH 4 being exclusively formed by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at high temperatures, and by a combination of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at low temperatures. The patterns of δ 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl were also different at high versus low temperatures, indicating the involvement of different pathways of production and consumption of acetate at the two temperature regimes. Isotope fractionation during consumption of the methyl group of acetate was more pronounced at low ( α = 1.010-1.025) than at high ( α = 1.0-1.01) temperatures indicating that acetoclastic methanogenesis exhibits a stronger isotope effect than syntrophic acetate oxidation. Small amounts of propionate also transiently accumulated and were analyzed for δ 13C. The δ 13C values slightly increased (by about 10‰) during production and consumption of propionate, but were not affected by incubation temperature. Collectively, our results showed distinct isotope discrimination for different paths of acetate (and propionate) production and consumption, albeit differences were only small, and discrimination between methanogenic and syntrophic acetate consumption in nature may be difficult to detect.

  2. Viscosity of Mixtures of α-Tocopherol Acetate + Mesitylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwajczaka, Elżbieta; Stagraczyński, Ryszard; Herba, Henryk; Świergielb, Jolanta; Jadżyn, Jan

    2009-08-01

    The paper presents results of the share viscosity measurements performed as a function of temperature and concentration for mixtures of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamine E acetate) and mesitylene, two liquids of essentially different viscosity (four order of magnitude difference at 280 K). The viscosity/ temperature dependence for pure α-tocopherol acetate as well as for the mixtures studied can be well described with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The viscosities of the mixtures exhibit a strong negative deviation from the rule of additive dependence on concentration and for increasing temperature the maximum value of the deviation shows an exponential decreasing.

  3. Selective Cross-Coupling of Organic Halides with Allylic Acetates

    PubMed Central

    Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L.; Prinsell, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

  4. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  5. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  6. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense. PMID:16362253

  7. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed Central

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-01-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  8. Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-09-20

    A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. PMID:21848256

  9. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

  11. Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

  12. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  13. Disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in the mouse after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Isabel; Castel-Branco, Margarida; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar; Caramona, Margarida; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2008-10-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a promising antiepileptic drug structurally related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which is in the final phase of clinical development. The metabolism of eslicarbazepine acetate is clearly species dependent and, in this case, among small laboratory animals, the mouse seems to be the most relevant species to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the plasma, brain and liver disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in mice to better understand its disposition in humans. Adult male CD-1 mice were treated orally with a single dose of eslicarbazepine acetate 350 mg/kg. Blood samples, brain and liver tissues were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16 and 24 h post-dose. Plasma and tissue levels of eslicarbazepine acetate and its metabolites (S-licarbazepine, R-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine) were assessed by using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Both eslicarbazepine acetate and R-licarbazepine concentrations were below the limit of quantification of the assay in all matrices. Eslicarbazepine acetate was rapidly and extensively metabolized to S-licarbazepine (major metabolite), which was oxidized to oxcarbazepine to a small extent. The brain/plasma ratios suggest that the brain exposure to S-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine was approximately 30% of their total systemic exposure. However, S-licarbazepine crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) less efficiently than oxcarbazepine. On the other hand, the liver/plasma ratios support the notion that S-licarbazepine undergoes hepatic accumulation, whereas oxcarbazepine appears to leave this compartment twice as fast as S-licarbazepine. Thus, the diffusion through the BBB is favourable to oxcarbazepine and the liver acts like a deposit of the pharmacologically active metabolite of eslicarbazepine acetate (S-licarbazepine). PMID:18710399

  14. Roots of Acetate-Vanadium Linkage Isomerism: A QTAIM Study.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Filipe; Mosquera, Ricardo; Melo, André; Freire, Cristina; D S Cordeiro, M Natália

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of linkage isomerism in a number of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) complexes with acetate was surveyed using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). The results show that vanadium-acetate linkages may be classified as bidentate symmetrical, bidentate asymmetrical, or monodentate, the latter being observed in about 40% of the cases. These latter ones correspond to situations where the two oxygen atoms of the acetate moiety are not equivalent. They are associated with an energy penalty of about 263 kJ·mol(-1), as determined by the distribution of the scaled kinetic energy of the atomic basins forming the acetate ligand. In the presence of bidentate symmetrical vanadium-acetate linkages, the inner valence-shell charge concentrations on the vanadium atom deviate from the traditional VSEPR-derived arrangement, with an energy penalty of about 780 kJ·mol(-1). A compromise situation is partially accomplished in the case of bidentate asymmetrical linkages, which allow a Gillespiean-like arrangement of the inner valence-shell charge concentrations. In this case, one of these local charge concentrations lies close to a V-OAcO bond, which slightly disrupts the equivalence between the two oxygen atoms in the acetate ligand. PMID:26974465

  15. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-C coupling of 7-azaindoles with vinyl acetates and allyl acetates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electron-rich alkenes with 7-azaindoles in rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation is investigated. Various substituted vinyl acetates and allyl acetates as coupling partners reacted smoothly providing a wide variety of 7-azaindole derivatives, and the selectivity of the coupling reaction is alkene-dependent. In addition, the approaches of rhodium(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative Heck-type reaction (DHR) and carbonylation reaction were quite novel and simple. PMID:26553424

  16. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Guest, D; Hamilton, M L; Deisinger, P J; DiVincenzo, G D

    1984-01-01

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application or IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p less than 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg [ethyl-1,2-14C]PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. [14C]EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for [14C]PEA and 7.9 hr for [14C]EEA. Only trace amounts of 14CO2 (less than 1%) or volatile materials (less than 0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, [14C]PEA or [14C]EEA was added to undiluted compound and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6499802

  17. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra ; Reva, I. Fausto, R.

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup −1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

  18. Metabolism of propionate to acetate in the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Halarnkar, P P; Nelson, J H; Heisler, C R; Blomquist, G J

    1985-02-01

    Carbon-13 NMR and radiotracer studies were used to determine the precursor to methylmalonate and to study the metabolism of propionate in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. [3,4,5-13C3]Valine labeled carbons 3, 4, and 26 of 3-methylpentacosane, indicating that valine was metabolized via propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA and served as the methyl branch unit precursor. Potassium [2-13C]propionate labeled the odd-numbered carbons of hydrocarbons and potassium [3-13C]propionate labeled the even-numbered carbons of hydrocarbons in this insect. This labeling pattern indicates that propionate is metabolized to acetate, with carbon-2 of propionate becoming the methyl carbon of acetate and carbon-3 of propionate becoming the carboxyl carbon of acetate. In vivo studies in which products were separated by HPLC showed that [2-14C]propionate was readily metabolized to acetate. The radioactivity from sodium [1-14C]propionate was not incorporated into succinate nor into any other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, indicating that propionate was not metabolized via methylmalonate to succinate. Similarly, [1-14C]propionate did not label acetate. An experiment designed to determine the subcellular localization of the enzymes involved in converting propionate to acetate showed that they were located in the mitochondrial fraction. Data from both in vivo and in vitro studies as a function of time indicated that propionate was converted directly to acetate and did not first go through tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. These data demonstrate a novel pathway of propionate metabolism in insects. PMID:3970523

  19. Ulipristal acetate: a review of its use in emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    McKeage, Kate; Croxtall, Jamie D

    2011-05-01

    Ulipristal acetate (ellaOne®; ella®) is the first of a new class of selective progesterone receptor modulators, and is indicated for emergency contraception within 120 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. The principal effect of ulipristal acetate is to inhibit or delay ovulation. This effect may result from the drug's ability to delay the onset of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge or postpone LH peak if LH surge has started, or possibly by a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture, when administered in the follicular phase (including just before ovulation). In clinical trials, a single oral dose of ulipristal acetate 30 mg was effective in preventing pregnancies in women requesting emergency contraception after unprotected sexual intercourse and provided sustained efficacy throughout the 120-hour postcoital period in which it is indicated. When compared with levonorgestrel in well designed noninferiority trials, it was no less effective in preventing pregnancies when administered within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, but was more effective when administered later (within 72-120 hours). Results of a meta-analysis suggest that ulipristal acetate may be more effective than levonorgestrel from day 1 and throughout the entire 5-day period following unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate is generally well tolerated, with a similar tolerability profile to that of levonorgestrel. In general, the onset of menses is delayed by 2-3 days following treatment. Although, ulipristal acetate is more expensive than levonorgestrel, it may represent a cost-effective alternative to levonorgestrel for women requesting emergency contraception within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse. Thus, ulipristal acetate provides effective, sustained and well tolerated emergency contraception when taken within 120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse, thereby offering an extended treatment window compared with levonorgestrel, which should be administered within 72 hours. PMID:21568368

  20. Laboratory millimeter wave spectrum and astronomical search for vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesniková, L.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Kleiner, I.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The recent discovery of methyl acetate in Orion KL makes vinyl acetate, CH3C=OOCH=CH2, a potential molecule in the interstellar medium. We obtained very accurate spectroscopic constants in a comprehensive laboratory analysis of its rotational spectra which can be used to predict those transition frequencies towards interstellar sources. Aims: We present the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state of vinyl acetate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate has been measured from 125 to 305 GHz to provide direct frequencies to the astronomical community. Additional measurements have also been made using a broadband CP-FTMW spectrometer in the region of 6-18 GHz. Transition lines, corresponding to the most stable conformer, have been observed and assigned. All the rotational transitions revealed the A-E splitting due to the methyl internal rotation and had to be treated with a specific internal rotation code (BELGI-Cs). Results: We analyzed 2508 transitions up to J'' = 75 for vt = 0 for the most stable conformer of vinyl acetate. The new lines were globally fitted with previously published data and 24 parameters of the Hamiltonian were accurately determined. The spectral features of vinyl acetate were then searched for in Orion KL. Using the whole line survey of Orion KL (80-280 GHz) obtained with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope we can provide only an upper limit to the column density of vinyl acetate. However, using the ALMA science verification data we obtain a tentative detection of this species that will require further search at other frequencies to confirm its presence in this high mass star forming region. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A91

  1. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  6. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people allocated zuclopenthixol did not seem to be at more risk of a range of movement disorders (< 20%). Three studies found no difference in the proportion of people getting blurred vision/dry mouth (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70). Similarly, dizziness was equally infrequent for those allocated zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol (n = 192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 1.15, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.88). There was no difference between treatments for leaving the study before completion (n = 522, RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.31). One study reported no difference in adverse effects and outcome scores, when high dose (50-100 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate was compared with low dose (25-50 mg/injection) zuclopenthixol acetate. Authors’ conclusions Recommendations on the use of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of psychiatric emergencies in preference to ‘standard’ treatment have to be viewed with caution. Most of the small trials present important methodological flaws and findings are poorly reported. This review did not find any suggestion that zuclopenthixol acetate is more or less effective in controlling aggressive acute psychosis, or in preventing adverse effects than intramuscular haloperidol, and neither seemed to have a rapid onset of action. Use of zuclopenthixol acetate may result in less numerous coercive injections and low doses of the drug may be as effective as higher doses. Well-conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trials are needed. PMID:22513898

  7. Studies on acetate ester production by non-saccharomyces wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Rojas, V; Gil, J V; Piñaga, F; Manzanares, P

    2001-11-01

    A double coupling bioreactor system was used to fast screen yeast strains for the production of acetate esters. Eleven yeast strains were used belonging to the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces and Zygosacharomyces, mainly isolated from grapes and wine, and two wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The acetate ester forming activities of yeast strains belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora (Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and H. uvarum) and Pichia (Pichia anomala) showed different substrate specificities and were able to produce ethyl acetate, geranyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The influence of aeration culture conditions on the formation of acetate esters by non-Saccharomyces wine yeast and S. cerevisiae was examined by growing the yeasts on synthetic microbiological medium. S. cerevisiae produced low levels of acetate esters when the cells were cultured under highly aeration conditions, while, under the same conditions, H. guilliermondii 11104 and P. anomala 10590 were found to be strong producers of 2-phenylethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate, respectively. PMID:11764193

  8. Effects of physical properties for starch acetate powders on tableting.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Ossi; Pohja, Seppo; Peltonen, Soili; Suihko, Eero; Vidgren, Mika; Paronen, Petteri; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate particle and powder properties of various starch acetate powders, to study the effect of these properties on direct compression characteristics, and to evaluate the modification opportunity of physical properties for starch acetate powders by using various drying methods. At the end of the production phase of starch acetate, the slurry of starch acetate was dried using various techniques. Particle, powder, and tableting properties of end products were investigated. Particle size, circularity, surface texture, water content and specific surface area varied according to the particular drying method of choice. However, all powders were freely flowing. Bulk and tapped densities of powders varied in the range of 0.29 to 0.44 g/cm3 and 0.39 to 0.56 g/cm3, respectively. Compaction characteristics revealed that all powders were easily deformed under compression, having yield pressure values of less than 66 MPa according to Heckel analysis. All powders possessed a significant interparticulate bond-forming capacity during compaction. The tensile strength values of tablets varied between 10 and 18 MPa. In conclusion, physical properties of starch acetate could be affected by various drying techniques. A large specific surface area and water content above 4% were favorable properties by direct compression, especially for small, irregular, and rough particles. PMID:12916928

  9. Anthelmintic activity of carvacryl acetate against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Josué; Carvalho, Aline A Leite; Nakano, Eliana; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; Marques, Thiago Henrique da Costa; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2013-02-01

    Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma are the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease that afflicts over 200 million people worldwide. Praziquantel is the drug of choice but concerns over praziquantel resistance have renewed interest in the search for alternative drug therapies. Carvacrol, a naturally occurring monoterpene phenol and food additive, has been shown high medicinal importance, including antimicrobials activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro effect of carvacryl acetate, a derivative of carvacrol, on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. We demonstrated that carvacryl acetate at 6.25 μg/mL has antischistosomal activity, affecting parasite motility and viability. Additionally, confocal laser scanning microscopy pictures revealed morphological alterations on the tegumental surface of worms, where some tubercles appeared to be swollen with numerous small blebs emerging from the tegument around the tubercles. Furthermore, experiments performed using carvacryl acetate at sub-lethal concentrations (ranging from 1.562 to 6.25 μg/mL) showed an inhibitory effect on the daily egg output of paired adult worms. Thus, carvacryl acetate is toxic at high doses, while at sub-lethal doses, it significantly interferes with the reproductive fitness of S. mansoni adult worms. Due to its safety and wide use in the industry, carvacryl acetate is a promising natural product-derived compound and it may represent a step forward in the search for novel anthelmintic agents, at a time when there is an urgent need for novel drugs. PMID:23086444

  10. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  11. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  12. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D.

    2006-11-14

    We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

  13. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, D.; Hamilton, M.L.; Deisinger, P.J.; DiVincenzo, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p < 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg (ethyl-1,2-/sup 14/C)PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. (/sup 14/C)EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for (/sup 14/C)PEA and 7.9 hr for (/sup 14/C)EEA. Only trace amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (<1%) or volatile materials (<0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, (/sup 14/C)PEA or (/sup 14/C)EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with (/sup 14/C)PEA being excreted more rapidly than (/sup 14/C)EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Therien, Jesse B.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Peters, John W.

    2014-10-18

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. We demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

  15. Electronic interactions between gold films and manganese-acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Means, Joel Lewis

    Interactions between Mn12-acetate molecular magnets and thin gold films have been explored in light of the theory of weak localization. Low-temperature measurements of the magnetoresistance of gold films of varying thicknesses, with and without the presence of a surface layer of Mn12 -acetate, have been performed using a dilution refrigerator. Quantitative fits to the data using the predictions of weak localization theory were performed using a least-squares fit method in order to determine characteristic times for elastic, inelastic, spin-orbit and spin scattering events within the gold. These data indicate that the presence of Mn12-acetate on the surface of the gold film leads to a significant enhancement of the spin scattering within the gold films.

  16. Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Goembira, Fadjar; Saka, Shiro

    2013-03-01

    This work has been done to find out the optimum condition of supercritical methyl acetate method in biodiesel production. The reaction temperature, pressure, time and molar ratio in methyl acetate to oil were the key parameters that must all be considered to produce an optimum condition. Evaluation of thermal decomposition on products, cis-trans isomerization and tocopherol content were required to further optimize the reaction condition. It was, therefore, concluded that for the supercritical methyl acetate method, reaction condition of 350 C/20 MPa/45 min/42 M ratio gave the highest yields of FAME (96.7 wt.%) and triacetin (8.8 wt.%). Yet, at such a reaction condition, the optimum reaction condition was compromised due particularly to the unavoidable thermal decomposition of products, and tocopherols as natural anti-oxidants. PMID:23340101

  17. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  18. Treatment of traumatic myositis ossificans with acetic acid iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wieder, D L

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this case report is to document the treatment of a patient who had traumatic myositis ossificans with acetic acid iontophoresis. A 16-year-old boy developed quadriceps femoris muscle myositis ossificans as a result of a springboard diving accident. A 2% acetic acid solution was administered via iontophoresis into the myositis ossificans, followed by 8 minutes of pulsed ultrasound at 1.5 W/cm2. The treatment was performed three times per week for 3 weeks. At the conclusion of the treatments, radiographic findings indicated a 98.9% decrease in the size of the ossified mass. The patient regained full range of motion and was able to return to pain-free activity. This case report demonstrates the potential for a therapeutic program of acetic acid iontophoresis and ultrasound in eliminating myositis ossificans. PMID:1549634

  19. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  20. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  1. Carbon-11-acetate PET imaging in renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shreve, P.; Chiao, Ping-Chun; Humes, H.D.; Schwaiger, M.; Gross, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate as a metabolic tracer for renal imaging in human subjects. Eighteen patients underwent dynamic PET imaging of the kidneys after intravenous bolus injection of 10-20 mCi [1-{sup 11}C]acetate. Time-activity curves of renal parenchyma tracer activity were fitted to a two-compartment model using direct arterial blood sampling for the arterial input function. Renal uptake of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate is prompt and high target-to-background ratios are achieved even in the presence of markedly reduced renal function. Carbon-11-acetate is cleared from the renal parenchyma without any urinary excretion and the rate of clearance is comparable to myocardial clearance rates. Among normal subjects, K{sub 1} ranged from 0.653 to 1.37 ml/min-g, and was reduced to as low as 0.363 ml/min-g in severe renal disease (serum creatinine greater than 5 mg/dl), while k{sub 2} ranged from 0.114 to 0.166 min{sup {minus}1} among normal subjects and was reduced to as low as 0.053 min{sup {minus}1} in severe renal disease. Kinetic parameters K{sub 1} and k{sub 2} were both reduced in the presence of intrinsic renal disease or significant renal artery stenosis. Renal cell carcinoma demonstrated similar uptake of [1-{sup 11}C]acetate, but substantially reduced the rate of clearance compared to normal and diseased non-neoplastic renal tissue, allowing for ready differentiation of renal cell carcinoma from non-neoplastic renal tissue on images acquired beyond 10 min of tracer administration. Carbon-11-acetate is a promising physiologic tracer for the study of renal disease. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Induction of double ovulation in mares using deslorelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Nagao, J F; Neves Neto, J R; Papa, F O; Alvarenga, M A; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Dell'Aqua, J A Junior

