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1

Pregabalin  

MedlinePLUS

... with other medications to treat certain types of seizures in people with epilepsy. Pregabalin is in a ... asleep or staying asleep, nausea, diarrhea, headaches, or seizures. Your doctor will probably decrease your dose gradually ...

2

Effects of oral prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone) on single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral prednisone and cortisol suppression in normal women.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine effects of multiple dosing of prasterone (DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone) on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone and endogenous cortisol secretion. These drugs are likely to be coadministered to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Fourteen normal women (ages 30.1 +/- 5.4 years) received single-dose oral prednisone (20 mg) before and after 200 mg/day of oral prasterone for one menstrual cycle (approximately 28 days). Identical assessments, timed to onset of menses, were conducted pretreatment (baseline) and at days 28 and 29 of prasterone treatment and included serum total and free prednisolone, prednisone, DHEA, DHEA-S (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), ACTH-stimulated cortisol, and sex hormones and 24-hour urine free cortisol. Pharmacokinetic parameters of prednisolone as assessed by Cmax, t 1/2, AUC, or serum protein binding were not affected by prasterone. The ACTH-stimulated plasma cortisol concentrations were mildly reduced, but 24-hour urinefree cortisol excretion was unchanged during prasterone administration. Serum androstenedione and testosterone increased, while no changes in serum estradiol or estrone occurred. The administration of 200 mg oral prasterone produced serum concentrations of DHEA and DHEA-S significantly greater than endogenous levels. Chronic dosing with 200 mg/day of prasterone did not alter either prednisolone pharmacokinetics or inhibition of cortisol secretion by prednisolone. PMID:11697752

Meno-Tetang, G M; Blum, R A; Schwartz, K E; Jusko, W J

2001-11-01

3

Effects of Oral Prasterone (Dehydroepiandrosterone) on Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Oral Prednisone and Cortisol Suppression in Normal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine effects of multiple dosing of prasterone (DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone) on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone and endogenous cortisol secretion. These drugs are likely to be coadministered to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Fourteen normal women (ages 30.1 ± 5.4 years) received single-dose oral prednisone (20 mg) before and after 200 mg\\/day of oral prasterone for one menstrual

Guy M. L. Meno-Tetang; Robert A. Blum; Kenneth E. Schwartz; William J. Jusko

2001-01-01

4

Direct determination of pregabalin in human urine by nonaqueous CE-TOF-MS.  

PubMed

Determination of pregabalin in urine samples was carried out by nonaqueous CE with TOF-MS via ESI, with a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate and 0.05% acetic acid in methanol. By using TOF-MS, accurate mass information was obtained, thus causing a great improvement in qualitative ability. In order to avoid ionic suppression, urine samples dilution 1:10 was used. This was the only treatment to urine samples before the injection. Despite this dilution, the detection limit was as low as 0.03 ?g/mL for pregabalin. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, and linearity, LOD, and LOQ. This method was applied to the analysis of urine samples from seven different cancer patients undergoing treatment with pregabalin. The developed method may find wide application for the routine determination of pregabalin in biological samples in order to establish a more efficient and safe dosage. PMID:23463484

Rodríguez, Juana; Castañeda, Gregorio; Muñoz, Lorena

2013-04-16

5

Clinical pharmacokinetics of pregabalin in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Pregabalin has shown clinical efficacy for treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes, partial seizures, and anxiety disorders. Five studies in healthy volunteers are performed to investigate single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of pregabalin. Pregabalin is rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations occurring between 0.7 and 1.3 hours. Pregabalin oral bioavailability is approximately 90% and is independent of dose and frequency of administration. Food reduces the rate of pregabalin absorption, resulting in lower and delayed maximum plasma concentrations, yet the extent of drug absorption is unaffected, suggesting that pregabalin may be administered without regard to meals. Pregabalin elimination half-life is approximately 6 hours and steady state is achieved within 1 to 2 days of repeated administration. Corrected for oral bioavailability, pregabalin plasma clearance is essentially equivalent to renal clearance, indicating that pregabalin undergoes negligible nonrenal elimination. Pregabalin demonstrates desirable, predictable pharmacokinetic properties that suggest ease of use. Because pregabalin is eliminated renally, renal function affects its pharmacokinetics. PMID:20147618

Bockbrader, Howard N; Radulovic, Louis L; Posvar, Edward L; Strand, James C; Alvey, Christine W; Busch, Janice A; Randinitis, Edward J; Corrigan, Brian W; Haig, George M; Boyd, Rebecca A; Wesche, David L

2010-02-10

6

Pregabalin: a treatment option for dystonia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, no studies are available on the effect of pregabalin in dystonia. A patient with subarachnoidal and cerebral hemorrhage\\u000a was treated with pregabalin for neuropathic pain. Upon withdrawal of the medication she experienced spontaneous and painful\\u000a supination in the right foot and internal hip rotation when standing up. When pregabalin was reinstituted, these dystonic\\u000a symptoms subsided, but reappeared when

Christina KarosinMarkus Kofler; Markus Kofler; Andreas Mayr; Leopold Saltuari

7

Treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: focus on pregabalin.  

PubMed

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a devastating, chronic pain syndrome that can develop following an outbreak of herpes zoster and becomes increasingly common as patients age. PHN can be difficult to treat and often requires trials of multiple agents to achieve significant pain relief. Pregabalin is the newest agent to gain approval for PHN. Data suggest efficacy for relief of pain and sleep disturbance secondary to PHN in affected patients. Although there are no head-to-head comparisons, pregabalin appears comparable to gabapentin and other first-line agents for treating PHN. PMID:19503762

Cappuzzo, Kimberly A

2009-05-14

8

Pregabalin for the management of partial epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin is one of the latest antiepileptic drugs introduced for the treatment of partial epilepsy. Its efficacy and safety as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial epilepsy have been established in four double-blind placebo-controlled trials (n = 1396) and 4 long-term open-label studies (n = 1480). In 3 fixed-dose trials, the proportion of patients with a ?50% reduction in seizure frequency across the effective dose-range (150–600 mg/day) ranged between 14% and 51%, with a clear dose-response relationship. Suppression of seizure activity could be demonstrated as early as day 2. The most frequently reported CNS-related adverse events included dizziness, somnolence, ataxia and fatigue, were usually mild or moderate, and tended to be dose related. In long-term studies, weight gain was reported as an adverse event by 24% of patients. When pregabalin dose was individualized to according to response within the 150 to 600 mg/day dose range, tolerability was considerably improved compared with use of a high-dose, fixed-dose regimen (600 mg/day) without titration. In long-term studies up to 4 years, no evidence of loss efficacy was identified. During the last year on pregabalin, 3.7% of patients were seizure-free. Pregabalin appears to be a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentariun for the management of refractory partial epilepsy.

Ryvlin, Philippe; Perucca, Emilio; Rheims, Sylvain

2008-01-01

9

Pregabalin in post traumatic neuropathic pain: Case studies  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin is effective in the treatment of peripheral and central neuropathic pain. This study evaluated the effectiveness of pregablin in management of post traumatic peripheral nerve injury facial pain not responding to other medication like analgesics. Pregabalin was well tolerated. The most common adverse effects were dizziness and tiredness.

Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Sinha, Vijay Prakash; Pal, U. S.; Yadav, Sharad C.; Singh, Maneesh K.

2012-01-01

10

Possible heart failure associated with pregabalin use: case report.  

PubMed

Pregabalin and gabapentin are widely used analgesic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic agents as they are relatively reliable and easily tolerated. However, they may cause some side effects such as dizziness, somnolence, dose-dependent peripheral edema, and weight gain, which may cause patients to abandon their use. Furthermore, there are a few reports in the literature addressing elderly patients with serious chronic disease and cardiac history, who develop heart failure during pregabalin application. In this report, we present a patient with no cardiac history treated with 300 mg/kg pregabalin due to neuropathic pain, who developed peripheral and then central edema, which were determined after advanced investigations. After stopping pregabalin, the situation regressed. Then, peripheral edema developed associated with the recommended dose of gabapentin, which was used in place of pregabalin. Despite the lack of any published evidence, the New York Heart Association issued a warning about using caution when prescribing pregabalin to type III-IV heart failure patients. Though the effect mechanisms of pregabalin and gabapentin are not well known, the calcium channel relationship may lead to these side effects. In summary, we believe that pregabalin and gabapentin, which is mostly used nowadays, should be administered with care not only in patients with advanced cardiac pathology but also in all patients, due to the potential side effects. PMID:21644108

Erdo?an, Gülay; Ceyhan, Dilek; Güleç, Sacit

2011-04-01

11

Pregabalin in Chronic Post-thoracotomy Pain  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic post–thoracotomy pain (CPP) has very high incidence and therefore it needs attention. Usually, it is burning, dysaesthetic and aching in nature and it displays many features of neuropathic pain. No one technique of thoracotomy has been shown to reduce the incidence of chronic post thoracotomy pain. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in patients with chronic post–thoracotomy pain. Methods: This prospective, randomized study was conducted on 50 consenting patients who underwent posterolateral thoracotomy. 25 patients were given pregabalin for 21 days (Group A). Another 25 were given diclofenac sodium (Group B) on demand and they escaped treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring was performed on days 0, 1 and 7, then follow up was done at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The data was analyzed by using t-test and Chi- square test for various variables. Results: The pain VAS scores in Group A were significantly low at all observation points except on day 0, day 1 and day 7 post-operatively, when the difference in pain scores in both the groups were comparable. The overall pain scores of Group A were comparable at day 0, day 1 and at day 7 as compared to those of Group B (p>0.9). Pain was significantly low at three weeks (p<0.05). Pain scores of Group A were significantly low at 6 weeks,12 weeks and 24 weeks as compared to those of Group B (p<0.001) and the difference was statistically significant. No significant adverse reactions were observed during study period. Conclusion: Pregabalin is a safe and an effective adjuvant which is used for reducing the chronic post thoracotomy pain, which has no side effects and a high patient compliance. These results should be supported with multidisciplinary studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups.

Mishra, Atul; Nar, Amandeep Singh; Bawa, Ashvind; Kaur, Gurinder; Bawa, Sayesha; Mishra, Seema

2013-01-01

12

Treatment-resistant insomnia treated with pregabalin.  

PubMed

We report a case with refractory insomnia. We diagnosed her case as depression with high levels of anxiety, weakness, with diminished ability to think or concentrate and with a sensory-motor disorder. Although this last symptom was very distressing, it did not satisfy the criteria for RLS (Restless Legs Syndrome). After treatment with paroxetine (20 mg) and zolpidem (10 mg), anxiety and mood deflection were attenuated. Nevertheless, a mild depression, an intermittent awakening (fragmentation of the sleep-wake rhythm) and subsyndromal RLS persisted. Her resistant insomnia was treated with benzodiazepine sleeping drugs (triazolam 0.25 mg, lorazepam 2.5 mg, fluorazepam 30 mg) with only partial insomnia remission, antidepressants (trazodone 150 mg RP, mirtazapine 15-30 mg, agomelatine 50 mg) and antipsychotics (levomepromazine 25 mg, zuclopentixol 25 mg) without results. Her intractable insomnia was markedly responsive to pregabalin without side effects. Our hypothesis is that the therapy with pregabalin may be indicated for resistant insomnia associated with subsyndromal RLS, even when the latter does not satisfy fully all the criteria for diagnosis. PMID:23771546

Di Iorio, G; Matarazzo, I; Di Tizio, L; Martinotti, G

2013-06-01

13

Pregabalin in fibromyalgia - responder analysis from individual patient data  

PubMed Central

Background Population mean changes are difficult to use in clinical practice. Responder analysis may be better, but needs validating for level of response and treatment duration. A consensus group has defined what constitutes minimal, moderate, and substantial benefit based on pain intensity and Patient Global Impression of Change scores. Methods We obtained individual patient data from four randomised double blind trials of pregabalin in fibromyalgia lasting eight to 14 weeks. We calculated response for all efficacy outcomes using any improvement (? 0%), minimal improvement (? 15%), moderate improvement (? 30%), substantial improvement (? 50%), and extensive improvement (? 70%), with numbers needed to treat (NNT) for pregabalin 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg daily compared with placebo. Results Information from 2,757 patients was available. Pain intensity and sleep interference showed reductions with increasing level of response, a significant difference between pregabalin and placebo, and a trend towards lower (better) NNTs at higher doses. Maximum response rates occurred at 4-6 weeks for higher levels of response, and were constant thereafter. NNTs (with 95% confidence intervals) for ? 50% improvement in pain intensity compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 22 (11 to 870) for pregabalin 300 mg, 16 (9.3 to 59) for pregabalin 450 mg, and 13 (8.1 to 31) for pregabalin 600 mg daily. NNTs for ? 50% improvement in sleep interference compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 13 (8.2 to 30) for pregabalin 300 mg, 8.4 (6.0 to 14) for pregabalin 450 mg, and 8.4 (6.1 to 14) for pregabalin 600 mg. Other outcomes had fewer respondents at higher response levels, but generally did not discriminate between pregabalin and placebo, or show any dose response. Shorter duration and use of 'any improvement' over-estimated treatment effect compared with longer duration and higher levels of response. Conclusions Responder analysis is useful in fibromyalgia, particularly for pain and sleep outcomes. Some fibromyalgia patients treated with pregabalin experience a moderate or substantial pain response that is consistent over time. Short trials using 'any improvement' as an outcome overestimate treatment effects.

2010-01-01

14

Pregabalin effects on neural response to emotional faces  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin has shown promise in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate agents used to treat anxiety, e.g., SSRIs and benzodiazepines, attenuate amygdala, insula, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation during emotional processing. Our prior study has shown that during anticipation of an emotional stimulus, pregabalin attenuates amygdala and insula activation but increases medial PFC activation. In this study, we examined whether, similar to SSRIs and benzodiazepines, pregabalin attenuates amygdala, insula, and medial PFC during emotional face processing. Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a double-blind within-subjects fMRI study investigating effects of placebo, 50 mg, and 200 mg pregabalin on neural activation during an emotional face-matching task. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that pregabalin dose-dependently attenuated left amygdala activation during fearful face-matching and left anterior insula activation during angry face-matching. The 50 mg dose exhibited more robust effects than the 200 mg dose in the right anterior insula and ventral ACC. Thus, pregabalin shares some similarity to SSRIs and benzodiazepines in attenuating anger and fear-related insula and amygdala activation during emotional face processing. However, there is evidence that a subclinical 50 mg dose of pregabalin produced more robust and widespread effects on neural responses in this paradigm than the more clinically relevant 200 mg dose. Taken together, pregabalin has a slightly different effect on brain activation as it relates to anticipation and emotional face processing, which may account for its unique characteristic as an agent for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

Aupperle, Robin L.; Tankersley, Dharol; Ravindran, Lakshmi N.; Flagan, Taru; Stein, Nathan R.; Stein, Murray B.; Paulus, Martin P.

2012-01-01

15

Pregabalin: its efficacy, safety and tolerability profile in generalized anxiety.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a structural analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of the key inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain. Its mode of action is believed to be mediated by the alpha-2-delta-1 subunit protein of voltage-gated calcium channels to bring about its anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects. Pregabalin has linear pharmacokinetics, undergoes minimal metabolism and is excreted largely unchanged. It has a mean elimination half-life of 6.3 hours. Pregabalin's anxiolytic activity in generalized anxiety disorder has been demonstrated in seven acute randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of four to eight weeks duration, and in one six-month relapse-prevention study at doses of 150-600 mg/day using twice-daily or three-times-daily regimes. The magnitude of pregabalin's anxiolytic effects was similar to that of alprazolam, lorazepam or venlafaxine. However, pregabalin had a more consistent effect on psychic and somatic anxiety factors than the active comparators. Its speed of onset was apparent within one week - similar to the benzodiazepines, but faster than that of venlafaxine. Moreover, pregabalin's anxiolytic effect was apparent in patients with moderate or severe baseline anxiety and high or low baseline severity of sub-syndromic depression. A long-term, 26-week, open-label study showed that pregabalin's anxiolytic effects were maintained, although the fixed-dose design may have contributed to a high attrition rate. Pregabalin showed less cognitive and psychomotor impairment than alprazolam, and it showed different effects on sleep architecture to the latter in terms of REM sleep latency and slow wave stage 3/4 sleep. The most frequently reported adverse events were dizziness and somnolence, although tolerance to these developed within a few weeks. Withdrawal symptoms during a one-week taper phase were mild and were similar after both acute and chronic administration. PMID:17940637

Owen, Richard T

2007-09-01

16

Effects of pregabalin on sleep in generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbance is a cardinal symptom in both DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This review summarizes the results of clinical trials and pooled analyses that provide data on pregabalin's effect on sleep disturbance in patients diagnosed with GAD. The hypothesized mechanism of action of pregabalin is distinctly different from other anxiolytics. Pregabalin binds to a membrane ?2? subunit protein to inhibit release in excited central nervous system neurons of neurotransmitters implicated in pathological anxiety. Treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across seven placebo-controlled clinical trials. Treatment with pregabalin is associated with improvement in all forms of insomnia and improvement in sleep has been found to be correlated with reduction in functional impairment and improvement in quality of life on subjective global measures. Results of a mediational analysis suggest that 53% of the effect of pregabalin on sleep disturbance was due to a direct effect and 47% was due to an indirect effect, mediated through prior reduction in anxiety symptom severity. In patients with GAD, improvement in sleep has been found to be associated with a reduction in daytime sleepiness. However, dose-related sedation is reported, typically in the first 2 wk of treatment, in approximately 10-30% of patients, depending on the dose used and the speed of titration. Insomnia is a common component of the clinical presentation of GAD and pregabalin appears to be an efficacious treatment for this often chronic and disabling symptom. PMID:23009881

Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Prieto, Rita

2012-09-25

17

Pregabalin: in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Pregabalin, the pharmacologically active S-enantiomer of 3-aminomethyl-5-methyl-hexanoic acid, is a structural analogue of GABA, although it is not active at GABA receptors, nor does it acutely alter GABA uptake or degradation.black triangle Pregabalin binds with high affinity to the alpha2-delta subunit protein of voltage-gated calcium channels in CNS tissues and acts as a presynaptic modulator of the excessive release, in hyperexcited neurons, of various excitatory neurotransmitters. Binding of pregabalin to the alpha2-delta subunit appears necessary for its demonstrable anxiolytic, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities in animal models.black triangle Oral pregabalin, typically at dosages of 300-600 mg/day, was superior to placebo and similar to lorazepam 6 mg/day, alprazolam 1.5 mg/day and venlafaxine 75 mg/day in improving anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Pregabalin had a rapid onset of anxiolytic activity relative to alprazolam and venlafaxine, which was evident after 1 week. Additionally, pregabalin (initial dosage 450 mg/day) was effective for the prevention of relapse of GAD over 34 weeks. Pregabalin was well tolerated during dosage escalation to fixed dosages (maximum 600 mg/day) over 7 days. Dizziness and somnolence, usually of mild to moderate severity, were the most common adverse events.black triangle The drug was not associated with a clinically significant medication withdrawal syndrome during a 1-week taper following 4 or 6 weeks' double-blind treatment. PMID:16863276

Frampton, James E; Foster, Rachel H

2006-01-01

18

Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in alcohol dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Pregabalin is a new anxiolytic that selectively binds to the alpha2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, inhibiting\\u000a release of excessive levels of excitatory neurotransmitters. In this open-label trial we aimed to investigate the efficacy\\u000a of pregabalin on alcoholism indices in detoxified alcohol-dependent subjects. Reduction of cravings, psychiatric symptom improvements,\\u000a and the evaluation of safety parameters were the secondary endpoints.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-one

Giovanni Martinotti; Marco Di Nicola; Daniela Tedeschi; Marianna Mazza; Luigi Janiri; Pietro Bria

2008-01-01

19

Clinical use of pregabalin in the management of central neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Central neuropathic pain (central pain) is treated with antidepressants, various anticonvulsants, opioids, and cannabinoids, but in many cases treatment is insufficient and associated with a range of side-effects. This review addresses a new treatment for neuropathic pain, the anticonvulsant pregabalin. We review the pharmacology, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, and safety of pregabalin as well as two randomized efficacy studies in central pain and a brief overview of efficacy in peripheral neuropathic pain. Pregabalin appears to have efficacy in treating central pain comparable to that in peripheral neuropathic pain as well as efficacy of other recommended drugs for central pain. Pregabalin also improves disturbed sleep and anxiety. Pregabalin is well tolerated; the most common side-effects are somnolence, dizziness, ataxia, and weight gain. Pregabalin is suitable for patients on multiple drugs although there may be additive CNS-related side-effects. Thus, pregabalin has a primary role in central pain patients.

Finnerup, Nanna B; Jensen, Troels S

2007-01-01

20

Potential for pregabalin abuse or diversion after past drug-seeking behavior.  

PubMed

Pregabalin, primarily used to manage neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia, is categorized as a Schedule V drug (ie, lowest potential for abuse) in the US Drug Enforcement Administration's Controlled Substances Act. Because pregabalin is not recognized as a drug with high-abuse potential, data on pregabalin abuse and addiction are lacking. The authors report a case of a 35-year-old woman with a history of opioid-seeking behavior who was prescribed pregabalin for pain control. The patient requested an increase in her medication 2 months after beginning treatment and, after her physician denied her request, subsequently obtained pregabalin from other sources. Over a 28-day period, the patient received a total of 88,500 mg of pregabalin. After learning of the other prescriptions, the patient's physician became suspicious of pregabalin abuse or diversion. In accordance with state medical board guidelines, the patient was discharged from the practice and referred to a local detoxification center. PMID:21068226

Filipetto, Frank A; Zipp, Christopher P; Coren, Joshua S

2010-10-01

21

Pregabalin inhibits accelerated defecation and decreased colonic nociceptive threshold in sensitized rats.  

PubMed

Pregabalin, a ligand of alpha(2)delta subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels, reduces visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. However, effects of pregabalin on bowel function are not well described. We investigated the effects of pregabalin on bowel dysfunction and colonic nociceptive threshold in sensitized rats. Increased fecal pellet output was evoked by non-ulcerogenic stress. Decreased colonic nociceptive threshold was induced in separate rats by administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the lumen of the proximal colon. Fecal pellet output was significantly increased during 2h restraint stress. Oral pregabalin (10-100mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited this increased fecal output dose-dependently, but did not change fecal output in naïve rats. The response threshold to distension of the non-inflamed distal colon was significantly decreased seven days after TNBS administration. An anti-hyperalgesic effect of pregabalin (30-100mg/kg, p.o.) that opposed the decreased colonic nociceptive threshold in TNBS-sensitized rats was observed, but nociceptive thresholds were not changed in naïve rats. Moreover, pregabalin was more potent in reducing disturbed defecation compared with reduction in nociceptive threshold to distension in TNBS-sensitized rats. This is the first report that pregabalin modulates stress-induced defecation in rats. These data indicate that pregabalin can ameliorate both altered defecation and decreases in colonic nociceptive threshold, suggesting that pregabalin might warrant investigation for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:20598680

Ohashi-Doi, Katsuyo; Gale, Jeremy D; Kurebayashi, Yoichi

2010-06-20

22

Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

cebo with those of 150, 300, and 450 mg\\/day pregabalin on pain, sleep, fatigue, and health-related quality of life in 529 patients with FMS. The primary outcome variable was the comparison of end point mean pain scores, derived from daily diary ratings of pain intensity, between each of the pregabalin treatment groups and the placebo group. Results. Pregabalin at 450

Leslie J. Crofford; Michael C. Rowbotham; Philip J. Mease; I. Jon Russell; Robert H. Dworkin; Ann E. Corbin; James P. Young; Linda K. LaMoreaux; Susan A. Martin; Uma Sharma

2005-01-01

23

New treatment options in the management of fi bromyalgia: role of pregabalin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common, chronic pain disorder with unknown etiology, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and tenderness, and accompanied by several other symptoms such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mood disorders. Pregabalin is the fi rst drug approved for the treatment of FM. Pregabalin has analgesic, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic activity and has earlier demonstrated effi cacy in the management

Grazyna Zareba

2008-01-01

24

Pregabalin versus gabapentin in partial epilepsy: a meta-analysis of dose-response relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy of pregabalin and gabapentin at comparable effective dose levels in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. METHODS: Eight randomized placebo controlled trials investigating the efficacy of pregabalin (4 studies) and gabapentin (4 studies) over 12 weeks were identified with a systematic literature search. The endpoints of interest were \\

Philippa Delahoy; Sally Thompson; Ian C Marschner

2010-01-01

25

Effects of Pregabalin on Smoking Behavior, Withdrawal Symptoms, and Cognitive Performance in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Rationale In preclinical and clinical studies, medications enhancing the GABA neurotransmission attenuate nicotine reward. Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, presumably interacts with brain glutamate and GABA neurotransmission. The goal of this study was to determine pregabalin's effects on smoking behavior, nicotine withdrawal, craving for cigarettes, and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty-four smokers participated in an outpatient double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects had a 4-day treatment period with either pregabalin (300 mg/day) or placebo and following a washout period were then crossed over for 4 days to the other treatment. In each treatment period, starting at midnight of Day 1, participants were asked to stop smoking until the experimental session on Day 4. During the experimental session measures of ad lib smoking behavior, tobacco withdrawal, craving for cigarettes, and cognitive performance were obtained. Results Pregabalin treatment, compared to placebo, did not reduce the smoking behavior during the first 3 days of treatment or during ad lib smoking period. Pregabalin treatment attenuated some tobacco withdrawal symptoms including ratings of anxious, irritable, and frustrated in abstinent smokers. Pregabalin treatment also attenuated the subjective ratings of “liking” in response to smoking. Under pregabalin treatment, smokers made more errors in a sustained attention task. Conclusions These findings provide limited support for pregabalin as a treatment for nicotine addiction.

Herman, Aryeh I.; Waters, Andrew J.; McKee, Sherry A.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2013-01-01

26

Pregabalin for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a novel pharmacologic intervention.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is the first anxiolytic pharmacologic alternative for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) to be introduced in more than 10 years. GAD is a significant psychiatric condition with lifetime prevalence rates ranging between 5.7 and 6.4%. It causes significant impairment in quality of life and functional abilities equivalent to those associated with major depression. Randomized, controlled trials confirm that pregabalin is superior to placebo and comparable with lorazepam, alprazolam and venlafaxine for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe GAD. The onset of anxiolytic activity for pregabalin is apparent within 1 week following initiation of treatment, which is more rapid than that obtained with paroxetine and venlafaxine. Additionally, pregabalin has demonstrated potential for the prevention of relapse of GAD. Recently, the efficacy, safety and tolerability of pregabalin were also shown in a placebo-controlled study with elderly patients. Safety and tolerability profiles are favorable, with transient dizziness and somnolence of mild-to-moderate severity being the most commonly reported adverse events. Pregabalin has minimal potential for drug-drug interactions and does not provoke a clinically significant withdrawal response. Furthermore, pregabalin has low potential for abuse and dependence, unlike other classes of medications used for the treatment of GAD. Clinicians may consider the use of pregabalin in lieu of benzodiazepines as an alternative therapy for their patients with GAD. PMID:17610384

Bandelow, Borwin; Wedekind, Dirk; Leon, Teresa

2007-07-01

27

Pregabalin reduces cocaine self-administration and relapse to cocaine seeking in the rat.  

PubMed

Pregabalin (Lyrica™) is a structural analog of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and is approved by the FDA for partial epilepsy, neuropathic pain and generalized anxiety disorders. Pregabalin also reduces excitatory neurotransmitter release and post-synaptic excitability. Recently, we demonstrated that pregabalin reduced alcohol intake and prevented relapse to the alcohol seeking elicited by stress or environmental stimuli associated with alcohol availability. Here, we sought to extend these findings by examining the effect of pregabalin on cocaine self-administration (0.25?mg/infusion) and on cocaine seeking elicited by both conditioned stimuli and stress, as generated by administration of yohimbine (1.25?mg/kg). The results showed that oral administration of pregabalin (0, 10 or 30?mg/kg) reduced self-administration of cocaine over an extended period (6 hours), whereas it did not modify self-administration of food. In cocaine reinstatement studies, pregabalin (10 and 30?mg/kg) abolished the cocaine seeking elicited by both the pharmacological stressor yohimbine and the cues predictive of cocaine availability. Overall, these results demonstrate that pregabalin may have potential in the treatment of some aspects of cocaine addiction. PMID:22734646

de Guglielmo, Giordano; Cippitelli, Andrea; Somaini, Lorenzo; Gerra, Gilberto; Li, Hongwu; Stopponi, Serena; Ubaldi, Massimo; Kallupi, Marsida; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2012-06-27

28

Analgesic efficacy of tramadol, pregabalin and ibuprofen in menthol-evoked cold hyperalgesia.  