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether deslorelin acetate could induce double ovulation in mares. In Experiment 1, eight mares were treated with prostaglandin on Day 8 (D8) after ovulation, then treated with saline or with 100 ?g of a controlled-release formulation of deslorelin acetate vehicle intramuscularly (IM) every 12h from D8 after ovulation until at least two follicles reached 33 mm. At this time, ovulation was induced with 2500 IU of hCG. Artificial insemination was performed 24h after induction, and embryos were collected on the eighth day after ovulation was first detected. In Experiment 2, 112 estrous cycles in 56 mares were studied. In this experiment, the deslorelin acetate protocol was initiated only in mares that achieved a follicle with a diameter of at least 25 mm and at least one second follicle with a diameter?20mm was detected, at which time 100 ?g deslorelin acetate or saline was administered IM every 12h. The other procedures were similar to those described in Experiment 1. The variables studied were analyzed using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. In Experiment 1, only two mares in deslorelin group having second follicles of 20-25 mm on responded with double ovulation. In the second experiment, 82% of treated mares responded with double ovulation, and the embryo recovery per estrous cycle was 1.12 and 0.57 in the group treated with deslorelin acetate and the control group, respectively (P<0.05). Deslorelin acetate is effective in inducing double ovulation in mares using the protocol proposed. On average, it allows for the recovery of one embryo by uterine flushing. PMID:23182475

  3. Acetal-linked polymeric prodrug micelles for enhanced curcumin delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Gao, Min; Fu, Yunlan; Chen, Chao; Meng, Xuan; Fan, Aiping; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    On-demand curcumin delivery via stimuli-responsive micellar nanocarriers holds promise for addressing its solubility and stability problem. Polymer-curcumin prodrug conjugate micelle is one of such nanosystems. The diversity of linker and conjugation chemistry enabled the generation and optimization of different curcumin micelles with tunable stimuli-responsiveness and delivery efficiency. The aim of the current work was to generate and assess acetal-linked polymeric micelles to enrich the pH-responsive curcumin delivery platforms. Curcumin was slightly modified prior to conjugating to amphiphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) copolymer via an acetal bond, whereas an ester bond-linked conjugate was used as the control. The acetal-containing micelles showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 91.1±2.9(nm) and the accompanying core size of 63.5±7.1 (nm) with a zeta potential of -10.9±0.7(mV). Both control and pH-labile micelles displayed similar critical micelle concentration at 1.6μM. The acetal-containing nanocarriers exhibited a pH-dependent drug release behavior, which was faster at lower pH values. The cytotoxicity study in HepG2 cells revealed a significantly lower IC50 at 51.7±9.0(μM) for acetal-linked micelles in contrast to the control at 103.0±17.8(μM), but the polymer residue showed no cytotoxicity upon drug release. The acetal-linked micellar nanocarrier could be a useful addition to the spectrum of currently available stimuli-responsive curcumin nano-formulations. PMID:26731193

  4. Abiraterone Acetate and Castration Resistant Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Linden-Castro, Edgar; Pelayo-Nieto, Marcela; Alias-Melgar, Alejandro; Espinosa-Perezgrovas, Daniel; Ramirez-Galindo, Ivan; Catalan-Quinto, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare histological variant that only represents <1% of prostate tumors. This histological variant has several important clinical implications with respect to their evolution, clinical prognosis, and treatment. We report the case of a 64-year-old patient with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer, that was treated with abiraterone acetate with good clinical response, to our knowledge, the first case of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate in treatment with abiraterone acetate. PMID:24891969

  5. Prednisolone acetate-gentamicin combination following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Carriker, F; Liebowitz, S; Nees, O; Siegel, E; Duzman, E; Cheetham, J K; DeGryse, R

    1987-07-01

    One-hundred-eleven patients participated in a 21-day, open-label study to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of a prednisolone acetate 1%-gentamicin 0.3% ophthalmic suspension to control inflammation and prevent infection after cataract surgery. Beginning the day after surgery, the medication was instilled qid for the next 21 days. No postoperative infection was noted, and postoperative inflammation, which was mild immediately after surgery, decreased steadily during follow-up. The results of this study suggest that a prednisolone acetate-gentamicin combination used for three weeks after cataract surgery is safe and has a positive therapeutic effect on postoperative inflammation and infection. PMID:3307591

  6. [Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale (NRS) to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method (p < 0.001). Further, ice application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain. PMID:24105059

  7. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. )

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  8. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  9. Diffusion of retinol acetate (1); carbon dioxide (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) retinol acetate; (2) carbon dioxide

  10. Intrinsic Hydration of Uranyl-Hydroxide, -Nitrate and -Acetate Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Winnie Chien; Dorothy Hanna; Victor Anbalagan; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold; Michael Van Stipdonk

    2004-06-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate = nitrate >> hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH- to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H2O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)2]+ were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H2O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO2OH)(H2O)2]+ was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate.

  11. Acetate as a Metabolic and Epigenetic Modifier of Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Diane M; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Moffett, John R

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic networks are significantly altered in neoplastic cells. This altered metabolic program leads to increased glycolysis and lipogenesis and decreased dependence on oxidative phosphorylation and oxygen consumption. Despite their limited mitochondrial respiration, cancer cells, nonetheless, derive sufficient energy from alternative carbon sources and metabolic pathways to maintain cell proliferation. They do so, in part, by utilizing fatty acids, amino acids, ketone bodies, and acetate, in addition to glucose. The alternative pathways used in the metabolism of these carbon sources provide opportunities for therapeutic manipulation. Acetate, in particular, has garnered increased attention in the context of cancer as both an epigenetic regulator of posttranslational protein modification, and as a carbon source for cancer cell biomass accumulation. However, to date, the data have not provided a clear understanding of the precise roles that protein acetylation and acetate oxidation play in carcinogenesis, cancer progression or treatment. This review highlights some of the major issues, discrepancies, and opportunities associated with the manipulation of acetate metabolism and acetylation-based signaling in cancer development and treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 574-588, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26251955

  12. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. 522.1881 Section 522.1881 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... 4 days, the possibility must be considered that the condition is unresponsive to...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. 522.1881 Section 522.1881 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1881...

  14. A Simple Way to Pattern Mn_12-acetate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Seo, D. M.; Means, J.; Viswanathan, M.; Teizer, W.

    2004-03-01

    We have observed that Mn_12-acetate ([Mn_12O_12(CH_3COO)_16(H_2O)_4]ot2CH_3COOHot4H_2O) molecules, dissolved in organic solvents, can be self-assembled along the edge of the Mn_12 solution droplet on a Si/SiO2 substrate as the solvent is evaporated. This phenomenon may be related to the well known "coffee-stain effect"”, which leads to a dense particulate deposit along the edge of a drying droplet of coffee on a solid surface. In our study, we have observed such a deposit of Mn_12-acetate at the perimeter of a droplet, after a dilute solution in various organic solvents has been dried. We investigated how the deposits depend on the evaporation rate. Also, we controlled the concentration of the solution to find its relation to the resulting pattern deposit. By patterning the surface with resist and performing a lift-off we created what are, to our knowledge, the first artificial patterns of Mn_12-acetate. This may allow for convenient thin film devices of Mn_12-acetate and work in this direction is ongoing. This work was supported by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and Texas A University.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  16. Different Protonation Equilibria of 4-Methylimidazole and Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Helms, Volkhard H.

    2007-12-03

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dynamic protonation equilibria in water of one 4-methylimidazole molecule as well as for pairs and groups consisting of 4- methylimidazole, acetic acid and bridging water molecules are studied using Q-HOP molecular dynamics simulation. We find a qualitatively different protonation behavior of 4-methylimidazole compared to that of acetic acid. On one hand, deprotonated, neutral 4-methylimidazole cannot as easily attract a freely diffusing extra proton from solution. Once the proton is bound, however, it remains tightly bound on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. In a linear chain composed of acetic acid, a separating water molecule and 4-methylimidazole, an excess proton is equally shared between 4-methylimidazole and water. When a water molecule is linearly placed between two acetic acid molecules, the excess proton is always found on the central water. On the other hand, an excess proton in a 4-methylimidazole-water- 4-methylimidazole chain is always localized on one of the two 4- methylimidazoles. These findings are of interest to the discussion of proton transfer along chains of amino acids and water molecules in biomolecules.

  17. Intrinsic hydration of monopositive uranyl hydroxide, nitrate, and acetate cations.

    PubMed

    Chien, Winnie; Anbalagan, Victor; Zandler, Melvin; Van Stipdonk, Michael; Hanna, Dorothy; Gresham, Garold; Groenewold, Gary

    2004-06-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO(2)A)(+) (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)](+), with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate > or = nitrate > hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH(-) to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H(2)O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO(2)A)(H(2)O)(2)](+) were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H(2)O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO(2)OH)(H(2)O)(2)](+) was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate. PMID:15144967

  18. Transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Lithium Acetate/ Dimethyl Sulfoxide Procedure.

    PubMed

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-01-01

    Transformation ofSchizosaccharomyces pombewith DNA requires the conditioning of cells to promote DNA uptake followed by cell growth under conditions that select and maintain the plasmid or integration event. The three main methodologies are electroporation, treatment with lithium cations, and transformation of protoplasts. The lithium acetate method described here is widely used because it is simple and reliable. PMID:27037075

  19. PROCESS FOR OBTAINING CELLULOSE ACETATE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of preparation of commercially useful product, cellulose acetate from discarded byproducts such as rice-straw, wheat hull and corn fiber will be discussed. This work will provide potential new markets and applications for low-value agricultural wastes and co-products. By converting the ce...

  20. Distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Veber, N.V.; Khisamotdinova, A.I.; Tabachova, S.I.

    1985-06-10

    This paper studies the distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate, which has a comparatively low solubility in water (0.5 g in 100 ml of water), forming a heterogeneous azeotropic mixture. Butyl acetate is capable of giving a hydrogen bond at the carbonyl oxygen with hydroxyl compounds, which serves as the basis for its use as an extraction reagent. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate was studied without salting out agents, and also in the presence of sodium chloride. The experiments were conducted with model solutions of freshly redistilled furfuryl alcohol by shaking equal volumes of the phases in a separatory funnel at 18-20 C. An analysis of furfuryl alcohol in experiments without salting out was performed by a titrimetric method. The results of the distribution of furfuryl alcohol without salting out agents are presented in a table. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol in butyl acetate in the presence of sodium chloride was studied in a smaller range of concentrations.

  1. 21 CFR 522.1410 - Sterile methylprednisolone acetate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterile methylprednisolone acetate suspension. 522.1410 Section 522.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1410...

  2. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  3. Electrosynthesis of anisidines in aqueous sulfuric and acetic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitsyn, Yu. A.; Grigor'eva, L. V.

    2009-03-01

    The influence of the concentrations of acetic and sulfuric acids on the efficiency of anisole amination by means of hydroxylamine and Ti(IV)/Ti(III) mediator was studied. Ortho- and para-anisidines were obtained with the total yields of about 79% by current and hydroxylamine.

  4. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  5. Complexes of horseradish peroxidase with formate, acetate, and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunilla H; Nicholls, Peter; Svistunenko, Dimitri; Berglund, Gunnar I; Hajdu, Janos

    2005-01-18

    Carbon monoxide, formate, and acetate interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by binding to subsites within the active site. These ligands also bind to catalases, but their interactions are different in the two types of enzymes. Formate (notionally the "hydrated" form of carbon monoxide) is oxidized to carbon dioxide by compound I in catalase, while no such reaction is reported to occur in HRP, and the CO complex of ferrocatalase can only be obtained indirectly. Here we describe high-resolution crystal structures for HRP in its complexes with carbon monoxide and with formate, and compare these with the previously determined HRP-acetate structure [Berglund, G. I., et al. (2002) Nature 417, 463-468]. A multicrystal X-ray data collection strategy preserved the correct oxidation state of the iron during the experiments. Absorption spectra of the crystals and electron paramagnetic resonance data for the acetate and formate complexes in solution correlate electronic states with the structural results. Formate in ferric HRP and CO in ferrous HRP bind directly to the heme iron with iron-ligand distances of 2.3 and 1.8 A, respectively. CO does not bind to the ferric iron in the crystal. Acetate bound to ferric HRP stacks parallel with the heme plane with its carboxylate group 3.6 A from the heme iron, and without an intervening solvent molecule between the iron and acetate. The positions of the oxygen atoms in the bound ligands outline a potential access route for hydrogen peroxide to the iron. We propose that interactions in this channel ensure deprotonation of the proximal oxygen before binding to the heme iron. PMID:15641789

  6. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy: A Review in Partial-Onset Seizures.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2016-04-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®)) is a once-daily, orally administered antiepileptic drug (AED) approved previously in the EU, USA and several other countries for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Based on the findings of two randomized, dose-blinded, conversion-to-monotherapy phase III trials in patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy, the US license for eslicarbazepine acetate has recently been expanded to include use as monotherapy for partial-onset seizures. The pivotal trials demonstrated that seizure control following conversion from other AEDs was superior for eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy (1200 or 1600 mg once daily) compared with a pseudo-placebo historical control. Other efficacy outcomes appeared to support the benefit of treatment, with up to 10 % of patients remaining seizure free and up to 46 % of patients experiencing a ≥50 % reduction from baseline in standardized seizure frequency during the monotherapy periods of the trials. Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was generally well tolerated, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Its tolerability profile was generally consistent with the established profile of the drug based on its use as adjunctive therapy. Thus, once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, represents a useful option for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. The recent licensing of the drug in the USA as monotherapy expands the range of treatment options for patients with partial-onset seizures and increases the opportunity to tailor therapy to the individual patient. PMID:27055527

  7. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  8. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  9. A new route for substitution of the bridging acetate on the oxo-centered triruthenium acetate cluster.

    PubMed

    Yuge, Hidetaka; Asahi, Shin-ichiro; Miyamoto, T Ken

    2009-04-01

    Deacetoxylation of the oxo-centered triruthenium acetate cluster by acetyl chloride or triethylsilyl chloride led to the formation of a versatile precursor [Ru(3)O(OAc)(5)(Cl)(4-methylpyridine)(2)(CNt-Bu)], whose chloro ligand was readily substituted by other bridging ligands, i.e. alkoxides, carboxylates or sulfides. PMID:19290360

  10. Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1957-01-01

    Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The untreated waters were generally cool, low in content of calcium and magnesium, and very low in iron and manganese. At many plants, water was obtained from more than one source, and thus had different quality characteristics. Dissolved solids in all the untreated waters analyzed ranged between 14 and 747 ppm (parts per million) but in those waters used in processing the dissolved solids content was less than 200 ppm. The cooling water used by the industry is also generally of very high quality, principally because the requirements for a high-quality process water necessitate location of the plants in areas where such water is available.

  11. High resolution acetic acid survey and water vapor radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiao, Yu-Shao

    2008-08-01

    Planets, comets, stars, galaxies and the interstellar medium (ISM) emit complex but distinct molecular spectra. These spectra reveal the chemical composition and physical conditions in the objects. For example, many biologically important molecules, such as acetic acid, formic acid, vinyl cyanide and ethyl cyanide, have been detected in hot molecular cores in the ISM. A diversity of molecules creates complicated and yet interesting astrochemistry in hot cores. However, the formation mechanisms of large molecules are still unclear. Hence large molecule observations are essential to understand hot core chemistry. Among these molecules, acetic acid is one of the most important large species in hot cores. It is a possible precursor of glycine, the simplest amino acid. It only has been detected in high-mass hot cores without oxygen/nitrogen chemical differentiation, which is key to hot core chemical models. Using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), we have conducted an acetic acid survey in hot cores. In our survey, we have discovered a new acetic acid hot core, G19.61-0.23, which also shows no chemical differentiation. Therefore, we suggest that both large oxygen and nitrogen- bearing species play important roles in acetic acid formation. Ground-based interferometric observations are severely affected by atmospheric conditions. Phase correction is a technique to obtain high quality data and achieve great scientific goals. For our acetic acid survey, a better phase correction technique can not only detect weaker transitions of large molecules, but also increase the map resolution of hot cores. Water vapor radiometers (WVRs) are designed to improve the technique by observing tropospheric water vapor along the lines of sight of interferometers. We have numerically demonstrated the importance of phase correction for interferometric observations and examined the water vapor phase correction technique. Furthermore, we have built two WVR prototypes with new calibration, thermal regulation and backend systems. The WVR prototypes had been tested in a laboratory, on a roof and at the CARMA site to verify their performance. We conclude the WVR thermal stability and dynamic range are critical while the enormous and rapid fluctuations of the sky background emission overwhelm the WVR dynamic range and degrade the WVR sensitivity.

  12. Computational study of maleamic acid cyclodehydration with acetic anhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, Mircea; Ivanov, Daniela

    The reaction mechanisms of N-substituted maleamic acids (MA) cyclodehydration (CDH) to the corresponding maleimides (M) and isomaleimides (IM) and IM rearrangement to M were studied by the PM3 Hamiltonian with charge model 1 (CM1P) of the AMSOL computational method with solvation effect in order to establish the most probable pathways. CDH was considered in the presence of acetic anhydride in the presence of an acetate anion or triethylamine as the dehydrating agent in CH2Cl2 as the solvent. In the first step, our computational results supported carboxylic proton losses, provided by a nucleophilic center on the dehydrating agent. In the next step, maleamic acid anion could either add a molecule of a dehydrating agent (path A) or cyclicize (path B). Our results indicate the path B to require more energy than path A, so path B is considered less likely to occur. The formation (path A) of an anion complex I2 between the anion of MA and the dehydration agent was supported as well as acetate anion loss to form the neutral mixed anhydride I3. The ring closure to M or IM occurs only after I3 amide proton loss, meaning that the dehydrating agent necessitate another nucleophilic center. The cyclization of I4 anion over amide nitrogen or oxygen to the reaction outcome depends on the electronic effect of amide nitrogen substituent. The same results were obtained studying CDH of N-substituted ophthalmic acids with acetic anhydride and for MA with N,N?-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as dehydrating agent, in the same solvent. In such circumstances, one can consider them the common features of a general CDH reaction mechanism of MA. Our computational results found the IM to M rearrangement to correspond to the reversible final path of synthesis mechanism although the other investigators considered it to take place under a different reaction. They also supported the importance of the acetate anion in both cyclization and rearrangement mechanisms; the presence of tertiary amine blocks the acetic acid formed during reaction, determines I3 amide proton loss and prevents rearrangement. The theoretical conclusions are consistent with the experimental results.