PubMed

We investigated the analgesic efficacy of single doses of ibuprofen, tramadol and pregabalin in menthol-evoked cold pain in a randomized, placebo-controlled four-way cross-over study in 20 healthy volunteers. Tramadol 100mg significantly reduced menthol-evoked cold hyperalgesia. Effects of ibuprofen 600mg and pregabalin 100mg were not significant. Analgesic effects of tramadol were associated with minor side effects, particularly fatigue and nausea. Minor side effects also accompanied analgesic effects of pregabalin and ibuprofen in subjects responding to these drugs, mostly fatigue, dizziness and difficulties to concentrate for pregabalin and gastric upset for ibuprofen. Five out of 18 subjects had a 50% reduction of cold hyperalgesia with tramadol, three of these additionally responded to pregabalin, and two with all three drugs. The numbers needed to treat (NNT >or= 50% for tramadol 4.5, for pregabalin 9) largely agree with the reported efficacy of tramadol and of moderate dosages of pregabalin in patients with peripheral or central neuropathic pain suggesting that menthol-evoked cold pain hypersensitivity may represent a valid model for neuropathic pain, particularly cold allodynia. PMID:19762153

Altis, Kosta; Schmidtko, Achim; Angioni, Carlo; Kuczka, Karina; Schmidt, Helmut; Geisslinger, Gerd; Lötsch, Jörn; Tegeder, Irmgard

2009-09-16

29

Effect of pregabalin on post-dural-puncture headache following spinal anesthesia and lumbar puncture.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of pregabalin on post-dural-puncture headache (PDPH). Forty patients who developed PDPH after spinal anesthesia or diagnostic and/or therapeutic lumbar puncture were divided into two groups and followed for 5 days. The first group received 150 mg/day oral pregabalin for the first 3 days, then 300 mg/day for a further 2 days. The second group received a placebo for the same length of time. Patient headaches were scored using the visual analog scale, and diclofenac sodium and pethidine requirements were recorded. Relative to the placebo group, the group administered pregabalin had significantly lower visual analog scale scores after the second day of treatment, and had significantly lower diclofenac sodium requirements. Our results indicate that pregabalin may be useful for the management of PDPH. PMID:21775146

Huseyinoglu, U; Huseyinoglu, N; Hamurtekin, E; Aygun, H; Sulu, B

2011-07-19

30

Pregabalin determination in hair by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is an antiepileptic and analgesic drug, commercialized under the name of Lyrica, and generally used to treat neuropathic pain. The determination of pregabalin was performed by using spiked hair samples extracted in methanol and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The validation of a quantification method of pregabalin in hair has been successfully achieved (precision, accuracy, matrix effects and extraction yield). The limit of detection was 0.76 pg/mg and the lower limit of quantification was 2.5 pg/mg. A real case of pregabalin in hair has been analyzed using this method. The result showed a concentration of 540 pg/mg. PMID:24055809

Pauly, Caroline; Yegles, Michel; Schneider, Serge

2013-09-19

31

Efficacy of Combination of Meloxicam and Pregabalin for Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Osteoarthritic pain is largely considered to be inflammatory pain. Sensory nerve fibers innervating the knee have been shown to be significantly damaged in rat models of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in which the subchondral bone junction is destroyed, and this induces neuropathic pain (NP). Pregabalin was developed as a pain killer for NP; however, there are no reports on pregabalin use in OA patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pregabalin for pain in OA patients. Materials and Methods Eighty-nine knee OA patients were evaluated in this randomized prospective study. Patients were divided into meloxicam, pregabalin, and meloxicam+pregabalin groups. Pain scores were evaluated before and 4 weeks after drug application using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Pain scales among groups were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Before drug application, there was no significant difference in VAS and WOMAC scores among the three groups (p>0.05). Significant pain relief was seen in the meloxicam+pregabalin group in VAS at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and WOMAC score at 4 weeks, compared with the other groups (p<0.05). No significant pain relief was seen in the meloxicam only group in VAS during 4 weeks and WOMAC score at 4 weeks compared with the pregabalin only group (p>0.05). Conclusion Meloxicam+pregabalin was effective for pain in OA patients. This finding suggests that OA pain is a combination of inflammatory and NP.

Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Takaso, Masashi; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzkuki, Miyako; Nakamura, Junichi; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

32

Elucidating the mechanism of action of pregabalin: ?(2)? as a therapeutic target in anxiety.  

PubMed

This review provides a brief summary of what is known about the anxiolytic mechanism of action of pregabalin, a highly selective, high-affinity ligand of the P/Q type of voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV). Evidence from in vivo models of neuronal hyperexcitability suggests that pregabalin reduces synaptic release of neurotransmitters in selected CNS regions including the cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, cerebellum and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic vesicle, and propagation of neurotransmission, requires the vesicle to fuse with the presynaptic membrane. Pregabalin binding to the ?(2)? type 1 protein of the P/Q type CaV reduces the availability of Ca2+ required for membrane fusion and exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Evidence that the anxiolytic mechanism of action of pregabalin is mediated by binding to the ?(2)? type 1 protein comes from animal models, which have demonstrated a structure-activity relationship between the affinity of ligands for the ?(2)? type 1 protein and their potency in models of anxiety such as the Vogel conflict test. Furthermore, the anxiolytic activity of pregabalin is lost in transgenic mice with specific point mutations in the CaV ?(2)? type 1 protein. Pregabalin-mediated reduction in calcium currents has also been shown to result in a significant inhibition of the release of neurotransmitters implicated in pathological anxiety such as glutamate and monoamine neurotransmitters. However, further research is needed to confirm that these effects contribute to the anxiolytic mechanism of action of pregabalin. Finally, pregabalin may also act by inhibiting synaptogenesis of excitatory neurons formed in response to chronic stress or anxiety, or more acutely inhibit the trafficking of CaV to the plasma membrane. PMID:22784017

Micó, Juan-Antonio; Prieto, Rita

2012-08-01

33

Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of pregabalin in bulk and pharmaceutical preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of the ?-amino-n-butyric acid derivative pregabalin (PGB) in bulk drug and capsule. Pregabalin, as a primary amine compound, reacts with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzofurazon (NBD-Cl) which is a highly sensitive fluorogenic and chromogenic reagent used in many investigations. According to this fact, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the

Arma?an Önal; Olcay Sagirli

2009-01-01

34

Pregabalin Antagonizes Copper-Induced Toxicity in the Brain: In vitro and in vivo Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Copper plays key roles in brain metabolism. Disorders of copper metabolism impact on neural signaling. The intracellular and extracellular concentrations of copper are tightly regulated. Pregabalin is a drug with multiple modes of action and has a high-affinity binding site for the alpha2delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. Methods: Assessment of neuroprotective effects of pregabalin using cell culture, transcription

D. Marmolino; M. Manto

2010-01-01

35

Pregabalin effect on steady-state pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, valproate, and tiagabine.  

PubMed

By reducing neuronal excitability through selective binding to the ?(2)? subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels, pregabalin effectively treats epilepsy, chronic pain, and anxiety disorders. To evaluate if pregabalin coadministration affects pharmacokinetics of other antiepileptic drugs, population pharmacokinetic analyses using NONMEM software were performed on data from three epilepsy trials involving seven antiepileptic drugs with pregabalin as add-on therapy. Results demonstrated that pregabalin did not alter the steady-state plasma concentrations of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, tiagabine, topiramate, and valproate. Furthermore, the small percent change in the population estimate of antiepileptic drug plasma clearance values (-2% to +7%) suggests that pregabalin coadministration exerted no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of these antiepileptic drugs, with the possible exception of tiagabine (+34.9%). These findings are in agreement with those of previously published reports. A further clarification study is necessary for tiagabine. In conclusion, it appears that pregabalin can be coadministered with other antiepileptic drugs without concern for significantly altering their pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:21314678

Bockbrader, Howard N; Burger, Paula; Knapp, Lloyd

2010-11-03

36

Comparative study of clinical efficacy of amitriptyline and pregabalin in postherpetic neuralgia.  

PubMed

The most common complication of herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients is postherpetic neuralgia, which is very difficult to treat. Significant beneficial effects have been found for amitriptyline, gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate, oxycodone, corticosteroid, topical capsaicin, tramadol, etc. The aim of this open randomized comparative study was to demonstrate clinical efficacy of amitriptyline and pregabalin. The study included 50 patients, 32 (64%) male and 18 (36%) female, randomized to receive either amitriptyline or pregabalin (n=25 each). Amitriptyline was administered in a dose of 25 mg once daily and pregabalin in a dose of 75 mg twice daily. Inclusion criteria were as follows: postherpetic neuralgia of more than 1 month duration; pain of at least moderate severity; and patient age 40 years or older and no pregnancy. Patients with a history of any serious diseases (renal, cardiac, hepatic or seizure) were excluded. Total treatment period spanned 8 weeks, with patient follow up visits at 2, 4 and 8 weeks to assess the degree of improvement in pain perception and any adverse reaction. Patients with four herpes zoster types were included in this study, of which thoracic type predominated (54%). Other types were cervical in 12 (24%), trigeminal in 8 (16%) and lumbosacral in 3 (6%) patients. Prodromal symptoms before herpes zoster were reported by 66% of study patients. Satisfactory improvements of pain perception at the end of 8 weeks (>75%) were noticed in pregabalin group, which was statistically significant (?(2)2=10.08; P<0.05). Dry mouth was the commonest complication in amitriptyline group and dizziness in pregabalin group. More importantly, none of the patients stopped treatment due to adverse reaction. In conclusion, therapy with pregabalin is better compared to amitriptyline in postherpetic neuralgia patients. However, a similar study in a larger sample is required to validate the present findings. PMID:22726281

Achar, Arun; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Bisai, Samiran; Biswas, Asish; Guharay, Tapobrata

2012-01-01

37

Pregabalin- and topiramate-mediated regulation of cognitive and motor impulsivity in DBA/2 mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Impulsivity is a core symptom in many neuropsychiatric disorders. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of topiramate and pregabalin on the modulation of different impulsivity dimensions in DBA/2 mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of acute and chronic administration of pregabalin (10, 20 and 40 mg·kg?1) and topiramate (12.5, 25 and 50 mg·kg?1) were evaluated in the light–dark box (LDB), hole board test (HBT) and delayed reinforcement task (DRT). ?2A-Adrenoceptor, D2-receptor and TH gene expression were evaluated by real-time PCR in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), accumbens (ACC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), respectively. KEY RESULTS Acute pregabalin administration showed a clear anxiolytic-like effect (LDB) but did not modify novelty-seeking behaviour (HBT). In contrast, topiramate produced an anxiolytic effect only at the highest dose, whereas it reduced novelty seeking at all doses tested. In the DRT, acute pregabalin had no effect, whereas topiramate only reduced motor impulsivity. Chronically, pregabalin significantly increased motor impulsivity and topiramate diminished cognitive impulsivity. Pregabalin decreased ?2A-adrenoceptor and D2-receptor gene expression in the PFC and ACC, respectively, and increased TH in the VTA. In contrast, chronic administration of topiramate increased ?2A-adrenoceptor and D2-receptor gene expression in the PFC and ACC, respectively, and also increased TH in the VTA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the usefulness of pregabalin in impulsivity-related disorders is related to its anxiolytic properties, whereas topiramate modulates impulsivity. These differences could be linked to their opposite effects on ?2A-adrenoceptor and D2-receptor gene expression in the PFC and ACC, respectively.

Navarrete, Francisco; Perez-Ortiz, Jose M; Manzanares, Jorge

2012-01-01

38

The relationship between gabapentin and pregabalin and posttraumatic stress disorder in burned servicemembers.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects approximately 30% of burned Servicemembers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Gabapentin and pregabalin are anticonvulsant drugs that limited evidence suggests may also be effective treatments for some psychological disorders. This study examines the relationship between these anticonvulsants and PTSD development in burned Servicemembers. Drugs received, injury severity score, TBSA burned, length of hospital stay, number of intensive care unit days, number of surgeries, and PTSD Checklist-Military scores and administration dates were collected. Subjects were grouped based on receipt of gabapentin or pregabalin, and the groups were compared. The primary outcome was incidence of a positive screen for PTSD. Because injury severity was significantly different between the two groups, propensity score matching based on injury severity score and TBSA was performed. Two hundred ninety burned Servicemembers received the PTSD Checklist-Military at least 30 days after injury. Of these subjects, 104 received gabapentin, pregabalin, or both and 186 did not. Despite significantly greater injuries, the group that received gabapentin or pregabalin did not develop PTSD at a different rate than those patients who did (P = .727). Propensity score matching resulted in 57 patients in each group; there was no difference between these groups in the incidence of PTSD (P = .663). These data suggest that gabapentin or pregabalin administration may not affect PTSD development in burned Servicemembers. Many factors influence the development and progression of PTSD, but few drugs have been identified that are effective at treating or preventing PTSD. PMID:22210072

Fowler, Marice; Garza, Thomas H; Slater, Terry M; Maani, Christopher V; McGhee, Laura L

39

[Promising effects of pregabalin in the treatment of oxaliplatin-induced sensory neuropathy in patients with colorectal carcinoma].  

PubMed

Thirteen patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who suffered from oxaliplatin-induced sensory neuropathy were evaluated to determine the neuropathy Grade before and after the administration of pregabalin. All patients received oxaliplatin as adjuvant or first-line chemotherapy. The mFOLFOX6 and CapeOX groups included 3 and 10 cases, respectively, and the average treatment regimens were 8 and 5 doses, respectively. Before receiving pregabalin, sensory neuropathy was classified as Grade 3 in 2 patients, as Grade 2 in 8 patients, and as Grade 1 in 3 patient. The average amount of pregabalin administered to patients was 237 (range: 150-450) mg. After administering pregabalin, we observed improvements in 8 neuropathy cases (61. 5%)within approximately 2 weeks. All side effects were mild. In this study, pregabalin was shown to positively impact sensory neuropathy resulting from oxaliplatin treatment and to enable the long-term use of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:24047775

Nagahara, Hisashi; Noda, Eiji; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Toru; Hirakawa, Toshiki; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Shibutani, Masatsune; Hirakawa, Kosei

2013-09-01

40

Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of Pregabalin for Alleviating Hot Flashes, N07C1  

PubMed Central

Purpose Hot flashes are a common problem for which effective and safe treatments are needed. The current trial was conducted on the basis of preliminary promising data that pregabalin decreased hot flashes. Patients and Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial design was used to compare pregabalin at target doses of 75 mg twice daily and 150 mg twice daily with a placebo. Hot flash frequencies and scores (frequency times mean severity) were recorded daily during a baseline week and for six treatment weeks. The primary end point for this study was the change-from-baseline hot flash score during treatment week 6 between the 150 mg twice daily target pregabalin treatment and placebo. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum tests, two-sample t tests, and ?2 tests were used to compare the primary and secondary hot flash efficacy end points between pregabalin treatments and placebo. Results Hot flash score changes available for 163 patients during the sixth treatment week compared with a baseline week decreased by 50%, 65%, and 71% in the placebo, and target 75 mg twice daily and 150 mg twice daily pregabalin arms, respectively (P = .009 and P = .007, comparing respective pregabalin arms to the placebo arm). While some toxicities were significantly more common in the pregabalin arms, being more evident with the higher dose, pregabalin was generally well tolerated by most patients. Conclusion Pregabalin decreases hot flashes and is reasonably well tolerated. A target dose of 75 mg twice daily is recommended. Its effects appear to be roughly comparable to what has been reported with gabapentin and with some newer antidepressants.

Loprinzi, Charles L.; Qin, Rui; Baclueva, Ernie P.; Flynn, Kathleen A.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Graham, David L.; Erwin, Nancy K.; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Jurgens, Donald J.; Burger, Kelli N.

2010-01-01

41

Effects of Pregabalin on Subjective Sleep Disturbance Symptoms during Withdrawal from Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin as a tapering therapy on the subjective sleep quality of patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program in routine medical practice. Methods: Secondary analysis of a 12-week prospective, open noncontrolled study carried out in patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for benzodiazepine dependence. Sleep was evaluated with the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS

Gabriel Rubio; Julio Bobes; Gaspar Cervera; Antonio Terán; María Pérez; Vanessa López-Gómez; Javier Rejas

2011-01-01

42

Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients. IV. prevalence of gabapentin and pregabalin.  

PubMed

Gabapentin and pregabalin are well established for the treatment of seizures and neuropathic pain. Both drugs are eliminated primarily unchanged by renal excretion. As part of an ongoing research program to improve and expand drug testing methods for compliance monitoring of pain patients, the prevalence and concentrations of gabapentin and pregabalin in urine specimens from chronic pain patients were determined by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. A total of 57,542 urine specimens from 231 pain clinics located in 19 states were analyzed over the period of November 24, 2009, through May 2010. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and upper LOQ of the assays for both drugs were 2.5 and 1000 ?g/mL, respectively. Gabapentin was identified in 7013 specimens (12.2% prevalence), and pregabalin was identified in 4799 patients (8.3% prevalence). Generally, gabapentin concentrations were more than twofold higher than pregabalin, consistent with their relative potencies. Interestingly, both drugs were found in specimens from 249 patients, likely representing switching of prescriptions by the prescriber. PMID:21740692

Heltsley, Rebecca; Depriest, Anne; Black, David L; Robert, Tim; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

2011-07-01

43

Comparative Efficacy and Harms of Duloxetine, Milnacipran, and Pregabalin in Fibromyalgia Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duloxetine (DLX), milnacipran (MLN), and pregabalin (PGB) are the only drugs licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Evidence on the comparative benefits and harms is still accruing. The authors searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and sought unpublished data from the databases of FDA, US National Institutes for Health, and

Winfried Häuser; Frank Petzke; Claudia Sommer

2010-01-01

44

Systemic pregabalin attenuates sensorimotor responses and medullary glutamate release in inflammatory tooth pain model.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have demonstrated that application of inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the tooth pulp induces medullary glutamate release and central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as well as nociceptive sensorimotor responses in craniofacial muscles in rats. There is recent evidence that anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin that influence glutamatergic neurotransmission are effective in several pain states. The aim of this study was to examine whether systemic administration of pregabalin attenuated glutamate release in the medulla as well as these nociceptive effects reflected in increased electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by MO application to the tooth pulp. Male adult rats were anesthetized with isofluorane (1.0-1.2%), and jaw and tongue muscle EMG activities were recorded by needle electrodes inserted bilaterally into masseter and anterior digastric muscles and into the genioglossus muscle, and also the medullary release of glutamate was assessed by in vivo microdialysis. Pregabalin or vehicle control (isotonic saline) was administered 30 min before the pulpal application of MO or vehicle control (mineral oil). Application of mineral oil to the maxillary first molar tooth pulp produced no change in baseline EMG activity and glutamate release. However, application of MO to the pulp significantly increased both the medullary release of glutamate and EMG activity in the jaw and tongue muscles for several minutes. In contrast, pre-medication with pregabalin, but not vehicle control, significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the medullary glutamate release and EMG activity in these muscles after MO application to the tooth pulp (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.05). These results suggest that pregabalin may attenuate the medullary release of glutamate and associated nociceptive sensorimotor responses in this acute inflammatory pulpal pain model, and that it may prove useful for the treatment of orofacial inflammatory pain states. PMID:22609939

Narita, N; Kumar, N; Cherkas, P S; Chiang, C Y; Dostrovsky, J O; Coderre, T J; Sessle, B J

2012-05-17

45

Population pharmacokinetics of pregabalin in healthy subjects and patients with post-herpetic neuralgia or diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

AIM Pregabalin, a chemical analogue of the mammalian neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid, has been approved in many countries for partial-onset seizures, generalized anxiety disorder and various other pain disorders, including neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic peripheral neuropathy and fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and quantify the influence of covariates on the parameters. METHODS This pregabalin population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted on data from 14 clinical trials involving healthy subjects, subjects with impaired renal function and patients with post-herpetic neuralgia or diabetic peripheral neuropathy (n = 616). The data analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling methodology as implemented by NONMEM. RESULTS A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination adequately described pregabalin pharmacokinetics. The model indicated that pregabalin apparent clearance (CL/F) was proportional to estimated creatinine clearance (CLcr). The pregabalin systemic exposure in patients with lower renal function who received pregabalin 150 mg twice daily was almost equal to that of patients with normal renal function administered pregabalin 300 mg twice daily. The systemic exposure stratified by lower or normal renal function was similar between patients with post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSION The developed model identified CLcr and ideal body weight as clinically influential covariates on CL/F and volume of distribution, respectively. This study indicates that renal function accounts for variability in the apparent clearance of pregabalin which is consistent with what is known about the elimination of this drug.

Shoji, Satoshi; Suzuki, Misaki; Tomono, Yoshiro; Bockbrader, Howard N; Matsui, Shigeyuki

2011-01-01

46

PRECISE - pregabalin in addition to usual care for sciatica: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sciatica is a type of neuropathic pain that is characterised by pain radiating into the leg. It is often accompanied by low back pain and neurological deficits in the lower limb. While this condition may cause significant suffering for the individual, the lack of evidence supporting effective treatments for sciatica makes clinical management difficult. Our objectives are to determine the efficacy of pregabalin on reducing leg pain intensity and its cost-effectiveness in patients with sciatica. Methods/Design PRECISE is a prospectively registered, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin compared to placebo, in addition to usual care. Inclusion criteria include moderate to severe leg pain below the knee with evidence of nerve root/spinal nerve involvement. Participants will be randomised to receive either pregabalin with usual care (n = 102) or placebo with usual care (n = 102) for 8 weeks. The medicine dosage will be titrated up to the participant’s optimal dose, to a maximum 600 mg per day. Follow up consultations will monitor individual progress, tolerability and adverse events. Usual care, if deemed appropriate by the study doctor, may include a referral for physical or manual therapy and/or prescription of analgesic medication. Participants, doctors and researchers collecting participant data will be blinded to treatment allocation. Participants will be assessed at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 26 and 52. The primary outcome will determine the efficacy of pregabalin in reducing leg pain intensity. Secondary outcomes will include back pain intensity, disability and quality of life. Data analysis will be blinded and by intention-to-treat. A parallel economic evaluation will be conducted from health sector and societal perspectives. Discussion This study will establish the efficacy of pregabalin in reducing leg pain intensity in patients with sciatica and provide important information regarding the effect of pregabalin treatment on disability and quality of life. The impact of this research may allow the future development of a cost-effective conservative treatment strategy for patients with sciatica. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov, ACTRN 12613000530729

2013-01-01

47

Successful treatment by adding duloxetine to pregabalin for peripheral neuropathy induced by Paclitaxel.  

PubMed

Although paclitaxel is a commonly used anticancer drug, peripheral neuropathy may develop as a side effect. Worsening of the symptoms with time may cause patients who receive paclitaxel to give up their chemotherapy. Duloxetine, a serotonin- and norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor, has been used to treat peripheral neuropathic pain. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with gastric cancer, who underwent gastrectomy and then received 8 cycles of chemotherapy involving weekly administrations of paclitaxel. Under this paclitaxel treatment, he complained of severe peripheral neuropathy, leading to a diminished quality of life. Following treatment with a combination of duloxetine and pregabalin, a remission of his symptoms was achieved. Duloxetine plus pregabalin therapy may be useful for the peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel. PMID:23064035

Takenaka, Motoyasu; Iida, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Yoshimura, Noritaka; Miyamoto, Maki

2012-10-11

48

A presumed case of phantom limb pain treated successfully with duloxetine and pregabalin.  

PubMed

Phantom limb pain (PLP) may occur in nearly 80% of amputation patients. Current research has highlighted several changes that occur in the nociception pathway post amputation. With this knowledge, novel therapies were found that could decrease PLP. Two such drugs are duloxetine and pregabalin, each effecting unique steps in the nociception pathway. We also review the neurobiology and efficacy of this treatment strategy. PMID:20303003

Spiegel, David R; Lappinen, Erik; Gottlieb, Michael

2009-07-03

49

Mixed effects modeling of weight change associated with placebo and pregabalin administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize change from baseline weight over time for pregabalin and placebo administration. Methods: Asymptotic fraction of baseline weight was modeled with a nonmixture model and a mixture model as a function of baseline\\u000a weight, exposure, time, covariate effects, and subject-specific random effects. Model fit was assessed using standard diagnostic\\u000a plots. Predictive performance was assessed using both data similar

Bill Frame; Stuart L. Beal; Raymond Miller; Jeannette Barrett; Paula Burger

2007-01-01

50

[Case of acute exacerbation of neuropathic cancer pain rapidly relieved by simultaneous oral intake of immediate release oxycodone and pregabalin].  

PubMed

Cancer pain consists of continuous pain lasting almost all day and transient exacerbation of pain called breakthrough pain. Breakthrough pain is classified as somatic pain and visceral pain, neuropathic pain according to the character of pain. Although the immediate release opioid is used as the first treatment of choice to breakthrough pain, the effect is not enough when it shows the character of neuropathic pain. Pregabalin has become the first medicine for the treatment of neuropathic pain, and it sometimes reveals prompt analgesic effect based on its pharmacological profile. It has also been reported that pregabalin used with oxycodine reveals analgesic effect with smaller dosage than pregabalin alone. We experienced a young patient with lung cancer suffering from sudden exacerbation of symptomatic sciatica, whose pain was markedly reduced within 30 minutes by taking immediate release oxycodone 5 mg and pregabalin 75 mg simultaneously. Conclusions : Pregabalin with immediate release oxycodone simultaneously may be able to improve acute exacerbation of neuropathic cancer pain rapidly. PMID:23157108

Baba, Mika; Gomwo, Ikuo

2012-10-01

51

Oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A comparative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background: Hemodynamic responses of laryngoscopy and laparoscopy should be attenuated by the appropriate premedication, smooth induction, and rapid intubation. The present study evaluated the clinical efficacy of oral premedication with pregabalin or clonidine for hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A total of 180 healthy adult consented patients aged 35 to 52 years with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I and II of both gender, who met the inclusion criteria for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomized to receive placebo Group I, pregabalin (150 mg) Group II, or clonidine (200 ?g) Group III, given 75 to 90 minutes before surgery as oral premedication. All groups were compared for preoperative sedation and anxiety level along with changes of heart rate and mean arterial pressure prior to premedication, before induction, after laryngoscopy, pneumoperitoneum, release of carbon dioxide, and extubation. Intraoperative analgesic drug requirement and any postoperative complications were also recorded. Results: Pregabalin and clonidine proved to have sedative and anxiolytic effects as oral premedicants and decreased the need of intraoperative analgesic drug requirement. Clonidine was superior to pregabalin for attenuation of the hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and laparoscopy, but it increased the incidence of intra-and postoperative bradycardia. No significant differences in the parameters of recovery were observed between the groups. None of the premedicated patient has suffered from any postoperative side effects. Conclusion: Oral premedication with pregabalin 150 mg or clonidine 200 ?g causes sedation and anxiolysis with hemodynamic stability during laryngoscopy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without prolongation of recovery time and side effects.

Gupta, Kumkum; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Prashant K.

2011-01-01

52

Dercum's disease (Lipomatosis dolorosa): successful therapy with pregabalin and manual lymphatic drainage and a current overview.  

PubMed

Dercum's disease which is also termed lipomatosis dolorosa is a rare and relatively unknown disease. In this entity the upper arms, elbows, stomach wall, buttocks, thighs and knees are predominantly affected showing painful subcutaneous adipose tissue deposits. In addition severe hyperalgesia can be triggered by light pressure and touch. Analgesic and/or nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs have usually only a minor or no effect. Here, we report a patient with Dercum's disease who was successfully treated with pregabalin and manual lymphatic drainage, and present a current overview of the literature. PMID:18604537

Lange, Uwe; Oelzner, Peter; Uhlemann, Christine

2008-07-05

53

Successful treatment of adult-onset erythromelalgia with steroid pulse and pregabalin.  

PubMed

Adult-onset erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare disease characterized by episodic bouts of burning pain and erythema for which the optimal therapy is unclear. In this report, we describe a 68-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset EM. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1,000 mg/day dramatically improved her pain as evaluated by the visual analog scale. Although the patient's pain gradually developed again, it could be controlled with pregabalin. Our present case might suggest a possible, optimal therapy for adult-onset EM. PMID:23275767

Kakizaki, Aya; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

2012-09-13

54

Successful Treatment of Adult-Onset Erythromelalgia with Steroid Pulse and Pregabalin  

PubMed Central

Adult-onset erythromelalgia (EM) is a rare disease characterized by episodic bouts of burning pain and erythema for which the optimal therapy is unclear. In this report, we describe a 68-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset EM. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1,000 mg/day dramatically improved her pain as evaluated by the visual analog scale. Although the patient's pain gradually developed again, it could be controlled with pregabalin. Our present case might suggest a possible, optimal therapy for adult-onset EM.

Kakizaki, Aya; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Watabe, Akiko; Aiba, Setsuya

2012-01-01

55

Pregabalin, celecoxib, and their combination for treatment of chronic low-back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The efficacy and safety of the association of celecoxib [a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor] and pregabalin (commonly\\u000a used to control neuropathic pain), compared with monotherapy of each, were evaluated for the treatment of chronic low-back\\u000a pain, a condition known to be due to neuropathic as well as nociceptive pain mechanisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  In this prospective randomized trial, 36 patients received

Carlo Luca Romanò; Delia Romanò; Cristina Bonora; Giuseppe Mineo

2009-01-01

56

Chemoenzymatic Asymmetric Synthesis of Pregabalin Precursors via Asymmetric Bioreduction of ?-Cyanoacrylate Esters Using Ene-Reductases  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric bioreduction of a library of ?-cyanoacrylate esters using ene-reductases was studied with the aim to provide a biocatalytic route to precursors for GABA analogues, such as pregabalin. The stereochemical outcome could be controlled by substrate-engineering through size-variation of the ester moiety and by employing stereochemically pure (E)- or (Z)-isomers, which allowed to access both enantiomers of each product in up to quantitative conversion in enantiomerically pure form. In addition, stereoselectivities and conversions could be improved by mutant variants of OPR1, and the utility of the system was demonstrated by preparative-scale applications.

2013-01-01

57

Duloxetine, Pregabalin, and Duloxetine Plus Gabapentin for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Management in Patients With Inadequate Pain Response to Gabapentin: An Open-Label, Randomized, Noninferiority Comparison  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether duloxetine is noninferior to (as good as) pregabalin in the treatment of pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a 12-week, open-label study of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain who had been treated with gabapentin (?900 mg/d) and had an inadequate response (defined as a daily pain score of ?4 on a numerical rating scale [0-10 points]). The first patient was enrolled on September 28, 2006, and the last patient visit occurred on August 26, 2009. Patients were randomized to duloxetine monotherapy (n=138), pregabalin monotherapy (n=134), or a combination of duloxetine and gabapentin (n=135). The primary objective was a noninferiority comparison between duloxetine and pregabalin on improvement in the weekly mean of the diary-based daily pain score (0- to 10-point scale) at end point. Noninferiority would be declared if the mean improvement for duloxetine was no worse than the mean improvement for pregabalin, within statistical variability, by a margin of –0.8 unit. RESULTS: The mean change in the pain rating at end point was –2.6 for duloxetine and –2.1 for pregabalin. The 97.5% lower confidence limit was a –0.05 difference in means, establishing noninferiority. As to adverse effects, nausea, insomnia, hyperhidrosis, and decreased appetite were more frequent with duloxetine than pregabalin; insomnia, more frequent with duloxetine than duloxetine plus gabapentin; peripheral edema, more frequent with pregabalin than with duloxetine; and nausea, hyperhidrosis, decreased appetite, and vomiting, more frequent with duloxetine plus gabapentin than with pregabalin. CONCLUSION: Duloxetine was noninferior to pregabalin for the treatment of pain in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who had an inadequate pain response to gabapentin. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00385671

Tanenberg, Robert J.; Irving, Gordon A.; Risser, Richard C.; Ahl, Jonna; Robinson, Michael J.; Skljarevski, Vladimir; Malcolm, Sandra K.

2011-01-01

58

Efficacy of pregabalin in a case of stiff-person syndrome: clinical and neurophysiological evidence.  

PubMed

Symptomatic treatment of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) might be challenging and a significant improvement of stiffness and rigidity is generally reached with high doses of benzodiazepines or baclofen causing side effects. A 71-year old woman diagnosed with SPS complained of marked stiffness of trunk and lower limb muscles with sudden painful spasms. She was unable to walk and she could not lean on her right leg. Cortical silent period (CSP) duration evaluated from right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) with transcranial magnetic stimulation was shortened. Polygraphic electromyographic (EMG) evaluation from paraspinal and leg muscles disclosed continuous motor unit activity at rest with interference muscular pattern. Symptomatic treatment with diazepam was withdrawn because of excessive sedation. In order to relieve the intense lumbar pain, she was prescribed pregabalin; since the day after, rigidity and painful spasms dramatically improved and she could walk without assistance. The clinical benefit persisted at 3 months follow-up and was paralleled by almost complete disappearance of EMG activity at rest and prolongation of CSP. The clinical and electrophysiological data in this SPS patient suggest the possible efficacy of pregabalin as symptomatic treatment without any significant side effects, which needs to be replicated in larger case series. PMID:22082988

Squintani, G; Bovi, T; Ferigo, L; Musso, A M; Ottaviani, S; Moretto, G; Morgante, F; Tinazzi, M

2011-11-13

59

Brainstem facilitations and descending serotonergic controls contribute to visceral nociception but not pregabalin analgesia in rats  

PubMed Central

Pro-nociceptive ON-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) facilitate nociceptive processing and contribute to descending serotonergic controls. We use RVM injections of neurotoxic dermorphin-saporin (Derm-SAP) in rats to evaluate the role of putative ON-cells, or ?-opioid receptor-expressing (MOR) neurones, in visceral pain processing. Our immunohistochemistry shows that intra-RVM Derm-SAP locally ablates a substantial proportion of MOR and serotonergic cells. Given the co-localization of these neuronal markers, some RVM ON-cells are serotonergic. We measure visceromotor responses in the colorectal distension (CRD) model in control and Derm-SAP rats, and using the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, we demonstrate pro-nociceptive serotonergic modulation of visceral nociception and a facilitatory drive from RVM MOR cells. The ?2? calcium channel ligand pregabalin produces state-dependent analgesia in neuropathy and osteoarthritis models relating to injury-specific interactions with serotonergic facilitations from RVM MOR cells. Although RVM MOR cells mediate noxious mechanical visceral input, we show that their presence is not a permissive factor for pregabalin analgesia in acute visceral pain.

Sikandar, Shafaq; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony H.

2012-01-01

60

Trazodone plus pregabalin combination in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a two-phase, 24-week, open-label uncontrolled study  

PubMed Central

Background Although trazodone is frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, its efficacy on this disease has not been adequately studied. If effective, pregabalin, whose beneficial effects on pain and sleep quality in fibromyalgia have been demonstrated, could complement the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of trazodone. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of trazodone alone and in combination with pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Methods This was an open-label uncontrolled study. Trazodone, flexibly dosed (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients during 12 weeks; 41 patients who completed the treatment accepted to receive pregabalin, also flexibly dosed (75-450 mg/day), added to trazodone treatment for an additional 12-week period. Outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement scale (PGI). Emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test. Results Treatment with trazodone significantly improved global fibromyalgia severity, sleep quality, and depression, as well as pain interference with daily activities although without showing a direct effect on bodily pain. After pregabalin combination additional and significant improvements were seen on fibromyalgia severity, depression and pain interference with daily activities, and a decrease in bodily pain was also apparent. During the second phase of the study, only two patients dropped out due to side effects. Conclusions Trazodone significantly improved fibromyalgia severity and associated symptomatology. Its combination with pregabalin potentiated this improvement and the tolerability of the drugs in association was good. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00791739

2011-01-01

61

Pregabalin and topiramate regulate behavioural and brain gene transcription changes induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice.  

PubMed

This study examined the actions of pregabalin and topiramate on behavioural and gene transcription alterations induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal in mice. Tolerance was induced in mice by administration of CP-55,940 (0.5 mg/kg/12 hours; i.p.; 7 days). Behavioural assessment of spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal was performed by measuring motor activity, somatic signs and anxiety-like behaviour on days 1 and 3 after cessation of treatment with CP-55,940. On days 1-3 of cannabinoid withdrawal, mice received pregabalin (40 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) or topiramate (50 mg/kg/12 hours; p.o.) and their actions on signs of withdrawal and anxiety-like behaviour were evaluated. The administration of CP-55,940 decreased rectal temperature and motor activity on day 1. On day 1 after interruption of cannabinoid administration, motor activity and the number of rearings increased compared with control group. Anxiety-like behaviour induced by cessation of cannabinoid treatment increased significantly on days 1 and 3 of withdrawal. The administration of pregabalin or topiramate blocked the motor signs and reduced significantly anxiety-like behaviour. Cannabinoid withdrawal decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the ventral tegmental area and µ-opioid receptor gene expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and increased CB1 receptor gene expression in the NAcc. Treatment with topiramate or pregabalin blocked the decrease of TH and the increase of CB1 gene expressions induced by cannabinoid withdrawal. Both drugs failed to alter µ-opioid receptor gene expression. These results suggest that pregabalin and topiramate may result useful for the treatment of anxiety-like behaviour and motor symptoms associated with spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal. PMID:22017514

Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Almela, Pilar; Manzanares, Jorge

2011-10-21

62

Pregabalin versus tramadol for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

Prevention and treatment of postoperative pain continues to be a major challenge in postoperative care. Opioid analgesics, with their well-known side effects, continue to represent a cornerstone in postoperative pain control. Anticonvulsant medications are established treatments for neuropathic pain. Pregabalin (S-[+]-3-isobutylgaba), a structural analog of gamma-Aminobutyric acid, has been used for the treatment of various neuropathic pain and also as an adjunctive therapy for adults with partial onset seizures. This study was thus taken up to primarily assess and compare the analgesic and anxiolytic effects of administering pregabalin and tramadol preoperatively for patients undergoing elective decompressive lumbar laminectomy. The study group included 75 patients between the ages of 20-60 years belonging to American Society of Anesthesiology-1 (ASA) and ASA-2 patients. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups of 25 patients each. The placebo group received a placebo capsule, the tramadol group received a 100 mg capsule, while the pregabalin group received a 150 mg capsule orally 1 hour before anesthetic induction. Pregabalin showed statistically significant analgesic effects compared to placebo, but the effect was found to be less prevalent compared to tramadol. The need for rescue analgesia was the least prevalent in tramadol patients followed by pregabalin patients, and reached a maximum in the control group. Pregabalin showed statistically significant anxiolytic effects compared to placebo, and this was associated with less sedation in comparison to tramadol. Pregabalin had fewer numbers of postoperative complications of nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness in comparison to tramadol. The results of this study support the clinical use of pregabalin in the postsurgical setting for pain relief, as it is well tolerated, and usually presents with transient adverse effects. PMID:23837006

Kumar, Koramutla Pradeep; Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar; Gurajala, Indira; Gopinath, Ramachandran

2013-06-24

63

Systemic pregabalin attenuates facial hypersensitivity and noxious stimulus-evoked release of glutamate in medullary dorsal horn in a rodent model of trigeminal neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is effective in treating many neuropathic pain conditions. However, the mechanisms of its analgesic effects remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine whether pregabalin suppresses facial mechanical hypersensitivity and evoked glutamate release in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) in a rodent model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Nociceptive mechanical sensitivity was assessed pre-operatively, and then post-operatively 1h following pregabalin or vehicle (saline) treatment on post-operative days 2 and 5 following infraorbital nerve transection (IONX). In addition, an in vivo microdialysis probe was inserted into the exposed medulla post-operatively and dialysate samples were collected. Glutamate release was then evoked by mustard oil (MO) application to the tooth pulp, and the effects of pregabalin or vehicle were examined on the MDH glutamate release. Glutamate concentrations in the dialysated samples were determined by HPLC, and data analyzed by ANOVA. IONX animals (but not control animals) showed facial mechanical hypersensitivity for several days post-operatively. In addition, tooth pulp stimulation with MO evoked a transient release of glutamate in the MDH of IONX animals. Compared to vehicle, administration of pregabalin significantly attenuated the facial mechanical hypersensitivity as well as the MO-evoked glutamate release in MDH. This study provides evidence in support of recent findings pointing to the usefulness of pregabalin in the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain. PMID:23454190

Kumar, Naresh; Cherkas, Pavel S; Varathan, Vidya; Miyamoto, Makiko; Chiang, Chen Yu; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O; Sessle, Barry J; Coderre, Terence J

2013-02-26

64

Meta-analysis of duloxetine vs. pregabalin and gabapentin in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few direct head-to-head comparisons have been conducted between drugs for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). Approved or recommended drugs in this indication include duloxetine (DLX), pregabalin (PGB), gabapentin (GBP) and amitriptyline (AMT). We conducted an indirect meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and tolerability of DLX with PGB and GBP in DPNP, using placebo as a common

Sibilia Quilici; Jeremy Chancellor; Mickael Löthgren; Dominique Simon; Gérard Said; Trong Kim Le; Ana Garcia-Cebrian; Brigitta Monz

2009-01-01

65

Trazodone plus pregabalin combination in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a two-phase, 24-week, open-label uncontrolled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although trazodone is frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, its efficacy on this disease has not been adequately studied.\\u000a If effective, pregabalin, whose beneficial effects on pain and sleep quality in fibromyalgia have been demonstrated, could\\u000a complement the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of trazodone. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness\\u000a of trazodone alone and in combination

Elena P Calandre; Piedad Morillas-Arques; Rocío Molina-Barea; Carmen M Rodriguez-Lopez; Fernando Rico-Villademoros

2011-01-01

66

The Effects of Pregabalin and the Glial Attenuator Minocycline on the Response to Intradermal Capsaicin in Patients with Unilateral Sciatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients with unilateral sciatica have heightened responses to intradermal capsaicin compared to pain-free volunteers. No studies have investigated whether this pain model can screen for novel anti-neuropathic agents in patients with pre-existing neuropathic pain syndromes.AimThis study compared the effects of pregabalin (300 mg) and the tetracycline antibiotic and glial attenuator minocycline (400 mg) on capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and

Nicole M. Sumracki; Mark R. Hutchinson; Melanie Gentgall; Nancy Briggs; Desmond B. Williams; Paul Rolan

2012-01-01

67

A cost-utility analysis of pregabalin versus venlafaxine XR in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry about several events and activities. The estimated 1-year prevalence for adults is around 2% and the lifetime prevalence could reach more than 6%. The disease is associated with reduced quality of life, being comparable to that of major depressive disorder and to chronic illnesses such as diabetes and arthritis, and high consumption of health care resources. Methods A previously published patient-level simulation cost-utility model was adapted to the Portuguese context in order to evaluate clinical and economic consequences of using pregabalin in place of venlafaxine XR in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. The model predicts the evolution of 1,000 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, simulating their pathway in weekly cycles over one year treatment. This is done by setting a pre-treatment Hamilton Anxiety Scale score and projecting the weekly impact of the pharmacotherapy on this score. The model uses clinical data from an 8-week flexible dose direct comparison clinical trial between the two drugs; utility values based on a Spanish study; and Portuguese economic data, being the resource consumption obtained via an expert panel. Results Pregabalin patients benefited from 0.738 quality adjusted life years while those on venlafaxine XR achieved 0.712. Moreover, the number of weeks with no or minimal anxiety symptoms was estimated to be 12.9 for pregabalin and only 3.8 for venlafaxine XR. Those clinical gains were achieved at the expense of an extra 715€ per patient, implying an incremental cost per quality adjusted life year of 27,199€ and an incremental cost per week with no or minimal symptoms of 79€. Sensitivity analysis shows that results are robust to main assumptions. Conclusions Assuming a threshold of 30,000€ per quality adjusted life year, pregabalin is cost-effective in comparison with venlafaxine XR in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in Portugal.

2013-01-01

68

Cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus venlafaxine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: findings from a Spanish perspective.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to describe a new model of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and its application to a comparison of pregabalin versus venlafaxine extended-release (XR) from a Spanish healthcare perspective. Microsimulation techniques, including Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) score, number of weeks with minimal or no anxiety (HAM-A pregabalin vs venlafaxine XR. Expected levels of healthcare utilization and unit cost of care are derived from Spanish published sources. We express cost-effectiveness alternatively in terms of incremental cost per additional week with minimal or no anxiety, and incremental cost per QALY gained [in 2007 Euros (euro)]. Considering costs of drug treatment only, the incremental cost [mean (95% confidence interval)] of pregabalin (vs venlafaxine XR) would be euro96 (euro86, euro107) per additional week with minimal or no anxiety, and euro32,832 (euro29,656, euro36,308) per QALY gained. When other medical care costs are considered, cost-effectiveness ratios decline to euro70 (euro61, euro80) per additional week with no or minimal anxiety, and euro23,909 (euro20,820, euro27,006) per QALY gained. We conclude that, using a new microsimulation model of the treatment of GAD, pregabalin appears to be cost-effective vs venlafaxine XR in a Spanish healthcare setting. PMID:19506926

Vera-Llonch, Montserrat; Dukes, Ellen; Rejas, Javier; Sofrygin, Oleg; Mychaskiw, Marko; Oster, Gerry

2009-06-09

69

Liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of pregabalin in human plasma.  

PubMed

A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of pregabalin in human plasma. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analyte was separated using an isocratic mobile phase on a reverse-phase column and analyzed by MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using the respective [M+H](+) ions, m/z 160-142 for pregabalin and m/z 482-258 for the internal standard. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 1-10,000ng/mL for pregabalin in human plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 1ng/mL with a relative standard deviation of less than 11.4%. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. A run time of 4.0min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 300 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:19837015

Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Komarneni, Prashanth; Aleti, Raghupathi

2009-10-08

70

Gabapentin and pregabalin inhibit the itch-associated response induced by the repeated application of oxazolone in mice.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of gabapentin and pregabalin on the itch-associated response in a mouse model of chronic dermatitis induced by the repeated application of 4-ethoxymethylene-2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (oxazolone). Challenging the mice with oxazolone-induced chronic dermatitis with the oxazolone evoked severe and transient scratching behavior until 1 h after the application of oxazolone. Thereafter, a more mild and continuous scratching behavior was also observed for at least 8 h. Both severe and continuous scratching behaviors were suppressed by systemic injection of gabapentin and pregabalin. This effect of these compounds was correlated with its affinity for the ??? subunit of voltage-gated Ca²(+) channels. Intrathecal injection, but not peripheral treatment, with gabapentin inhibited the scratching behavior in this model. Gabapentin failed to suppress the scratching behavior induced by the intradermal injection of compound 48/80 in normal mice. The expression of the ???-1 subunit in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from mice following repeated application of oxazolone was significantly higher than that from normal mice. These results suggest that gabapentin and pregabalin show an anti-pruritic activity through ???-subunit binding, and the up-regulation of the ???-1 subunit in DRG may therefore play an important role in its anti-pruritic activity. PMID:21157120

Tsukumo, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Yuichi; Miura, Hiroko; Yano, Hiroshi; Manabe, Haruhiko

2010-12-09

71

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pregabalin in Alleviating Pain Associated with Fibromyalgia: Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the efficacy of pregabalin by showing differences in the neuronal activities of fibromyalgia (FM) patients before and after longitudinal treatment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Materials and Methods In total, 21 female patients with FM and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. FM patients underwent fMRI at baseline and following pharmacological therapy with pregabalin to diminish their pain. Pressure-pain stimuli were delivered on the subject’s thumbnail bed during fMRI scans. Brain activation regions in fMRI were evaluated for longitudinal changes using a paired t-test. Changes in clinical features were also assessed with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale Score (SSS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results Clinical scores were reduced significantly following therapy with five of the six clinical tests (FIQ, BFI, BDI, WPI, SSS; p < 0.05). Brain activation post-treatment was significantly lower than that pre-treatment in 13 regions of the brain (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings confirm that pregabalin influences aspects of the whole pain matrix, using fMRI, inducing longitudinal changes in neuronal activity during the pain state, and that it reduces pain and other core symptoms of FM. This method could be applied to other longitudinal clinical trials of pharmacological treatments for FM.

Kim, Seong-Ho; Lee, Youngho; Lee, Sunggun; Mun, Chi-Woong

2013-01-01

72

Time to onset of neuropathic pain reduction: A retrospective analysis of data from nine controlled trials of pregabalin for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia.  

PubMed

These retrospective analyses of daily mean pain scores from nine placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin at 150, 300, or 600 mg/day (pregabalin, n = 1205; placebo, n = 772) examined time to significant reduction of pain during the first 2 weeks of treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia. Time to onset of reduction in pain-defined as the first day for which patients treated with pregabalin had significant reductions (P < 0.05) in mean pain score compared with the placebo group for that day and the subsequent day-was calculated for all treatment groups demonstrating statistically significant reduction in pain at trial end point. The time to a 1-point or greater improvement in mean pain score was measured for each patient who was a responder at end point (30% or greater improvement in mean pain score). In seven of the nine trials (representing 11 of 14 pregabalin arms), significant reduction in pain was achieved at end point. The time to onset for reduction in pain was treatment Day 1 or 2 in nine of these successful treatment arms. Individual responder analysis confirmed that responders in the pregabalin groups reported a 1-point or greater pain reduction earlier than responders in placebo groups (P < 0.0001). However, this analysis is not a direct estimate of the likelihood that an individual patient would experience noticeable pain relief by the end of the second day. Overall, for patients who will respond to pregabalin, statistically significant and sustained reduction of pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and posttherapeutic neuralgia occurs early, usually by the end of 2 days of pregabalin treatment. PMID:20393345

Sharma, Uma; Griesing, Teresa; Emir, Birol; Young, James P

73

RED Facts: Tridecenyl Acetates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 4116, tridecenyl acetates. Tridecenyl acetates are sex attractant pheromones used in tomato fields to disrupt the mating behavior of tomato pinworms.

1996-01-01

74

Coordination of Lanthanide Acetates  

SciTech Connect

A study of the structures of hydrated and anhydrous lanthanide acetates by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, and absorption spectra demonstrates that there are three separate structures for hydrated lanthanide acetates and four structures for anhydrous acetates. This paper discusses the results of that study.

Karraker, D.G.

2001-08-29

75

Effect of oral pregabalin on opioid-induced hyperalgesia in patients undergoing laparo-endoscopic single-site urologic surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Pregabalin is an antiepileptic drug that is effective for treating postoperative pain, neuropathic pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic instability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single preoperative dose of pregabalin in patients with opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Methods Ninety ASA I-II patients undergoing laparoendoscopic single-site urologic surgery were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups that received either pregabalin or placebo 1 h before anesthesia and an intraoperative remifentanil infusion. Group plL received placebo and 0.05 µg/kg/min remifentanil, group plH received placebo and 0.3 µg/kg/min remifentanil, and group prH received 300 mg pregabalin plus 0.3 µg/kg/min remifentanil. The primary endpoint was pain intensity upon movement 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Secondary endpoints were the area of hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia threshold 24 h after surgery, time to first postoperative analgesic requirement, and cumulative postoperative volume of morphine administered via a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump over 24 h. Results The time to first postoperative analgesic requirement in group plH was significantly shorter than that in group plL. The injected PCA volume was significantly greater in group plH than that in the other two groups. Postoperative pain intensity in group plH was significantly greater than that in the other two groups at 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. The mechanical hyperalgesia threshold and the area of hyperalgesia around the surgical incision 24 h after surgery in group plH differed significantly from those in the other two groups, which were not significantly different. Adverse effects were comparable among groups. Conclusions High-dose remifentanil induced hyperalgesia, including increased pain intensity, increased area of hyperalgesia, and decreased mechanical hyperalgesia threshold. These effects were attenuated by oral administration of a single preoperative dose of pregabalin (300 mg) in patients undergoing laparo-endoscopic single-site urologic surgery.

Lee, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Ji-Na

2013-01-01

76

Pallidol hexa-acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate  

PubMed Central

The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside.

Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

2013-01-01

77

Concerns about pregabalin: further experience with its potential of causing addictive behaviors.  

PubMed

Pregabalin (PRG) is approved for the treatment of neuropathic pain, partial seizures, and generalized anxiety disorder in many countries. Supported by case reports and a few studies there is an ongoing debate on PRG's potential to cause addictive behaviors. Considering that PRG is currently under investigation for the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence and withdrawal as well as relapse prevention in alcohol dependence, assessment of PRG's abuse and dependence potential is indispensable. We report the case of a 38-year-old female patient with borderline personality disorder and past alcohol abuse who developed PRG abuse. The patient took up to 800 mg PRG per day, initially administered to treat unspecific anxiety, and experienced euphoric feelings after PRG intake. In the further course, she increased the daily PRG dosage and consulted other physicians to receive additional PRG prescriptions. During reduction of PRG, the patient developed a moderate withdrawal syndrome with vegetative symptoms. Because of the early detection of the developing PRG abuse (4 months after first application of PRG), the development of PRG dependence was prevented. This case illustrates the possibility of PRG to trigger the development of addictive behaviors and should encourage physicians to be very careful when administering PRG to patients with current or past substance-related disorders. PMID:23519046

Gahr, Maximilian; Franke, Beate; Freudenmann, Roland W; Kölle, Markus A; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

78

Efficient assessment of efficacy in post-traumatic peripheral neuropathic pain patients: pregabalin in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study  

PubMed Central

Background: Detecting the efficacy of novel analgesic agents in neuropathic pain is challenging. There is a critical need for study designs with the desirable characteristics of assay sensitivity, low placebo response, reliable pain recordings, low cost, short duration of exposure to test drug and placebo, and relevant and recruitable population. Methods: We designed a proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in patients with post-traumatic peripheral neuropathic pain (PTNP) to evaluate whether such a study design had the potential to detect efficacious agents. Pregabalin, known to be efficacious in neuropathic pain, was used as the active analgesic. We also assessed physical activity throughout the study. Results: Twenty-five adults (20–70 years of age) with PTNP for ?3 months entered a screening week and were then randomized to one of the two following treatment sequences: (1) pregabalin followed by placebo or (2) placebo followed by pregabalin. These 2-week treatment periods were separated by a 2-week washout period. Patients on pregabalin treatment received escalating doses to a final dosage of 300 mg/day (days 5–15). In an attempt to minimize placebo response, patients received placebo treatment during the screening week and the 2-week washout period. Average daily pain scores (primary endpoint) were significantly reduced for pregabalin versus placebo, with a mean treatment difference of ?0.81 (95% confidence interval: ?1.45 to ?0.17; P = 0.015). Conclusion: The efficacy of pregabalin was similar to that identified in a large, parallel group trial in PTNP. Therefore, this efficient crossover study design has potential utility for future proof-of-concept studies in neuropathic pain.