  13. Specificity and Induction of Undecyl Acetate Esterase from Pseudomonas cepacia Grown on 2-Tridecanone

    PubMed Central

    Shum, A. C.; Markovetz, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Undecyl acetate esterase from Pseudomonas cepacia grown on 2-tridecanone was strongly inhibited by organophosphates and other esterase inhibitors. Also, p-chloromercuribenzoate at 1 × 10−4 M showed a 70% inhibition of esterase activity. The enzyme hydrolyzed both aliphatic and aromatic acetate esters at substrate concentrations of 0.25 M. Under these conditions the highest reaction rate was toward undecyl acetate. No lipase or proteolytic activity was demonstrated. Undecyl acetate esterase was classified as a carboxylesterase (B-esterase). Cell-free activity studies on the production of undecyl acetate esterase grown on different carbon sources plus zymogram studies demonstrated that the enzyme was inducible when 2-tridecanone, 2-tridecanol, undecyl acetate and, to a lesser extent, 1-undecanol were growth substrates. Induction of undecyl acetate esterase during oxidation of 2-tridecanone supports the view that undecyl acetate is an intermediate in the degradation of the methyl ketone. PMID:4208413

  14. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2008-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com.This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABT-263, AC-2307, Aclidinium bromide, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, Agatolimod sodium, Alefacept, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Anakinra, Apaziquone, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, ASM-8, Atiprimod hydrochloride, AVE-0277, AVE-1642, AVE-8062, Axitinib, Azacitidine, AZD-0530; Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BI-2536, Biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-387032, BMS-663513, Bortezomib, BQ-123, Brivanib alaninate, BSI-201; Caspofungin acetate, CDX-110, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, CR-011, Cypher; Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Denosumab, Dexlansoprazole, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, Dovitinib, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hibvaccine, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, Emtricitabine, Endothelin, Entecavir, Eplivanserin fumarate, Escitalopram oxalate, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Farletuzumab, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fibrin sealant (human), Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Glufosfamide, GSK-1562902A; Hib-TT; Imatinib mesylate, IMC-11F8, Imidazoacridinone, IMP-321, INCB-18424, Indiplon, Indisulam, INNO-406, Irinotecan hydrochloride/Floxuridine, ITF-2357, Ixabepilone; KRN-951; Lasofoxifene tartrate; Lenalidomide, LGD-4665, Lonafarnib, Lubiprostone, Lumiliximab; MDX-1100, Melan-A/MART-1/gp100/IFN-alfa, Methyl-CDDO, Metreleptin, MLN-2704, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Na-ASP-2, Naproxcinod, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, NPI-2358; Oblimersen sodium, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, PAN-811, Panobinostat, PBI-1402, PC-515, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Perillyl alcohol, Perphenazine 4-aminobutyrate, PeviPRO/breast cancer, PF-03814735, PHA-739358, Pimecrolimus, Plitidepsin, Posaconazole, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Prucalopride, PRX-08066; rAAV2-TNFR:Fc, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranibizumab, rCD154-CLL, Retapamulin, RTS,S/SBAS2, rV-PSA-TRICOM/rF-PSA-TRICOM; SG-2000, Sinecatechins, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, SP-1640, Strontium malonate, Succinobucol, Sunitinib malate; Taxus, Teduglutide, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telbivudine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Tocilizumab; Ustekinumab; V-5 Immunitor, Voriconazole, Vorinostat; Xience V, XL-184, XL-647, XL-765; Y-39983, Zibotentan. PMID:18985183

  15. Acetic acid improves the sensitivity of theophylline analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saka, Kanju; Uemura, Koichi; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2007-02-01

    In the analysis of theophylline by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the addition of acetic acid to the solvent (ethyl acetate) decreased the adsorption of theophylline to the glass wool packed into the inlet liner. The addition of acetic acid to ethyl acetate improved the sensitivity for theophylline (optimum concentration of 3%). This simple and sensitive method without derivatization can be applied to the quantification of theophylline in serum samples in clinical and toxicological practice. PMID:17011247

  16. Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Hosogi, Naoki; Nishioka, Hideo; Nakakoshi, Masamichi

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl acetate (UAc) has been generally used not only as a superb staining reagent for ultrathin sections of plastic-embedded biological materials, but also as high-contrast negative stains for biological macromolecules such as particles of protein or virus. However, the use and purchase of radioactive UAc have been restricted. In this study, we determine the performance of ytterbium triacetate, lutetium triacetate, samarium triacetate and gadolinium triacetate as new staining reagents for biological electron microscopy. We observed chemically fixed spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves stained with these reagents. Ultrathin sections were stained with these reagents. Some of them were counterstained with lead citrate. The transmission electron microscopy contrast of spinach organelles was evaluated in sections exposed to the conventional stain and new stains. We show acetate salts of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium and lutetium could be excellent substitutes for UAc for thin section staining and for negative staining. In addition, each reagent showed appreciable negative-staining effects. PMID:26374081

  17. Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    Jadav, Shilpa P.; Parmar, Dinesh M.

    2012-01-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

  18. Advantages of Zr 705 in the acetic acid industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, K.W.; Breig, P.G.; Spence, T.C.

    1995-10-01

    Zirconium 705 (Zr + 2--3% niobium) is finding its way into more acetic acid plants as a replacement for Zirconium 702 (unalloyed Zr). The alloy was first proposed for the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) use in the early 1970s, but has not found wide spread use because of a few problems early in its history. Research revealed that the problems encountered were related to delayed hydride cracking (DHC). However, proper processing of the alloy after welding produces components free of DHC. The main advantage of Zirconium 705 (Zr 705) as compared to Zirconium 702 (Zr 702) is higher tensile and yield strengths. This allows pressure containing components to be rated at higher pressures which can increase plant efficiencies or they can be fabricated with thinner wall sections, thus reducing equipment cost. These advantages of Zr 705 will be reviewed as well as actual plant history of the alloy in acetic acid services.

  19. Supported Ag nanoparticles as trace iodide adsorbent from acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Qingli; Shao, Shouyan; Yan, Fang; Ling, Chen; Yan, Fengwen; Cao, Hongbing; Guo, Cun-Yue; Yuan, Guoqing

    2012-09-01

    Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used as adsorbent to remove trace iodide from acetic acid. Under identical conditions, AgNPs adsorbent with 0.5 wt % Ag has the same performance as commercial adsorbent with 10 wt % Ag+. In addition, Ag loss of AgNPs adsorbent is remarkably lower than that of commercial adsorbent. The Ag content in AgNPs adsorbent affects its adsorption performance, and the optimal content is 1.0 wt %. Saturated AgNPs adsorbent can be regenerated by hydrogen reduction and reused with satisfying performance. The properties of AgNPs adsorbent are based on surface effect of nanoparticles, differing from commercial Ag+ type adsorbents. In a word, AgNPs adsorbent is of high efficiency, low Ag loss and easy recycling, thus making it "green adsorbent" for removing iodide from acetic acid.

  20. Biological carbon monoxide conversion to acetate production by mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chul Woo; Jung, Kyung A; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-07-01

    To utilize waste CO for mixed culture gas fermentation, carbon sources (CO, CO2) and pH were optimized in the batch system to find out the center point and boundary of response surface method (RSM) for higher acetate (HAc) production (center points: 25% CO, 40% CO2, and pH 8). The concentrations of CO and CO2, and pH had significant effects on acetate production, but the pH was the most significant on the HAc production. The optimum condition for HAc production in the gas fermentation was 20.81% CO, 41.38% CO2, 37.81% N2, and pH 7.18. The continuous gas fermentation under the optimum condition obtained 1.66g/L of cell DW, 23.6g/L HAc, 3.11g/L propionate, and 3.42g/L ethanol. PMID:27035481

  1. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Office of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  5. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Office of Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  6. SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF a-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE IN OLIVE OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of '-acetate tocopherol in olive oil. After extracts in n-hexane, acetate '- tocopherol were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC with fluorimetric detector. The presence of acetate '- tocopherol in...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal...

  14. Kinetic model of acetate metabolism in healthy and hyperinsulinaemic humans

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Judlyn; Vogt, Janet; Wolever, Thomas MS

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives The short chain fatty acid acetate (AC), may play a role in increasing insulin sensitivity, thus lowering risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if AC kinetics is similar in normal and hyperinsulinaemic participants. Therefore, we studied AC absorption from the distal colon in participants with normal (<40 pmol/L, NI) and high (≥40 pmol/L, HI) plasma-insulin. This work was part of a series of studies conceived to compute a kinetic model for acetate. Kinetic parameters such as estimates of rate of entry into peripheral blood, hepatic uptake and endogenous/exogenous production were compared in the groups. Subjects/methods Overnight fasted NI (n = 9) and HI (n = 8) participants were given rectal infusions containing sodium acetate (90 mmol/L). The solutions were retained for 40 min, then voided for AC measurement. Total amount of AC infused was 27 mmols. Results Acetate absorption from the distal colon (279±103 vs 322±91 μmol/min, P = 0.76) and hepatic uptake of AC (155±101 vs 146±85 μmol/min, P = 0.94) were similar in the groups. Endogenous and exogenous AC production was significantly higher in NI than HI participants. Plasma AC was inversely proportional to plasma insulin concentrations in the entire cohort (y=k/x, where k = 1813). Conclusions There was low power to detect differences in AC absorption rate and hepatic AC uptake in NI vs HI. The rate of entry of AC into peripheral blood was similar in NI and HI participants. However, hyperinsulinaemia may alter endogenous and exogenous AC metabolism. PMID:25052228

  15. Ferroelectric thin film bismuth titanate prepared from acetate precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yanxia; Hoelzer, D.T.; Schulze, W.A.; Tuttle, B.A.; Potter, B.G.

    1994-10-01

    Bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) thin films were fabricated by spin coat deposition followed by rapid thermal processing (RTP). Acetate derived solutions for deposition were synthesized by blending bismuth acetate in aqueous acetic acid and then adding titanium acetate. A series of electrically insulating, semiconducting and conducting substrates were evaluated for Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} film deposition. While X-ray diffraction and TEM analyses indicated that the initial perovskite crystallization temperature was 500{degrees}C or less for these Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} films, a 700{degrees}C crystallization treatment was used to obtain single phase perovskite films. Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} film crystallographic orientation was shown to depend on three factors: substrate surface morphology, the number of coating layers and thermal processing. While preferred c-direction orientation was observed for Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} films deposited on silver foil substrates, preferred a-direction orientation was obtained for films deposited on both Si and Pt coated Si wafers. The films were dense, smooth, crack free, and had grain sizes ranging from 20 nm to 100 nm. Film thickness and refractive index were determined using a combination of ellipsometry, waveguide refractometry and TEM measurements. Both low field dielectric and ferroelectric properties were measured for an 800 nm thick film deposited on a Pt coated MgO substrate. A remanent polarization of 38 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and a coercive field of 98 kV/cm were measured for this film that was crystallized at 700{degrees}C.

  16. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    PubMed

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (<10(3) cfu/mL), which under conducive conditions might proliferate. Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine. PMID:18237809

  17. (1E)-2-(Diacetylamino)-1-methylprop-1-enyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Bjorn; Bond, Marcus R

    2004-03-01

    The analysis of the title compound, C10H15NO4, firmly establishes the configuration of the double bond as E, a stereochemistry that had been assigned tentatively by other methods. The diacetylamine and acetate substituents are approximately coplanar to one another, but approximately perpendicular to the planar ethene core. H atoms of the ethene methyl substituents are found within the ethene plane, indicating that hyperconjugation does not play an important role in stabilizing the double bond. PMID:15004381

  18. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J H; Lund, K H

    2003-12-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water and 3% acetic acid testing at 40 degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured to 3% acetic acid in the third test, whereas no migration to distilled water was observed in the third test. The average recovery of 2-BEA after the 10-day exposure at the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was 77% into distilled water and 36% into 3% acetic acid. The limited recovery was understandable as 2-BEA was partly hydrolysed in the aqueous food simulants and 2-butoxyethanol, a hydrolysis product and one of the related substances was identified. Quantification was carried out using gas chromatography after liquid/liquid extraction of the food simulant. PMID:14726282

  19. Progress toward acetate supplementation therapy for Canavan disease: glyceryl triacetate administration increases acetate, but not N-acetylaspartate, levels in brain.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Raji; Arun, Peethambaran; Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, M A Aryan

    2005-10-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the gene for aspartoacylase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartate (NAA) into L-aspartate and acetate. Because aspartoacylase is localized in oligodendrocytes, and NAA-derived acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, we hypothesize that an acetate deficiency in oligodendrocytes is responsible for the pathology in CD, and we propose acetate supplementation as a possible therapy. In our preclinical efforts toward this goal, we studied the effectiveness of orally administered glyceryl triacetate (GTA) and calcium acetate for increasing acetate levels in the murine brain. The concentrations of brain acetate and NAA were determined simultaneously after intragastric administration of GTA. We found that the acetate levels in brain were increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with a 17-fold increase observed at 1 to 2 h in 20- to 21-day-old mice at a dose of 5.8 g/kg GTA. NAA levels in the brain were not significantly increased under these conditions. Studies using mice at varying stages of development showed that the dose of GTA required to maintain similarly elevated acetate levels in the brain increased with age. Also, GTA was significantly more effective as an acetate source than calcium acetate. Chronic administration of GTA up to 25 days of age did not result in any overt pathology in the mice. Based on these results and the current Food and Drug Administration-approved use of GTA as a food additive, we propose that it is a potential candidate for use in acetate supplementation therapy for CD. PMID:16002461

  20. Process for making 90 K superconductors from acetate precursor solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, J.D.; Subramanian, M.A.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes an improved process for preparing a superconducting composition having the formula MBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub chi/. In this process M is selected from the group consisting of Y, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu; chi is from about 6.5 to about 7.0; the composition having a superconducting transition temperature of about 90 {Kappa}. The process consisting essentially of: forming in acetic acid a mixture of MCC/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2//sub 3/, a barium acetate and copper acetate in an atomic ratio of M:Ba:Cu of about 1:2:3; heating the resulting mixture to boiling, and adding sufficient formic acid to dissolve any undissolved starting material while maintaining boiling; evaporating the solvent from the resulting solution to form a solid mass; heating the resulting material in an oxygen-containing atmosphere at a temperature from about 850{sup 0}C to about 925{sup 0}C for a time sufficient to form MBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/, where y is from about 6.0 to about 6.4; and maintaining the MBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/ in an oxygen-containing atmosphere while cooling for a time sufficient to obtained the desired product.

  1. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

  2. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  3. Crystal structure of febuxostat-acetic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Gu, Jian-Ming; Tang, Gu-Ping

    2015-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(3-cyano-4-iso-butyl-oxyphen-yl)-4-methyl-thia-zole-5-carb-oxy-lic acid-acetic acid (1/1)], C16H16N2O3S·CH3COOH, contains a febuxostat mol-ecule and an acetic acid mol-ecule. In the febuxostat mol-ecule, the thia-zole ring is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 3.24 (2)°]. In the crystal, the febuxostat and acetic acid mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming supra-molecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. π-π stacking is observed between nearly parallel thia-zole and benzene rings of adjacent mol-ecules; the centroid-to-centroid distances are 3.8064 (17) and 3.9296 (17) Å. PMID:25995912

  4. Acetate-Activating Enzymes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Bacteroids †

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Glenn G.; Zeiher, Carolyn; Wall, Judy D.; Emerich, David W.

    1989-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase and acetate kinase were localized within the soluble portion of Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids, and no appreciable activity was found elsewhere in the nodule. The presence of each acetate-activating enzyme was confirmed by separation of the two enzyme activities on a hydroxylapatite column, by substrate dependence of each enzyme in both the forward and reverse directions, by substrate specificity, by inhibition patterns, and also by identification of the reaction products by C18 reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Phosphotransacetylase activity, found in the soluble portion of the bacteroid, was dependent on the presence of potassium and was inhibited by added sodium. The greatest acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity was found in the root nodule cytosol, although appreciable activity also was found within the bacteroids. The combined specific activities of acetyl-CoA synthetase and acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase were approximate to that of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, thus providing B. japonicum with sufficient capacity to generate acetyl-CoA. PMID:16347818

  5. Silver stain for proteins on a cellulose acetate membrane.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Toda, T; Ohashi, M

    1984-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive silver staining method to detect proteins on a cellulose acetate membrane has been established. This method is achieved by modification of the silver-based color staining for detection of proteins in polyacrylamide gels [D. W. Sammons, L. D. Adams, and E. E. Nishizawa, Electrophoresis 2, 135-141 (1981)] and applied to our new type of two-dimensional electrophoresis for analysis of proteins on a cellulose acetate sheet [T. Toda, T. Fujita, and M. Ohashi, Anal. Biochem. 119, 167-176 (1982)]. Maximal sensitivity of silver stain for proteins on a cellulose acetate membrane can be obtained by an optimal balance between deposition of silver on the protein and on the background. Certain kinds of proteins are colored red, orange, or grayish-blue. The silver stain is 20-80 times more sensitive than Coomassie blue and some spots are visualized reproducibly by silver only. Densitometric evaluation of standard proteins stained with silver and Coomassie blue is also demonstrated. The method takes only 50 min to perform and is sensitive, simple, and reproducible. PMID:6206749

  6. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  7. Acetate/acetyl-CoA metabolism associated with cancer fatty acid synthesis: overview and application.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-28

    Understanding cancer-specific metabolism is important for identifying novel targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Induced acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism is a notable feature that is related to fatty acid synthesis supporting tumor growth. In this review, we focused on the recent findings related to cancer acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism. We also introduce [1-¹¹C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET), which is a useful tool to visualize up-regulation of acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism in cancer, and discuss the utility of [1-¹¹C]acetate PET in cancer diagnosis and its application to personalized medicine. PMID:24569091

  8. Whole body and leg acetate kinetics at rest, during exercise and recovery in humans.

    PubMed

    van Hall, G; Sacchetti, M; Rådegran, G

    2002-07-01

    We have used a constant [1,2-(13)C]acetate infusion (0.12 micromol x min(-1) x kg( 1)) for 2 h at rest, followed by 2 h of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 65% of leg maximal workload, and 3 h of recovery in six post-absorptive volunteers to quantify whole-body and leg acetate kinetics and determine whether the whole-body acetate correction factor can be used to correct leg substrate oxidation. The acetate whole-body rate of appearance (R(a)) was not significantly different at rest, during exercise or during recovery (365-415 micromol x min(-1)). The leg net acetate uptake was similar at rest and during recovery (approximately 10 micromol x min(-1)), but increased approximately 5-fold with exercise. At rest the leg acetate uptake (approximately 15 micromol x min(-1)) and release (approximately 5 micromol x min(-1)) accounted for 4 and 1.5 % of whole-body acetate disposal (R(d)) and R(a), respectively. When the leg acetate kinetics were extrapolated to the total body skeletal muscle mass, then skeletal muscle accounted for approximately 16 and approximately 6% of acetate R(d) and R(a). With exercise, leg acetate uptake increased approximately 6-fold, whereas leg acetate release increased 9-fold compared with rest. Whole-body acetate carbon recovery increased with time of infusion at rest and during recovery from 21% after 1.5 h of infusion to 45% in recovery after 7 h of infusion. Leg and whole-body acetate carbon recovery were similar under resting conditions, both before and after exercise. During exercise whole-body acetate carbon recovery was approximately 75%, however, acetate carbon recovery of the active leg was substantially higher (approximately 100%). It is concluded that inactive skeletal muscle plays a minor role in acetate turnover. However, active skeletal muscle enhances several-fold acetate uptake and subsequent oxidation, as well as release and its contribution to whole-body acetate turnover. Furthermore, under resting conditions the whole-body acetate correction factor can be used to correct for leg, skeletal muscle, substrate oxidation, but not during exercise. PMID:12096068

  9. Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

  10. Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A. Dean; Burgess, Shawn C.; Malloy, Craig. R.