Jenkins, Tim M; Smart, Trevor S; Hackman, Frances; Cooke, Carol; Tan, Keith KC

2012-01-01

79

Switching from long-term benzodiazepine therapy to pregabalin in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

To evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin in facilitating taper off chronic benzodiazepines, outpatients (N = 106) with a lifetime diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (current diagnosis could be subthreshold) who had been treated with a benzodiazepine for 8-52 weeks were stabilized for 2-4 weeks on alprazolam in the range of 1-4 mg/day. Patients were then randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with either pregabalin 300-600 mg/day or placebo while undergoing a gradual benzodiazepine taper at a rate of 25% per week, followed by a 6-week benzodiazepine-free phase during which they continued double-blind study treatment. Outcome measures included ability to remain benzodiazepine-free (primary) as well as changes in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM)-A and Physician Withdrawal Checklist (PWC). At endpoint, a non-significant higher proportion of patients remained benzodiazepine-free receiving pregabalin compared with placebo (51.4% vs 37.0%). Treatment with pregabalin was associated with significantly greater endpoint reduction in the HAM-A total score versus placebo (-2.5 vs +1.3; p < 0.001), and lower endpoint mean PWC scores (6.5 vs 10.3; p = 0.012). Thirty patients (53%) in the pregabalin group and 19 patients (37%) in the placebo group completed the study, reducing the power to detect a significant difference on the primary outcome. The results on the anxiety and withdrawal severity measures suggest that switching to pregabalin may be a safe and effective method for discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine therapy. PMID:21693549

Hadley, Sallie J; Mandel, Francine S; Schweizer, Edward

2011-06-21

80

Pregabalin Influences Insula and Amygdala Activation During Anticipation of Emotional Images  

PubMed Central

Pregabalin (PGB) has shown potential as an anxiolytic for treatment of generalized and social anxiety disorder. PGB binds to voltage-dependent calcium channels, leading to upregulation of GABA inhibitory activity and reduction in the release of various neurotransmitters. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines attenuate amygdala, insula, and medial prefrontal cortex activation during anticipation and emotional processing in healthy controls. The aim of this study was to examine whether acute PGB administration would attenuate activation in these regions during emotional anticipation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, 16 healthy controls completed a paradigm involving anticipation of negative and positive affective images during fMRI approximately 1?h after administration of placebo, 50, or 200?mg PGB. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that PGB was associated with (1) decreases in left amygdala and anterior insula activation and (2) increases in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, during anticipation of positive and negative stimuli. There was also a region of the anterior amygdala in which PGB dose was associated with increased activation during anticipation of negative and decreased activation during anticipation of positive stimuli. Attenuation of amygdala and insula activation during anticipatory or emotional processing may represent a common regional brain mechanism for anxiolytics across drug classes. PGB induced increases in ACC activation could be a unique effect related to top–down modulation of affective processing. These results provide further support for the viability of using pharmaco-fMRI to determine the anxiolytic potential of pharmacologic agents.

Aupperle, Robin L; Ravindran, Lakshmi; Tankersley, Dharol; Flagan, Taru; Stein, Nathan R; Simmons, Alan N; Stein, Murray B; Paulus, Martin P

2011-01-01

81

Biocatalytic synthesis of chiral intermediate of pregabalin with high substrate loading by a newly isolated Morgarella morganii ZJB-09203.  

PubMed

The chemoenzymatic process involving biocatalytic resolution of rac-2-carboxyethyl-3-cyano-5-methylhexanoic acid ethyl ester (CNDE, 1) has been the most competitive and attractive route for pregabalin. A new esterase-producing strain ZJB-09203, which exhibited high hydrolytic activity, excellent enantioselectivity, and diastereoselectivity towards CNDE, has been successfully isolated from soil samples with a pH indicator agar plate method. The isolate was identified as Morgarella morganii by the ATB system (ID 32 GN) and the 16S rDNA sequence. In order to suppress product inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis of CNDE, an adsorptive biocatalytic process was developed by utilizing anion-exchange resin D201 as adsorbent for selective removal of (3S)-2-carboxyethyl-3-cyano-5-methylhexanoic acid (2) from the reaction medium. This approach allowed the substrate loading to be increased up to 1.5 M and the chiral intermediate 2 was produced in 682 mM, 45.3 % conversion, and 95 % ee. These results imply that M. morganii ZJB-09203 esterase is a promising biocatalyst in the development of chemenzymatic manufacturing process for pregabalin. PMID:23504060

Zheng, Ren-Chao; Wang, Tian-Zhen; Fu, De-Jin; Li, Ai-Peng; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Guo

2013-03-16

82

Acetals and Ketals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirteen open-chain simple cyclic and spirocyclic acetals and ketals were studied. The synthesis of all the cyclic compounds was accomplished by an alcoholysis reaction. The infrared and proton magnetic resonance spectra were measured and correlated. (Aut...

J. Radell R. E. Rondeau

1970-01-01

83

Sodium Acetate Hand Warmers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, sodium acetate hand warmers are used to introduce learners to supersaturated solutions, crystallization, and exothermic reactions. This activity guide includes background information, extension ideas, and resources.

Johnson, Jill

2006-01-01

84

Guidelines in the management of diabetic nerve pain: clinical utility of pregabalin.  

PubMed

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It presents as a variety of syndromes for which there is no universally accepted unique classification. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common type, affecting about 30% of diabetic patients in hospital care and 25% of those in the community. Pain is the reason for 40% of patient visits in a primary care setting, and about 20% of these have had pain for greater than 6 months. Chronic pain may be nociceptive, which occurs as a result of disease or damage to tissue with no abnormality in the nervous system. In contrast, neuropathic pain is defined as "pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system." Persistent neuropathic pain interferes significantly with quality of life, impairing sleep and recreation; it also significantly impacts emotional well-being, and is associated with depression, anxiety, and noncompliance with treatment. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a difficult-to-manage clinical problem, and patients with this condition are more apt to seek medical attention than those with other types of diabetic neuropathy. Early recognition of psychological problems is critical to the management of pain, and physicians need to go beyond the management of pain per se if they are to achieve success. This evidence-based review of the assessment of the patient with pain in diabetes addresses the state-of-the-art management of pain, recognizing all the conditions that produce pain in diabetes and the evidence in support of a variety of treatments currently available. A search of the full Medline database for the last 10 years was conducted in August 2012 using the terms painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, painful diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, painful diabetic neuropathy and pain in diabetes. In addition, recent reviews addressing this issue were adopted as necessary. In particular, reports from the American Academy of Neurology and the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy were included. Unfortunately, the results of evidence-based studies do not necessarily take into account the presence of comorbidities, the cost of treatment, or the role of third-party payers in decision-making. Thus, this review attempts to give a more balanced view of the management of pain in the diabetic patient with neuropathy and in particular the role of pregabalin. PMID:23467255

Vinik, Aaron I; Casellini, Carolina M

2013-02-22

85

[Prasterone (dihydroepiandrosterone): a modern source of eternal youth?].  

PubMed

The function of adrenal cortical hormone dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is currently unknown. The use of this hormone as a food supplement is widely recommended in the USA for the elderly, as DHEA serum concentrations decrease dramatically after the age of about fourty. DHEA is available without prescription. Many sources suggest a causal relation between the decrease of DHEA production during aging and the emergence of degenerative disorders. To substantiate this relationship animal experimental and epidemiological literature is cited. However, data from clinical trials are rare and neither the safety nor the efficacy of DHEA is documented. Via the modern media such as the Internet the consumer is stimulated to use and order DHEA, 'the fountain of youth'. Consumers willing to follow this recommendation should be informed about the absence of proof of safety and efficacy. However, the compelling suggestions from animal and epidemiological literature of DHEA activity are intriguing, and further clinical trials to document the efficacy and safety of DHEA are urgently needed. PMID:9555138

Keppel Hesselink, J M

1997-12-20

86

A back translation of pregabalin and carbamazepine against evoked and non-evoked endpoints in the rat spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was twofold. First to characterize endpoints distinct to the reflexive responses to sensory stimuli typically used in neuropathic pain models. A second aim was to evaluate two clinically approved drugs carbamazepine (Tegretol(®)) and pregabalin (Lyrica(®)) against these endpoints with the purpose to backtranslate from the clinical to preclinical setting. The selected neuropathic pain model was the spared nerve injury (SNI) model and the endpoints were burrowing and measures of paw posture in Sprague Dawley rats. As previously described, SNI surgery produced a robust heightened sensitivity to tactile and thermal (cold) stimuli. SNI surgery also produced robust decreases in burrowing and affected multiple measures of paw position. There was no correlation between magnitude of change in burrowing and sensory allodynia within SNI operated rats. Pregabalin (10-30 mg/kg IP) produced a reliable reversal of both tactile and cold allodynia and also the burrowing deficit, with minimal effect on neurological function evaluated using rotorod, beam walking and open field activity. Pregabalin did not affect any measure of paw position. Pharmacokinetic studies conducted in satellite animals identified plasma levels of pregabalin at the 10 mg/kg IP dose to be equivalent to clinically efficacious levels recorded in neuropathic patients (3-6 ?g/ml). In contrast carbamazepine (10-60 mg/kg IP) had only a very modest effect against a reflexive (tactile) measure, and no effect against the burrowing deficit. Carbamazepine also affected various measures of neurological function, complicating interpretation of the reflexive measure. Measurement of burrowing appears to detect a behavioural deficit associated with the SNI model, that may be attenuated by pregabalin but not carbamazepine. Overall the present findings support an advantage of pregabalin over carbamazepine in terms of both efficacy and tolerability which is consistent with clinical experience. The inclusion of additional endpoints beyond traditional reflexive behaviours further supports the value of rodent neuropathic pain models, such as the SNI, as behavioural assays to detect new chemical entities to treat this pain condition. PMID:23747575

Lau, W; Dykstra, C; Thevarkunnel, S; Silenieks, L B; de Lannoy, I A M; Lee, D K H; Higgins, G A

2013-06-05

87

Efficacy of pregabalin and gabapentin for neuropathic pain in spinal-cord injury: an evidence-based evaluation of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Spinal-cord injury (SCI) is a leading cause of neuropathic pain (NP). Current pharmaceutical treatments for NP in SCI patients\\u000a are not effective. Two promising options are gabapentin (GP) and pregabalin (PB). Their predominant mechanism of action is\\u000a believed to be the inhibition of calcium currents, leading in turn to reduced neurotransmitter release and attenuation of\\u000a postsynaptic excitability. This could explain

Thrasivoulos G. Tzellos; Georgios Papazisis; Ekaterini Amaniti; Dimitrios Kouvelas

2008-01-01

88

Early onset anxiolytic efficacy after a single dose of pregabalin: double-blind, placebo- and active-comparator controlled evaluation using a dental anxiety model  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate acute onset of anxiolytic activity using a dental anxiety model, 89 patients were randomised to double-blind single dose pregabalin 150 mg, alprazolam 0.5 mg or placebo 4 h before a scheduled dental procedure. A Dental Anxiety Total score >12 (moderate-to-severe) without meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth edition) (DSM-IV) anxiety disorder criteria was required. Efficacy

D. Nutt; F. Mandel; F. Baldinetti

2009-01-01

89

Randomised Phase II Trial (NCT00637975) Evaluating Activity and Toxicity of Two Different Escalating Strategies for Pregabalin and Oxycodone Combination Therapy for Neuropathic Pain in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose Neuropathic pain is commonly associated with cancer. Current treatments include combination opioid and adjuvant therapies, but no guidelines are available for dose escalation strategies. This phase II study compared the efficacy and tolerability of two dose escalation strategies for oxycodone and pregabalin combination therapy. Methods Patients (N?=?75) with oncological neuropathic pain, previously untreated with pregabalin, were recruited in 5 Italian institutions between 2007 and 2010. Patients were randomised to two different dose escalation strategies (arm A; N?=?38) oxycodone at a fixed dose with increasing pregabalin doses; (arm B; N?=?37) pregabalin at a fixed dose with increasing oxycodone doses. Patients were evaluated from daily diaries and follow-ups at 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after beginning treatment with a numerical rating scale (NRS), neuropathic pain scale (SDN), and well-being scale (ESAS). The primary endpoint was a ?1/3 reduction in pain (NRS); secondary endpoints included the time to analgesia and adverse effects. The study had a 90% probability of detecting the best strategy for a true difference of at least 15%. Results More patients in arm A (76%) than arm B (64%) achieved ?1/3 overall pain reduction even after controlling for baseline factors (gender, baseline pain). Group A reported fewer side effects than group B; constipation 52.8% vs. 66.7%; nausea: 27.8% vs. 44.4%; drowsiness: 44.4% vs. 55.6%; confusion: 16.7% vs. 27.8%; itching: 8.3% vs. 19.4%. Conclusions Both strategies effectively controlled neuropathic pain, but according to the adopted selection design arm A is preferable to arm B for pain control. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00637975

Garassino, Marina Chiara; Piva, Sheila; La Verde, Nicla; Spagnoletti, Ilaria; Iorno, Vittorio; Carbone, Claudia; Febbraro, Antonio; Bianchi, Anna; Bramati, Annalisa; Moretti, Anna; Ganzinelli, Monica; Marabese, Mirko; Gentili, Marta; Torri, Valter; Farina, Gabriella

2013-01-01

90

Exposure-response analyses of the effects of pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia using daily pain scores and patient global impression of change.  

PubMed

Data from 4 phase 2/3 studies were pooled to characterize the exposure response of daily pregabalin (150-600 mg) in patients with fibromyalgia using self-assessed daily pain scores (PAIN) and end-of-treatment patient global impression of change (PGIC). The exposure responses of both endpoints were characterized by an Emax model using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). Drug effect on PAIN relative to placebo was significant with additional maximum effect of 1.51 points on the logit scale and EC50 of 1.54 ng/mL (dose of 174 mg) and a rapid onset (half-life of 11 hours), consistent with the half-life of the drug. The decrease in PAIN with placebo occurred more slowly, reaching maximum response (1.52 points on the logit scale) after 1 month. Drug response in fibromyalgia was dependent on age and sex, with greater PAIN reduction in older patients, in addition to the effect of creatinine clearance, and in females. For PGIC, administration of pregabalin resulted in an increase in the proportion of patients reporting improvement with an ED50 of 228 mg. The analyses support the recommended dose of pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia of 300 to 450 mg/d. PMID:20357295

Byon, Wonkyung; Ouellet, Daniele; Chew, Marci; Ito, Kaori; Burger, Paula; Pauer, Lynne; Zeiher, Bernhardt; Corrigan, Brian

2010-03-31

91

Oxime Acetates: Substrates for Acetylcholinesterase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxime acetates function as typical substrates for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Both syn 3- and syn 4-PAM acetates are rapidly hydrolyzed. Both are highly water soluble and give large changes in molar absorbance upon hydrolysis. Hence, they have potential ...

G. M. Steinberg J. P. Maddox L. J. Szafraniec L. M. Berkowitz N. C. Thomas

1971-01-01

92

Kallolide A acetate pyrazoline  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of kallolide A acetate pyrazoline [systematic name: 7-methyl-16-oxo-4,10-bis­(prop-1-en-2-yl)-17,18-dioxa-14,15-diaza­tetra­cyclo­[9.4.2.16,9.01,12]octa­deca-6,8,14-trien-5-yl acetate], C23H28N2O5, there is a 12-member­ed carbon macrocyclic structure. In addition, there is a tris­ubstituted furan ring, an approximately planar ?-lactone ring [maximum deviation of 0.057?(3)?Å] and a pyraz­oline ring, the latter in an envelope conformation. The pyrazoline and the ?-lactone rings are fused in a cis configuration. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H?O inter­actions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). An intra­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bond is also present.

Rodriguez-Escudero, Idaliz; Marrero, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Abimael D.

2012-01-01

93

Pregabalin versus SSRIs and SNRIs in benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder: a post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis in usual medical practice in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent health condition which seriously affects both patient quality of life and the National Health System. The aim of this research was to carry out a post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis of the effect of pregabalin versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in treated benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with GAD. Methods This post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis used secondary data extracted from the 6-month cohort, prospective, noninterventional ADAN study, which was conducted to ascertain the cost of illness in GAD subjects diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. Benzodiazepine-refractory subjects were those who claimed persistent symptoms of anxiety and showed a suboptimal response (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale ? 16) to benzodiazepines, alone or in combination, over 6 months. Patients could switch to pregabalin (as monotherapy or addon) or to an SSRI or SNRI, alone or in combination. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years gained, and the perspective was that of the National Health System in the year 2008. A sensitivity analysis was performed using bootstrapping techniques (10,000 resamples were obtained) in order to obtain a cost-effectiveness plane and a corresponding acceptability curve. Results A total of 282 subjects (mean Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score 25.8) were identified, comprising 157 in a pregabalin group and 125 in an SSRI/SNRI group. Compared with SSRI/SNRI, pregabalin (average dose 163 mg/day) was associated with higher quality-adjusted life years gained (0.1086 ± 0.0953 versus 0.0967 ± 0.1003, P = 0.334), but increased health care costs (€1014 ± 762 versus €846 ± 620, P = 0.166) and drug costs (€376 ± 252 versus 220 ± 140, P < 0.001), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €25,304 (95% confidence interval dominant 149,430) per quality-adjusted life years gained for health care costs and €25,454 (dominant 124,562) when drug costs were considered alone. Eighty-six percent of resamples fell below the threshold of €30,000 per quality-adjusted life years. Conclusion This evaluation suggests that pregabalin may be cost-effective in comparison with SSRIs/SNRIs in benzodiazepine-refractory outpatients with GAD treated in mental health care settings under usual medical practice in Spain.

De Salas-Cansado, Marina; Olivares, Jose M; Alvarez, Enrique; Carrasco, Jose L; Barrueta, Andoni; Rejas, Javier

2012-01-01

94

Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation.  

PubMed Central

Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation were determined in 11 healthy subjects by the constant infusion of a trace amount of [1-14C]acetate for 6 h. The subjects ages ranged from 22 to 57 yr. There was a positive correlation (P less than 0.001) between plasma acetate concentration and turnover rate, and a negative correlation (P less than 0.001) between turnover and age. The plasma acetate concentration in the subjects 22--28 yr old was 0.17 vs. 0.13 mM (P less than 0.02) in subjects 40--57 yr old. The plasma acetate turnover rate was also greater in the younger age group (8.23 +/- 0.66 vs. 4.98 +/- 0.64 mumol/min . kg, P less than 0.01). Approximately 90% of the plasma acetate turnover was immediately oxidized to CO2 in both age groups, however, 13.2 +/- 0.89% of the CO2 output in the younger group was derived from plasma acetate oxidation compared to 7.9 +/- 0.94% in the older group (P less than 0.01). The mean plasma acetate concentration, turnover, and oxidation in six cancer patients 47--63 yr old were similar to the values observed in the age-matched healthy subjects. Uptake or output of acetate by various tissues was measured by arterial-venous plasma acetate concentration differences. In seven of eight subjects undergoing elective surgery, the arterial-portal venous concentration difference was negative, which indicated that the gastrointestinal tract can contribute to plasma acetate production. Uptake of plasma acetate by both the leg and liver appeared to be dictated by the arterial acetate concentration. Net production of acetate by both the leg and liver was most often observed at arterial plasma acetate concentrations less than 0.08 mM.

Skutches, C L; Holroyde, C P; Myers, R N; Paul, P; Reichard, G A

1979-01-01

95

The Effects of Pregabalin and the Glial Attenuator Minocycline on the Response to Intradermal Capsaicin in Patients with Unilateral Sciatica  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with unilateral sciatica have heightened responses to intradermal capsaicin compared to pain-free volunteers. No studies have investigated whether this pain model can screen for novel anti-neuropathic agents in patients with pre-existing neuropathic pain syndromes. Aim This study compared the effects of pregabalin (300 mg) and the tetracycline antibiotic and glial attenuator minocycline (400 mg) on capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia in patients with unilateral sciatica on both their affected and unaffected leg. Methods/Results Eighteen patients with unilateral sciatica completed this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Participants received a 10 µg dose of capsaicin into the middle section of their calf on both their affected and unaffected leg, separated by an interval of 75 min. Capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia were recorded pre-injection and at 5, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Minocycline tended to reduce pre-capsaicin injection values of hyperalgesia in the affected leg by 28% (95% CI 0% to 56%). The area under the effect time curves for capsaicin-induced spontaneous pain, flare, allodynia and hyperalgesia were not affected by either treatment compared to placebo. Significant limb differences were observed for flare (AUC) (?38% in affected leg, 95% CI for difference ?19% to ?52%). Both hand dominance and sex were significant covariates of response to capsaicin. Conclusions It cannot be concluded that minocycline is unsuitable for further evaluation as an anti-neuropathic pain drug as pregabalin, our positive control, failed to reduce capsaicin-induced neuropathic pain. However, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of minocycline observed pre-capsaicin injection is promising pilot information to support ongoing research into glial-mediated treatments for neuropathic pain. The differences in flare response between limbs may represent a useful biomarker to further investigate neuropathic pain. Inclusion of a positive control is imperative for the assessment of novel therapies for neuropathic pain.

Sumracki, Nicole M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Gentgall, Melanie; Briggs, Nancy; Williams, Desmond B.; Rolan, Paul

2012-01-01

96

Modeling dropout from adverse event data: impact of dosing regimens across pregabalin trials in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

Dizziness represents a major determinant of dropout in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with pregabalin. Titration (dose escalation) regimens based on clinical judgment were implemented to mitigate this adverse event and reduce patient dropout across clinical trials. Dropout is an important treatment failure endpoint, which can be analyzed using time-to-event models that incorporate daily dosing or other time-varying information. A parametric discrete-time dropout model with daily dizziness severity score as a covariate afforded a systematic, model-based assessment of titration dosing strategies, with model predictions evaluated against corresponding nonparametric estimates. A Gompertz hazard function adequately described the decreasing dropout hazard over time for individuals with severe or moderate dizziness and a lower, constant hazard for individuals reporting no dizziness or mild dizziness. Predictive performance of the model was adequate based on external validation with an independent trial and other goodness-of-fit criteria. Prospective simulations highlight the utility of this approach in reducing dropout based on examination of untested titration scenarios for future generalized anxiety disorder or other trials. PMID:20663989

Lalovic, Bojan; Hutmacher, Matt; Frame, Bill; Miller, Raymond

2010-07-27

97

Acetate metabolism in Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanosarcina barkeri was grown by acetate fermentation in complex medium (N2 gas phase). The molar growth yield was 1.6–1.9 g cells\\/mol methane formed. Under these conditions 63–82% of the methane produced byMethanosarcina strains was derived from the methyl carbon of acetate, indicating that some methane was derived from other media components. Growth was not demonstrated in complex media lacking acetate

P. J. Weimer; J. G. Zeikus

1978-01-01

98

[Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].  

PubMed

Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

Lello, S

2009-10-01

99

Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 3: can pregabalin effectively diminish acute herpetic pain and reduce the incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia?  

PubMed

A short cut review was carried out to establish whether pregabalin can reduce acute herpetic pain and reduce post herpetic neuralgia. 48 papers were found using the reported searches, of which one presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of this best paper are tabulated. It is concluded that pregabalin does not seem to decrease the intensity of pain related to acute herpes zoster. Moreover, it does not decrease the incidence of post herpetic neuralgia. More research is needed on this topic to clarify this issue [corrected]. PMID:22241695

Raymond-Dufresne, Eliane

2012-02-01

100

Thermogravimetric analysis of the relationship among calcium magnesium acetate, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition characteristic of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium acetate (CA) and magnesium acetate (MA) are investigated through thermogravimetric (TG) analysis at the heating rates of 5Kmin?1, 7.5Kmin?1, 10Kmin?1 and 15Kmin?1. After dehydration, the evaporation of carboxylic radical and carbon dioxide of CMA and CA exist in two separate segments, but for MA, this occurs together in just one segment

Shengli Niu; Kuihua Han; Chunmei Lu; Rongyue Sun

2010-01-01

101

The P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channel as pharmacological target in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6: gabapentin and pregabalin may be of therapeutic benefit.  

PubMed

Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) are heteromultimeric complexes that mediate calcium influx into cells in response to changes in membrane potential. The alpha1A subunit, encoded by the CACNA1A gene, is the pore-forming subunit specific to the neuronal P/Q-type VDCCs. These are implicated in fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Their highest levels of expression are found in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, and in the hippocampus. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA 6) is an autosomal dominant cerebellar degeneration that shares neuropathological findings with late-onset cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA). It is caused by an abnormal expansion of a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat in exon 47 of CACNA1A, on chromosome 19p13. This translates into a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract of prolonged length in the carboxyl terminal of the alpha1A subunit. Heterologous expression of mutated alpha1A subunits results in increased channel inactivation in electrophysiological tests. No treatment is known to improve SCA 6 at present, as none of the available drugs is able to reverse alpha1A dysregulation, nor disturbed protein aggregation, transport and localization in this disease. The drugs gabapentin and pregabalin interact with the alpha2delta subunit of the P/Q-type VDCCs. Gabapentin and pregabalin slow the rate of inactivation in recombinant P/Q-type VDCCs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These drugs improve ataxia in cases of CCA, olivopontocerebellar atrophy and ataxia-telangiectasia. On the basis of the neuropathological identity of SCA 6 with CCA, and given the capacity of gabapentin and pregabalin to decrease P/Q-type VDCCs inactivation, in this paper the authors put forward the hypothesis that the administration of gabapentin and pregabalin might prove beneficial in SCA 6 as the ataxia caused by this disease would be expected to improve. The authors hope that researchers working with this illness will be inspired and encouraged to undertake the appropriate clinical and experimental work. PMID:16899342

Gazulla, José; Tintoré, Mari A

2006-08-08

102

Enantioselective Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to a nitroalkene catalyzed by chiral squaramides - a key step in the synthesis of pregabalin.  

PubMed

Asymmetric organocatalytic 1,4-additions provide access to a large number of biologically relevant compounds. Chiral squaramides efficiently catalyse enantioselective Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to aliphatic nitroalkenes. The resulting ?-nitro carboxylic derivatives were obtained in high yields and in high enantiomeric purities. Quantum chemical calculations helped us to devise a transition state model, which explains the observed stereochemical course of the addition. The best results were obtained with Meldrum's acid as a donor, with which enantiomeric purity of the Michael adduct was 97?:?3 e.r. Using this methodology pregabalin was synthesized in three steps in overall 52% yield. PMID:24108386

Baran, Rastislav; Veverková, Eva; Skvorcová, Andrea; Sebesta, Radovan

2013-10-10

103

Stabilized Calcium Acetate Oil Dispersions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lubricating composition is imparted with improved load-carrying ability and anti-wear properties by incorporation of calcium acetate. The composition consists of a base lubricant, 0.1 to 50 percent by weight calcium acetate and 0.01 to 20 percent by wei...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

104

Lead Acetate, Radiotracer Metabolism Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metabolic studies utilizing radiotracer techniques were applied to tissues from rats which had received 0 and 1000 ppm lead acetate (calculated as lead) for one month prior to the oral administration of 210 lead acetate. Seventy-two hours after administra...

D. C. Jessup

1967-01-01

105

Evaluation of efficacy and safety of gabapentin, duloxetine, and pregabalin in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of gabapentin (GBP), duloxetine (DLX), and pregabalin (PGB) in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPNP). Methods: A prospective, randomized, open label, 12-week study was conducted. A total of 152 patients with history of pain attributed to DPNP with a minimum 40-mm score on visual analogue scale (VAS) were randomized to receive GBP, DLX, or PGB. The primary efficacy measure was pain severity as measured on 11 point VAS. Secondary efficacy measures included sleep interference score, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), and Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC). Assessment of safety was done by recording the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Of total 152 patients, 50 patients received GBP, DLX each while 52 received PGB. A significant reduction in pain score (VAS), sleep interference score, PGIC, and CGIC was seen in all the three treatment groups across time (P<0.05) with no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was a significant interaction between the time and treatment groups (P<0.001) for pain score (VAS), sleep interference score, and PGIC. The improvement in pain scores (VAS) and sleep interference score was higher with PGB compared to DLX and GBP. Adverse drug reactions were mild and occurred in 9.2% of all cases. Conclusions: Monotherapy with GBP, DLX, or PGB Produced a clinically and subjectively meaningful pain relief in patients with DPNP with onset of pain relief being faster and superior with PGB.

Devi, Padmini; Madhu, K; Ganapathy, B; Sarma, GRK; John, Lisha; Kulkarni, Chanda

2012-01-01

106

21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

2013-04-01

107

Draft Guidance on Norethindrone Acetate Active ingredient ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Norethindrone Acetate ... Active ingredient: Norethindrone Acetate ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

108

Methanogenesis from acetate: enrichment studies.  