    2014-01-01

    Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [13C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-13C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-13C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). 13C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, 13C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [13C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [13C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. PMID:25320331

  11. DFT studies of CNT-functionalized uracil-acetate hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Gulseren, Oguz

    2015-09-01

    Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the stabilities and properties of hybrid structures consisting of a molecular carbon nanotube (CNT) and uracil acetate (UA) counterparts. The investigated models have been relaxed to minimum energy structures and then various physical properties and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have been evaluated. The results indicated the effects of functionalized CNT on the properties of hybrids through comparing the results of hybrids and individual structures. The oxygen atoms of uracil counterparts have been seen as the detection points of properties for the CNT-UA hybrids.

  12. Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

  13. Enantioselective Hydrosilylation of Imines Catalyzed by Chiral Zinc Acetate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Bezłada, Agata; Szewczyk, Marcin; Mlynarski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A series of zinc acetate complexes with optically pure diphenylethanediamine (DPEDA)-derived ligands have been employed as enantioselective catalyst for the hydrosilylation of various imines. High control of stereoselectivity (up to 97% ee) and excellent yields (up to 96%) were gained for a broad range of N-phosphinoylimines by using (R,R)-N,N'-dibenzyl-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine. This is the first successful application of an air-stable and environmentally friendly chiral Zn(OAc)2 complex instead of the previously used harmful diethylzinc in the asymmetric reduction of the C═N double bond. PMID:26667387

  14. Nutrient requirements for high rate conversion of acetate to methane

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this research, nutrient requirements for high rate conversion of acetate to methane were examined with acetate enrichment cultures at 35/sup 0/C. By employing a pH stat as the cultivation system, the pH and acetate concentration were maintained, respectively, at about 6.8 and greater than or equal to 2000 mg/l in the reactor. Ni and Fe limitation in the pH stat at 15 days SRT/HRT favored the dominance of Methanothrix species, when a Methanothrix-dominant enrichment was seeded with a small inocula of Methanosarcina-dominant enrichment. Sufficiently high levels of both Ni and Fe were required for Methanosarcina species to gain dominance. It is therefore indicated that the trace metals are capable of controlling the dominant acetate-utilizing species, and that Methanothrix species is less limited at low levels of these trace metals. At 5 days SRT/HRT, the lowest concentration of eight inorganic nutrient required to support near 30 g/l-3 or more AUR of Methanosarcina-dominant enrichment in the pH stat was as follows: Rough estimates of the yield coefficient (Y) and half-saturation constant (K/sub s/) for the inorganic nutrients are also shown above. With the combination of the lowest concentrations, the minimum nutrient requirements were confirmed to support around 30 g/l-d AUR at the SRT/HRT of 5-20 days. At 2.5 and 3.3 days SRT/HRT, AUR was about 6 and 14 g/l-d, respectively. The AUR of a Methanosarcina-dominant enrichment was stimulated by yeast extract (100 mg/l-d). But no stimulation was observed with HSCoM (0.2 mg/l-d) and vitamin B/sub 12/ (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 mg/l-d) which are major coenzymes in methanogens. An example calculation indicated the economical feasibility of nutrient supplementation in the field.

  15. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vishnu P.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi; Maity, Sunil K.

    2010-10-01

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi

    2010-10-26

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  17. Superconducting films made by spin-coating of acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B. ); dos Santos, D.I.; Carvalho, C.L.; da Silva, R.R.; Aegerter, M.A. . Inst. de Fisica e Quimica)

    1990-12-01

    Metallic silver substrates were spin-coated with several layers of mixed acetate solutions containing bismuth, lead, strontium, calcium, and copper. The viscosities of the cation solutions were modified by the addition of polyvinyl alcohol. The films were heat treated at various temperatures in air, O{sub 2}, and 1% O{sub 2} (balance N{sub 2}) atmospheres. Bismuth cuprate films with transport critical current densities {approx}500 A/cm{sup 2} were obtained in this work. New conditions of coating and sintering have been tried to produce superconducting films.

  18. FIRST ACETIC ACID SURVEY WITH CARMA IN HOT MOLECULAR CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Shiao, Y.-S. Jerry; Looney, Leslie W.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Friedel, Douglas N.; Remijan, Anthony J. E-mail: aremijan@nrao.ed

    2010-06-10

    Acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) has been detected mainly in hot molecular cores where the distribution between oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) containing molecular species is cospatial within the telescope beam. Previous work has presumed that similar cores with cospatial O and N species may be an indicator for detecting acetic acid. However, does this presumption hold as higher spatial resolution observations of large O- and N-containing molecules become available? As the number of detected acetic acid sources is still low, more observations are needed to support this postulate. In this paper, we report the first acetic acid survey conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 3 mm wavelengths toward G19.61-0.23, G29.96-0.02, and IRAS 16293-2422. We have successfully detected CH{sub 3}COOH via two transitions toward G19.61-0.23 and tentatively confirmed the detection toward IRAS 16293-2422 A. The determined column density of CH{sub 3}COOH is 2.0(1.0) x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and the abundance ratio of CH{sub 3}COOH to methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}) is 2.2(0.1) x 10{sup -1} toward G19.61-0.23. Toward IRAS 16293 A, the determined column density of CH{sub 3}COOH is {approx}1.6 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} and the abundance ratio of CH{sub 3}COOH to methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}) is {approx}1.0 x 10{sup -1}, both of which are consistent with abundance ratios determined toward other hot cores. Finally, we model all known line emission in our passband to determine physical conditions in the regions and introduce a new metric to better reveal weak spectral features that are blended with stronger lines or that may be near the 1{sigma}-2{sigma} detection limit.

  19. Phenylmercuric acetate biodegradation by environmental strains of Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Mirgain, I; Werneburg, B; Harf, C; Monteil, H

    1989-01-01

    Organomercurial pollution occurring in the Rhine river in 1986 led us to study the possibility of depollution by mercury-resistant environmental aquatic strains. Four species of Pseudomonas were investigated for their ability to biotransform phenylmercuric acetate (PMA). Such biological depollution was demonstrated to be due to an enzymatic activity in whole cells and in cell-free extracts from Pseudomonas fluorescens and other Pseudomonas species. PMA biotransformation was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Some of those bacteria growing between 4 and 41 degrees C probably represent a natural means of organomercurial depollution, which acts slowly in interaction with other organisms and non-organic porous surfaces. PMID:2626597

  20. Electrical and Thermal Properties of Polyvinyl Acetal Based Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios; Pace, Marshall O

    2009-10-01

    A water chemistry procedure is used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can later be blended with a polymer to form a nanodielectric. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in two grades of polyvinyl acetal (commercially available under the trade names BX-L and KS-10, manufactured by SEKISUI Chemicals). Nanocomposite materials were prepared with 15 and 33 wt% titanium dioxide. The variation of the glass transition temperature with increasing filler weight fraction is presented. The dielectric breakdown strengths of the nanodielectric samples are reported. The presented results can be employed to optimize the dielectric properties of the studied nanocomposites for potential use in cryogenic high voltage applications.

  1. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:25698512

  2. Carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria using different pathways for the oxidation of acetate.

    PubMed

    Goevert, Dennis; Conrad, Ralf

    2008-11-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. In anoxic environments, available acetate is a competitive substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea. Little is known about the fractionation of carbon isotopes by sulfate reducers. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope compositions in cultures of three acetate-utilizing SRB, Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, and Desulfobacca acetoxidans. We found that these species showed strong differences in their isotope enrichment factors (epsilon) of acetate. During the consumption of acetate and sulfate, acetate was enriched in 13C by 19.3% per hundred in Desulfobacca acetoxidans. By contrast, both D. postgatei and D. hydrogenophilus showed a slight depletion of 13C resulting in epsilon(ac)-values of 1.8 and 1.5% per hundred, respectively. We suggest that the different isotope fractionation is due to the different metabolic pathways for acetate oxidation. The strongly fractionating Desulfobacca acetoxidans uses the acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway, which is also used by acetoclastic methanogens that show a similar fractionation of acetate (epsilon(ac) = -21 to -27% per hundred). In contrast, Desulfobacter spp. oxidize acetate to CO2 via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and apparently did not discriminate against 13C. Our results suggestthat carbon isotope fractionation in environments with sulfate reduction will strongly depend on the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community oxidizing acetate. PMID:19031865

  3. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. PMID:26297692

  4. Facile pulping of lignocellulosic biomass using choline acetate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangchao; Wang, Hui; Chatel, Gregory; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

    2014-07-01

    Treating ground bagasse or Southern yellow pine in the biodegradable ionic liquid (IL), choline acetate ([Cho][OAc]), at 100°C for 24h led to dissolution of hemicellulose and lignin, while leaving the cellulose pulp undissolved, with a 54.3% (bagasse) or 34.3% (pine) reduction in lignin content. The IL solution of the dissolved biopolymers can be separated from the undissolved particles either by addition of water (20 wt% of IL) followed by filtration or by centrifugation. Hemicellulose (19.0 wt% of original bagasse, 10.2 wt% of original pine, containing 14-18 wt% lignin) and lignin (5.0 wt% of original bagasse, 6.0 wt% of original pine) could be subsequently precipitated. The pulp obtained from [Cho][OAc] treatment can be rapidly dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (e.g., 17 h for raw bagasse vs. 7h for pulp), and precipitated as cellulose-rich material (CRM) with a lower lignin content (e.g., 23.6% for raw bagasse vs. 10.6% for CRM). PMID:24874879

  5. Demonstration of equivalence of a generic glatiramer acetate (Glatopa™).

    PubMed

    Anderson, James; Bell, Christine; Bishop, John; Capila, Ishan; Ganguly, Tanmoy; Glajch, Joseph; Iyer, Mani; Kaundinya, Ganesh; Lansing, Jonathan; Pradines, Joel; Prescott, James; Cohen, Bruce A; Kantor, Daniel; Sachleben, Richard

    2015-12-15

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) has been available under the brand name Copaxone® for nearly two decades. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first generic GA, Glatopa™, as fully substitutable for all indications for which Copaxone 20mg is approved; Glatopa also represents the first FDA-approved "AP-rated," substitutable generic for treating patients with MS. Glatiramer acetate is a complex mixture of polypeptides and, consequently, its characterization presented challenges not generally encountered in drug development. Despite its complexity, and without requiring any clinical data, approval was accomplished through an Abbreviated New Drug Application in which equivalence to Copaxone was evaluated across four criteria: starting materials and basic chemistry; structural signatures for polymerization, depolymerization, and purification; physicochemical properties; and biological and immunological properties. This article describes the rigorous overall scientific approach used to successfully establish equivalence between Glatopa and Copaxone, and presents key representative data from several of the comprehensive sets of physicochemical (structural) and biological (functional) assays that were conducted. PMID:26671082

  6. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L. E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  7. Solid-state chemistry of ambroxol theophylline-7-acetate.

    PubMed

    Foppoli, Anastasia; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Caira, Mino R; Nassimbeni, Luigi R; Borkum, Evan; Bettini, Ruggero; Giordano, Ferdinando

    2007-05-01

    Ambroxol theophylline-7-acetate (ACE) is the salt obtained by reaction of equimolar amounts of ambroxol (AMB), a drug showing mucolytic and expectorant properties, and theophylline-7-acetic acid (TAA), a xanthine derivative with specific bronchodilator activity. ACE is used for the treatment of bronchial and pulmonary diseases (bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, chronic obstructive disease). Recrystallization experiments of ACE resulted in the isolation of two polymorphs (monotropically related) and four solvated forms. X-ray diffractometry, DSC, TGA, and HSM techniques were used to investigate the forms that are obtained by thermal desolvation of the solvates. The phase diagram of the TAA-AMB binary system was constructed by performing thermal analyses on mixtures of TAA-AMB and of each component plus the interaction compound (TAA-ACE and ACE-AMB). The Schroeder-Van Laar equation proved to be a very useful tool for checking the consistency between the experimental data and the theoretical model related to the general system, showing complete miscibility in the liquid phase and complete immiscibility in the solid phase. PMID:17455344

  8. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. PMID:25488041

  9. The effect of vinyl acetate in acetoclastic methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Durán, U; Gómez, J; Monroy, O; Ramírez, F

    2011-01-01

    The influence of vinyl acetate (VA) in the methanogenesis was evaluated, by using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor of 1.5L. The reactor was operated at 33.5 g/L volatile suspended solids to 30±2 °C, a hydraulic residence time of 1 day, an organic loading rate of 1 kgCOD/m3/d of two different mixtures of VA and glucose. The VA was methanized to 81% when its proportion was of 10% into reactor loading rate, when VA proportion increased to 25%, the methane production rate decreased to 62% and the acetate production rate increased almost 8 times. These results indicated that VA was only hydrolyzed and glucose was not used as a co-substrate. The effect of glucose on VA methanogenic degradation was evaluated through batch reactors of 60 mL, concluding that the glucose supported the methanogenesis without favoring the VA elimination. On the other hand, the results of the sludge from the reactor in the presence of VA demonstrated that VA caused an irreversibly inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis when the anaerobic sludge was exposed to this compound. PMID:20933387

  10. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. PMID:25044390

  11. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  12. Dielectric relaxation of α -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, K.; Maslanka, S.; Ziolo, J.; Paluch, M.; McGrath, K. J.; Roland, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric loss spectra are reported for α -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The α -relaxation times, τα , measured over a 190° range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured τα . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature Tg show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the α -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the α process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the α -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the α -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the α relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

  13. Biomass bioconversion to calcium magnesium acetate deicing salt. Final project report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trantolo, D.J.

    1989-06-01

    The project experimentally investigated using biomass as feedstock for conversion to calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an alternative road salt. This new organic road salt will prevent corrosion of bridge decks, underground cables, and rusting of cars and trucks. CMA from biomass will reduce costs, compared to petroleum and natural gas for making this material. Phase I work focused on bioconversion of sewage sludge residuals to CMA. The process is based on a packed bed fermenter to produce acetic acid from biomass, as well as liquid ion exchange to recover acetic acid from the fermenter broth prior to the final production step which occurs by passing the acetic acid over limestone. In Phase I: (1) percent bioconversion and kinetics of biomass to acetic acid have been confirmed in small batch fermenters; (2) equilibrium constants for acetic acid recovery via liquid ion exchange have been documented; and (3) rates of conversion to CMA have been determined.

  14. Detection of CIN by naked eye visualization after application of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Londhe, M; George, S S; Seshadri, L

    1997-06-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity and specificity of acetic application to the cervix followed by naked eye visualization as a screening test for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Three hundred and seventy two sexually active woman in the reproductive age group were studied. All the women underwent Papanicolaou test, acetic acid test and colposcopy. One hundred and seventy five woman were acetic acid test negative, 197 women were acetic acid test positive. The sensitivity of acetic acid test was 72.4%, specificity 54% and false negative rate 15.2%, as compared to papanicolaou test which had a sensitivity of 13.2%, specificity of 96.3% and false negative rate of 24.4%. The advantage of the acetic acid test lies in its easy technique, low cost and high sensitivity which are important factors for determining the efficacy of any screening programme in developing countries. PMID:9491668

  15. Selection of a Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain with a Decreased Ability To Produce Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Margolles, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase specific activity was lower in the low acetate producer. Strain CECT 7953 produced less acetate, less ethanol, and more yoghourt-related volatile compounds in skim milk than the wild type did. Thus, CECT 7953 shows promising potential for the development of dairy products fermented exclusively by a bifidobacterial strain. PMID:22389372

  16. Pulsed (13)C2-Acetate Protein-SIP Unveils Epsilonproteobacteria as Dominant Acetate Utilizers in a Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Community Mineralizing Benzene.