PubMed Central

An acetate enrichment culture was initiated by inoculating anaerobic sludge from a mesophilic methane digestor into a mineral salts medium with calcium acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. This enrichment was maintained indefinitely by weekly transfer into medium of the same composition. A study of this enrichment disclosed an unexpected age-dependent inhibition of methanogenesis by H2 and formate which apparently differed from the inhibition by chloroform and benzyl viologen. This age-dependent inhibition indicated that microbial interactions of the mixed enrichment population may play a regulatory role in methane formation. Futhermore, stimulation of methanogenesis in the acetate enrichment by addition of yeast extract showed a nutrient limitation which indicated that syntrophic interactions leading to formation of growth factors may also occur. A model is presented to illustrate the possible interrelationships between methanogenic and nonmethanogenic bacteria in their growth and formation of methane and carbon dioxide from acetate. Images

Baresi, L; Mah, R A; Ward, D M; Kaplan, I R

1978-01-01

109

Molecular Structure of Acetic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

2003-06-02

110

Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri convert the carboxyl and methyl group carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and methane at pH 6 under an atmosphere of 100% CO/sub 2/. The rate of loss of radioactivity from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate was over three times greater than that from (2-/sup 14/C)acetate under these conditions. Control experiments with both labeled substrates present showed that the rates were additive. Addition of a high level of 2-bromoethanesulfonate to selectively inhibit methane formation largely inhibited release of /sup 14/C from methyl-labeled acetate but only marginally decreased the rate of loss from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate. Thus, in the absence of the inhibitor loss of /sup 14/C from (1-/sup 14/C)acetate likely reflects an isotopic exchange reaction with CO/sub 2/ superimposed on the overall conversion of acetate to CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/. The exchange reaction was inhibited by uncouplers such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, CCCP, and FCCP. Cells permeabilized by treatment with nonionic detergents or disrupted by passage through a French pressure cell failed to catalyze the exchange reaction. Exchange activity was not restored by addition of ATP or by use of (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA as substrate. No evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the exchange was found in these experiments when CO/sub 2/ was replaced by CO. However, the soluble extracts retained the ability to convert acetate to methane in the presence of H/sub 2/ and ATP.

Grahame, D.A.

1987-05-01

111

Investigation on isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium for acetic acid + water + methyl ethyl ketone + isopropyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for acetic acid+water, acetic acid+methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), MEK+isopropyl acetate, acetic acid+MEK+water and acetic acid+MEK+isopropyl acetate+water are measured at 101.33kPa using a modified Rose cell. The nonideal behavior in vapor phase of binary systems measured in this work is analyzed through calculating fugacity coefficients since mixture containing acetic acid deviates from ideal behavior seriously in

Qiang Xie; Hui Wan; MingJuan Han; GuoFeng Guan

2009-01-01

112

New process for producing cellulose acetate from wood in concentrated acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore further potential applications of acetic acid pulp, an investigation was conducted to develop a direct method for producing cellulose acetate from wood in combination with atmospheric acetic acid pulping. The process consists of delignification, totally chlorine-free bleaching, and esterification, with the concentrated acetic acid aqueous solution being used as only solvent throughout the process. The acetic acid pulp

Hironori Sato; Yasumitsu Uraki; Takao Kishimoto; Yoshihiro Sano

2003-01-01

113

REMOVAL OF ACETIC ACID IMPURITIES FROM ETHYL ACETATE BY ADSORPTION ON ION EXCHANGE RESINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of acetic acid impurities from ethyl acetate was attempted by sorption on basic ion-exchange resins. Kinetic studies showed that acid removal is controlled by intraparticle resistance from both ethyl acetate and alcohol. Breakthrough curves for uptake of the acid from ethyl acetate were obtained at different flow rates and concentrations. Desorption studies were performed using both ethyl acetate and

H. M. Anasthas; V. G. Gaikar

2001-01-01

114

Alpha 2 Delta (?2?) Ligands, Gabapentin and Pregabalin: What is the Evidence for Potential Use of These Ligands in Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habit, and often associates with other gastrointestinal symptoms such as feelings of incomplete bowel movement and abdominal bloating, and extra-intestinal symptoms such as headache, dyspareunia, heartburn, muscle pain, and back pain. It also frequently coexists with conditions that may also involve central sensitization processes, such as fibromyalgia, irritable bladder disorder, and chronic cough. This review examines the evidence to date on gabapentin and pregabalin which may support further and continued research and development of the ?2? ligands in disorders characterized by visceral hypersensitivity, such as IBS. The distribution of the ?2? subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel, possible mechanisms of action, pre-clinical data which supports an effect on motor–sensory mechanisms and clinical evidence that points to potential benefits in patients with IBS will be discussed.

Gale, Jeremy D.; Houghton, Lesley A.

2011-01-01

115

Pregabalin Modulation of Neurotransmitter Release Is Mediated by Change in Intrinsic Activation/Inactivation Properties of Cav2.1 Calcium ChannelsS?  

PubMed Central

In this work, we studied the effects of the anticonvulsant and analgesic drug pregabalin (PGB) on excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at principal neurons of the mouse medial nucleus of the trapezoid body and on presynaptic calcium currents at the calyx of Held. We found that the acute application of PGB reduced the amplitude of EPSCs in a dose-dependent manner with a maximal blocking effect of approximately 30%. A clinical high-concentration dose of PGB (e.g., 500 ?M) blocked Cav2.1 channel-mediated currents and decreased their facilitation during a 100-Hz train, without changing their voltage-dependent activation. Furthermore, PGB also removed the inactivation of Cav2.1 channels at a clinically relevant low concentration of 100 ?M. These results suggest novel modulatory mechanisms mediated by the acute administration of PGB on fast excitatory synaptic transmission and might contribute to better understanding PGB anticonvulsant/analgesic clinical effects.

Di Guilmi, Mariano N.; Urbano, Francisco J.; Inchauspe, Carlota Gonzalez

2011-01-01

116

Biofiltration of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate using a composite bead biofilter.  

PubMed

Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. The composite bead was the spherical PVA/peat/KNO3/GAC composite bead which was prepared in our previous works. Both microbial growth rate and biochemical reaction rate were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in this concentration range. The half-saturation constant Ks values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 16.26 and 12.65ppm, respectively. The maximum reaction rate Vm values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 4.08 and 3.53gCh(-1)kg(-1) packed material, respectively. Zero-order kinetic with the diffusion limitation could be regarded as the most adequate biochemical reaction model. For the biochemical reaction process, the biochemical reaction rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The inhibitive effect for ethyl acetate was more pronounced than that for AA in this concentration range. The maximum elimination capacity of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 82.3 and 37.93gCh(-1)m(-3) bed volume, respectively. Ethyl acetate degraded by microbial was easier than amyl acetate did. PMID:18445522

Chan, Wu-Chung; Su, Mei-Qi

2008-04-28

117

MINIRIN Desmopressin acetate 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..... ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Brand Name MINIRIN Generic Name Desmopressin acetate ... NDA 21795 MINIRIN (desmopressin acetate) 0.1 mg and 0.2 mg Tablets Page 1 of 30 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

118

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

1-Octanol, 9vPnC-MnCc; Abiraterone acetate, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, ARRY-520, AS-1404, Asimadoline, Atazanavir sulfate, AVE-0277, Azelnidipine; Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Boceprevir, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B; Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Clevudine, Contusugene ladenovec, CP-751871, Crofelemer, Cypher, CYT006-AngQb; Darbepoetin alfa, Desmopressin, Dexlansoprazole, DG-041; E-5555, Ecogramostim, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Falecalcitriol, Fampridine, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fingolimod hydrochloride; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GS-7904L, GV-1001; HT-1001; Insulin detemir, ISIS-112989, Istradefylline; Laquinimod sodium, Latanoprost/timolol maleate, Lenalidomide, Levobetaxolol hydrochloride, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liposomal morphine sulfate, Lubiprostone, Lumiracoxib, LY-518674; MEM-1003, Mesna disulfide, Mipomersen sodium, MM-093, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naptumomab estafenatox, Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Pasireotide, Pazufloxacin mesilate, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimagedine, Pimecrolimus, Pramlintide acetate, Prasterone, Pregabalin, Prulifloxacin; QAE-397; Rec-15/2615, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, rhGAD65, Roflumilast, Romiplostim, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine, Rupatadine fumarate; Safinamide mesilate, SIR-Spheres, Sitagliptin phosphate, Sodium phenylacetate, Sodium phenylacetate/Sodium benzoate, Sorafenib, SSR-244738; Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Teduglutide, Tegaserod maleate, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tigecycline, Tiotropium bromide, Trabectedin, Travoprost, Treprostinil sodium; Ustekinumab; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Varenicline tartrate, Vildagliptin; Zofenopril calcium. PMID:18193114

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2007-11-01

119

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2013-04-01

120

27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

2013-04-01

121

Kinetics of the Methanogenic Fermentation of Acetate  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of the fermentation of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by acetate was analyzed with an acetate-acclimatized sludge and with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro under mesophilic conditions. A second-order substrate inhibition model, qch4 = qmS/[Ks + S + (S2/Ki)], where S was the concentration of undissociated acetic acid, not ionized acetic acid, could be applicable in both cases. The analysis resulted in substrate saturation constants, Ks, of 4.0 ?M for the acclimatized sludge and 104 ?M for M. barkeri. The threshold concentrations of undissociated acetic acid when no further acetate utilization was observed were 0.078 ?M (pH 7.50) for the acclimatized sludge and 4.43 ?M (pH 7.45) for M. barkeri. These kinetic results suggested that the concentration of undissociated acetic acid became a key factor governing the actual threshold acetate concentration for acetate utilization and that the acclimatized sludge in which Methanothrix spp. appeared dominant could utilize acetate better and survive at a lower concentration of undissociated acetic acid than could M. barkeri. Images

Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nagai, Shiro

1990-01-01

122

Anxiolytic-like effect of pregabalin on unconditioned fear in the rat: an autoradiographic brain perfusion mapping and functional connectivity study.  

PubMed

Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests anxiolytic-like efficacy of pregabalin (PGB, Lyrica). However, its mechanism of action remains under investigation. The current study applied [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine cerebral blood flow (CBF) mapping to examine the effect of PGB on neural substrates underlying unconditioned fear in a rat model of footshock-induced fear. Regional CBF (rCBF) was analyzed by statistical parametric mapping. Functional connectivity and graph theoretical analysis were used to investigate how footshock and PGB affect brain activation at the network level. Pregabalin significantly attenuated footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization, but showed no significant effect on freezing behavior. Footshock compared to no-shock controls elicited significant increases in rCBF in limbic/paralimbic regions implicated in the processing of unconditioned fear and ultrasonic vocalization, including the amygdala, hypothalamus, lateral septum, dorsal periaqueductal gray, the anterior insular (aINS) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The activation pattern was similar in vehicle- and PGB-treated subjects, with PGB significantly attenuating activation in the amygdala, hypothalamus, and aINS. The vehicle/no-shock group showed strong, positive intra-structural correlations within the cortex, hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, and brainstem. The cortex was negatively correlated with the hypothalamus and brainstem. Footshock reduced the total number of significant correlations, but induced greater intra-cortical connectivity of the aINS and mPFC, and new positive correlations between the hypothalamus and amygdala. In no-shock controls, PGB significantly reduced the positive intra-structural correlations within the cortex and amygdala, as well as the negative cortico-subcortical correlations. Following footshocks, PGB disrupted both the network recruitment of aINS and mPFC, and the positive hypothalamic-amygdaloid correlations. Our findings suggest that PGB may exert anxiolytic effect by attenuating cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical communication and inhibiting network recruitment of the aINS, mPFC, amygdala, and hypothalamus following a fear-inducing stimulus. Functional brain mapping in rodents may provide new endpoints for preclinical evaluation of anxiolytic drug candidates with potentially improved translational power compared to behavioral measurements alone. PMID:22155030

Wang, Zhuo; Pang, Raina D; Hernandez, Martha; Ocampo, Marco A; Holschneider, Daniel P

2011-12-01

123

Vinyl acetate formation in the reaction of acetylene with acetic acid catalyzed by zinc acetate supported on porous carbon spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kind of porous carbon spheres (PCS) was prepared by the carbonization of poly(vinylidene chloride) synthesized by suspension polymerization. Structure analyses revealed the existence of bumps and holes on the surface of PCS. The PCS, with the pore size between 0.8-1.2 nm, could be used as the support of zinc acetate because of the regular shape, high specific surface area, and good mechanical strength. Vinyl acetate was produced from acetylene and acetic acid using the PCS-supported zinc acetate (PCS-Zn) under mild conditions. In a single-pass operation performed at 220°C, the conversions of acetic acid and acetylene reached 22.6 and 5.3% respectively while the activity of vinyl acetate formation was above 1000 g mol-1 h-1.

Yan, Feng-Wen; Guo, Cun-Yue; Yan, Fang; Li, Feng-Bo; Qian, Qing-Li; Yuan, Guo-Qing

2010-05-01

124

Desmopressin Acetate (marketed as DDAVP Nasal Spray ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Desmopressin Acetate (marketed as DDAVP Nasal Spray, DDAVP Rhinal Tube, DDAVP, DDVP, Minirin, and Stimate Nasal Spray). ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

125

5?-Dihydro-vespertilin acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C24H36O4 [systematic name: (20S)-3?-acet­oxy-16?-hydr­oxy-22,23-bis­nor-5?,17?-cholano(22-16)lac­tone], the three six-membered rings adopt classical chair conformations, while the five-membered rings are in envelope conformations. The ester group attached to ring A is in an equatorial position. Rings A/B, B/C and C/D are trans-fused, whereas rings D/E are cis-fused. The structure is devoid of any classical hydrogen bonds. However, non-classical inter- and intra­molecular hydrogen-bonding inter­actions of the type C—H?O are present in the structure.

Benn, Michael; Vohra, Kanwal Nain; Parvez, Masood

2010-01-01

126

Hybrid reactive distillation systems for n-butyl acetate production from dilute acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of dilute acetic acid, regarding as a waste stream in many chemical and petrochemical processes, becomes an important issue due to economic and environmental awareness. In this work, a simulation study on the direct utilization of dilute acetic acid to produce n-butyl acetate via esterification with butanol in a reactive distillation is presented by using Aspen Plus. The

Amornchai Arpornwichanop; Kittipong Koomsup; Suttichai Assabumrungrat

2008-01-01

127

Ene diiodo acetals : stereoselective synthesis of ene hydroxy acetals. Handy access to non conjugated dienals  

Microsoft Academic Search

After halogen-metal exchange reaction followed by condensation with carbonyl compounds, ene diiodo acetal 1 allow the stereoselective synthesis of ene hydroxy acetals 2 with Z configuration, in a two step procedure. Moreover, after dehydration, the intermediate diene acetals 3–4, via an appropriated hydrolysis procedure, lead to pure non conjugated dienals 5.

B Bonnet; G Ple; L Duhamel

1998-01-01

128

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AdGVVEGF121.10, anakinra, andolast, anidulafungin, APC-2059, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arzoxifene hydrochloride, asimadoline; Bexarotene, bimatoprost, bimosiamose, bizelesin, BMS-188667, botulinum toxin type B, bromfenac sodium, bryostatin 1; Cannabidiol, cariporide mesilate, CCI-1004, CDP-571, cerivastatin sodium, clevudine; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, deligoparin sodium, diethylnorspermine, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib-vaccine; E-5564, eculizumab, edodekin alfa, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, etaquine, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Fesoterodine, fipamezole hydrochloride, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan, fulvestrant; Gadofosveset sodium, galiximab, ghrelin (human), glufosfamide; Homoharringtonine; Idraparinux sodium, imatinib mesylate, INS-37217; KRN-7000; L-651582, lafutidine, lanthanum carbonate, lenercept, levetiracetam, lusupultide; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, mepolizumab, midostaurin, morphine hydrochloride, mozavaptan; Natalizumab, nesiritide; OPC-51803, oregovomab, oritavancin; Peginterferon alfa-2(a), pleconaril, plevitrexed, prasterone, pregabalin; Ranibizumab, Ro-31-7453, roxifiban acetate, rubitecan; SCV-07, SHL-749, sho-saiko-to, soblidotin, solifenacin succinate; Tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, tenecteplase, theraCIM, tipifarnib, travoprost; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, voriconazole; Ximelagatran; Ziprasidone hydrochloride, ZYC-00101. PMID:12851663

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2003-06-01

129

Cross-Linked Poly(Ester-Acetals).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cross-linked products have utility as bonding agents for glass laminates. Certain novel soluble poly(ester-acetal) resins initially formed under alkaline conditions, under which the acetal groups appear to be inactive, may be crossed-linked by the add...

E. H. Pryde

1965-01-01

130

Fermentation characteristics of Fusariumoxysporum grown on acetate.  

PubMed

In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusariumoxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F.oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8%w/v while glucose was consumed preferentially to acetate. The activity of isocitrate lyase was high when cells were grown on acetate and acetate plus glucose indicating an activation of the glyoxylate cycle. Investigation of the metabolic fingerprinting and footprinting revealed higher levels of intracellular and extracellular TCA cycle intermediates when F.oxysporum cells were grown on mixtures of acetate and glucose compared to growth on only glucose. Our data support the hypothesis that a higher flux through TCA cycle during acetate consumption could significantly increase the pool of NADH, resulting in the activation of succinate-propionate pathway which consumes reducing power (NADH) via conversion of succinate to propionyl-CoA and produce propionate. PMID:18304808

Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Olsson, Lisbeth; Christakopoulos, Paul

2008-03-04

131

Physicochemical characterization and antibacterial property of chitosan acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a new approach to the preparation of solid chitosan acetate, the dependence of solubility of chitsoan acetate on the mole ratio of acetic acid to GlcN residues of chitosan was evaluated from turbidity. The structure of the product chitosan acetate was characterized by titration and FT-IR. It was demonstrated that the chitosan acetate with high solubility retained the structure

Yan Li; Xi Guang Chen; Nan Liu; Cheng Sheng Liu; Chen Guang Liu; Xiang Hong Meng; Le Jun Yu; John F. Kenendy

2007-01-01

132

Desvenlafaxinium chloranilate ethyl acetate solvate  

PubMed Central

In the cation of the title compound, C16H26NO2 +·C6HCl2O4 ?·C4H8O2, the 1-hy­droxy-cyclo­hexyl ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1-hy­droxy­cyclo­hexyl and 4-hy­droxy­phenyl rings is 84.0?(8)°. In the anion, the hydroxyl H atom is twisted slightly out of the ring plane with a C—C—O—H torsion angle of ?171.9°. Disorder was modeled for the methyl group of the acetate group in the solvate with an occupancy ratio of 0.583?(15): 0.417?(15). In the crystal, O—H?O hydrogen bonds are observed between cations and between cations and anions, while bifuricated N—H?(O,O) cation–anion hydrogen bonds are also present, forming chains along [010] and [100]. In addition weak cation–anion and cation–solvate C—H?O inter­actions occur.

Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Butcher, Ray J.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Byrappa, K.

2013-01-01

133

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2010-01-01

134

21 CFR 172.833 - Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). 172.833...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.833 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB). Sucrose acetate isobutyrate may be safely used in...

2009-04-01

135

Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum strain deficient in acetate production.  

PubMed Central

A mutant of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum that is blocked in acetate production was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and selection for fluoroacetate resistance. The mutant produced more ethanol than the parent strain did.

Rothstein, D M

1986-01-01

136

Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414651

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-04

137

Fragrance material review on anisyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and phototoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414654

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-03

138

Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-05

139

Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. Discussion Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

Maxwell, Christina R.; Spangenberg, Rebecca Jay; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

2010-01-01

140

Factors Affecting Acetate Degradation in Anaerobic Digesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetate is the major source of methane produced in anaerobic digestion, accounting for about two thirds of all the methane produced. The major methanogenic bacteria responsible for this reaction are /ital Methanosarcina barkeri/ and /ital Methanosarcina m...

R. A. Mah D. R. Boone

1988-01-01

141

Dioxouranium (VI) complexes with cellulose acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dioxouranium [UO2(VI)] complexes with three degrees of substitution of cellulose acetate, prepared from viscose pulp (DS = 2.2, 2.45 and 2.86), have been synthesis and characterized. Degree of substitution (DS) is defined as the average number of CH groups substituted on each anhydrocellulose repeat unit. Probable structures of the cellulose acetate complexes were inferred from the elemental analysis data, conductance

Altaf H. Basta; Wafaa M. Hosny

1998-01-01

142

Minimizing acetate formation in E. coli fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli remains the best-established production organism in industrial biotechnology. However, when aerobic fermentation runs at\\u000a high growth rates, considerable amounts of acetate are accumulated as by-product. This by-product has negative effects on\\u000a growth and protein production. Over the last 20 years, substantial research efforts have been expended on reducing acetate\\u000a accumulation during aerobic growth of E. coli on glucose. From

Marjan De Mey; Sofie De Maeseneire; Wim Soetaert; Erick Vandamme

2007-01-01

143

Delignification of Bagasse with Acetic Acid and Ozone. Part 1. Acetic Acid Pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-stage delignification of sugarcane bagasse with acetic acid and ozone was investigated. The better pulp was obtained pulping bagasse in aqueous solution of acetic acid (80% volume) at 145°C during 60 min. The liquor\\/bagasse ratio (L\\/B) was 10:1 and the kappa number was 44; it fell to 10 in the ozone stage due to selectivity of acetic acid medium. Pulp

H. Contreras Q; Z. A. Nagieb; R. Sanjuán D

1997-01-01

144

Characterization of the Acetate Binding Pocket in the Methanosarcina thermophila Acetate Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate kinase catalyzes the reversible magnesium-dependent synthesis of acetyl phosphate by transfer of the ATP -phosphoryl group to acetate. Inspection of the crystal structure of the Methanosarcina thermophila en- zyme containing only ADP revealed a solvent-accessible hydrophobic pocket formed by residues Val93, Leu122, Phe179, and Pro232 in the active site cleft, which identified a potential acetate binding site. The hypothesis

Cheryl Ingram-Smith; Andrea Gorrell; Sarah H. Lawrence; Prabha Iyer; Kerry Smith; James G. Ferry

2005-01-01

145

Non-aceticlastic methanogenesis from acetate: acetate oxidation by a thermophilic syntrophic coculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanogenesis from acetate by a rod-shaped enrichment culture grown at 60° C was found to require the presence of two organisms rather than a single aceticlastic methanogen. A thermophilic Methanobacterium which grew on H2\\/CO2 or formate was isolated from the enrichment. Lawns of this methanogen were used to co-isolate an “acetate oxidizer” in roll tubes containing acetate agar. The rod-shaped

Stephen H. Zinder; Markus Koch

1984-01-01

146

Acetate Oxidation Is the Dominant Methanogenic Pathway from Acetate in the Absence of Methanosaetaceae†  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of acetate to hydrogen, and the subsequent conversion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to methane, has been regarded largely as a niche mechanism occurring at high temperatures or under inhibitory conditions. In this study, 13 anaerobic reactors and sediment from a temperate anaerobic lake were surveyed for their dominant methanogenic population by using fluorescent in situ hybridization and for the degree of acetate oxidation relative to aceticlastic conversion by using radiolabeled [2-14C]acetate in batch incubations. When Methanosaetaceae were not present, acetate oxidation was the dominant methanogenic pathway. Aceticlastic conversion was observed only in the presence of Methanosaetaceae.

Karakashev, Dimitar; Batstone, Damien J.; Trably, Eric; Angelidaki, Irini

2006-01-01

147

Oxidation of 3- and 4-carenes with mercuric acetate in acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the oxidation of 3-carene with Hg(OAc)2 in acetic acid at 23 and 86°, and with (HgOAc)2 at 90°. The action of both of the oxidizing agents leads to the same acetylative oxidation products: the acetates of p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol and p-mentha-1(7),5-dien-8-ol.2.The products of the oxidation of 4-carene with Hg(OAc)2 in acetic acid at 20° contain the acetates

B. A. Arbuzov; V. V. Ratner; Z. G. Isaeva; É. Kh. Kazakova; M. G. Belyaeva

1971-01-01

148

Friction and wear behaviour of acetal and nylon gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper will present an extensive investigation of polymer gear (acetal and nylon) friction and wear behaviour. First, a unique test method for polymer gear wear will be described in brief and later used in the extensive investigation of acetal and nylon gear wear. Initial tests were performed using acetal pinions with acetal gears, and nylon pinions with nylon

K. Mao; W. Li; C. J. Hooke; D. Walton

2009-01-01

149

Calcination of calcium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate: effect of the reacting atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcination process of the calcium acetate (CA) and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was investigated as a previous step for coal gas desulfurisation during sorbent injection at high temperatures because the excellent results demonstrated by these sorbents as sulfur removal agents both in combustion and gasification processes. As pore structure developed during calcination is one of the most important characteristic

J. Adánez; L. F. de Diego; F. Garc??a-Labiano

1999-01-01

150

Determination of odour detection thresholds for acetic acid and ethyl acetate in ice wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collectively acetic acid and ethyl acetate are responsible for ‘volatile acidity’ (VA) in wine. The detection limit or threshold for these compounds is well documented in table wine but not for ice wine. Knowledge of the ice wine thresholds is important for understanding perception limits and setting legal standards, particularly for a product with high intrinsic concentrations. Thresholds were determined

Margaret A. Cliff; Gary J. Pickering

2006-01-01

151

Factors affecting acetate degradation in anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Acetate is the major source of methane produced in anaerobic digestion, accounting for about two thirds of all the methane produced. The major methanogenic bacteria responsible for this reaction are )ital Methanosarcina barkeri) and )ital Methanosarcina mazei). One strain of each of these bacteria was selected for this study, in which the effect of molecular hydrogen on acetate dissimilation was examined. We examined the effects that hydrogen concentration had on the active growth of aceticlastic (acetate-splitting) cultures. We found that, during steady-state growth, each of these methanogens ()ital M. barkeri) or )ital M. mazei)) could tolerate a wide range of hydrogen concentrations with little change in their rates of acetate degradation. At hydrogen partial pressures as low as 2 Pa and as high as 800 Pa no change was detected in the growth rate or acetate degradation rate of either of these methanogens. However, we also showed that small amounts of hydrogen were produced or consumed by )ital Methanosarcina) in order to bring the hydrogen concentration in their environment to a pressure of 16 to 92 Pa, similar to that found in anaerobic digestors.

Mah, R.A.; Boone, D.R.

1988-01-01

152

Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus "Acetomonas" was described in 1954 for strains with polar flagellation and no oxidation of acetate. The proposals of the two generic names were due to confusion, and "Acetomonas" was a junior subjective synonym of Gluconobacter. The genus Acetobacter was in 1984 divided into two subgenera, Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter. The latter was elevated to the genus Gluconacetobacter in 1998. In the acetic acid bacteria, ten genera are presently recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacteer, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia and Granulibacter. In contrast, the genus Frateuria, strains of which were once named 'pseudacetic acid bacteria', was classified into the Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Gluconacetobacter was phylogenetically divided into two groups: the Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens group and the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. The two groups were discussed taxonomically. PMID:18199517

Yamada, Yuzo; Yukphan, Pattaraporn

2007-12-05

153

Lithographic properties of novel acetal-derivatized hydroxy styrene polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithographic properties of a variety of acetal-derivatized styrene based polymers are reported. The structural modifications in the polymers involve varying the size of the pendent acetal moiety. the lithographic performances of the resists containing structurally modified acetals were found to be superior to the conventional acetals. In the cases where the acidolysis products of the modified acetals are non-volatile alcohols, the post-exposure volatilization, film shrinkage and plasma etch resistance were found to be significantly improved.

Malik, Sanjay; Blakeney, Andrew J.; Ferreira, Lawrence; Maxwell, Brian; Whewell, Allyn; Sarubbi, Thomas R.; Bowden, Murrae J.; van Driessche, Willy; Fujimori, Toru; Tan, Shiro; Aoai, Toshiaki; Uenishi, Kazuya; Kawabe, Yasumasa; Kokubo, Tadayoshi

1999-05-01

154

Megestrol acetate-induced adrenal insufficiency.  