    PubMed

    Starke, Robert; Keller, Andreas; Jehmlich, Nico; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana

    2016-05-01

    In a benzene-degrading and sulfate-reducing syntrophic consortium, a clostridium affiliated to the genus Pelotomaculum was previously described to ferment benzene while various sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria and a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria were supposed to utilize acetate and hydrogen as key metabolites derived from benzene fermentation. However, the acetate utilization network within this community was not yet unveiled. In this study, we performed a pulsed (13)C2-acetate protein stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) approach continuously spiking low amounts of acetate (10 μM per day) in addition to the ongoing mineralization of unlabeled benzene. Metaproteomics revealed high abundances of Clostridiales followed by Syntrophobacterales, Desulfobacterales, Desulfuromonadales, Desulfovibrionales, Archaeoglobales, and Campylobacterales. Pulsed acetate protein-SIP results indicated that members of the Campylobacterales, the Syntrophobacterales, the Archaeoglobales, the Clostridiales, and the Desulfobacterales were linked to acetate utilization in descending abundance. The Campylobacterales revealed the fastest and highest (13)C incorporation. Previous experiments suggested that the activity of the Campylobacterales was not essential for anaerobic benzene degradation in the investigated community. However, these organisms were consistently detected in various hydrocarbon-degrading and sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same aquifer. Here, we demonstrate that this member of the Campylobacterales is the dominant acetate utilizer in the benzene-degrading microbial consortium. PMID:26846217

  17. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Reinecke, D. )

    1989-04-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

  18. Acetate Utilization in Lactococcus lactis Deficient in Lactate Dehydrogenase: a Rescue Pathway for Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Hols, Pascal; Ramos, Ana; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Delcour, Jean; de Vos, Willem M.; Santos, Helena; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Acetate was shown to improve glucose fermentation in Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies using [2-13C]glucose and [2-13C]acetate as substrates demonstrated that acetate was exclusively converted to ethanol. This novel pathway provides an alternative route for NAD+ regeneration in the absence of lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:10464231

  19. Redox-Neutral α-Sulfenylation of Secondary Amines: Ring-Fused N,S-Acetals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Secondary amines react with thiosalicylaldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of acetic acid to generate ring-fused N,S-acetals in redox-neutral fashion. A broad range of amines undergo α-sulfenylation, including challenging substrates such morpholine, thiomorpholine, and piperazines. Computational studies employing density functional theory indicate that acetic acid reduces the energy barriers of two separate steps, both of which involve proton transfer. PMID:24927364

  20. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Wang, Guijun

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  1. Regulation of acetate metabolism in Escherichia coli BL21 by protein N(ε)-lysine acetylation.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Röhrig, Teresa; Termeer, Svenja; Cánovas, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Acetate production is one of the most striking differences between Escherichia coli K12 and BL21 strains. Transcription of acetate metabolism genes is regulated. Additionally, acetyl-CoA synthetase, which activates acetate to acetyl-CoA, is regulated by post-translational acetylation. The aim of this study was to understand the contribution of reversible protein lysine acetylation to the regulation of acetate metabolism in E. coli BL21. The phenotypic differences between both strains were especially important in the presence of acetate. The high expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) in glucose exponential phase in BL21 allows the simultaneous consumption of acetate and glucose. Lack of catabolite repression also affected its post-translational regulator, the protein acetyltransferase (patZ). The effect of the deletion of cobB (encoding a sirtuin-like protein deacetylase) and patZ genes depended on the genetic background. The deletion of cobB in both strains increased acetate production and decreased growth rate in acetate cultures. The deletion of patZ in BL21 suppressed acetate overflow in glucose medium and increased the growth rate in acetate cultures. Differences on acetate overflow between BL21 and K12 strains are caused by many overlapping factors. Two major contributing effects were identified: (1) the expression of acs during exponential growth is not repressed in the BL21 strain due to concomitant cAMP production and (2) the acetyl-CoA synthetase activity is more tightly regulated by protein acetylation in BL21 than in the K12. Altogether these differences contribute to the lower acetate overflow and the improved ability of E. coli BL21 to consume this metabolite in the presence of glucose. PMID:25524697

  2. Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  3. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: a key intermediate for zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra; Pal, Manojit

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid. PMID:19104672

  4. Unusual vibrational dynamics of the acetic acid dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Manho; Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    2001-10-01

    The vibrational relaxation of the C=O stretching mode of the CH3CO2H cyclic dimer, the CH3CO2D cyclic dimer, and CH3CO2CH3 were measured in CCl4 solution at room temperature. The population relaxation of the v=1 state of the C=O mode is nonexponential, modeled with a biexponential decay having a fast time constant in the subpicosecond regime and a slow time constant of a few picoseconds. For the cyclic dimers of the acetic acids, the fast component dominates the population decay, whereas the slow component dominates the decay of the CH3CO2CH3, the model compound for the monomeric acetic acid. Deuteration of the dimer increases the relaxation time constant. The non-hydrogen-bonding monomer methyl acetate also has a subpicosecond decay constant. The pump-probe anisotropy decay reveals that the orientational dynamics of these molecules also occurs on the subpicosecond time scale and is reasonably well described by rotational diffusion in the slip hydrodynamic limit. Stimulated infrared photon echo decay experiments reveal that the correlation function of the frequency fluctuations of the cyclic acid dimer has a motionally narrowed process described by a 4 ps pure dephasing time and process with a 2.1 ps correlation time, comparable to a solvent response time. The dephasing dynamics is dominated by the population relaxation. In analyzing the photon echo data, the contribution from the rotational diffusion is incorporated by approximating the cyclic acid dimer as a symmetric top diffuser with its transition dipole located in the molecular plane but not parallel to any of the principal axes. General formulas, which will be useful in other applications, for incorporation of the diffusive dynamics of the symmetric top into the third order response functions are obtained. Nonexponential fast vibrational relaxation of C-CO2-X moiety is not adequately described by the anharmonic coupling with the nearby combination and overtone bands. In the regime where the rotational, vibrational, and dephasing times are all comparable, the solvent memory effects may play a role in vibrational dynamics, causing unusually rapid nonexponential population decay.

  5. Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

  6. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdhA™::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical catabolic pathway is controlled by mechanisms similar to those employed by the Bacteria and Eukarya, or by a regulatory paradigm that is unique to the Archaea. The mechanism(s) revealed by this investigation will provide insight into the regulatory strategies employed by the aceticlastic methanogenic Archaea to efficiently direct carbon and electron flow in anaerobic consortia during fermentative processes.

  7. Effects of acetate on Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422 growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martynova, Jekaterina; Kokina, Agnese; Kibilds, Juris; Liepins, Janis; Scerbaka, Rita; Vigants, Armands

    2016-05-01

    Metabolically active cells produce a wide array of metabolites that can inhibit their growth. Acetate is a widely known preservative, and it is also produced by yeast cells during their growth. Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422 is a promising yeast strain that could be employed in biotechnological processes, but the knowledge of its stress physiology is scarce. Here, we investigate the effects of acetate on growth and changes in cell population structure during adaptation to elevated concentrations of acetate in K. marxianus DSM 5422. Our results indicate that acetate inhibits growth in a pH-dependent manner and has pronounced effects if yeast is grown on lactose or galactose. When challenged with acetate, culture extends lag phase, during which cells adapt to elevated acetate concentrations, and growth reoccurs, albeit at a slower rate, when majority of the population is acetate resistant. Acetate resistance is maintained only if acetate is present in the media or if the culture has reached end of active growth phase. This study shows possible caveats in lactose fermentation with K. marxianus and gives a further perspective in non-conventional yeast applications in biotechnology. PMID:26910042

  8. Microbiosensor for the detection of acetate in electrode-respiring biofilms.

    PubMed

    Atci, Erhan; Babauta, Jerome T; Sultana, Sujala T; Beyenal, Haluk

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this work was to develop a microbiosensor to measure acetate concentration profiles inside biofilms in situ. The working principle of the microbiosensor was based on the correlation between the acetate concentration and the current generated during acetate oxidation by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The microbiosensor consisted of a 30-µm carbon microelectrode with an open tip as a working electrode, with G. sulfurreducens biofilm on the tip and a pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode, all enclosed in a glass outer case with a 30-µm tip diameter. The microbiosensor showed a linear response in the 0-1.6mM acetate concentration range with a 79±8µM limit of detection (S/N=2). We quantified the stirring effect and found it negligible. However, the interfering effect of alternative electron donors (lactate, formate, pyruvate, or hydrogen) was found to be significant. The usefulness of the acetate microbiosensor was demonstrated by measuring acetate concentration depth profiles within a G. sulfurreducens biofilm. The acetate concentration remained at bulk values throughout the biofilm when no current was passed, but it decreased from the bulk values to below the detection limit within 200µm when current was allowed to pass. The zero acetate concentration at the bottom of the biofilm showed that the biofilm was acetate-limited. PMID:27016913

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  10. An evaluation of the bioconversion of woody biomass to calcium acetate deicing salt

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D. )

    1988-01-01

    A competitive process is described using local woody biomass residues, which may also include associated pulp and paper wastes, or municipal solid waste, as potential feedstocks for bioconversion to calcium acetate, an alternative deicing salt. The process first involves suppressed methane fermentation of these woody biomass residues in a packed bed fermentor for the production of acetic acid. In earlier experimental work, operation of conventional anaerobic digestion systems in this suppressed methane mode has yielded a product of over 85% acetic acid, the remainder primarily being other organic acids such as propionic and butyric acids; operation at thermophilic conditions (60{degree}C) yielded essentially all acetic acid. In the process described, recovery of the dilute organic acids (=3.5% acetic acid) will be by liquid ion exchange extraction. Production calcium acetate is formed by back extraction of liquid ion exchange with calcium hydroxide. After spray drying, this calcium acetate is ready for use as an organic deicing salt. Pretreatment of woody biomass may be by steam explosion or by mild alkali treatment to breakdown the lignin fraction for fermentation to acetic acid; however, if cellulosic wastes are used, no pretreatment step will be needed. Essentially, only technology transfer is involved in commercialization of this process, rather than the development of new technology. Their cost analysis, the objective of this present work, projects calcium acetate costs of 0.258 $US/kg ($0.117/lb) for a full-scale plant of 454 metric tons/day (500 US tons/day).

  11. [Cerebrospinal fluid pressure studies after the intravenous administration of the steroid narcotic, alphaxolone + alphadolone acetate (Althesin)].

    PubMed

    Ekhart, E; List, W F; Vadon, P; Oberbauer, R

    1979-09-30

    The effect of alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), mean arterial blood pressure (MPA), heart rate (BMP) and blood gases was investigated in 18 patients. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated from the difference MAP minus CSFP. Alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate lowered the normal CSFP and normalized ketamin induced increase of CSFP. Premedication with alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate delayed the ketamin induced increase of CSFP, which returned to norm after a second dose of alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate. This effect was seen despite elevation of pCO2 in all patients breathing spontaneously. PMID:395762

  12. Acetate oxidation by syntrophic association between Geobacter sulfurreducens and a hydrogen-utilizing exoelectrogen

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor. PMID:23486252

  13. Geranyl acetate emulsions: surfactant association structures and emulsion inversion.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Stig E; Al-Bawab, Abeer; Bozeya, Ayat; Aikens, Patricia A

    2009-08-01

    Three emulsions of geranyl acetate (GA)-in-water (W) with identical GA/W ratios and varying surfactant (S), Laureth 4, a commercial C(12)EO (4) compound, fractions were investigated for nature and stability. The emulsions with up to 6% surfactant were W/O, as expected with respect to the solubility of the surfactant in the oil. At 10% surfactant, the aqueous phase became the continuous one and the apparent stability of the emulsion was significantly enhanced. Analysis of the phase diagram and experimental evidence showed the high water content emulsion to be a liquid crystal-in-water emulsion; a kind that did not change even at extreme O/W and LC/W ratios. PMID:19409570

  14. Regioselective alcoholysis of silychristin acetates catalyzed by lipases.

    PubMed

    Vavříková, Eva; Gavezzotti, Paolo; Purchartová, Kateřina; Fuksová, Kateřina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, Sergio; Křen, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22) of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule. PMID:26016503

  15. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases ‡

    PubMed Central

    Vavříková, Eva; Gavezzotti, Paolo; Purchartová, Kateřina; Fuksová, Kateřina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, Sergio; Křen, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22) of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule. PMID:26016503

  16. UV recording with vinyl acetate and muicle dye film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ordoñez-Padilla, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of holographic recording medium some of them are photopolymer systems that generally consist of a polymeric host matrix, photopolymerizable momomer, photosensitizing dye and charge transfer agent but some of them have an undesirable feature, the toxicity of their components. Therefore, the present research study material recording, vinyl acetate is selected as polymeric matrix and natural dye from "muicle plant" is used as the photoinitiation these components are not toxic. The films are fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature by this method, uniform films is obtained with good optical quality. To characterize the medium, been obtained when the coherent reed light (632.8 nm) was sent normally to the grating.

  17. Preparation and characterization of novel oxidized cellulose acetate methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Kumar, V

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report the preparation of oxidized cellulose acetate methyl esters (OCAM) from OCA (OC14A: carboxylic acid content 10.6% (w/w), degree of acetyl group substitution: 1.89; OC21A: carboxylic acid content 15.7% (w/w), degree of acetyl group substitution: 1.70) by treatment with methanol at room temperature using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a coupling agent. The new polymers were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, carboxylic acid content determination, moisture sorption isotherms, intrinsic viscosity, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The new polymers are amorphous powders. It is practically insoluble in water but show solubility in a range of organic solvents. PMID:22944406

  18. [The treatment of prostatic carcinoma with cyproterone acetate].

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, M; Mladenov, D; Kumanov, Kh

    1996-01-01

    Prostate gland carcinoma is a common and serious disease affecting males. Application of steroid and nonsteroid antiandrogens for the purpose of palliative management of prostate carcinoma dates back to 1973. It is endowed with a dual action-central (antigonadotrophic) and peripheral (antiandrogenic). The preparation is used in the form of monotherapy and as a combined therapeutic approach with the analogues of LHRH or orchiectomy. The obtained results undergo comparative assessment. It is believed that the combination cyproterone acetate with other hormonal preparations or orchiectomy yield optimal results in all groups of patients. One is impressed by the fact that the combination used at the onset of treatment is more effective than late inclusion of the second preparation. PMID:8975080

  19. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine. PMID:25704707

  20. Application of cellulose acetate for controlled release of thymol.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Stoja; Markovic, Darka; Aksentijevic, Ksenija; Stojanovic, Dusica B; Ivanovic, Jasna; Zizovic, Irena

    2016-08-20

    Cellulose acetate (CA) was investigated as a carrier towards development of material with controlled release of thymol as a natural substance with strong antibacterial properties using high pressure techniques. Effect of thymol content on CA was confirmed by SEM, FTIR and DSC methods. Kinetic of thymol release from CA was tested using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (hydrochloric acid and phosphate buffer saline). Results were correlated with Korsmeyer-Peppas and Weibull model. Depending on the thymol content and chemical nature of the release medium, the time of thymol release varied from one to three days indicating CA as a promising carrier of thymol with potential uses from medicine to agriculture. The impregnated CA showed antibacterial activity against 23 tested bacterial strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is particularly important bearing in mind that this strain causes fatal infections in humans and animals. PMID:27178940

  1. Endothelial diaphragmed fenestrae: in vitro modulation by phorbol myristate acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, T.; Montesano, R.; Furie, M.B.; Silverstein, S.C.; Orci, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cultured microvascular endothelial cells isolated from fenestrated capillaries have been shown to express many properties of their in vivo differentiated phenotype, yet they contain very few diaphragmed fenestrae. We show here that treatment of capillary endothelial cells with the tumor promoter, 4..beta..-phorbol, 12-myristate, 13-acetate, induces more than a fivefold increase in the frequency of fenestrae per ..mu..m/sup 2/ of cell surface, as determined from a quantitative evaluation on freeze-fracture replicas. In quick-frozen, deep-etched preparations, the endothelial fenestrae appeared to be bridged by a diaphragm composed of radial fibers interweaving in a central mesh, as previously observed in vivo. These results indicate that diaphragmed fenestrae are inducible structures, and provide an opportunity to study them in vitro.

  2. Method of making a cellulose acetate low density microcellular foam

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Low-density microcellular foam having a cell size of not greater than 2 .mu.m and method of making by dissolving cellulose acetate in an acetone-based solvent, gelling the solution in a water bath maintained at 0-10.degree. C for a selected period of time to allow impurities to diffuse out, freezing the gel, and then freeze-drying wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into low-density microcellular foam. The foam has a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3 and cell size of about 0.3 to 2 .mu.m. The small cell size foam is particularly adaptable for encapsulation of laser targets.

  3. Dissolution control of Mg by cellulose acetate-polyelectrolyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Kirsi; Wilson, Benjamin P; Singer, Ferdinand; Höhn, Sarah; Kontturi, Eero; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2014-12-24

    Cellulose acetate (CA)-based membranes are used for Mg dissolution control: the permeability of the membrane is adjusted by additions of the polyelectrolyte, poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). Spin-coated films were characterized with FT-IR, and once exposed to an aqueous solution the film distends and starts acting as a membrane which controls the flow of ions and H2 gas. Electrochemical measurements (linear sweep voltammograms, open-circuit potential, and polarization) show that by altering the CA:PDMAEMA ratio the dissolution rate of Mg can be controlled. Such a control over Mg dissolution is crucial if Mg is to be considered as a viable, temporary biomedical implant material. Furthermore, the accumulation of corrosion products between the membrane and the sample diminishes the undesirable effects of high local pH and H2 formation which takes place during the corrosion process. PMID:25426707

  4. Total synthesis and structural revision of (+)-uprolide G acetate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangyu; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Renze; Tong, Rongbiao

    2015-01-01

    The first, asymmetric total synthesis of the proposed structure of (+)-uprolide?G acetate (UGA) is reported, and the spectral properties of the synthetic compound clearly differed from those reported for natural UGA. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of the NMR data, two possible structures for the natural UGA were proposed and their total synthesis achieved, thus leading to the identification and confirmation of the correct structure and absolute configuration of the natural UGA. This synthesis was enabled by development of a novel synthetic strategy, which revolved around three key cyclization reactions: an Achmatowicz rearrangement, Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation/lactonization, and ring-closing metathesis. These synthetic studies pave the way for further studies on this class of structurally unusual cytotoxic cembranolides. PMID:25385395

  5. Ignition of magnetic deflagration in Mn12 acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Sean; Jaafar, R.; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Finkler, A.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2008-03-01

    We study the conditions for the ignition of two types of magnetic avalanches in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate corresponding to the major species and a fast-relaxing minor species. The minor component, which has a lower anisotropy barrier, exists in these crystals at the level of 5-7%. The ignition temperatures are measured using small (30 x30 μm^2) Ge thermometers. In addition, the magnetization dynamics are measured using an array of Hall sensors of comparable size. Various aspects of the ignition will be discussed, including: the reduction of the ignition threshold due to quantum tunneling, the catalytic effect of the minor species, and the shift of the ignition point as a function of external magnetic field. The work at City College was supported by NSF grant DMR-00451605. E. Z. acknowledges the support of the Israel Ministry of Science, Culture and Sports. Support for G. C. was provided by NSF grant CHE-0414555.

  6. Crystal structure of 7,8-benzocoumarin-4-acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, R. Ranga; Gowda, Ramakrishna; Gowda, K. V. Arjuna; Basanagouda, Mahantesha

    2015-01-01

    The fused-ring system in the title compound [systematic name: 2-(2-oxo-2H-benzo[h]chromen-4-yl)acetic acid], C15H10O4, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å) and the Car—C—C=O (ar = aromatic) torsion angle for the side chain is −134.4 (3)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating [100] C(8) chains, where the acceptor atom is the exocyclic O atom of the fused-ring system. The packing is consolidated by a very weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bond to the same acceptor atom. Together, these inter­actions lead to undulating (001) layers in the crystal. PMID:26396827

  7. Measured and calculated rotational tunnelling dynamics in methyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, M. A.; Johnson, M. R.; Aibout, A.; Horsewill, A. J.

    1998-04-01

    A low-field NMR and inelastic neutron scattering investigation of tunnelling methyl dynamics in methyl acetate has been performed. Tunnel frequencies of 1.3 μeV and 0.31 neV have been measured for the two chemically distinct methyl groups in the molecule. From the known crystal structure at 145 K, the observed quantum methyl dynamics can be reproduced from a time-independent, molecular mechanics calculation based on ab initio techniques and empirical atom-atom potentials. Although no spectral evidence of coupled methyl dynamics exists, the delocalisation and reorientation of the methyl groups at low temperature must be included in the calculation in view of the strong coupling potentials. This is achieved with a quantum mechanical mean-field approach.

  8. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengyi; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Meilan; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-eth-oxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-di-hydro-1,2,4-oxa-diazol-3-yl)phenyl]benz-yl}-1H-1,3-benzo-diazole-7-carboxyl-ate ethyl acetate hemisolvate), was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z)-2-eth-oxy-1-{(2'-(N'-hy-droxy-carbamimido-yl)-[1,1'-biphen-yl]-4-yl)meth-yl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxyl-ate with diphen-yl carbonate. There are two independent mol-ecules (A and B) with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit. In mol-ecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxa-diazole ring is 59.36 (17); the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15) and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11)°. The corres-ponding dihedral angles in mol-ecule B are 58.45 (18), 50.73 (16) and 85.37 (10)°, respectively. The C-O-C-Cm (m = meth-yl) torsion angles for the eth-oxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in mol-ecules A and B are 93.9 (3) and -174.6 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π-π stacking inter-actions [shortest centroid-centroid separation = 3.536 (3)Å] are also observed. PMID:25878884

  9. Investigation of carbon tetrachloride destruction by copper acetate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Halogenated synthetic organic compounds are used in a wide variety of pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, fire retardants, and paints that cause extensive pollution to the air, surface water, groundwater, and soils. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) is a typical halogenated synthetic organic compound that has been suspected to be toxic and carcinogenic and to cause ozone depletion. In the present work, molecular-level destruction of CCl by copper acetate was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structural spectra, X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Experimentally, the Cl species dissociated from CCl were abstracted by copper species and formed CuCl. At 473 to 533 K, reaction products (copper chloride) aggregated on the surfaces of CuO, which might cause the obstruction of further CCl destruction. Due to the insertion of Cl species into the matrix of CuO, the bond distances of Cu-O and Cu-(O)-Cu were increased by 0.3 to 0.4 Å and 0.3 to 0.6 Å, respectively. However, at 603 K, because 79.5% of the Cu was in the CCl destruction solid products, the coordination number of Cu-(O)-Cu increased to 5.6. Molecular level investigations are a key to identifying the mechanisms of the CCl destruction process. In addition, identification of the molecular characteristics of the products may help in safe disposal of the toxic substances. The success of this study paved the way for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds by copper acetate. PMID:22370408

  10. Decreased microglial activation in MS patients treated with glatiramer acetate

    PubMed Central

    Ratchford, John N.; Endres, Christopher J.; Hammoud, Dima A.; Pomper, Martin G.; Shiee, Navid; McGready, John; Pham, Dzung L.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia are thought to be an important contributor to tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). The level of microglial activation can be measured non-invasively using [11C]-R-PK11195, a radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography (PET). Prior studies have identified abnormalities in the level of [11C]-R-PK11195 uptake in patients with MS, but treatment effects have not been evaluated. Nine previously untreated relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain at baseline and after one year of treatment with glatiramer acetate. Parametric maps of [11C]-R-PK11195 uptake were obtained for baseline and post-treatment PET scans, and the change in [11C]-R-PK11195 uptake pre- to post-treatment was evaluated across the whole brain. Region of interest analysis was also applied to selected subregions. Whole brain [11C]-R-PK11195 binding potential per unit volume decreased 3.17% (95% CI: −0.74%, −5.53%) between baseline and one year (p = 0.018). A significant decrease was noted in cortical gray matter and cerebral white matter, and a trend towards decreased uptake was seen in the putamen and thalamus. The results are consistent with a reduction in inflammation due to treatment with glatiramer acetate, though a larger controlled study would be required to prove that association. Future research will focus on whether the level of baseline microglial activation predicts future tissue damage in MS and whether [11C]-R-PK11195 uptake in cortical gray matter correlates with cortical lesion load. PMID:22160466

  11. Nomegestrol acetate and vascular reactivity: nonhuman primate experiments.

    PubMed

    Paris, J M; Williams, K J; Hermsmeyer, K R; Delansorne, R

    2000-01-01

    Prevention of coronary artery disease has been recognized as a major benefit of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in postmenopausal women. However, endometrial hyperplasia induced by unopposed ERT has raised important safety concerns. Progesterone or synthetic progestins have been used in combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to prevent endometrial cancer risk. Therefore, a major concern has been to ensure that the vascular beneficial effects of estrogens are not opposed when combined with progestins. Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is an orally active progestin widely prescribed for HRT. Its vascular effects were evaluated in two models of coronary vascular reactivity in primates: 1) the paradoxical vasoconstriction to acetylcholine (Ach) coronary infusion after 5 months of mildly atherogenic diet in ovariectomized (OVX) Cynomolgus monkeys and 2) the pharmacologically evoked coronary vasospasm in the OVX Rhesus monkey. In the first model, after 3 months of continuous oral administration in the diet at 0.1 mg/kg/day, E2 prevented the paradoxical response to Ach, alone as well as combined with 0.25 mg/kg/day NOMAC, whereas NOMAC counteracted the endometrial stimulation. In the second model, after one artificial cycle consisting of 28 days of E2 subcutaneous (s.c.) implant and of daily oral gavage with 1 mg/kg/day of NOMAC for the last 14 days, no vasospasm (0 of 11 tested animals) occurred when the complete challenge protocol, including serotonin and the thromboxane agonist U46619, was administered to OVX Rhesus monkeys. In the balanced crossover design, identical artificial cycles with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) at the same dose resulted in 7 vasospasms in 12 animals. In parallel, effective progestative activity was demonstrated by a secretory pattern in endometrial sections obtained at the end of the cycle. In these two nonhuman primate cardiovascular models, NOMAC did not have the negating effects observed with MPA. PMID:11108868

  12. Reversible acetylation regulates acetate and propionate metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Jennifer D.; Brown, Lanisha R.; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Perkowski, Ellen F.; Chen, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Carbon metabolic pathways are important to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, extremely little is known about metabolic regulation in mycobacteria. There is growing evidence for lysine acetylation being a mechanism of regulating bacterial metabolism. Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification in which an acetyl group is covalently attached to the side chain of a lysine residue. This modification is mediated by acetyltransferases, which add acetyl groups, and deacetylases, which remove the acetyl groups. Here we set out to test whether lysine acetylation and deacetylation impact acetate metabolism in the model mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis, which possesses 25 candidate acetyltransferases and 3 putative lysine deacetylases. Using mutants lacking predicted acetyltransferases and deacetylases we showed that acetate metabolism in M. smegmatis is regulated by reversible acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Ms-Acs) through the action of a single pair of enzymes: the acetyltransferase Ms-PatA and the sirtuin deacetylase Ms-SrtN. We also confirmed that the role of Ms-PatA in regulating Ms-Acs regulation depends on cAMP binding. We additionally demonstrated a role for Ms-Acs, Ms-PatA and Ms-SrtN in regulating the metabolism of propionate in M. smegmatis. Finally, along with Ms-Acs, we identified a candidate propionyl-CoA synthetase, Ms5404, as acetylated in whole-cell lysates. This work lays the foundation for studying the regulatory circuit of acetylation and deacetylation in the cellular context of mycobacteria. PMID:23813678

  13. Synthesis and characterization of cyclic acetal based degradable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kaihara, Sachiko; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fisher, John P

    2008-01-01

    While many synthetic, hydrolytically degradable hydrogels have been developed for biomedical applications, there are only a few examples whose polymer backbone does not form acidic products upon degradation. In order to address this concern, we proposed to develop a hydrogel based on a cyclic acetal unit that produces diols and propanals upon hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we proposed the fabrication of hydrogels formed by the free radical polymerization of two diacrylate monomers, 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD), a cyclic acetal having two acryl groups, and poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA). However, the hydrophobicity of the EHD monomer inhibits hydrogel fabrication. Therefore this work develops a strategy to form hydrogels with a co-monomer system, one of which is hydrophobic, and subsequently describes the properties of the resulting hydrogel. Using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine as an accelerator, the EHD and PEGDA monomers were reacted in an acetone/water co-solvent system. The chemical structure of the resulting EH-PEG [5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol-co-PEG] hydrogel was then characterized by FT-IR. Physicochemical properties of the EH-PEG hydrogel, including swelling degree, sol fraction, and contact angle, were determined so as to characterize the properties of these materials and ultimately investigate their use in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Results showed that EH-PEG hydrogel may be formed using the co-solvent system. Further results indicated that swelling degree is dependent upon initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and molar ratios of monomers, while sol fraction significantly depended on initiator concentration and monomer concentration, only. These results demonstrate the ability to fabricate hydrogels using EHD and PEGDA system as well as to control the properties of the resulting hydrophilic networks. PMID:17888640

  14. Inflammatory cells’ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanei, Mohammad H.; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh; Adibi, Peyman; Alavi, Sayyed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1), ex vivo (group 3), and enema after immune suppression (group 5). Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H2O2, we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful. PMID:25337523

  15. Reversible acetylation regulates acetate and propionate metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Jennifer D; Brown, Lanisha R; Gunawardena, Harsha P; Perkowski, Ellen F; Chen, Xian; Braunstein, Miriam

    2013-09-01

    Carbon metabolic pathways are important to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, extremely little is known about metabolic regulation in mycobacteria. There is growing evidence for lysine acetylation being a mechanism of regulating bacterial metabolism. Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification in which an acetyl group is covalently attached to the side chain of a lysine residue. This modification is mediated by acetyltransferases, which add acetyl groups, and deacetylases, which remove the acetyl groups. Here we set out to test whether lysine acetylation and deacetylation impact acetate metabolism in the model mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis, which possesses 25 candidate acetyltransferases and 3 putative lysine deacetylases. Using mutants lacking predicted acetyltransferases and deacetylases we showed that acetate metabolism in M. smegmatis is regulated by reversible acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Ms-Acs) through the action of a single pair of enzymes: the acetyltransferase Ms-PatA and the sirtuin deacetylase Ms-SrtN. We also confirmed that the role of Ms-PatA in regulating Ms-Acs regulation depends on cAMP binding. We additionally demonstrated a role for Ms-Acs, Ms-PatA and Ms-SrtN in regulating the metabolism of propionate in M. smegmatis. Finally, along with Ms-Acs, we identified a candidate propionyl-CoA synthetase, Ms5404, as acetylated in whole-cell lysates. This work lays the foundation for studying the regulatory circuit of acetylation and deacetylation in the cellular context of mycobacteria. PMID:23813678

  16. Sphagnum's coup de grace: Carbon flow to acetate in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; House, C.; Freean, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic estimates of the microbial pathway of methane formation in acidic northern peatlands conclude that methane is derived from the pathway of CO2 reduction, whereas, microbial incubation and genomic studies have identified an important role played by acetoclastic methanogens in similar acidic systems. We believe our first ever intramolecular acetate isotopic analyses from an acidic wetland in central Pennsylvania resolve the apparent conflicting pathway estimates by indicating that the isotopic and microbial incubation studies are consistent with each other and with a pathway of methane formation through acetate from an isotopically depleted autotrophic acetate source. Intramolecular acetate isotopic measurements allow us to estimate that as much as 1/3 of the acetate in acidic wetlands is derived from autotrophy. Given a simple case of glucose fermentation to acetate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, our acetate production pathway estimate requires that nearly all of the carbon products from fermentation must flow through the acetate pool. Our work confirms the prior hypothesis and prior observations that acetate is an important metabolic end product in northern acidic wetlands. Further, we hypothesize an alternative fate of acetate in peat porewaters that alludes to an ecological role of autotorophic acetogens and acetate oxidizers in creating the impermeable humified peat catotelm unique to sphagnum dominated systems. The diversion of carbon flow to from methane to acetate increases the organic acid production and we hypothesize that the net transport of dissolved fulvic acids into the catotelm allows coupled acetate oxidation and fulvic acid reduction. This process of acetate consumption would create a net addition of hydrophobic, amorphous, and therefore more impermeable organic carbon. We conclude that an ecological strategy of the sphagnum mosses may not simply be to decrease the pH of the environment to slow metabolism, but rather to force the microbial community in the catotelm toward the oxidation of acetate and the reduction of peat humus, thereby aiding production of the characteristic impermeable organic seal. The sensitivity of sphagnum ecosystems to external sources of alkalinity may prove to be an important control on the ancient flux of methane from peatlands and may be an important direction of continued research.

  17. AinS quorum sensing regulates the Vibrio fischeri acetate switch.

    PubMed

    Studer, Sarah V; Mandel, Mark J; Ruby, Edward G

    2008-09-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing systems. The earlier signal, octanoyl-HSL, produced by AinS, is required for normal colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes and, in culture, is necessary for a normal growth yield. In examining the latter requirement, we found that during growth in a glycerol/tryptone-based medium, wild-type V. fischeri cells initially excrete acetate but, in a metabolic shift termed the acetate switch, they subsequently utilize the acetate, removing it from the medium. In contrast, an ainS mutant strain grown in this medium does not remove the excreted acetate, which accumulates to lethal levels. The acetate switch is characterized by the induction of acs, the gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase, leading to uptake of the excreted acetate. Wild-type cells induce an acs transcriptional reporter 25-fold, coincident with the disappearance of the extracellular acetate; in contrast, the ainS mutant did not display significant induction of the acs reporter. Supplementation of the medium of an ainS mutant with octanoyl-HSL restored normal levels of acs induction and acetate uptake. Additional mutant analyses indicated that acs regulation was accomplished through the regulator LitR but was independent of the LuxIR quorum-signaling pathway. Importantly, the acs mutant of V. fischeri has a competitive defect when colonizing the squid, indicating the importance of proper control of acetate metabolism in the light of organ symbiosis. This is the first report of quorum-sensing control of the acetate switch, and it indicates a metabolic connection between acetate utilization and cell density. PMID:18487321

  18. Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA) and monobromoacetate (MBA). While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA) were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems. PMID:23167477

  19. Low and high acetate amendments are equally as effective at promoting complete dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE).

    PubMed

    Wei, Na; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-06-01

    Experiments with trichloroethylene-contaminated aquifer material demonstrated that TCE, cis-DCE, and VC were completely degraded with concurrent Fe(III) or Fe(III) and sulfate reduction when acetate was amended at stoichiometric concentration; competing TEAPs did not inhibit ethene production. Adding 10× more acetate did not increase the rate or extent of TCE reduction, but only increased methane production. Enrichment cultures demonstrated that ~90 μM TCE or ~22 μM VC was degraded primarily to ethene within 20 days with concurrent Fe(III) or Fe(III) + sulfate reduction. The dechlorination rates were comparable between the low and high acetate concentrations (0.36 vs 0.34 day(-1), respectively), with a slightly slower rate in the 10× acetate amended incubations. Methane accumulated to 13.5 (±0.5) μmol/tube in the TCE-degrading incubations with 10× acetate, and only 1.4 (±0.1) μmol/tube with low acetate concentration. Methane accumulated to 16 (±1.5) μmol/tube in VC-degrading enrichment with 10× acetate and 2 (±0.1) μmol/tube with stoichiometric acetate. The estimated fraction of electrons distributed to methanogenesis increased substantially when excessive acetate was added. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that 10× acetate did not enhance Dehalococcoides biomass but rather increased the methanogen abundance by nearly one order of magnitude compared to that with stoichiometric acetate. The data suggest that adding low levels of substrate may be equally if not more effective as high concentrations, without producing excessive methane. This has implications for field remediation efforts, in that adding excess electron donor may not benefit the reactions of interest, which in turn will increase treatment costs without direct benefit to the stakeholders. PMID:23064845

  20. The fate of trenbolone acetate and melengestrol acetate after application as growth promoters in cattle: environmental studies.

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, B; Daxenberger, A; Meyer, K; Meyer, H H

    2001-01-01

    The steroids trenbolone acetate (TbA) and melengestrol acetate (MGA) are licensed as growth promoters for farm animals in several meat-exporting countries. Although many studies have explored their safety for both animals and consumers, little is known about their fate after excretion by the animal. Our study aimed to determine the residues and degradation of trenbolone and MGA in solid dung, liquid manure, and soil. In animal experiments lasting 8 weeks, cattle were treated with TbA and MGA. Solid dung and, in case of trenbolone, liquid manure were collected and spread on maize fields after 4.5 and 5.5 months of storage, respectively. Determination of the hormone residues in all samples included extraction, clean-up (solid-phase extraction), separation of metabolites and interfering substances by HPLC (RP-18), and quantification by sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Procedures were validated by mass spectrometry (MS) methods. During storage of liquid manure the level of trenbolone decreased from 1,700 to 1,100 pg/g (17alpha-isomer), corresponding to a half-life of 267 days. Before storage, the concentrations in the dung hill ranged from 5 to 75 ng/g TbOH and from 0.3 to 8 ng/g MGA. After storage, levels up to 10 ng/g trenbolone, and 6 ng/g MGA were detected. In the soil samples trenbolone was traceable up to 8 weeks after fertilization, and MGA was detected even until the end of the cultivation period. The results show that these substances should be investigated further concerning their potential endocrine-disrupting activity in agricultural ecosystems. PMID:11713000

  1. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  2. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  4. 40 CFR 799.1560 - Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diethylene glycol butyl ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. 799.1560 Section 799.1560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether and diethylene glycol butyl ether acetate. (a) Identification of test substances. (1)...

  5. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  6. Acetate in recent anoxic sediments: Direct and indirect measurements of concentration and turnover rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, David G.; McIntosh, Douglas J.

    1990-12-01

    While acetate is generally regarded as an important intermediate in the mineralization of organic matter in anoxic sediment systems, some quantitative studies in marine systems (including our own) have measured acetate oxidation rates in excess of sulphate reduction rates where sulphate is known to be the principal electron acceptor. We revisited Skan Bay, Alaska, where we had previously made such observations, for a reexamination of acetate turnover. Measurements of acetate concentrations, production rate, oxidation rate and sulphate reduction rate as well as bioenergetic considerations led to the conclusion that acetate oxidation rate in 15-18-cm deep sediment is 1·1-1·5 μM h -1. The possibility that previous measurements were high because of a non-citric-acid-cycle pathway of acetate oxidation (suggested by recent laboratory studies) was excluded. It appears that our previous turnover measurements were high mainly because of high acetate concentrations. Procedures used for the isolation of porewater for acetate determination may influence results to an extent not previously recognized.

  7. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  8. Insights into Acetate Toxicity in Zymomonas mobilis 8b using Different Substrates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Shihui; Franden, M. A.; Brown, S. D.; Chou, Y. C.; Pienkos, P. T.; Zhang, Min

    2014-09-30

    The lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable feedstock for biofuel production. Acetate is one of the major inhibitors liberated from hemicelluloses during hydrolysis. Likewise, an understanding of the toxic effects of acetate on the fermentation microorganism and the efficient utilization of mixed sugars of glucose and xylose in the presence of hydrolysate inhibitors is crucial for economic biofuel production.