PubMed

Megestrol acetate is a synthetic progestin that has been used since the 1970s for the treatment of advanced cancer and subsequently to treat anorexia, cachexia and weight loss in AIDS patients. It has been shown that high doses or prolonged treatment with this drug may cause Cushing's syndrome, new-onset diabetes and suppression of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels. Megestrol acetate may cause suppression of the pituitary-adrenal axis due to the affinity of this compound for the glucocorticoid receptor. Recognising the glucocorticoid-like activity of megestrol and its effects at the axis level is important for the diagnosis of sub-clinical adrenal insufficiency. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma refractory to prolonged hormonal treatment with megestrol acetate, presenting with adrenal insufficiency. PMID:18411198

González Villarroel, Paula; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Páramo, Concepción; Gentil González, Marta; Carnero López, Beatriz; Vázquez Tuñas, M Lidia; Carrasco Alvarez, Juan A

2008-04-01

155

The Reactions of Acetals with Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning the composition of the products of the ozonisation of acetals, the stoichiometry of the process, and the influence of substituents and the structure of acetals on their reactivity, the effect of the polarity of the medium, the activation parameters for the process, and the kinetic isotope effects are surveyed and analysed. At lowered temperatures the process proceeds via a heterolytic mechanism, while with increase of temperature the fraction of ozone consumed due to the formation of free radicals rises. The bibliography includes 60 references.

Rakhmankulov, D. L.; Kuramshin, E. M.; Zlotskii, S. S.

1985-06-01

156

Catalysis of an isotopic exchange between CO 2 and the carboxyl group of acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri grown on acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri (strain Fusaro) grown on acetate were found to catalyze the formation of methane and CO2 from acetate (30–40 nmol\\/min·mg protein) and an isotopic exchange between the carboxyl group of acetate and 14CO2 (30–40 nmol\\/min·mg protein). An isotopic exchange between [14C]-formate and acetate was not observed. Cells grown on methanol mediated neither methane formation from acetate

Bernhard Eikmanns; Rudolf K. Thauer

1984-01-01

157

Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in refractory focal epilepsy with and without comorbid anxiety disorders - Results of an open-label, parallel group, investigator-initiated, proof-of-concept study.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are prevalent in people with epilepsy and severely influence daily living and quality of life. Pregabalin (PGB) is licensed in Germany for the add on-treatment of focal epilepsy and for generalized anxiety disorder in adults. To our knowledge, PGB has not been studied before in patients with epilepsy and comorbid anxiety disorder. We included 41 adult patients with focal epilepsy in a monocentric, noncontrolled open-label study adding up to 600mg of PGB to an antiepileptic baseline medication. Patients were allocated to two groups: patients with epilepsy plus anxiety disorder (EAG) and patients with epilepsy only (EOG). Endpoints were responder rate, seizure frequency, adverse events, and anxiety symptoms. The responder rate in the EAG was higher compared to that in the EOG (per protocol population: 9 [75.0%] vs. 2 [12.5%], p=0.001). Improvements in several psychological scales were found. PMID:24012505

Brandt, Christian; Schoendienst, Martin; Trentowska, Monika; Schrecke, Mario; Fueratsch, Nora; Witte-Boelt, Karin; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd; May, Theodor W

2013-09-05

158

Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

159

The PVT Properties of Acetic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PVT properties of acetic acid in the saturated and single-phase regions were measured at temperatures between 448.15 and 603.15 K, at pressures up to about 10 MPa. The experimental results were corrected for decomposition of the sample.

D. A. Lee G. B. Lewis I. J. Lawrenson

1977-01-01

160

Calcium Magnesium Acetate Production and Cost Reduction,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) has been found to be a much less corrosive and environmentally safer substance for effective highway de-icing. However, CMA costs are currently about $640 per ton, while road salt costs $25 per ton. In addition, present CMA...

A. P. Leuschner

1988-01-01

161

Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414644

McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-05

162

Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-03

163

Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445840

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-15

164

Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22421639

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-06

165

Fermentative biohydrogen production from lactate and acetate.  

PubMed

In this study, a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with lactate and acetate was operated to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. By varying the influent substrate concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRT), the volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 55.64 kg-COD/m(3)/day seemed to be optimum for this enriched culture for fermentative hydrogen production from lactate and acetate. The results of batch experiments confirmed that the enriched culture tended to fulfill the e(-) equiv requirement for cell growth at a lower VLR condition (21.77 kg-COD/m(3)/day), while it could largely distribute the e(-) equiv for hydrogen production at a higher VLR condition. However, a maximum lactate/acetate concentration allowed for enriching this culture existed, especially at a lower HRT condition in which wash-out can be an issue for this enriched culture. Finally, the results of cloning and sequencing indicated that Clostridium tyrobutyricum was considered the major hydrogen-producing bacteria in the CSTR fed with lactate and acetate. PMID:22318084

Wu, Chao-Wei; Whang, Liang-Ming; Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Chan, Kan-Chi

2012-01-05

166

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

167

Sisal cellulose whiskers reinforced polyvinyl acetate nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sisal nanowhiskers were used as novel reinforcement to obtain nanocomposites with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) as matrix phase. They are seen as attractive materials due to the widespread availability and low cost of the sisal source material. Statistical analysis of the sisal whisker length and diameter resulted in average values of 250 nm and 4 nm, respectively, resulting in an average aspect ratio

Nancy Lis Garcia de Rodriguez; Wim Thielemans; Alain Dufresne

2006-01-01

168

Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)|

Hocking, M. B.

1980-01-01

169

Nasal pungency, odor, and eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates.  

PubMed

We measured detection thresholds for nasal pungency (in anosmics), odor (in normosmics) and eye irritation employing a homologous series of acetates: methyl through octyl acetate, decyl and dodecyl acetate. All anosmics reliably detected the series up to heptyl acetate. Only the anosmics without smell since birth (congenital) reliably detected octyl acetate, and only one congenital anosmic detected decyl and dodecyl acetate. Anosmics who lost smell from head trauma proved to be selectively less sensitive. As expected, odor thresholds lay well below pungency thresholds. Eye irritation thresholds for selected acetates came close to nasal pungency thresholds. All three types of thresholds decreased logarithmically with carbon chain length, as previously seen with homologous alcohols and as seen in narcotic and toxic phenomena. Results imply that nasal pungency for these stimuli rests upon a physical, rather than chemical, interaction with susceptible mucosal structures. When expressed as thermodynamic activity, nasal pungency thresholds remain remarkably constant within and across the homologous series of acetates and alcohols. PMID:1763117

Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

1991-08-01

170

21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate....

2013-04-01

171

Draft Guidance on Calcium Acetate Active ingredient: Calcium ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Calcium Acetate ... Active ingredient: Calcium Acetate Form/Route: Tablets/Oral ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

172

Studies on an acetate-fermenting strain of Methanosarcina.  

PubMed Central

An acetate-fermenting strain of Methanosarcina was isolated from an acetate enrichment culture inoculated with anaerobic sludge from a waste treatment digestor. In pure culture, this organism fermented acetate in the absence of added hydrogen at rates comparable in magnitude to those found in digestor systems. This rate was significantly higher than previously obtained for pure cultures of this genus. Mineral components of yeast extract were highly stimulatory for cultures growing on methanol. Comparable stimulation was not observed for cultures growing on acetate. Labeling studies indicated that acetate was converted to methane and CO2 as predicted by previous studies on mixed cultures. Total oxidation or reduction of acetate was not the mechanism of conversion of acetate to methane by the pure culture. The ability of this strain to form colonies or to produce methane from acetate was apparently influenced by the choice of substrate and conditions used for growing the inoculum. Images

Mah, R A; Smith, M R; Baresi, L

1978-01-01

173

Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives.  

PubMed

The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate. PMID:24062838

Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik; Liu, Rai-Shung

2013-08-27

174

Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives  

PubMed Central

Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate.

Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

2013-01-01

175

Contribution of acetate to butyrate formation by human faecal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate is normally regarded as an endproduct of anaerobic fermentation, but butyrate-producing bacteria found in the human colon can be net utilisers of acetate. The butyrate formed provides a fuel for epithelial cells of the large intestine and influences colonic health. (1-13C)Acetate was used to investigate the contribution of exogenous acetate to butyrate formation. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. grown

Sylvia H. Duncan; Grietje Holtrop; Gerald E. Lobley; A. Graham Calder; Colin S. Stewart; Harry J. Flint

2004-01-01

176

Effect of trimethylamine on acetate utilization by Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

During growth of Methanosarcina barkeri strain Fusaro on a mixture of trimethylamine and acetate, methane production and acetate consumption were biphasic. In the first phase trimethylamine (33 mmol x l-1) was depleted and some acetate (11–14 from 50 mmol x l-1) was metabolized simultaneously. In the second phase the remaining acetate was cleaved stoichiometrically into CH4 and CO2. Kinetic experiments

Michael Blaut; Gerhard Gottschalk

1982-01-01

177

Separating acetic acid from furol (furfural) by electrodialysis method  

SciTech Connect

Furfural production by hydrolysis of fibrous plant materials is accompanied by formation of acetic acid in amounts depending on the material used. The amount of acetic formed in the hydrolysis of the fruit shell of oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleosa) (an oilseed-bearing tree) is equal to the amount of furfural. The acetic acid can be separated from the furfural and concentrated to 10% by electrodialysis. A smaller amount of furfural is separated with acetic acid.

Guan, S.F.; Li, C.S. Ye, S.T.; Shen, S.Y.; Wang, Y.T.; Yu, S.H.

1981-01-01

178

Interferon beta and glatiramer acetate therapy.  

PubMed

Interferon beta and glatiramer acetate have been mainstays of treatment in relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis for two decades. Remarkable advances in our understanding of immune function and dysfunction as well as increasingly sophisticated clinical trial design have stemmed from efforts to better understand these drugs. In this chapter, we review the history of their development and elaborate on known and theorized mechanisms of action. We describe the pivotal clinical trials that have led to their widespread use. We evaluate the clinical use of the drugs including tolerability, side effects, and efficacy measures. Finally, we look to the future of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate in the context of an ever growing armamentarium of treatments for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. PMID:23264098

McGraw, Corey A; Lublin, Fred D

2013-01-01

179

Assessment Guidelines for Managing Cellulose Acetate Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created this document. It provides assistance in identification of cellulose acetate (vs. other similar materials) and establishes criteria to assess condition, cultural importance, and use within the library or storage context. The document guides readers through the first step in a strategy for preserving these collections.

2001-01-01

180

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Activated protein C concentrate, Ad-CD154, Adeno-Interferon gamma, alemtuzumab, APC-8024, 9-aminocamptothecin, aprepitant, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arsenic trioxide, asimadoline; O6-Benzylguanine, bevacizumab, Bi-20, binodenoson, biphasic insulin aspart, bivatuzumab, 186Re-bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, bryostatin 1; Carboxy- amidotriazole, caspofungin acetate, CB-1954, CC-4047, CDP-860, cerivastatin sodium, clevidipine, CTL-102; 3,4-DAP, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, desloratadine, DHA-paclitaxel, duloxetine hydrochloride; Efalizumab, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, eniluracil, ENMD-0997, eplerenone, eplivanserin, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, FR-901228, FTY-720; Gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gepirone hydrochloride; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, iodine (I131) tositumomab, ISV-205, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, linezolid, liposomal NDDP, lonafarnib, lopinavir, LY-156735; Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt, magnesium sulfate, maxacalcitol, meclinertant, melagatran, melatonin, MENT, mepolizumab, micafungin sodium, midostaurin, motexafin gadolinium; Nesiritide, NS-1209, NSC-601316, NSC-683864; Osanetant; Palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegylated OB protein, pemetrexed disodium, perillyl alcohol, picoplatin, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plevitrexed, polyglutamate paclitaxel, posurdex, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin; Rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, rostaporfin, rosuvastatin calcium; SDZ-SID-791, sibrotuzumab, sorafenib, SU-11248; Tadalafil, targinine, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, TheraCIM, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tirapazamine, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Ximelagatran; Zofenopril calcium, Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:15071612

Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

2004-03-01

181

36 CFR 1232.24 - Unstable cellulose-acetate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Unstable cellulose-acetate film. 1232.24 Section 1232.24...MANAGEMENT Audiovisual Records Management § 1232.24 Unstable cellulose-acetate film. Cellulose-acetate film,...

2009-07-01

182

Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

2011-01-01

183

Acetic acid vapor levels associated with facial prosthetics  

SciTech Connect

The use of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A in the fabrication of facial prostheses may cause health hazards to the patient and the operator because of acetic acid emissions. Caution must be exercised to remove acetic acid vapors from the air and unliberated acetic acid from material applied directly to the skin.

McElroy, T.H.; Guerra, O.N.; Lee, S.A.

1985-01-01

184

21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

185

Kinetics of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate. [Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition of the fermentation of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by acetate was analyzed with an acetate-acclimatized sludge and with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro under mesophilic conditions. A second-order substrate inhibition model, q{sub CH{sub 4}} = q{sub m}S/(K{sub s} + S + (S{sup 2}/K{sub i})), where S was the concentration of undissociated acetic acid, not ionized acetic acid, could be applicable in both cases. The analysis resulted in substrate saturation constants, K{sub s}, of 4.0 {mu}M for the acclimatized sludge and 104 {mu}M for M. barkeri. The threshold concentrations of undissociated acetic acid when no further acetate utilization was observed were 0.078 {mu}M (pH 7.50) for the acclimatized sludge and 4.43 {mu}M (pH 7.45) for M. barkeri. These kinetic results suggested that the concentration of undissociated acetic acid became a key factor governing the actual threshold acetate concentration for acetate utilization and that the acclimatized sludge in which Methanothrix spp. appeared dominant could utilize acetate better and survive at a lower concentration of undissociated acetic acid than could M. barkeri.

Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nagai, Shiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

1990-10-01

186

PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF WATER-SOLUBLE STARCH ACETATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch acetates of degree of substitution (DS) 0-1.5 were prepared by heating dry corn starch, acetic acid and acetic anhydride in sealed 60 ul vessels at 180 degree C for 5 minutes. These reactions appeared to be homogeneous (clear) and proceeded to completion without added catalyst. Starch aceta...

187

Pathway of acetate assimilation in autotrophic and heterotrophic methanococci.  

PubMed Central

The autotroph Methanococcus maripaludis contained high levels of acetate-coenzyme A ligase, pyruvate synthase, pyruvate, water dikinase, pyruvate carboxylase, and the enzymes of the incomplete reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, citrate synthase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase were not detected. In contrast, the heterotroph Methanococcus sp. strain A3 contained acetate kinase, and acetate coenzyme A ligase was virtually absent.

Shieh, J S; Whitman, W B

1987-01-01

188

Pathway of acetate assimilation in autotrophic and heterotrophic methanococci.  

PubMed

The autotroph Methanococcus maripaludis contained high levels of acetate-coenzyme A ligase, pyruvate synthase, pyruvate, water dikinase, pyruvate carboxylase, and the enzymes of the incomplete reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, citrate synthase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase were not detected. In contrast, the heterotroph Methanococcus sp. strain A3 contained acetate kinase, and acetate coenzyme A ligase was virtually absent. PMID:3667534

Shieh, J S; Whitman, W B

1987-11-01

189

Preparation and selective hydrolysis of acetal esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  Medium chain length aldehydic acids and esters (C8-C13) were synthesized by ozonolysis of readily available cyclic and straight chain alkenoate esters followed by rearrangement\\u000a or reduction of the ozonide. The acetal esters, prepared by reaction of the aldehydic acids with CH3OH-HC1, were characterized by gas liquid chromatography, proton magnetic resonance, carbon magnetic resonance, thin layer\\u000a chromatography, and infrared analysis.

R. O. Adlof; W. E. Neff; E. A. Emken; E. H. Pryde

1977-01-01

190

Effect of ethyl acetate on carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of pulp produced in aqueous acetic acid pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in carbohydrate components and the crystalline structure in hemp bast\\u000a fibers by adding ethyl acetate to acetic acid\\/water pulping processes. It was found that ethyl acetate added to acetic acid\\/water\\u000a process had a positive effect on yield, viscosity and carbohydrate components in pulp. It was assumed that the delignification\\u000a ratio

Esat Gümü?kaya; Mustafa Usta; Mualla Balaban Uçar

2009-01-01

191

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether, methyl acetate, and ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A static apparatus was applied to measure isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for binary and ternary mixtures composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl acetate, and ethyl acetate at temperatures from 353 K to 373 K. Maximum pressure azeotropes were exhibited in the MTBE + methyl acetate system. All the binary data passed thermodynamic consistency tests. Data reduction was made

Ming-Jer Lee; Chien-Chih Hsiao; Ho-mu Lin

1997-01-01

192

Recovery of very dilute acetic acid using ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

Acetic and related acids occur in many industrial wastewaters, often mixed with several other classes of organic compounds. Acetic acid can be recovered from 1% solutions using weakly basic ion exchange resins. The acid is adsorbed by the free-base form of the resin, which can then be eluted using a slurry of lime to give a solution of calcium acetate. This solution could either be evaporated to crystallize calcium acetate or reacted with sulfuric acid to form acetic acid and gypsum. Laboratory tests of the proposed process gave product solutions of 15--20% acetic acid using pure 1% acetic acid as feed. Some measurements using a typical industrial effluent gave similar recoveries and showed that there was no initial fouling of the resins.

Cloete, F.L.D.; Marais, A.P. [Univ. of Stellenbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-07-01

193

[Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].  

PubMed

Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly. PMID:23379161

Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

2012-12-01

194

Calcium Magnesium Acetate at Lower-Production Cost: Production of CMA Deicer from Cheese Whey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), a mixture of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, is used as an environmentally benign roadway deicer. The present commercial CMA deicer made from glacial acetic acid and dolomitic lime or limestone is expensive compared...

H. Zhu S. T. Yang W. Qin Y. Huang Y. L. Huang Z. Jin

1999-01-01

195

Roseovarius sp. strain 217: aerobic taurine dissimilation via acetate kinase and acetate-CoA ligase.  

PubMed

The genome sequence of Roseovarius sp. strain 217 indicated that many pathway enzymes found in other organisms for the degradation of taurine are represented, but that a novel, apparently energy-dependent pathway is involved in the conversion of acetyl phosphate to acetyl CoA. Thus, an ABC transporter for taurine could be postulated, while inducible taurine: pyruvate aminotransferase, alanine dehydrogenase, sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase and sulfite dehydrogenase could be assayed. Whereas phosphate acetyltransferase has been found in other organisms, none was indicated in the genome sequence and no activity was found in cell-free extracts. Instead, acetate kinase was active as was acetate-CoA ligase. PMID:17425660

Baldock, Marijke I; Denger, Karin; Smits, Theo H M; Cook, Alasdair M

2007-04-10

196

Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.

Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

2011-01-01

197

Acetals of lactams and acid amides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the synthesis of one-, two-, and three-ring compounds from enamides and enamino ketones was investigated. Thus the reaction of a-cyano-ß-dimethylaminoacrylamide with guanidine gave 2, 4-diamino-5-carbamidopyrimidine, the cyclization of which with dimethylformamide acetal and subsequent hydrolysis gave 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-5-oxopyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine. An enamino ketone — 1-benzoyl-2-dimethylamino-2-methylethylene — was subjected to condensation with guanidine, thiourea, and acetamidine, as a result of

O. Ya. Belyaeva; V. G. Granik; R. G. Glushkov; T. F. Vlasova; O. S. Anisimova

1978-01-01

198

4-Meth-oxy-benzamidinium acetate.  

PubMed

The title compound, C8H11N2O(+)·CH3CO2(-), was synthesized by a reaction between 4-meth-oxy-benzamidine (4-amidino-anisole) and acetic acid. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 11.65?(17)° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. The ionic components are associated in the crystal via N-H(+)?O(-) hydrogen bonds, resulting in a one-dimensional structure consisting of dimers and catemers and orientated approximately along the c axis. PMID:23468790

Irrera, Simona; Portalone, Gustavo

2012-11-03

199

4-Meth-oxy-benzamidinium acetate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C8H11N2O+·CH3CO2 ?, was synthesized by a reaction between 4-meth­oxy­benzamidine (4-amidino­anisole) and acetic acid. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 11.65?(17)° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. The ionic components are associated in the crystal via N—H+?O? hydrogen bonds, resulting in a one-dimensional structure consisting of dimers and catemers and orientated approximately along the c axis.

Irrera, Simona; Portalone, Gustavo

2012-01-01

200

Submillimeter wave spectrum of acetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new global study of the submillimeter wave spectrum of the lowest three torsional states of acetic acid (CH3COOH). New measurements involving torsion-rotation transitions with J up to 79 and Ka up to 44 have been carried out between 230 and 845 GHz using the submillimeter wave spectrometers in University of Cologne and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new data were combined with previously published measurements and fitted using the rho-axis-method torsion-rotation Hamiltonian. The final fit used 93 parameters to give an overall weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.85 for a dataset consisting of 7543, 6087, and 5171 transitions belonging, respectively, to the ground, first, and second excited torsional states and 1888 ?vt ? 0 transitions. This investigation presents more than a twofold expansion both in the J quantum number and frequency range coverage of the acetic acid spectrum. Numerous inter-torsional interactions have been observed. Furthermore, this is the highest J value ever treated with the rho-axis-method and provides a good test case for the theoretical model in use.

Ilyushin, Vadim V.; Endres, Christian P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Drouin, Brian J.

2013-08-01

201

Micro-mold fabrication using cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer materials offer numerous advantages including flexible, low cost large area displays, lightweight, easy processing, good compatibility with a variety of substrates, and easy for structural modifications. Recently electro-active polymers (EAP) have been attractive due to their potential advantages including ease of processing and control, mechanical flexibility, and economical advantage. Recently electro-active paper (EAPap) was discovered as a smart material and as an actuating material with ionic and piezoelectric effects. Before cellulose acetate (CA) micro-pattern fabrication, solvent effect of micro or nano-pore formation was investigated. Since the micropore scatter the visible light, micropores give negative effect to apply optical device. The solvent mixture of acetone/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) created large amount of micro or nanopores. The resulting films were not transparent. However, volatile single solvent (acetone) did not form pores and gave transparent film. The various shapes of photoresist, such as circle and honeycomb patterns, were fabricated onto the silicon wafer to use as the mold. Cellulose acetate (CA) was poured to the mold and peeled off from the mold. The resulting pattern exhibited uniform size of the circle or honeycomb shape without defect.

Cho, K. Y.; Lim, H. K.; Chen, Y.; Kim, Jaehwan; Kang, K. S.

2007-04-01

202

Dielectric relaxation of ? -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric loss spectra are reported for ? -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The ? -relaxation times, ?? , measured over a 190° range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured ?? . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature Tg show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the ? -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the ? process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the ? -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the ? -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the ? relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

Kaminski, K.; Maslanka, S.; Ziolo, J.; Paluch, M.; McGrath, K. J.; Roland, C. M.

2007-01-01

203

Development, validation and comparison of two microextraction techniques for the rapid and sensitive determination of pregabalin in urine and pharmaceutical formulations after ethyl chloroformate derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

The present article reports first time the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to extract pregabalin (PRG) from urine and pharmaceutical formulations followed by GC-MS analysis after ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization. PRG is an antiepileptic and analgesic drug, which is a structural analogue of ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA). It is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and neuropathic pain. Initially PRG was derivatized with ECF in the presence of pyridine at room temperature for 30s. Experimental parameters were investigated for derivatization, SPME and DLLME conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.019 ?g/ml and 0.063 ?g/ml for SPME and 0.022 ?g/ml and 0.075 ?g/ml for DLLME respectively. The percentage recovery, in case of SPME was in the range of 83-98% while for DLLME it is in the range of 84-98%. The intra and inter-day precisions were found to be less than 6%. The developed methods after ECF derivatization were found to be simple, fast, efficient and inexpensive. DLLME has several advantages like lesser extraction time and cost effectiveness as compared to SPME. The developed methods may find wide application for the routine determination of PRG in biological as well as in quality control samples of pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22677651

Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Fatima, Ghizal; Malhotra, Ekta; Murthy, R C

2012-05-11

204

Acetate absorption and metabolism in the rabbit hindgut.  

PubMed Central

Acetate disappearance from the loops of the hindgut in the rabbit was evaluated by measuring variations in the concentration of acetate in caecocolonic loops and differences in the arterial and venous plasma. In vivo metabolism in gut and liver tissues was studied after introduction of (1-14C) acetate into caecocolonic loops. The rate of disappearance from the loops was quantitatively significant and showed little variation irrespective of the location in the hindgut. Hindgut tissue metabolised acetate and the intensity of the metabolism varied with the segment studied. The distal position of the gut showed by far the highest acetate uptake. Radioactivity was found in a certain number of free amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. Acetate was mainly converted into aspartate and glutamate. These can be considered as 'stock forms' which can be diverted either towards oxidative metabolism or towards protein synthesis. Images Fig. 1

Marty, J F; Vernay, M Y; Abravanel, G M

1985-01-01

205

Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) on ovarian radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is a drug that is commonly given to young women with cancer during chemotherapy and radiation to control heavy bleeding associated with anovulation. Because hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian suppression has been associated with ovarian protection from the effects of chemotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been identified as a radiosensitizing agent, we explored the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on a rat model with known radiation injury characteristics. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or vehicle from day 22 to day 37 of life and were either irradiated or sham-irradiated on day 30 of life and then killed on day 44. Radiation with medroxyprogesterone acetate administration produced a greater loss in preantral and healthy control follicles than in control follicles. No suppression of luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone had occurred by day 30 but ovarian glutathione content was reduced. These findings indicate that the administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate with radiotherapy may enhance ovarian injury.

Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbec, L.

1989-04-01

206

The Role of Acetate in Dialysate for Hemodialysis: Acid-Base Homeostasis and Acetate Metabolism in Patients Treated by Chronic Hemodialysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sensitive and reproducible assay for acetate using gas chromatography has been used to investigate the rate of acetate metabolism in normal human subjects. Initially, it appeared that acetate metabolism could be predicted by a two compartment first orde...

M. W. Weiner

1977-01-01

207

Comparative study of recovering acetic acid with energy integrated schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat pumping and multi-effect distillation techniques were evaluated for recovering acetic acid from aqueous solutions with low boiling solvents, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc). The overhead vapour recompression and two types of column cascading techniques are compared to the conventional acetic acid recovery scheme. It was found that (1) by switching the solvent to MTBE, approximately

S. Kürüm; Z. Fonyo

1996-01-01

208

Genetic organization of Acetobacter for acetic acid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmid vectors for the acetic acid-producing strains ofAcetobacter andGluconobacter were constructed from their cryptic plasmids and the efficient transformation conditions were established. The systems allowed to reveal the genetic background of the strains used in the acetic acid fermentation. Genes encoding indispensable components in the acetic acid fermentation, such as alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and terminal oxidase, were cloned and

Teruhiko Beppu

1993-01-01

209

1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate as an inhibitor of phagocytosis of macrophages.  

PubMed

We screened extracts of edible plants for inhibitors of phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate macrophages. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Languas galanga, and this compound strongly inhibited phagocytosis at an IC50 value of 1.2 microM with negligible effects on pinocytosis and cell viability. Target(s) of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate was suggested to be downstream of the signal transduction pathway that is mediated by protein kinase C. PMID:7549106

Watanabe, N; Kataoka, T; Tajika, T; Uramoto, M; Magae, J; Nagai, K

1995-08-01

210

Thermal decomposition of acetate: III. Catalysis by mineral surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of thermal decarboxylation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid and sodium acetate were evaluated at 335 and 355[degrees]C in contact with various surfaces as potential catalysts. Quartz, fused quartz, calcite, natural pyrite, titanium oxide, and Au apparently do not catalyze aqueous decarboxylation reactions, in contrast to Pyrex, Ca-montmorillonite, Fe-bearing montmorillonite, hematite, synthetic pyrite, and magnetite. The dependence of the rate of acetic acid decarboxylation on the surface area of pyrite per unit solution volume was also studied. The results show that the decarboxylation of acetic acid and acetate is catalyzed heterogeneously, with the cleavage of the C-C bond occurring while the acetate molecule is adsorbed onto a surface. Entropies and enthalpies of activation obtained from these experiments are compatible with the isokinetic relationship established previously for acetic acid and acetate under similar experimental conditions, indicating the existence of a common rate-determining step. Experimental evidence indicates that oxidation of acetic acid can occur with hematite and defected magnetite. These oxidative decomposition reactions differ from the decarboxylation reaction in that CO[sub 2] and polycondensates are produced instead of CO[sub 2] and CH[sub 4].