  9. Copper-catalyzed coupling of oxime acetates with aldehydes: a new strategy for synthesis of pyridines.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Bing-Qin; Wang, Yao-Yu; Guan, Zheng-Hui

    2011-10-01

    Copper-catalyzed coupling of oxime acetates with aldehydes offers a new strategy for the synthesis of highly substituted pyridines. This novel method tolerates a wide range of functionality and allows for rapid elaboration of the oxime acetates into a variety of substituted pyridines. PMID:21913647

  10. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo(11)C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through (13)C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that (13)C acetate from fermentation of (13)C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic (13)C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic (13)C acetate regionally increases the (13)C labelling of the glutamate-glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic (13)C lactate reaching higher levels than the 'remaining brain'. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  11. The potentiometric determination of stability constants for zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions to 295C

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, T.H. ); Drummond, S.E. )

    1991-09-01

    A potentiometric method was used to determine the formation quotients of zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions from 50 to 295C at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 m. The potentiometric titrations were carried out in an externally heated, Teflon-lined concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. Formal sodium acetate concentrations of the experimental solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 m with acetic acid to sodium acetate ratios ranging from 30 to 300. Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (F{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na) was used as a supporting electrolyte. Stoichiometries and formation quotients for the complexes ZnCH{sub 3}COO{sup +}, Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup {minus}} were derived from the titration data by regression analysis. Stability constants at infinite dilution (K{sub n}) and other relevant thermodynamic quantities were calculated for these three complexes. Calculations of zinc speciation in acetate-chloride solutions show that zinc acetate complexes should have an importance similar to zinc chloride complexes in high acetate waters where chloride to acetate molal ratios are less than about 10.

  12. Acetate transport across the intestinal epithelium of an herbivorous teleost. [Oreochromis mossambicus

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, E.; Ahearn, G.A. )

    1990-02-26

    {sup 3}H-acetate transport across the upper intestine of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossabicus, using brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles, and intestinal sheets mounted in modified Ussing chambers was investigated. Brush border and basolateral vesicles demonstrated qualitatively similar anion antiport activity where, in the presence of a full profile of organic and inorganic anions, volatile fatty acids (VFA; acetate, propionate, butyrate) and bicarbonate showed reciprocal trans-stimulation and cis-inhibition of {sup 3}H-acetate influx, suggesting both membranes had the same VFA/bicarbonate exchange mechanism. Kinetic analysis of {sup 3}H-acetate influx into brush border and basolateral vesicles revealed different half-saturation constants (Km) as a function of external acetate concentrations (6.43 mM and 11.91 mM, respectively) and as a function of internal bicarbonate (5.89 mM and 0.41 mM, respectively). Intestinal sheets supported net absorptive fluxes when serosal acetate concentrations were held steady at 1.0 mM and mucosal acetate was varied from 1.60 to 10.0 mM. Unidirectional fluxes were significantly diminished by the addition of acetazolamide. This study postulates a transcellular transport pathway for VFA whereby qualitatively similar antiporters in series lead to a downhill flow of luminal acetate to the blood, which is driven by intracellular carbonic anhydrase and a transmural VFA concentration gradient.

  13. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin,...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin,...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin,...

  16. Experimental study of aluminum-, calcium-, and magnesium-acetate complexing at 80 degree C

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, J.B. )

    1991-04-01

    The stabilities of Al-, Ca-, and Mg-acetate complexes were determined separately at 80{degree}C by measuring the solubilities of gibbsite, portlandite, and brucite as functions of acetate concentrations. The experiments were conducted using geologically realistic acetate concentrations in order to observe the acetate complexes that are important in sedimentary basin fluids. The experimental measurements are used to calculate the stoichiometries and thermodynamic properties of the important Al-, Ca-, and Mg-acetate complexes. The data indicate that Al(OAc){sup 2+} and Al(OAc){sup +}{sub 2} are the important Al-acetate complexes in the gibbsite system. Ca(OAc){sup +} and Mg(OAc){sup +} are the dominant acetate complexes in the portlandite and the brucite systems, respectively. The calculated values of the log of the dissociation constants for Al(OAc){sup +}{sub 2}, Al (OAc){sup 2+}, Ca(OAc){sup +}, and Mg(OAc){sup +} are -4.8 {plus minus} 0.2, -2.9 {plus minus} 0.1, -1.2 {plus minus} 0.2, and -1.3 {plus minus} 0.3, respectively. Thermodynamic models that incorporate these results indicate that the presence of acetate in sedimentary basin fluids can not markedly enhance rock porosity through mineral dissolution.

  17. UNIQUE ACETYLATION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY TRICHODERMA REESEI ACETYL ESTERASE IN WATER - VINYL ACETATE MIXTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purified T. reesei RUT C-30 acetyl esterase catalyzes acetyl transfer to a variety of carbohydrates in water in the presence of vinyl acetate as the acetyl group donor. The degree of conversion and the number of formed acetates depended on the acceptor used. With some acceptors, such as methyl or ...

  18. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  19. Improved isolation of zein from corn gluten meal using acetic acid as solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop new uses for corn zein, an improved means of isolating zein is needed. We have evaluated the ability of acetic acid to remove zein from corn gluten meal, distillers dried grains and ground corn. Acetic acid removed zein more quickly, at lower temperatures and in higher yields when compa...

  20. Improving the quality of regenerated acetic acid in the production of polyvinyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Derevyanko, R.S.; Kulik, V.N.; Isakov, N.S.; Seryi, Y.I.; Novikov, A.I.

    1983-02-01

    Impurities in acetic acid used for synthesis of vinyl acetate adversely affect the quality of the latter. The most undesirable admixture is crotonaldehyde, the concentration of which in acetic acid regeneration from methanol distillates varies over wide limits, reaching 0.5%. According to requirements placed on acetic acid to be used for vinyl acetate synthesis, it must not exceed 0.1%. The reasons for formation and accumulation of crotonaldehyde in the acetic acid regeneration step were identified and the condition of its redistribution between the distillate of column 5 and the acetic acid taken from this column were determined. Analysis allowed optimum conditions to be recommended for operation of the extractive regeneration column: temperature in the middle part of the column 105-110/sup 0/C (instead of 98-104/sup 0/C) and benzene consumption rate 9-10 m/sup 3//hr (instead of 5-6 m/sup 3//hr). The amount of crotonaldehyde in acetic acid produced under the recommended conditions does not exceed 0.04%.

  1. Evidence for a Complex Between Thf and Acetic Acid from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Bittner, Dror M.; Mullaney, John Connor; Stephens, Susanna L.; King, Adrian; Habgood, Matthew; Walker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Evidence for a complex between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and acetic acid from broadband rotational spectroscopy will be presented. Transitions believed to belong to the complex were first identified in a gas mixture containing small amounts of THF, triethyl borane, and acetic acid balanced in argon. Ab initio calculations suggest a complex between THF and acetic acid is more likely to form compared to the analogous acetic acid complex with triethyl borane, the initial target. The observed rotational constants are also more similar to those predicted for a complex formed between THF and acetic acid, than for those of a complex formed between triethyl borane and acetic acid. Subsequently, multiple isotopologues of acetic acid have been measured, confirming its presence in the structure. No information has yet been obtained through isotopic substitution within the THF sub-unit. Ab initio calculations predict the most likely structure is one where the acetic acid subunit coordinates over the ring creating a "bridge" between the THF oxygen, the carboxylic O-H, and the carbonyl oxygen to a hydrogen atom on the back of the ring.

  2. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  3. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  4. The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allpress, K. N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

  5. Different mechanisms for histone acetylation by ethanol and its metabolite acetate in rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shivendra D; Restrepo, Ricardo; Fish, Philip; Lim, Robert W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol and its major metabolite acetate both induced histone H3 acetylation in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. The acetylation by ethanol was dependent on the reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, whereas that by acetate was independent of both pathways. Ethanol increased CYP2E1 protein expression but acetate had negligible effect. The level of phospho-H2AX, an indicator of DNA breaks, was elevated by ethanol but not by acetate. Ethanol and acetate differentially activated mRNA expression for different genes, e.g., IL-6, PPARγ, c-Fos, Egr-1, and PNPLA3 in hepatocytes. The most striking increase (3-fold) was in PNPLA3 mRNA by ethanol with little change by acetate. It was further shown that acetate inhibited histone deacetylase activity. Taken together, these data establish for the first time that ethanol and acetate exhibit differences in their effects on hepatocytes in gene expression, P-H2AX levels, and the mechanism of histone H3 acetylation. The implications of these differences in the actions of ethanol in liver are discussed. PMID:25886906

  6. Enantiomeric differentiation of bornyl acetate by 13C-NMR using a chiral lanthanide shift reagent.

    PubMed

    Baldovini, Nicolas; Tomi, Félix; Casanova, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The enantiomeric differentiation of bornyl acetate was carried out by 13C-NMR spectroscopy using a chiral lanthanide shift reagent. The technique was successfully applied to the determination of the enantiomer of bornyl acetate present in the essential oil of Inula graveolens. PMID:12892421

  7. Enzymology of the Pathway for Acetate Conversion to Methane in Methanosarcina thermophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, James G.

    1999-05-04

    These topics are covered: Regulation of enzyme synthesis; Activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA; Biochemistry of acetyl-CoA cleavage; Electron transport; Other enzymes implicated in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane; and publications resulting from this work.

  8. 2-[4-(Carb­oxy­meth­yl)phen­oxy]acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun-Dan; Wen, Yi-Hang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C10H10O5, was obtained by the reaction of 4-hy­droxy­phenyl­acetic acid with chloro­acetic acid. In the crystal, the mol­ecules form a three-dimensional network by way of inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:21522674

  9. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  10. Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

  11. Kinetics of Butyrate, Acetate, and Hydrogen Metabolism in a Thermophilic, Anaerobic, Butyrate-Degrading Triculture

    PubMed Central

    Ahring, Birgitte K.; Westermann, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, Km, for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 ?M, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 ?M, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 ?M, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 ?M, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in Km values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor. PMID:16347293

  12. Influence of acetate and CO2 on the TMAO-reduction reaction by Shewanella baltica.

    PubMed

    Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F; van Sprundel, P; De Meulenaer, B

    2001-08-15

    In this work, the TMAO-reduction by Shewanella baltica, one of the representative spoilage organisms in modified atmosphere packaged marine fish fillets, and the effect of acetate and CO2 on this reduction were studied in vitro. The growth of S. baltica and the corresponding evolution of some compounds (acetate, lactate, pyruvate, glucose and trimethylamine (TMA)) were followed during storage at 4 degrees C in two types of broths. The first medium was a defined medium (pH = 6.8) to which lactate or pyruvate was added as hydrogen donor. Pyruvate showed to be more efficient as H-donor for S. baltica than lactate, as growth was much faster when equimolar amounts of pyruvate instead of lactate were present. Although the growth of S. baltica, when pyruvate is used as H-donor and no acetate is added, was not much inhibited by the CO2-atmosphere, CO2 had a pronounced effect on the studied reactions as it partly inhibited the reduction of pyruvate to acetate. The effect of acetate on this reaction was, on the other hand, not significant. To simulate the reactions occurring in situ, a buffered fish extract (pH = 6.8) was used. In spite of the neutral pH, the growth of S. baltica in this medium was highly inhibited by relatively small concentrations of acetate (< 0.3%). When 0.1% of acetate was added to the fish extract, less acetate was formed and lactate was more slowly consumed in comparison to the experiments without the addition of acetate. The consumption of lactate and the production of acetate were almost completely inhibited when the fish extract contained 0.25% of acetate. Apparently, the addition of acetate inhibited the use of lactate as H-donor. After extended storage times (17 days at 4 degrees C) TMA production started. Most probably, alternative H-donors were used by S. baltica, from which the pathway seems to be less energy efficient. This can be deduced from the exceptional growth inhibition of S. baltica by small amounts of acetate. However, when practical storage times for fish (e.g. 6 days at 4 degrees C after packaging) are considered, growth and TMAO-reduction by S. baltica was completely inhibited during this period by 0.25% of acetate. PMID:11545211

  13. Production of ethyl acetate from dilute ethanol solutions by Candida utilis

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.W.; Martin, S.M.; Yamazaki, H.

    1984-01-01

    The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate has an advantage as a method of ethanol recovery since ethyl acetate is amenable to simple solvent extraction. The potential of Candida utilis in this conversion was studied. The kinetics of accumulation of ethanol and ethyl acetate in glucose-grown C. utilis showed that ester formation resulted from ethanol utilization under appropriate aeration and was inhibited by Fe/sup 3 +/ supplementation. Candida utilis converted ethanol to ethyl acetate optimally at pH 5.0-7.0. The five-hour rate of ester production increased as the ethanol concentration increased to 10 g/L, and rapidly declined to zero at concentrations exceeding 35 g/L. Thus, C. utilis has potential to recover dilute ethanol in the form of ethyl acetate.

  14. Glacial Acetic Acid Adverse Events: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Doles, William; Wilkerson, Garrett; Morrison, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Glacial acetic acid is a dangerous chemical that has been associated with several adverse drug events involving patients over recent years. When diluted to the proper concentration, acetic acid solutions have a variety of medicinal uses. Unfortunately, despite warnings, the improper dilution of concentrated glacial acetic acid has resulted in severe burns and other related morbidities. We report on 2 additional case reports of adverse drug events involving glacial acetic acid as well as a review of the literature. A summary of published case reports is provided, including the intended and actual concentration of glacial acetic acid involved, the indication for use, degree of exposure, and resultant outcome. Strategies that have been recommended to improve patient safety are summarized within the context of the key elements of the medication use process. PMID:26448660

  15. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  16. Synthesis of acetic acid via methanol hydrocarboxylation with CO2 and H2

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Qingli; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Meng; Han, Buxing

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important bulk chemical that is currently produced via methanol carbonylation using fossil based CO. Synthesis of acetic acid from the renewable and cheap CO2 is of great importance, but state of the art routes encounter difficulties, especially in reaction selectivity and activity. Here we report a route to produce acetic acid from CO2, methanol and H2. The reaction can be efficiently catalysed by Ru–Rh bimetallic catalyst using imidazole as the ligand and LiI as the promoter in 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) solvent. It is confirmed that methanol is hydrocarboxylated into acetic acid by CO2 and H2, which accounts for the outstanding reaction results. The reaction mechanism is proposed based on the control experiments. The strategy opens a new way for acetic acid production and CO2 transformation, and represents a significant progress in synthetic chemistry. PMID:27165850

  17. Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a mid-latitude temperate site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Beecher, K. M.; Harriss, R. C.; Cofer, R. W., III

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas, the aerosol, and the rainwater phases were determined in samples collected 1-2 m above ground level at an open field site in eastern Virginia. These acids were found to occur principally (98 percent or above) in the gas phase, with a marked annual seasonality, averaging 1890 ppt for formate and 1310 ppt for acetate during the growing season, as compared to 695 ppt and 700 ppt, respectively, over the nongrowing season. The data support the hypothesis that biogenic emissions from vegatation are important sources of atmospheric formic and acetic acid during the local growing season. The same time trends were observed for precipitation, although with less defined seasonality. The relative increase of the acetic acid/formic acid ratio during the nongrowing season points to the dominance of anthropogenic inputs of acetic acid from motor vehicles and biomass combustion in the wintertime.

  18. Synthesis of acetic acid via methanol hydrocarboxylation with CO2 and H2.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qingli; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Meng; Han, Buxing

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important bulk chemical that is currently produced via methanol carbonylation using fossil based CO. Synthesis of acetic acid from the renewable and cheap CO2 is of great importance, but state of the art routes encounter difficulties, especially in reaction selectivity and activity. Here we report a route to produce acetic acid from CO2, methanol and H2. The reaction can be efficiently catalysed by Ru-Rh bimetallic catalyst using imidazole as the ligand and LiI as the promoter in 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) solvent. It is confirmed that methanol is hydrocarboxylated into acetic acid by CO2 and H2, which accounts for the outstanding reaction results. The reaction mechanism is proposed based on the control experiments. The strategy opens a new way for acetic acid production and CO2 transformation, and represents a significant progress in synthetic chemistry. PMID:27165850

  19. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengyi; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Meilan; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-eth­oxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-di­hydro-1,2,4-oxa­diazol-3-yl)phenyl]benz­yl}-1H-1,3-benzo­diazole-7-carboxyl­ate ethyl acetate hemisolvate), was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z)-2-eth­oxy-1-{(2′-(N′-hy­droxy­carbamimido­yl)-[1,1′-biphen­yl]-4-yl)meth­yl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxyl­ate with diphen­yl carbonate. There are two independent mol­ecules (A and B) with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. In mol­ecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxa­diazole ring is 59.36 (17); the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15) and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11)°. The corres­ponding dihedral angles in mol­ecule B are 58.45 (18), 50.73 (16) and 85.37 (10)°, respectively. The C—O—C—Cm (m = meth­yl) torsion angles for the eth­oxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in mol­ecules A and B are 93.9 (3) and −174.6 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.536 (3)Å] are also observed. PMID:25878884

  20. The possible role of acetate in exercise hyperemia in dog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Steffen, R P; McKenzie, J E; Haddy, F J

    1982-02-01

    The possible role of acetate in the genesis of exercise hyperemia was studied in five series of dogs. Intraarterial infusion of an isomotic solution of sodium acetate at 0.76 ml/min in the dog forelimb decreased the resistance to flow through skeletal muscle by 48%, primarily by decreasing resistance to flow through small vessels. Skin lymph flow and lymph protein concentration were unaffected. The hindlimb of the conscious dog took up acetate at rest (A-V difference, + 58.3 +/- 19.6 nmoles/ml) and put out acetate during treadmill exercise (A-V difference, -105.6 +/- 20.12 nmoles/ml); femoral venous blood acetate concentration increased by 145 nmoles/ml (control 195 nmoles/ml). In the gracilis muscle of the anesthetized dog, simulated exercise at 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 Hz increased acetate tissue content (72, 248 and 442 nmoles/g, respectively), output (18,899, and 1,830 nmoles/100 g/min, respectively) and venous concentration (82, 49 and 39 nmoles/ml, respectively) and changes in tissue acetate content correlated with changes in vascular resistance r = 0.75, P less than 0.001. Intraarterial infusion of an isosmotic solution of sodium acetate in the quiescent gracilis muscle perfused at constant flow produced a significant (6%) decrease in resistance when arterial blood acetate was increased by a calculated 96 nmoles/ml. These studies suggest that acetate might be included among those metabolites that contribute to exercise hyperemia.U PMID:7070963

  1. Expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter AcpA in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sá-Pessoa, Joana; Amillis, Sotiris; Casal, Margarida; Diallinas, George

    2015-03-01

    AcpA has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we follow the expression profile of AcpA and define its substrate specificity. AcpA-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. AcpA activity also responds to acetate presence in the growth medium, but is not subject to either carbon or nitrogen catabolite repression. Short-chain monocarboxylates (benzoate, formate, butyrate and propionate) inhibit AcpA-mediated acetate transport with apparent inhibition constants (Ki) of 16.89±2.12, 9.25±1.01, 12.06±3.29 and 1.44±0.13mM, respectively. AcpA is also shown not to be directly involved in ammonia export, as proposed for its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue Ady2p. In the second part of this work, we search for the unknown acetate transporter expressed in mycelia, and for other transporters that might contribute to acetate uptake. In silico analysis, genetic construction of relevant null mutants, and uptake assays, reveal that the closest AcpA homologue (AN1839), named AcpB, is the 'missing' secondary acetate transporter in mycelia. We also identify two major short-chain carboxylate (lactate, succinate, pyruvate and malate) transporters, named JenA (AN6095) and JenB (AN6703), which however are not involved in acetate uptake. This work establishes a framework for further exploiting acetate and carboxylate transport in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25708319