Bell, J.L.S.; Barnes, H.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Palmer, D.A.; Drummond, S.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

1994-10-01

211

Radical-Chain Reactions of Acetals in Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results on the liquid-phase radical-chain reactions of acetals are summarised. Factors influencing the rate of formation, structure, and properties of free radicals generated from cyclic and linear acetals are discussed. Attention is paid mainly to the kinetics and the mechanism of the reactions of mono- and di-alkoxyalkyl radicals in solution. The relation between the structure of acetals and their reactivity towards various radicals is examined. Data are given illustrating the possibility of using homolytic liquid-phase reactions of acetals in organic synthesis. A list of 77 references is included.

Rakhmankulov, D. L.; Zlotskii, S. S.; Zorin, V. V.; Imashev, U. B.; Karakhanov, Robert A.

1981-08-01

212

21 CFR 522.1410 - Sterile methylprednisolone acetate suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acetate, as with other corticoids, is contraindicated in animals with arrested tuberculosis, peptic ulcer, and Cushing's syndrome. The presence of active tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, renal insufficiency,...

2009-04-01

213

Isomers of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and their biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Tocopheryl acetate, an ester of the naturally occurring form of vitamin E, has a biopotency of 1.66 IU\\/mg as determined\\u000a by bioassays based on biological function. On a similar basis, 2l-?-tocopheryl acetate, the 2-epimer of ?-tocopheryl acetate, has a biopotency of 0.35 IU\\/mg. Results of hemolysis bioassays\\u000a indicate relative activities of 1.53 and 0.56 for ?- and 2l-?-tocopheryl acetates, respectively,

Stanley R. Ames

1971-01-01

214

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol, ethanol, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and o-xylene at 101.3 kPa  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium was measured for the binary systems methanol + o-xylene, ethanol + o-xylene, methyl acetate + o-xylene and ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and for the multicomponent mixtures methanol + methyl acetate + o-xylene, ethanol + ethyl acetate + o-xylene, and methanol + ethanol + methyl acetate + ethyl acetate + o-xylene at 101.3 kPa. The Wilson and Van Laar models were compared with the UNIFAC method. Results show that the correlation was satisfactory.

Costa-Lopez, J.; Garvin, A.; Espana, F.J. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1995-09-01

215

Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.  

PubMed

Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

2012-02-29

216

Breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate  

PubMed Central

The preliminary results of a study of the incidence of breast cancer in relation to use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand, and one each in Kenya and Mexico. A relative risk for breast cancer of 0.7 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. Although no consistent decrease in risk with duration of use was observed, the lowest relative risk (0.5) was observed in women who had used DMPA for three or more years. These findings are based on small numbers and must be considered preliminary. However, they provide no evidence that DMPA increases the risk of breast cancer, and suggest that it may exert a protective effect, particularly in long-term users.

1985-01-01

217

Dihydro-myricetin hexa-acetate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C27H24O14, also known as 2,3-di­acetoxy-5-[(2RS,3RS)-3,5,7-triacetoxy-4-oxochromen-2-yl]phenyl acetate, the heterocyclic ring adopts a distorted half-chair conformation, with two C atoms displaced by 0.1775?(16) and ?0.5950?(16)?Å from the mean plane of the other four atoms. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 57.81?(8)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules inter­act by C—H?O bonds, aromatic ?–? stacking [centroid–centroid separation = 3.6206?(9)?Å] and C—H?? inter­actions.

Li, Wei; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Hook, James; Zhao, Jian

2010-01-01

218

Potassium acetate adds flexibility to drilling muds  

SciTech Connect

Potassium acetate (KC/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/, or simply KAC), since 1986, has proven effective as a drilling fluid additive in over 30 wells both onshore and offshore South Texas. KAC has given potassium-base drilling fluids more flexibility, improved efficiency, and offered an environmentally acceptable alternative to potassium chloride (KCl) muds. The use of soluble potassium in drilling fluids has been successful in controlling troublesome shales. The potassium ion has a stabilizing effect that inhibits the swelling and dispersion of water-sensitive shale formations. KAC is completely soluble in fresh or saltwater and provides 40%, by weight, potassium. This compares favorably with other potassium-containing materials.

Gillenwater, K.E.; Ray, C.R.

1989-03-20

219

Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au\\/MgAl2O4 and Au\\/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction conditions, yields of 90–95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on

Betina Jørgensen; Sofie Egholm Christiansen; Marie Louise Dahl Thomsen; Claus Hviid Christensen

2007-01-01

220

Fast Esterification of Acetic Acid with Short Chain Alcohols in Microchannel Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microchannel reactor was used for the fast synthesis of acetic acid esters, including methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, n-propyl acetate and n-butyl acetate. Effects of the inner diameter of microchannel reactors, dosage of catalyst, residence time, reaction temperature\\u000a and molar ratio of alcohol to acetic acid on yields of esters were studied in the p-toluene sulfonic acid-catalyzed homogeneous esterification of acetic

Xingjun Yao; Jianfeng Yao; Lixiong Zhang; Nanping Xu

2009-01-01

221

Oxidation of Indole-3-Acetic Acid to Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid by an Enzyme Preparation from Zea mays1  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, Dennis M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1988-01-01

222

Reduction of Aerobic Acetate Production by Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate excretion by Escherichia coli during aerobic growth on glucose is a major obstacle to enhanced recombinant protein production. We report here that the fraction of carbon flux through the anaplerotic pathways is one of the factors influencing acetate excretion. Flux analysis of E. coli central metabolic pathways predicts that increasing the fraction of carbon flux through the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

William R. Farmer; James C. Liao

1997-01-01

223

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw was made of the chemical com- position, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and fractionated into pulp

Xue-Jun PanYoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

224

Kinetics of Sulfate and Acetate Uptake by Desulfobacter postgatei  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of sulfate and acetate uptake was studied in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacter postgatei (DSM 2034). Kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were estimated from substrate consumption curves by resting cell suspensions with [35S]sulfate and [14C]acetate. Both sulfate and acetate consumption followed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. The half-saturation constant (Km) for acetate uptake was 70 ?M with cells from either long-term sulfate- or long-term acetate-limited chemostat cultures. The average Km value for sulfate uptake by D. postgatei was about 200 ?M. Km values for sulfate uptake did not differ significantly when determined with cells derived either from batch cultures or sulfate- or acetate-limited chemostat cultures. Acetate consumption was observed at acetate concentrations of ?1 ?M, whereas sulfate uptake usually ceased at 5 to 20 ?M. The results show that D. postgatei is not freely permeable to sulfate ions and further indicate that sulfate uptake is an energy-requiring process.

Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; J?rgensen, Bo B.

1984-01-01

225

Highly conductive composites of polyaniline with plasticized cellulose acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly transparent, conductive blends can be prepared from plasticized cellulose acetate and polyaniline protonated with sulphonic acids, phosphonic acids and phosphoric acid diesters. Films cast from m-cresol solution exhibit percolation threshold below 0.5 wt% and excellent mechanical properties of plasticized cellulose acetate.

A. Pro?; M. Zagorska; Y. Nicolau; F. Genoud; M. Nechtschein

1997-01-01

226

Heterocyclization reaction of propargyl acetate with ?-dicarbonyl compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regiochemistry of the reaction of propargyl acetate with CH acids in the presence of mercury(II) acetate in dimethylsulfoxide has been investigated. Derivatives of furan or unsaturated diketones were isolated depending on the nature of the 1,3-dicarbonyl and the possibility of reduction of the organomercury intermediate.

Sh. O. Badanyan; Zh. A. Chobanyan; M. R. Tirakyan; A. O. Danielyan

1998-01-01

227

Anaerobic thermophilic fermentation for acetic acid production from milk permeate.  

PubMed

Fermentation of milk permeate to produce acetic acid under anaerobic thermophilic conditions (approximately 60 degrees C) was studied. Although none of the known thermophilic acetogenic bacteria can ferment lactose, it has been found that one strain can use galactose and two strains can use lactate. Moorella thermoautotrophica DSM 7417 and M. thermoacetica DSM 2955 were able to convert lactate to acetate at thermophilic temperatures with a yield of approximately 0.93 g g(-1). Among the strains screened for their abilities to produce acetate and lactate from lactose, Clostridium thermolacticum DSM 2910 was found precisely to produce large amounts of lactate and acetate. However, it also produced significant amounts of ethanol, CO2 and H2. The lactate yield was affected by cell growth. During the exponential phase, acetate, ethanol, CO2 and H2 were the main products of fermentation with an equimolar acetate/ethanol ratio, whereas during the stationary phase, only lactic acid was produced with a yield of 4 mol per mol lactose, thus reaching the maximal theoretical value. When this bacterium was co-cultured with M. thermoautotrophica, lactose was first converted mainly to lactic acid, then to acetic acid, with a zero residual lactic acid concentration and an overall yield of acetate around 80%. Under such conditions, only 13% of the fermented lactose was converted to ethanol by C. thermolacticum. PMID:10784299

Talabardon, M; Schwitzguébel, J P; Péringer, P

2000-01-01

228

Anaerobic thermophilic fermentation for acetic acid production from milk permeate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation of milk permeate to produce acetic acid under anaerobic thermophilic conditions (?60°C) was studied. Although none of the known thermophilic acetogenic bacteria can ferment lactose, it has been found that one strain can use galactose and two strains can use lactate. Moorella thermoautotrophica DSM 7417 and M. thermoacetica DSM 2955 were able to convert lactate to acetate at thermophilic

Mylène Talabardon; Jean-Paul Schwitzguébel; Paul Péringer

2000-01-01

229

Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)|

Polichnowski, S. W.

1986-01-01

230

Methanogenic cleavage of acetate by lysates of Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Cell lysates of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri 227 were found to cleave acetate to CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/. The aceticlastic reaction was identified by using radioactive methyl-labeled acetate. Cell lysates decarboxylated acetate in a nitrogen atmosphere, conserving the methyl group in methane. The rate of methanogenesis from acetate in the cell lysates was comparable to that observed with whole cells. Aceticlastic activity was found in the particulate fraction separate from methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity, which occurs in the soluble fraction. Pronase treatment eliminated methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity in lysates and stimulated aceticlastic activity, indicating the aceticlastic activity was not derived from unbroken cells, which are unaffected by proteolytic treatment.

Baresi, L.

1984-10-01

231

Disorder effects in Mn(12)-acetate at 83 K.  

PubMed

The structure of hexadeca-mu-acetato-tetraaquadodeca-mu(3)-oxo-dodecamanganese bis(acetic acid) tetrahydrate, [Mn(12)O(12)(CH(3)COO)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] x 2CH(3)COOH x 4H(2)O, known as Mn(12)-acetate, has been determined at 83 (2) K by X-ray diffraction methods. The fourfold (S(4)) molecular symmetry is disrupted by a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the disordered acetic acid molecule of solvation, which displaces one of the acetate ligands in the cluster. Up to six Mn(12) isomers are potentially present in the crystal lattice, which differ in the number and arrangement of hydrogen-bonded acetic acid molecules. These results considerably improve the structural information available on this molecular nanomagnet, which was first synthesized and characterized by Lis [Acta Cryst. (1980), B36, 2042-2046]. PMID:12094030

Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio Costantino; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gatteschi, Dante; Barra, Anne-Laure; Daiguebonne, Carole; Roisnel, Thierry

2002-06-12

232

Methanogenic cleavage of acetate by lysates of Methanosarcina barkeri.  

PubMed Central

Cell lysates of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri 227 were found to cleave acetate to CH4 and CO2. The aceticlastic reaction was identified by using radioactive methyl-labeled acetate. Cell lysates decarboxylated acetate in a nitrogen atmosphere, conserving the methyl group in methane. The rate of methanogenesis from acetate in the cell lysates was comparable to that observed with whole cells. Aceticlastic activity was found in the particulate fraction seperate from methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity, which occurs in the soluble fraction. Pronase treatment eliminated methylcoenzyme M methylreductase activity in lysates and stimulated aceticlastic activity, indicating the aceticlastic activity was not derived from unbroken cells, which are unaffected by proteolytic treatment. Images

Baresi, L

1984-01-01

233

The clinical use of PET with 11C-acetate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to evaluate clinical applications of 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET). Acetate is quickly metabolized into acetyl-CoA in human cells. In this form it can either enter into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, thus producing energy, as happens in the myocardium, or participate in cell membrane lipid synthesis, as happens in tumor cells. 11C-acetate PET was originally employed in cardiology, to study myocardial oxygen metabolism. More recently it has also been used to evaluate myocardial perfusion, as well as in oncology. The first studies of 11C-acetate focused on its use in prostate cancer. Subsequently, 11C-acetate was studied in other urological malignancies, as well as renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer. Well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma represents an 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET pitfall, so many authors have proposed to use 11C-acetate in addition to 18F-FDG in studying this tumor. 11C-acetate PET has also been used in other malignancies, such as brain tumors and lung carcinoma. Some authors reported a few cases in which 11C-acetate PET incidentally found multiple myeloma or rare tumors, such as thymoma, multicentric angiomyolipoma of the kidney and cerebellopontine angle schwannoma. Lastly, 11C-acetate PET was also employed in a differential diagnosis case between glioma and encephalitis. The numerous studies on 11C-acetate have demonstrated that it can be used in cardiology and oncology with no contraindications apart from pregnancy and the necessity of a rapid scan. Despite its limited availability, this tracer can surely be considered to be a promising one, because of its versatility and capacity to even detect non 18F-FDG-avid neoplasm, such as differentiated lung cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma.

Grassi, Ilaria; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Morigi, Joshua James; Montini, Gian Carlo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

2012-01-01

234

Mechanical Properties and a Physical-Chemical Analysis of Acetate Yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate used in the manufacture of acetate yarns is commonly obtained from cotton-linters or wood-pulp cellulose. Varying in the origin and in the manufacturer, cellulose acetate often differs in its processability. The paper belongs to the investigation the properties of acetate yarns manufactured of the cellulose acetate varied in its origin and manufactured by different suppliers. Mechanical properties (including

R. emaitaitien?; A. Vitkauskas

235

The Structure and Thermodynamics of Cellulose Acetates.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulose acetate (CA) polymers having different degrees of substitution (DS) vary widely in their properties, such as glass transition, miscibility, chemical resistance, and gas permeation. These variations hint at differences in their molecular structure. We have systematically studied the variation in the molecular structure of CA with DS, utilizing small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS measurements were carried out in 1% (w/v) solutions in dDMSO (which is sufficiently dilute to avoid intermolecular scattering). The polymer chains display rigidity along their main chain and have persistence lengths in the range of 12 to 14 nm. The effect of DS on the extent of miscibility is explained on the basis of available intra-molecular hydrogen bonding sites along the polymer chain. SANS measurements were also carried out on 50-50(w/w) miscible blends of two sets of CA, where the difference in the DS between the polymers varied from 0.05 to 0.25. Random phase approximation analysis provides an estimate of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between the two polymers in the blend. The influence of both the amount of substitution and hydrogen bonding on the polymer miscibility will be discussed.

Dadmun, Mark; Mehta, Rujul; Lynn, Gary

2008-03-01

236

PHA based denitrification: municipal wastewater vs. acetate.  

PubMed

Denitrification of municipal wastewater based on bacterial storage polymers-Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) - was investigated in biofilm sequencing batch reactors, as a part of a two sludge system for wastewater treatment and in comparison to acetate based synthetic wastewater. The results show that PHA based denitrification (PBD) of real wastewater can be a viable alternative, especially for wastewater with low COD/N ratio, without the need for external carbon source addition. High nitrate removal capacity of about 40-50 mg N/L with a low COD/N requirement of about 4-5, were observed. It was found that entrapped particulate organic matter contributed additional reducing power, on top of the storage materials, thus allowing for the high nitrate reduction capacity. Daily removal rates were similar to those of extensive treatment systems (0.24-0.31 gr N/L reactor*d). Large differences in storage yield and composition between biomass grown on synthetic and municipal wastewater were observed. PMID:23395755

Krasnits, Eli; Beliavsky, Michael; Tarre, Sheldon; Green, Michal

2013-01-17

237

Eslicarbazepine acetate for partial-onset seizures.  

PubMed

Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that is chemically related to carbamazepine and partially metabolized to oxcarbazepine, has attracted attention as results of previous Phase II and III studies demonstrated and confirmed efficacy and tolerability of ESL 800 and 1200 mg once daily as add-on therapy for adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. In children, efficacy data point towards a dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency and tolerability analyses showed a low incidence of mild drug-related adverse effects at 5 and 15 mg/kg/day. The most frequently reported adverse effects were dizziness, somnolence, headache, diplopia, nausea and vomiting. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short/simple titration regimen in combination with a comparative efficacy and tolerability profile might promote ESL as a valid alternative to the current adjunctive antiepileptic drug therapy armamentarium for drug-resistant partial seizures in adults. Since clinical trials in children and adolescents on ESL efficacy and safety are ongoing and data already published are far from conclusive, the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population has to be established in the near future. PMID:22091592

Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

2011-12-01

238

Formate and acetate in monsoon rainwater of Agra, India  

SciTech Connect

Formate and acetate concentrations were estimated using ion chromatography in 19 precipitation samples collected on an eventwise basis during the monsoon season (July through September), 1991, at Dayalbagh, Agra. Volume-weighted average (VWA) concentrations for formate and acetate were 5.8 and 6.55 [mu]molL[sup [minus]1], respectively. The VWA hydrogen ion concentration was 0.084 [mu]eq L[sub [minus]1] (pH 7.07) and the correlation coefficient between the two ions was 0.85. The average formate to acetate ratio was low (0.88), possibly due to an increase in acetate contribution from direct emissions associated with heavy vehicular traffic load and/or indirect acetate formation by alkaline hydrolysis of PAN. Widespread local use of biomass as a domestic fuel may also contribute acetate. In 4 of the 19 precipitation events studied, higher values of both species were recorded. Contributions from soil in addition to vegetation, were suspected in these samples. Inputs from soil and combustion activities were supported by correlations among formate, acetate and Ca[sup 2+] (terrigenous species), K[sup +], SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

Kumar, N.; Kulshrestha, U.C.; Saxena, A.; Kumari, K.M.; Srivastava, S.S. (Dayalbagh Educational Inst., Agra (India))

1993-03-20

239

Antifungal activity of sodium acetate and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

PubMed

The inhibition of molds by sodium acetate in deMan Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium, along with the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1, was studied by the slope agar plate method. MRS agar prepared with and without sodium acetate was used as the agar substrate. A total of 42 strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Rhizopus were used to compare sensitivities to the inhibitory activity of sodium acetate and L. rhamnosus VT1. It was found that sodium acetate in MRS medium affected the growth of 33 of the 42 mold strains tested to various degrees. The highest sensitivity to sodium acetate was shown by strains of Fusarium, followed by strains of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus. L. rhamnosus VT1 also inhibited mold growth. A significant finding was that sodium acetate and L. rhamnosus VT1 in combination exhibited a possible synergistic action. Thirty-nine of the 42 mold strains tested were completely inhibited by the presence of both antifungal agents. This finding confirms that sodium acetate, a basic component of commercial MRS medium, has strong antifungal properties, and this must be taken into consideration when evaluating the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus cultures grown in MRS broth. PMID:12117257

Stiles, J; Penkar, S; Plocková, M; Chumchalová, J; Bullerman, L B

2002-07-01

240

21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. 177.1360...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT...Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS...

2013-04-01

241

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device...

2009-04-01

242

21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section... 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device...

2010-04-01

243

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22

244

Labeled acetate as a marker of astrocytic metabolism  

PubMed Central

Astrocytes have various important roles in brain physiology. To further elucidate the details of astrocytic functions under normal and pathological states, astrocyte-specific measurements are mandatory. For studying brain energy metabolism, the use of the astrocyte-specific energy substrate acetate has proven to be of great value. Since the first applications of labeled acetate for brain studies about 50 years ago, numerous methodologies have been developed and employed in compartment-specific investigations of brain metabolism. Here, we provide an overview of these different methodological approaches and review studies employing acetate labeled with the most commonly used carbon isotopes.

Wyss, Matthias T; Magistretti, Pierre J; Buck, Alfred; Weber, Bruno

2011-01-01

245

The antibacterial activity and stability of acetic acid.  

PubMed

Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against micro-organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined the activity against a range of bacterial pathogens and also assessed any reduction in antibacterial activity due to evaporation or inactivation by organic material in dressings. Acetic acid was active at dilutions as low as 0.166% and the activity was not reduced by evaporation nor by inactivation by cotton swabs. Burn injuries are a major problem in countries with limited resources. Acetic acid is an ideal candidate for use in patients who are treated in those parts of the world. PMID:23747099

Fraise, A P; Wilkinson, M A C; Bradley, C R; Oppenheim, B; Moiemen, N

2013-06-07

246

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP.

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

2003-01-01

247

Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide  

PubMed Central

The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications.

Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

2013-01-01

248

Electrical Conduction Mechanism and Optical Properties of Polyvinyl Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Propionate Blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Films of Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) homopolymers and their blends of compositions 0.85/0.15, 0.7/0.3, 0.5/0.5, 0.3/0.7 and 0.15/0.85 (wt/wt) were prepared to investigate the type of electrical conduction mechanism. The current-voltage characteristics have been studied under different conditions. Also, ultraviolet/visible spectra of all samples have been studied according to their different composition ratios. The conduction mechanisms at different temperatures and voltage ranges appear to be essentially a space charge limited current for the two individual polymers, while for the blend samples the predominance mechanism is Poole-Frenkel type. Ultraviolet/visible studies of the investigated samples showed that the blend sample of 0.5/0.5 (wt/wt) has the smallest absorption edge (4.58 eV) and highest band tail (0.61 eV). The composition blend sample 0.5/0.5 (wt/wt) has the most proper conduction and optical properties which has attractive attention in the view of its application in electronic and optical devices.

Abd El-Kader, F. H.; Shehap, A. M.; Basha, A. F.; El-Fewaty, N. H.

2011-06-01

249

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section...1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the...

2009-04-01

250

One-Step Synthesis of Polynitroaliphatic Acetals and Ethers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general, one step, high yield reaction has been demonstrated that produces a variety of polynitroaliphatic acetal and ether products. Reaction condition are mild; purification is simple; and, no costly high pressure of high temperature laboratory techni...

R. E. Cochoy R. R. McGuire S. A. Shackelford

1988-01-01

251

Deep cavitands featuring functional acetal-based walls.  

PubMed

The synthesis of deep cavitands with functionalized acetals as a fourth-wall is described. Recognition properties and stabilities of the complexes of two representative cavitands with aliphatic, aromatic, carbocyclic and adamantane guests were evaluated by NMR methods. PMID:23125977

Degardin, Melissa; Busseron, Eric; Kim, Dang-A; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius

2012-12-18

252

Functionalized heterocyclic scaffolds derived from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Acetates.  

PubMed

Five series of heterocycles with extraordinary structural diversity have been regiospecifically synthesized from the same Morita-Baylis-Hillman Acetates (MBHAs). All four potential electrophilic sites (?, ?, ?, ?) of MBHAs are proved to be reactive. PMID:23877190

Zhu, Huajian; Shao, Nana; Chen, Tong; Zou, Hongbin

2013-09-11

253

Fragrance material review on 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate was evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414656

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-03

254

Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-04

255

Lubricating Oil Compositions Containing Calcium Acetate and Lubricating Solids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extreme pressure additive for greases and lubricating compositions for internal combustion engines and metalworking operations combines graphite, stannic sulfide, or molybdenum disulfide with anhydrous calcium acetate. Substantially equal amounts are e...

R. H. Davis

1965-01-01

256

Antibacterial Textile Finishes Utilizing Zirconyl Acetate Complexes of Inorganic Peroxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a new method of forming water-insoluble peroxide complexes of zirconyl acetate as deposits, films, and coatings on and within cellulosic fibers, yarns, and fabrics, as well as paper. Peroxides operative in forming these complexes...

C. M. Welch G. F. Danna T. L. Vigo

1977-01-01

257

Antibacterial Textile Finishes Utilizing Zirconyl Acetate Complexes of Inorganic Peroxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteriostatic, water-insoluble complexes of zirconyl acetate with inorganic peroxides are disclosed. Peroxides operative in forming these complexes are hydrogen peroxide, alkali metal perborates and alkali metal peroxydiphosphates. Processes for in situ ...

C. Welch G. S. Dana T. Vigo

1977-01-01

258

Acetoxychavicol Acetate, an Antifungal Component of Alpinia galanga1.  

PubMed

The essential oils from fresh and dried rhizomes of ALPINIA GALANGA showed an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast and some dermatophytes, using the agar overlay technique. The main components of the oils were also tested and terpinen-4-ol was found most active. An N-pentane/diethyl ether extract of dried rhizomes was active against TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate and 1'-hydroxychavicol acetate identified by MS and NMR were found in the antifungally active fractions obtained by LSC. Acetoxychavicol acetate was active against the seven fungi tested and its MIC value for dermatophytes ranged from 50 to 250 microg/ml. Dried sliced rhizomes contained 1.5% of this compound. The compound was not found in rhizomes of ALPINIA OFFICINARUM, ZINGIBER OFFICINALE and KAEMPFERIA GALANGA. PMID:17345272

Janssen, A M; Scheffer, J J

1985-12-01

259

Hydrothermal production of formic and acetic acids from syringol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of formic and acetic acids (or salts) by hydrothermal oxidation of syringol, a model compound for lignin, was\\u000a investigated using a batch reactor. Results show that the highest yields of formic and acetic acids were, respectively, 59.6%\\u000a and 11.3% at the reaction condition of 0.5 mol\\/L NaOH, 120% H2O2 supply and 280 °C. These results will inform studies

Lu-ting Pan; Zheng Shen; Lei Wu; Ya-lei Zhang; Xue-fei Zhou; Fang-ming Jin

2010-01-01

260

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were\\u000a investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw\\u000a was made of the chemical composition, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and\\u000a fractionated into pulp (cellulose),

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

261

Mechanism of calcium accumulation in acetate-fed aerobic granule  

Microsoft Academic Search

High calcium content has been widely reported in acetate-fed aerobic granules, but the reason behind this is unclear yet.\\u000a By SEM–energy dispersive X-ray mapping analysis, this study showed that the majority of calcium was presented in the central\\u000a part of the acetate-fed aerobic granule, and the granule shell part was nearly calcium-free. The elemental analysis of calcium\\u000a ions coupled with

Zhi-Wu Wang; Yong Li; Yu Liu

2007-01-01

262

Aluminum phosphate dispersed on a cellulose acetate fiber surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate fibers with supported highly dispersed aluminum phosphate were prepared by reacting aluminum-containing cellulose acetate (Al2O3=3.5wt.%; 1.1mmolg?1 aluminum atom per gram of the material) with phosphoric acid. Solid-state NMR spectra (CPMAS 31P NMR) data indicated that HPO42? is the species present on the fiber surface. The specific concentration of acidic centers, determined by ammonia gas adsorption, is 0.50mmolg?1. The

Angelica M Lazarin; Claudemir A Borgo; Yoshitaka Gushikem; Yuriy V Kholin

2003-01-01

263

Activated carbon sheet prepared from softwood acetic acid lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an example of activated carbon (AC) moldings, AC sheets were prepared from thermoplastic acetic acid lignin by lamination.\\u000a The resulting AC sheets are a new type of product that can be applied as water and air cleaners. Powdered softwood acetic\\u000a acid lignin (SAL) was molded into sheets by a thermal pressing method. When the sheet was carbonized under a

Yasumitsu Uraki; Ryo Taniwatashi; Satoshi Kubo; Yoshihiro Sano

2000-01-01

264

Degradation of Cellulose Acetate-Based Materials: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate polymer is used to make a variety of consumer products including textiles, plastic films, and cigarette\\u000a filters. A review of degradation mechanisms, and the possible approaches to diminish the environmental persistence of these\\u000a materials, will clarify the current and potential degradation rates of these products after disposal. Various studies have\\u000a been conducted on the biodegradability of cellulose acetate,

Juergen PulsSteven; Steven A. Wilson; Dirk Hölter

2011-01-01

265

Acetalization of Carbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by I2-Doped Polyaniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyaniline-I2 is prepared by doping of polyaniline base with iodine. Polyaniline base and polyaniline-I2 are characterized by infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis. Polyaniline-I2 is used as a catalyst for the first time in acetalization of carbonyl compounds. The catalyzing acetalization of cyclohexanone and propane-1,2-diol is conducted in excellent yields with simple and more environmental benign procedure. This

Genxiang Luo; Miao He; Zhaojin Zhong

2008-01-01

266

Infrared Studies of Water Adsorption on Acetic Acid thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate H2O ice deposited onto non-crystalline (dimers [1]) and polycrystalline (infinite chains [1]) acetic acid films. The condensed water film grown at ˜135 K on these different substrates can be characterized as amorphous dense ice. The H2O molecules are shown to interact mainly with the carbonyl and the carboxyl oxygens, forming hydrogen bonds. Upon water adsorption on the non-crystalline acetic acid film, saturation of the change induced in the intensity of the C=O and C-O peaks occurs at an average H2O exposure of ˜ 2.52 L. The amount of H-bonding involving C=O or C-O (of acetic acid) and OH (of water) on the polycrystalline film has been reduced considerably compared to the situation on the non-annealed one, but saturation of the carbonyl oxygen even for a water exposure of 9 L has not been observed while the carboxyl oxygen saturates at ˜2.76 L. Thermal evolution studies for the ice film on non-crystalline and polycrystalline acetic acid films show that water co-evaporates with acetic acid likely as a water-acetic acid complex in the temperature range of 140-155 K, which continues until the entire ice film has been exhausted at 160 K. [1]: Q. Gao and K. T. Leung, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, (2005) 13263. .