  2. Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis

    2013-10-01

    The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed that employ either UV-radiation or 'active substances' to reduce the concentration of living cells to below the IMOs standards. One such active substance is a chemical mixture known as Peraclean() Ocean. The residual of Peraclean() Ocean is acetate that might be present at high concentrations in discharged ballast water. In cold coastal waters the breakdown of acetate might be slow, causing a buildup of acetate concentrations in the water if regularly discharged by ships. To study the potential environmental impact, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were measured in discharge water from a Peraclean() Ocean treatment system in illuminated microcosms. In addition, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were studied at -1, 4, 10, 15 and 25C in dark microcosms that simulated enclosed ballast water tanks. Acetate breakdown indeed occurred faster at higher temperatures. At 25C the highest bacteria growth, fastest nutrient and oxygen consumption and highest DOC reduction occurred. On the other hand, at -1C bacterial growth was strongly delayed, only starting to increase after 12 days. Furthermore, at 25C the acetate pool was not depleted, probably due to nutrient and oxygen limitation. This means that not all acetate will be broken down in ballast water tanks, even during long voyages in warm waters. In addition, at low temperatures acetate breakdown in ballast water tanks and in discharged water will be extremely slow. Therefore, regular discharge of acetate enriched ballast water in harbors and bays may cause eutrophication and changes in the microbial community, especially in colder regions. PMID:23871568

  3. Studies of the esterase activity of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase with resorufin acetate as substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Kitson, T M; Kitson, K E

    1997-01-01

    Resorufin acetate is a very good substrate for sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase, both from the point of view of practical spectrophotometry and in terms of information provided about the nature of the catalysis shown by this enzyme. p-Nitrophenyl (PNP) acetate competes against resorufin acetate for the enzyme's active site (although relatively weakly as the latter substrate has the lower Michaelis constant), but acetaldehyde (in the presence of NAD+) inhibits the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate only at very high aldehyde concentration. In the absence of cofactor, the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate and of PNP acetate is hydrolysis of the common acetyl-enzyme, as shown by the observation of bursts of chromophoric product and very similar values of kcat. In the presence of NAD+ or NADH, however, the deacylation step with resorufin acetate is greatly accelerated until acylation seems to become rate-limiting, because no burst is seen under these conditions. Millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ activate the hydrolyis of resorufin acetate both in the presence and absence of cofactors. With both Mg2+ and cofactor the kcat for hydrolysis of resorufin acetate is 30-35 s-1; this is three orders of magnitude higher than the kcat for aldehyde oxidation in the presence of Mg2+, showing that the enzyme's potential catalytic efficency is very much hampered by the slowness with which NADH dissociates from its binding site. The pH profile for the hydrolysis of resorufin acetate in the presence of NAD+ or NADH fits well to a theoretical ionization curve of pKa approx. 8.2; it is suggested that this might belong to the enzyme's putative catalytic residue (Cys-302). PMID:9148739

  4. Cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping voltametry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Hutchins-Kumar, L.D.

    1986-02-01

    The response characteristics and analytical advantages of cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping measurements of trace metals are described. The coating provides an effective barrier of the mercury surface, thus eliminating the effects of various organic surfactants. For example, up to at least 100 ppm gelatin does not alter the response. The diagnostic power of rotating disk measurements is used to evaluate the transport toward the mercury surface. The response is limited by the permeability of the film, thus allowing stripping measurements in systems with poorly controlled mass transport. Base hydrolysis of the film is used to manipulate the permeability. Scanning electron micrographs show the microstructures of the films following different hydrolysis times. The discriminative properties of these coatings can be used also to improve the resolution between two adjacent stripping peaks. The response of the modified electrode is directly proportional to the analyte concentration and is reproducible. With a 10-min deposition time, detection limits are 7 x 10 M lead and 1.3 x 10 Z M cadmium. Various metal ions and organic surfactants are tested. The performance of this novel electrode system is compared to that of a conventional mercury film electrode. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Acute airsacculitis in turkeys inoculated with phorbol myristate acetate.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J

    1990-06-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which induces acute pulmonary injury in mammals, induced acute airsacculitis in turkeys after intra-airsac inoculation of 0.1 mg/kg. Grossly, air sacs contained multifocal to diffuse hemorrhage and edema at postinoculation hours (PIH) 3 and 6. Microscopically, there was multifocal congestion and small thrombocyte aggregates within small blood vessels by PIH 0.5, with a few vessels containing small numbers of marginating heterophils. By PIH 1.5, thrombocyte aggregates were larger and more numerous, and moderate numbers of heterophils were located perivascularly. Erythrocytes and proteinaceous fluid were in air sac interstitium. By PIH 3 and 6, hemorrhage and exudation of proteinaceous fluid had increased, in some instances severely distending the air sac. Ultrastructurally, changes resulting from PMA-induced injury were thrombocyte aggregation and degeneration, air sac epithelial cell vacuolation with separation of interdigitating cell processes, and endothelial cell vacuolar degeneration with loss of vascular integrity. Air sac lavage fluids had mildly increased total cell counts by PIH 1.5, but values returned to baseline by the end of the experiment, indicating lack of cell exudation into the air sac lumen. Circulating leukocyte changes included transient lymphopenia at PIH 3 and marked heterophilia at PIH 6. These results indicate that thrombocytes and/or heterophils are central to the pathogenesis of injury induced in air sacs by PMA and that the air sac responds differently to PMA than to pathogenic bacteria. PMID:2368955

  6. [Abiraterone acetate(ZYTIGA®)-development and literature review].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yukiko; Mukai, Harumi; Suzukawa, Kazumi; Oyama, Ryo

    2014-07-01

    Abiraterone acetate(AA)has been approved in more than 80 countries for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer(mCRPC). In July 2013, a marketing approval application for AA was submitted to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. AA is a selective inhibitor of CYP17A1, a crucial enzyme for androgen biosynthesis. AA exerts its anti-tumor activity by directly inhibiting androgen production at all three sources, i. e., the testes, adrenal glands, and tumor itself. Data from international phase III studies and phase I and II studies in Japan have indicated that AA improves the overall survival and quality of life(QoL)of patients with mCRPC. Herein, we have summarized the development of AA and the results of important international and local clinical trials in Japan. In addition, the effect of food on AA bioavailability, concomitant steroid use, and liver function test abnormalities have been discussed regarding the appropriate use of AA. PMID:25131865

  7. Committee Opinion No. 602: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and bone effects.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a highly effective injectable contraceptive that affords privacy and has a convenient dose schedule of four times per year, making it appealing to many users, especially adolescents. Although the use of DMPA is associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD), current longitudinal and cross-sectional evidence suggests that recovery of BMD occurs after discontinuation of DMPA. No high-quality data answer the important clinical question of whether DMPA affects fracture risk in adolescents or adults later in life. The effect of DMPA on BMD and potential fracture risk should not prevent practitioners from prescribing DMPA or continuing use beyond 2 years. The potential health risks associated with the bone effects of DMPA must be balanced against a woman's likelihood of pregnancy using other methods or no method, and the known negative health and social consequences associated with unintended pregnancy, particularly among adolescents. Health care providers should inform women and adolescents considering initiating DMPA or continuing to use the method about the benefits and the risks of DMPA and should discuss the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "black box" warning and use clinical judgment to assess appropriateness of use. PMID:24848921

  8. Spasticity in multiple sclerosis and role of glatiramer acetate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meca-Lallana, Jose Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spasticity is one of the most disabling and difficult-to-treat symptoms shown by patients with multiple sclerosis, who often show a suboptimal and unsatisfactory response to classic treatment and new available nonpharmacological alternatives. Due to the progressive nature of this condition, the early management should be essential to improve long-term outcomes. Methods We performed a narrative literature review of the contribution of spasticity to the burden of multiple sclerosis and the potential role of classic disease-modifying drugs. Results Added to the underlying pathophysiology of spasticity, certain external factors and drugs such as interferon may exacerbate the existing condition, hence their awareness is crucial as part of an effective management of spasticity. Furthermore, the evidence for the effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in preventing spasticity in naïve patients and in those switching from interferon should not be ignored. Conclusions This literature review proposes the examination of spasticity and the influence of classic disease-modifying agents on the level of existing condition among the variables to be considered when deciding on therapy for multiple sclerosis in clinical practice. PMID:26445705

  9. Medroxyprogesterone acetate enhances in vivo and in vitro antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Mónica; Pazos, Patricia; Lanari, Claudia; Molinolo, Alfredo; Gamberale, Romina; Geffner, Jorge R; Giordano, Mirta

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we examine the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the specific antibody secretion to T-dependent antigens. Our results show that the in vivo administration of MPA to mice, 7 or 90 days before immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), significantly enhanced both, primary and secondary antibody responses, without affecting delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). These effects could be counteracted by the anti-progestin onapristone or ZK 98299 (ZK) suggesting that MPA interacted with progesterone (PRG) receptors to increase B-cell response. To better understand the mechanisms involved in MPA activity we carried out cultures of splenocytes, bone marrow cells or lymph node cells from immunized mice in the presence of MPA, and evaluated the amount of antibody release to supernatants. We found that low doses of MPA (10−9 m and 10−10 m) significantly enhanced the in vitro production of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, an effect that appears to involve the interaction of the progestin with PRG receptors, as judged by the inhibition of MPA effects with ZK (10−8 m) or RU486 (10−9 m). These receptors were detected by flow cytometry analysis in a proportion of T lymphocytes. Because MPA did not increase the number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells, our findings suggest that MPA enhanced the capacity of individual cells to produce specific immunoglobulin. PMID:11576224

  10. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Monleón, Javier; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

  11. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities. PMID:27104514

  12. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  13. Bone density in long term users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Gbolade, B; Ellis, S; Murby, B; Randall, S; Kirkman, R

    1998-07-01

    The effects on bone density of long-term depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 185 clients 17-52 years of age at family planning clinics in Portsmouth and Manchester, England, who had been receiving contraceptive injections for 1-16 years (median, 5 years). Dual energy x-ray measurements of bone density of the femoral neck and lumbar spine, as well as venous blood samples, were taken prior to the women's next DMPA injection (1994-96). 153 women had serum estradiol levels under 150 pmol/l--the value considered adequate to maintain bone density. The mean bone density of the lumbar spine compared with the population mean for women 20-59 years old yielded a Z score of minus 0.332 (95% confidence interval, -0.510 to -0.154; p 0.001). There was a weak, nonsignificant correlation between lumbar spine Z score and years of DMPA use. Mean density of the femoral neck did not differ significantly from the normal population mean. There was no significant correlation between serum estradiol level and either bone density score. Overall, these findings provide no evidence that DMPA-induced amenorrhea places women at significant risk of further bone loss or that supplemental estrogen is required. PMID:9692421

  14. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception. Metabolic parameters and mood changes.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, C

    1996-05-01

    This review summarizes the existing literature regarding metabolic parameters and mood changes in women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). MEDLINE and additional bibliographic sources were searched to identify English-language articles describing clinical trials and cross-sectional studies of DMPA published during the last 20 years. DMPA has little or no effect on glucose tolerance, but insulin levels may increase. An increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been observed in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies; however, there are no data to indicate whether the observed lipid alterations lead to adverse clinical events. There is some evidence suggesting decreased bone density in long-term DMPA users. Longitudinal data regarding bone density changes are needed to assess changes both during and after use. Most cross-sectional and longitudinal studies show increased mean weight or weight gain in DMPA users. Controlled studies of weight change that evaluate subgroups and effects of confounding variables are also needed to provide constructive advice to patients. Data regarding depression or mood changes in DMPA users are scanty and do not support a causal relationship between use of this contraceptive and affective disorders. For all of these parameters, case reports indicating adverse clinical outcomes are nearly absent from the literature despite widespread long-term international use of DMPA. PMID:8725702

  15. Glatiramer acetate protects against inflammatory synaptopathy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Antonietta; Rossi, Silvia; Studer, Valeria; Motta, Caterina; De Chiara, Valentina; Musella, Alessandra; Sepman, Helena; Fresegna, Diego; Musumeci, Gabriele; Grasselli, Giorgio; Haji, Nabila; Weiss, Sagit; Hayardeny, Liat; Mandolesi, Georgia; Centonze, Diego

    2013-06-01

    Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is supposed to induce neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). Glatiramer acetate (GA) is an immunomodulatory agent used in MS treatment with potential neuroprotective action. Aim of the present study was to investigate whether GA has effects on glutamate transmission alterations occurring in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), to disclose a possible mechanism of GA-induced neuroprotection in this mouse model of MS. Single neuron electrophysiological recordings and immunofluorescence analysis of microglia activation were performed in the striatum of EAE mice, treated or not with GA, at different stages of the disease. GA treatment was able to reverse the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced alterations of striatal glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of EAE mice. Incubation of striatal slices of control animals with lymphocytes taken from EAE mice treated with GA failed to replicate such an anti-glutamatergic effect, while activated microglial cells stimulated with GA in vitro mimicked the effect of GA treatment of EAE mice. Consistently, EAE mice treated with GA had less microglial activation and less TNF-α expression than untreated EAE animals. Furthermore, direct application of GA to EAE slices replicated the in vivo protective activity of GA. Our results show that GA is neuroprotective against glutamate toxicity independently of its peripheral immunodulatory action, and through direct modulation of microglial activation and TNF-α release in the grey matter of EAE and possibly of MS brains. PMID:23370991

  16. Stratification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Based on Acetate Utilization.

    PubMed

    Björnson, Elias; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Asplund, Anna; Pristovsek, Nusa; Cinar, Resat; Romeo, Stefano; Uhlen, Mathias; Kunos, George; Nielsen, Jens; Mardinoglu, Adil

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly form of liver cancer that is increasingly prevalent. We analyzed global gene expression profiling of 361 HCC tumors and 49 adjacent noncancerous liver samples by means of combinatorial network-based analysis. We investigated the correlation between transcriptome and proteome of HCC and reconstructed a functional genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for HCC. We identified fundamental metabolic processes required for cell proliferation using the network centric view provided by the GEM. Our analysis revealed tight regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) and highly significant deregulation of fatty acid oxidation in HCC. We predicted mitochondrial acetate as an emerging substrate for FAB through upregulation of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACSS1) in HCC. We analyzed heterogeneous expression of ACSS1 and ACSS2 between HCC patients stratified by high and low ACSS1 and ACSS2 expression and revealed that ACSS1 is associated with tumor growth and malignancy under hypoxic conditions in human HCC. PMID:26655911

  17. Effect of phorbol myristate acetate on secretion of parathyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The influence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase c, on the secretion of parathyroid hormone from collagenase-dispersed bovine parathyroid cells was tested. The cells were incubated at low or high concentrations of calcium in the medium, and the hormone secreted into the medium was measured by a radioimmunoassay that recognizes both intact and C-terminal fragments of hormone. A stimulatory effect of PMA at high calcium, seen at PMA concentrations as low as 1.6 nM, did not occur with a biologically inactive 4{alpha}-isomer of phorbol ester, and was independent of changes in cellular adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate levels. Examination of {sup 32}P-labeled phosphoproteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed acidic proteins of {approximately}20,000 and 100,000 Da that were phosphorylated at low and high calcium + 1.6 {mu}M PMA but not at high calcium alone. The protein kinase c activity associated with the membrane fraction of parathyroid cells significantly decreased 40% when the cells were incubated at high vs. low calcium. The data suggest that calcium may regulate parathyroid hormone secretion through changes in protein kinase c activity of the membrane fraction of the cell and protein phosphorylation.

  18. Plasmacatalytic removal of lead acetate assisted by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Haddou, Nabila; Ghezzar, Mouffok Redouane; Abdelmalek, Fatiha; Ognier, Stéphanie; Martel, Marc; Addou, Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    The Gliding Arc Discharge (GAD) is an efficient non-thermal plasma technique able to degrade organic compounds dispersed in water at atmospheric pressure. The degradation of the organometallic lead acetate (PbAc) in aqueous solution was performed by two distinct plasmageneous processes: GAD and GAD/TiO2. The global oxidation of the organic matter was followed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the mineralization was determined by the Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The Pb(2+) ions released during the degradation process were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). For 2h of GAD treatment, the degradation rate of PbAc (10mM) reached 83% and for the same duration of GAD/TiO2 process ([TiO2]=1gL(-1)), it reached 93%. The release of Pb(2+) ions in the solution was respectively of 95% and 57% for GAD and GAD/TiO2 processes. The released Pb(2+) ions were removed by precipitation process in a basic medium at pH=11.1. A reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the PbAc molecule degradation and the Pb(2+) elimination. PMID:24462087

  19. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  20. Acetate Dissimilation and Assimilation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Depend on Carbon Availability

    PubMed Central

    Rücker, Nadine; Billig, Sandra; Bücker, René; Jahn, Dieter; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists inside granulomas in the human lung. Analysis of the metabolic composition of granulomas from guinea pigs revealed that one of the organic acids accumulating in the course of infection is acetate (B. S. Somashekar, A. G. Amin, C. D. Rithner, J. Troudt, R. Basaraba, A. Izzo, D. C. Crick, and D. Chatterjee, J Proteome Res 10:4186–4195, 2011, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr2003352), which might result either from metabolism of the pathogen or might be provided by the host itself. Our studies characterize a metabolic pathway by which M. tuberculosis generates acetate in the cause of fatty acid catabolism. The acetate formation depends on the enzymatic activities of Pta and AckA. Using actyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) as a substrate, acetyl-phosphate is generated and finally dephosphorylated to acetate, which is secreted into the medium. Knockout mutants lacking either the pta or ackA gene showed significantly reduced acetate production when grown on fatty acids. This effect is even more pronounced when the glyoxylate shunt is blocked, resulting in higher acetate levels released to the medium. The secretion of acetate was followed by an assimilation of the metabolite when other carbon substrates became limiting. Our data indicate that during acetate assimilation, the Pta-AckA pathway acts in concert with another enzymatic reaction, namely, the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) reaction. Thus, acetate metabolism might possess a dual function, mediating an overflow reaction to release excess carbon units and resumption of acetate as a carbon substrate. IMPORTANCE During infection, host-derived lipid components present the major carbon source at the infection site. β-Oxidation of fatty acids results in the formation of acetyl-CoA. In this study, we demonstrate that consumption of fatty acids by Mycobacterium tuberculosis activates an overflow mechanism, causing the pathogen to release excess carbon intermediates as acetate. The Pta-AckA pathway mediating acetate formation proved to be reversible, enabling M. tuberculosis to reutilize the previously secreted acetate as a carbon substrate for metabolism. PMID:26216844