Malick Thiam, Michel; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Tong Leung, Kam

2006-03-01

267

New Analytical Method for Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis Using Terahertz Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method of analyzing the results of cellulose acetate electrophoresis by terahertz imaging. To verify accuracy of terahertz imaging of cellulose acetate electrophoresis, we compared the images obtained by terahertz imaging with those obtained by the one-side staining method. To obtain accurate information about the distribution of medical molecules in cellulose acetate by terahertz imaging, owing to the low concentration, a suitable imaging spatial resolution is required to estimate the distribution accurately in the cellulose acetate membrane. Here, we have improved the spatial resolution by reducing the absorption of the diffusion of the terahertz signal from the sample surface. Using the terahertz imaging system, we obtained terahertz images of the cellulose acetate with a glycine sensitivity of 3.71 ?g/mm2 and an l-methionine sensitivity of 6.22 ?g/mm2. Comparison of the terahertz and staining images showed that the new imaging method using the terahertz imaging system has a good possibility for cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis analysis even for relatively low-concentration electrophoresis.

Zhang, Hong Bing; Mitobe, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Masafumi; Yoshimura, Noboru

2009-06-01

268

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process.  

PubMed

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H(2)SO(4) (w/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L/S) 10 (v/w), pulping temperature 105 degrees C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15% and 35%, respectively. Acetic acid pulp from the straw had an acceptable strength for paper and could be bleached to a high brightness over 85% with a short bleaching sequence. Acetic acid pulp was also a potential feedstock for fuels and chemicals. The acetic acid process separated pentose and hexose in wheat straw to a large extent. Most of the pentose (xylan) was dissolved, whereas the hexose (glucan) remained in the pulp. Approximately 30% of carbohydrates in wheat straw were hydrolyzed to monosaccharides during acetic acid pulping, of which xylose accounted for 70% and glucose for 12%. The acetic acid lignin from wheat straw showed relatively lower molecular weight and fusibility, which made the lignin a promising raw material for many products, such as adhesive and molded products. PMID:15734313

Pan, Xuejun; Sano, Yoshihiro

2004-12-19

269

Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs.  

PubMed Central

A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application or IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p less than 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg [ethyl-1,2-14C]PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. [14C]EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for [14C]PEA and 7.9 hr for [14C]EEA. Only trace amounts of 14CO2 (less than 1%) or volatile materials (less than 0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, [14C]PEA or [14C]EEA was added to undiluted compound and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Guest, D; Hamilton, M L; Deisinger, P J; DiVincenzo, G D

1984-01-01

270

Operation of the CO Dehydrogenase/Acetyl Coenzyme A Pathway in both Acetate Oxidation and Acetate Formation by the Syntrophically Acetate-Oxidizing Bacterium Thermacetogenium phaeum  

PubMed Central

Thermacetogenium phaeum is a homoacetogenic bacterium that can grow on various substrates, such as pyruvate, methanol, or H2/CO2. It can also grow on acetate if cocultured with the hydrogen-consuming methanogenic partner Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Enzyme activities of the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) pathway (CO dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, formyl tetrahydrofolate synthase, methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase) were detected in cell extracts of pure cultures and of syntrophic cocultures. Mixed cell suspensions of T. phaeum and M. thermautotrophicus oxidized acetate rapidly and produced acetate after addition of H2/CO2 after a short time lag. CO dehydrogenase activity staining after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited three oxygen-labile bands which were identical in pure culture and coculture. Protein profiles of T. phaeum cells after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the strain exhibited basically the same protein patterns in both pure and syntrophic culture. These results indicate that T. phaeum operates the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA pathway reversibly both in acetate oxidation and in reductive acetogenesis by using the same biochemical apparatus, although it has to couple this pathway to ATP synthesis in different ways.

Hattori, Satoshi; Galushko, Alexander S.; Kamagata, Yoichi; Schink, Bernhard

2005-01-01

271

Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without 13C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the

Johannes C. M Scholten; Peter M van Bodegom; Jaap Vogelaar; Alexander van Ittersum; Kees Hordijk; Wim Roelofsen; Alfons J. M Stams

2002-01-01

272

PREPARATION OF WATER-SOLUBLE AND WATER-SWELLABLE STARCH ACETATES USING MICROWAVE HEATING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch acetates of degree of substitution 0.1-1.5 were prepared by heating corn starch, acetic acid and acetic anhydride in sealed, stirred, Teflon vessels in a microwave reactor. Reaction efficiencies were typically >90% at reaction temperatures of 150-160 deg C for 4-7 minutes. Starch acetates w...

273

Studies on acetate ester production by non-saccharomyces wine yeasts.  

PubMed

A double coupling bioreactor system was used to fast screen yeast strains for the production of acetate esters. Eleven yeast strains were used belonging to the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces and Zygosacharomyces, mainly isolated from grapes and wine, and two wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The acetate ester forming activities of yeast strains belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora (Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and H. uvarum) and Pichia (Pichia anomala) showed different substrate specificities and were able to produce ethyl acetate, geranyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The influence of aeration culture conditions on the formation of acetate esters by non-Saccharomyces wine yeast and S. cerevisiae was examined by growing the yeasts on synthetic microbiological medium. S. cerevisiae produced low levels of acetate esters when the cells were cultured under highly aeration conditions, while, under the same conditions, H. guilliermondii 11104 and P. anomala 10590 were found to be strong producers of 2-phenylethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate, respectively. PMID:11764193

Rojas, V; Gil, J V; Piñaga, F; Manzanares, P

2001-11-01

274

Simultaneous acetic acid separation and monosaccharide concentration by reverse osmosis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of simultaneous acetic acid separation and sugar concentration in model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by reverse osmosis. The effects of operation parameters such as pH, temperature, pressure and feed concentration on the solute retentions were examined with a synthetic xylose–glucose–acetic acid model solution. Results showed that the monosaccharides were almost completely rejected at above 20 bar, while the acetic acid retention increased with the increase in pH and pressure, and decreased with the temperature increase. The maximum separation factors of acetic acid over xylose and glucose reached as high as 211.5 and 228.4 at pH 2.93 (the initial pH of model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates), 40 °C and 20 bar. Furthermore, the concentration and diafiltration process were employed at optimal operation conditions. Consequently, a high sugar concentration and a beneficially lower acetic acid concentration were simultaneously achieved by reverse osmosis. PMID:23376199

Zhou, Fanglei; Wang, Cunwen; Wei, Jiang

2013-01-03

275

Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Optical Science and Technology Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2006-11-14

276

Bioenergetics of methanogenesis from acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Methane formation from acetate by resting cells of Methanosarcina barkeri was accompanied by an increase in the intracellular ATP content from 0.9 to 4.0 nmol/mg of protein. Correspondingly, the proton motive force increased to a steady-state level of -120mV. The transmembrane pH gradient, however, was reversed under these conditions and amounted to +20mV. The addition of the protonophore 3,5,3',4'-tetrachlorosalicylanilide led to a drastic decrease in the proton motive force and in the intracellular ATP content and to an inhibition of methane formation. The ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide stopped methanogenesis, and the intracellular ATP content decreased. The proton motive force decreased also under these conditions, indicating that the proton motive force could not be generated from acetate without ATP. The overall process of methane formation from acetate was dependent on the presence of sodium ions; upon addition of acetate to cell suspensions of M. barkeri, a transmembrane Na/sup +/ gradient in the range of 4:1 (Na/sup +//sub out//Na/sup +//sub in/) was established. Possible sites of involvement of the Na/sup +/ gradient in the conversion of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide are discussed. Na/sup +/ is not involved in the CO dehydrogenase reaction.

Peinemann, S.; Mueller, V.; Blaut, M.; Gottschalk, G.

1988-03-01

277

Generation of Phenylpropanoid Pathway-Derived Volatiles in Transgenic Plants: Rose Alcohol Acetyltransferase Produces Phenylethyl Acetate and Benzyl Acetate in Petunia Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esters are important contributors to the aroma of numerous flowers and fruits. Acetate esters such as geranyl acetate, phenylethyl\\u000a acetate and benzyl acetate are generated as a result of the action of alcohol acetyltransferases (AATs). Numerous homologous\\u000a AATs from various plants have been characterized using in-vitro assays. To study the function of rose alcohol acetyltransferase (RhAAT) in planta, we generated

Inna Guterman; Tania Masci; Xinlu Chen; Florence Negre; Eran Pichersky; Natalia Dudareva; David Weiss; Alexander Vainstein

2006-01-01

278

Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs  

SciTech Connect

A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p < 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg (ethyl-1,2-/sup 14/C)PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. (/sup 14/C)EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for (/sup 14/C)PEA and 7.9 hr for (/sup 14/C)EEA. Only trace amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (<1%) or volatile materials (<0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, (/sup 14/C)PEA or (/sup 14/C)EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with (/sup 14/C)PEA being excreted more rapidly than (/sup 14/C)EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

Guest, D.; Hamilton, M.L.; Deisinger, P.J.; DiVincenzo, G.D.

1984-08-01

279

Reduced vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women who receive combined norethindrone acetate and low-dose ethinyl estradiol therapy versus combined conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on vaginal bleeding patterns of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy with norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol versus conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Study Design: Three hundred fifty-seven postmenopausal women were selected randomly (in a blinded manner) to 12 months of treatment with 1 mg norethindrone acetate\\/5 ?g ethinyl

James A. Simon; James H. Liu; Leon Speroff; Brad S. Shumel; James P. Symons

2003-01-01

280

A quantitative method for blood lipoproteins using cellulose acetate electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

A rapid, inexpensive, and quantitative method is described for obtaining the levels of plasma very low, low, and high density lipoproteins using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and lipid assays without prior separation by ultracentrifuge or other techniques. It involves separation of the lipoproteins by cellulose acetate electrophoresis, followed by their identification with the ozone-Schiff reaction. The total lipoprotein concentration is estimated from the total plasma phospholipid, and the percentage of each component obtained by densitometric analysis of the stained electrophoretograms, using reflected light. For samples with a raised level of very low density lipoprotein, plasma triglyceride analysis is also required. The results obtained by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis method are in good agreement with those by the analytical ultracentrifuge and the preparative ultracentrifuge with refractometry. The theoretical assumptions on which the method is based have been shown to be valid. Images

Magnani, H. N.; Howard, A. N.

1971-01-01

281

Photoionization of small sodium-doped acetic acid clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uptake of sodium and the fragmentation before and after ``soft'' photoionization with ultraviolet light are investigated for small acetic acid clusters. The acetic acid clusters are generated in a supersonic expansion and ionized with ultraviolet light after doping with sodium in a pick-up chamber. The composition of the bare acetic acid clusters in the molecular beam is determined independently from complementary photoionization experiments using extreme ultraviolet light. The experimental results are analyzed with the help of density functional calculations for energetics and statistical adiabatic channel calculations for fragmentation kinetics. The study demonstrates that the detected ions originate from fragmentation in the neutral as well as in the ionic state, and in particular that the fragmentation pathway strongly depends on the cluster size.

Forysinski, Piotr W.; Zielke, Philipp; Luckhaus, David; Corbett, Jennifer; Signorell, Ruth

2011-03-01

282

Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate.  

PubMed

This work has been done to find out the optimum condition of supercritical methyl acetate method in biodiesel production. The reaction temperature, pressure, time and molar ratio in methyl acetate to oil were the key parameters that must all be considered to produce an optimum condition. Evaluation of thermal decomposition on products, cis-trans isomerization and tocopherol content were required to further optimize the reaction condition. It was, therefore, concluded that for the supercritical methyl acetate method, reaction condition of 350 °C/20 MPa/45 min/42 M ratio gave the highest yields of FAME (96.7 wt.%) and triacetin (8.8 wt.%). Yet, at such a reaction condition, the optimum reaction condition was compromised due particularly to the unavoidable thermal decomposition of products, and tocopherols as natural anti-oxidants. PMID:23340101

Goembira, Fadjar; Saka, Shiro

2012-12-27

283

Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.  

PubMed

Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:10456753

Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

1999-08-01

284

Induction of double ovulation in mares using deslorelin acetate.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine whether deslorelin acetate could induce double ovulation in mares. In Experiment 1, eight mares were treated with prostaglandin on Day 8 (D8) after ovulation, then treated with saline or with 100 ?g of a controlled-release formulation of deslorelin acetate vehicle intramuscularly (IM) every 12h from D8 after ovulation until at least two follicles reached 33 mm. At this time, ovulation was induced with 2500 IU of hCG. Artificial insemination was performed 24h after induction, and embryos were collected on the eighth day after ovulation was first detected. In Experiment 2, 112 estrous cycles in 56 mares were studied. In this experiment, the deslorelin acetate protocol was initiated only in mares that achieved a follicle with a diameter of at least 25 mm and at least one second follicle with a diameter?20mm was detected, at which time 100 ?g deslorelin acetate or saline was administered IM every 12h. The other procedures were similar to those described in Experiment 1. The variables studied were analyzed using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. In Experiment 1, only two mares in deslorelin group having second follicles of 20-25 mm on responded with double ovulation. In the second experiment, 82% of treated mares responded with double ovulation, and the embryo recovery per estrous cycle was 1.12 and 0.57 in the group treated with deslorelin acetate and the control group, respectively (P<0.05). Deslorelin acetate is effective in inducing double ovulation in mares using the protocol proposed. On average, it allows for the recovery of one embryo by uterine flushing. PMID:23182475

Nagao, J F; Neves Neto, J R; Papa, F O; Alvarenga, M A; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Dell'Aqua, J A Junior

2012-11-01

285

Synthesis of dialkyl ethers from organotrifluoroborates and acetals.  

PubMed

The formation of ethers by C-O bond formation under harsh basic or acidic conditions is an entrenched synthetic disconnection in organic chemistry. We report a strategic alternative that involves the BF(3).OEt(2)-promoted coupling of stable, easily prepared acetals with widely available potassium aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkynyltrifluoroborates. This fast, operationally simple process offers straightforward access to dialkyl ethers, many of which would be difficult to prepare using classical methods. The use of MOM-protected alcohols and acetal-protected aldehydes enables ether formation without recourse to protecting-group manipulations or strong bases. PMID:20000858

Mitchell, T Andrew; Bode, Jeffrey W

2009-12-23

286

syn-Selective Kobayashi aldol reaction using acetals.  

PubMed

The Kobayashi aldol reaction has been used to construct anti-aldol products by remote stereoinduction. Since the product of the Kobayashi aldol reaction has a typical polyketide structure, this reaction has been applied to the total synthesis of natural products. By varying this reaction, it was found that the reaction with acetals in the presence of Lewis acid proceeded to give syn adducts in high stereoselectivity. This is the first example of the stereoselective reaction of the chiral dienol ether and acetals. PMID:23331025

Tsukada, Hiroyuki; Mukaeda, Yuki; Hosokawa, Seijiro

2013-01-18

287

[Severe flecainide acetate poisoning. Apropos of a case].  

PubMed

Poisoning with flecainide acetate is rare and associated with a high mortality. This usually occurs after massive ingestion but can also be observed during therapeutic overdose in patients with renal failure or with amiodarone therapy. The prognostic depends on the haemodynamic and rhythmic effects of the overdose one sign of which is widening of the QRS complexes. Major sodium bicarbonate or lactate infusion is the generally prescribed treatment. The authors report one case of a patient with renal failure on amiodarone who survived a severe flecainide acetate overdose. PMID:10078349

Maury, P; Vuille, C; Metzger, J; Veragut, B; Schoenenberger, I; Elamly, A; Chevrolet, J C

1999-02-01

288

Method for enzymatic determination of imidazole acetic acid.  

PubMed

A method for enzymatic assay of imidazole acetic acid (ImAA) was developed, based on the strict substrate specificity of imidazole acetate monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. [Maki et al. (1969) J. Biol. Chem., 244., 2942-2950], which catalyzes concomitant conversion of NADH to NAD+. Thus, ImAA was determined by measuring decrease in absorbancy at 340 nm. Tissue extracts were partially purified and/or concentrated by column chromatography on Bio-Rad AG-1 before enzymatic assay. The lowest measurable level of ImAA by this method was 2 nmol. PMID:6869819

Watanabe, T; Kambe, H; Imamura, I; Taguchi, Y; Tamura, T; Wada, H

1983-04-15

289

Formation of Amino Acids from Reactor Irradiated Ammonium Acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonium acetate in various conditions was irradiated in a reactor to examine the contributions of both the reactor radiations and recoiled14C nucleis to form the biologically interesting molecules. Present investigations demonstrated that several amino acids, glycine, alanine, ?-alanine and GABA, and may-be aspartic acid, serine and valine by prolonged irradiation, were formed in the aqueous solutions of ammonium acetate.14C-radioactivities were also found distributed in these amino acids. However, no special relationship between14C-radioactivity and these amino acids formed was observed.

Akaboshi, M.; Kawai, K.; Maki, H.; Kawamoto, K.; Honda, Y.

1982-12-01

290

Studies on the melts of alkali metal acetates.  

PubMed

The density, viscosity, and electrical conductivity of alkali metal acetates were measured over the temperature interval between melting and decomposition. The apparent activation energies of the equivalent conductivities and viscosities were calculated. It has been concluded from the results that alkali metal acetates, similarly to alkali metal benzenesulphonates studied earlier, exhibit properties quite unlike those of alkali metal halides. In the dependence of equivalent conductivity on the nature of the cation, the anomalous behaviour of lithium salts appears to be due to association prevailing in the melt phase. PMID:18960850

Halmos, Z; Meisel, T; Seybold, K; Erdey, L

1970-12-01

291

Synthesis of radiolabeled acetyl-coenzyme A from sodium acetate  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of high specific radioactivity (/sup 14/C)-acetyl-Coenzyme A from (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole, and CoA is reported. Starting with 1 mumol of (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, this method yields pure (/sup 14/C)acetyl-CoA in yields approaching 40%. Chromatography on a reversed-phase ODS column was used to separate acetyl-CoA from Coenzyme A and side products. The acetylating agent is apparently a reaction intermediate, acetylimidazole.

Clough, R.C.; Barnum, S.R.; Jaworski, J.G.

1989-01-01

292

Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

1989-06-01

293

Ferric acetate-uranium acetate reagent in cholesterol estimations in plasma and high density lipoprotein fractions: comparison with existing methods.  

PubMed

The use of ferric acetate-uranium acetate colour reaction for the estimation of cholesterol in the supernatants of plasma samples after precipitation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol by heparin-MnCl2 was assessed and compared with the conventional method using the FeCl3 colour reaction and also with the method using o-phthalaldehyde as the colouring reagent. All three methods gave comparable values when total cholesterol in plasma samples was determined and also when high density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation and the cholesterol contents determined. But when heparin-MnCl2 precipitation was used for HDL separation, and the cholesterol content determined, the FeCl3 method gave significantly lower values. This could be due to interference of the cholesterol colour reaction with FeCl3, due to Mn2+ ions present in the supernatant. Addition of Mn2+ to cholesterol standards and subsequent colour development with ferric acetate-uranium acetate and FeCl3 reagents showed that Mn2+ decreased the absorbancy of the coloured complex at 560 nm only when FeCl3 was used. Percentage recovery of added cholesterol was also lower when the heparin-MnCl2 supernatant was treated with FeCl3 reagent for colour development. Use of ferric acetate-uranium acetate reagent provides a simpler and quicker method. It does not suffer from interference due to the presence of Mn2+ ions and gives results comparable to the o-phthalaldehyde method and those using ultracentrifugation as the separation procedure. PMID:3840815

Shanmugasundaram, K R; Dhandapani, K; Visvanathan, A

1985-10-01

294

Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and geraniol-8-carboxylic acid. Resting cell suspensions previously grown with linalyl acetate oxidized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and pyruvic acid. The crude cell-free extract (10,000 g of supernatant), obtained from the sonicate of linalyl acetate-grown cells, was shown to contain enzyme systems responsible for the formation of linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid and linalool-8-carboxylic acid from linalyl acetate. The same supernatant contained NAD-linked alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the formation of linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde and linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, respectively. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, resting cell experiments, growth and manometric studies carried out with the isolated metabolites as well as related synthetic analogs, and the preliminary enzymatic studies performed with the cell-free extract, a probable pathway for the microbial degradation of linalyl acetate with the acetoxy group intact is suggested.

Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K. Madhava

1983-01-01

295

Microbial removal of acetate selectively from sugar mixtures.  

PubMed

Acetic acid is an unavoidable constituent of the biomass hydrolysates generated from acetylated hemicellulose and lignin, and acetate affects the performance of microbes used to convert these hydrolysates into biofuels or other biochemicals. In this study, acetate was selectively removed from synthetic mixtures of glucose and xylose using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strains having mutations in the glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS) genes (ptsG, manZ, crr), glucokinase (glk), and xylose (xylA). In batch culture, ALS1060 (ptsG manZ glk xylA) consumed exclusively acetate to depletion, and then consumed the two sugars only at a very slow rate (a growth rate of about 0.01 h(-1)). We also examined the effects of an additional knockout of either malX, fruA, fruB, bglF, or crr, genes that are involved in other PTSs, and a batch process using KD840 (ptsG manZ glk crr xylA) demonstrated a further reduction in glucose or xylose consumption by E. coli. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a substrate-selective approach for the pre-treatment of biomass hydrolysate for microbial processes. PMID:21225311

Lakshmanaswamy, Arun; Rajaraman, Eashwar; Eiteman, Mark A; Altman, Elliot

2011-01-12

296

Measurements of thermophysical properties of sodium acetate hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to measure the thermal conductivity, the specific heat capacity, and the heat of fusion of sodium acetate hydrate have been developed and the measured results have been reported for various concentrations and especially for various supercooling temperatures. Thermal conductivity was measured by using a probe method with a thermistor. The sensor element is very small, with a diameter of

N. Araki; M. Futamura; A. Makino; H. Shibata

1995-01-01

297

Gold-catalyzed reactions between alkenyldiazo carbonyl species and acetals.  

PubMed

In the presence of catalyst IPrAuSbF6 catalyst (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), alkenyldiazo carbonyl species react with organic acetals to give E-configured alkyl 3,5-dimethoxy-5-pent-2-enoates stereoselectively. This reaction sequence comprises an initial Prins-type reaction, followed by gold carbene formation. PMID:23641859

Pagar, Vinayak Vishnu; Jadhav, Appaso M; Liu, Rai-Shung

2013-05-14

298

Synthesis and properties of ?,?-bisfunctionalised ketene N,N-acetals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the synthesis of ?,?-disubstituted ketene N,N-acetals as well as their physicochemical properties and reactions with electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents are generalised. Special attention is paid to the synthesis of various heterocyclic compounds based on these compounds. The bibliography includes 182 references.

Makarov, Vadim A.; Granik, Vladimir G.

1998-11-01

299

HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Methy Acetate was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency ac...

300

Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

301

21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identified in § 172.695 for use as a thickening agent at a level not to exceed 1 percent by weight of coating solids in aqueous dispersions of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, where such copolymers are used only as coatings or a component...

2010-01-01

302

21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identified in § 172.695 for use as a thickening agent at a level not to exceed 1 percent by weight of coating solids in aqueous dispersions of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, where such copolymers are used only as coatings or a component...

2009-04-01

303

A Simple Way to Pattern Mn_12-acetate Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed that Mn_12-acetate ([Mn_12O_12(CH_3COO)_16(H_2O)_4]ot2CH_3COOHot4H_2O) molecules, dissolved in organic solvents, can be self-assembled along the edge of the Mn_12 solution droplet on a Si/SiO2 substrate as the solvent is evaporated. This phenomenon may be related to the well known "coffee-stain effect"”, which leads to a dense particulate deposit along the edge of a drying droplet of coffee on a solid surface. In our study, we have observed such a deposit of Mn_12-acetate at the perimeter of a droplet, after a dilute solution in various organic solvents has been dried. We investigated how the deposits depend on the evaporation rate. Also, we controlled the concentration of the solution to find its relation to the resulting pattern deposit. By patterning the surface with resist and performing a lift-off we created what are, to our knowledge, the first artificial patterns of Mn_12-acetate. This may allow for convenient thin film devices of Mn_12-acetate and work in this direction is ongoing. This work was supported by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and Texas A University.

Kim, K.; Seo, D. M.; Means, J.; Viswanathan, M.; Teizer, W.

2004-03-01

304

Selective recognition of acetate ion based on fluorescence enhancement chemosensor.  

PubMed

Fluorescence study of the complexation between uranyl salophen (L) and some common anions in acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) solution showed a tendency of L toward acetate ion (AcO-). The fluorescence enhancement of L is attributed to a 1:1 complex formation between L and acetate ion which was utilized as the basis for the selective detection of AcO-. The association constant of the 1:1 complex formation of L-AcO- was calculated as 6.60?×?10(6) . The linear response range of the fluorescent chemosensor covers a AcO- concentration range of 1.6?×?10(-7) to 2.5?×?10(-5) ?mol/L, with a detection limit of 2.5?×?10(-8) ?mol/L. L showed a selective and sensitive fluorescence enhancement response toward acetate ion over I3- , NO3-, CN-, CO3 (2-), Br-, Cl-, F-, H2 PO4- and SO4 (2-) , which was attributed to the higher stability of inorganic complex between acetate and L. PMID:22371380

Hosseini, Morteza; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Veismohammadi, Bahareh; Faridbod, Farnoush; Abkenar, Shiva Dehghan; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

2012-02-28

305

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING CELLULOSE ACETATE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method of preparation of commercially useful product, cellulose acetate from discarded byproducts such as rice-straw, wheat hull and corn fiber will be discussed. This work will provide potential new markets and applications for low-value agricultural wastes and co-products. By converting the ce...

306

The thermal equation for ammonia sorption by cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal equation for ammonia sorption by cellulose acetate was obtained using the quasichemical model of the sorption of vapors by swelling polymeric sorbents suggested by Lindstrom and Laatikainen. The experimental data obtained by reversed gas chromatography and static methods are compared.

Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Gamayunova, T. V.

2009-05-01

307

Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often

H. Demiral; M. Ercengiz Yildirim

308

Production of Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) for Field Trials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Phase II, 200 tons (181.4 tonnes) of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) were produced by the Bowling Green, KY, plant of RAD Chemicals Division of RAD Services, Inc., under subcontract to SRI International. Most of this material was shipped to selected St...

C. W. Marynowski J. L. Jones E. C. Gunderson

1984-01-01

309

Ice-Melting Characteristics of Calcium Magnesium Acetate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pertinent chemical and physical properties of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) were determined. Included were comparisons of ratios of calcium to magnesium varying from 100% CaAc2 to 100% MgAc2. The objective was to determine the optimum composition of CMA...

R. U. Schenk

1986-01-01

310

Continuum of Mechanisms for Nucleophilic Substitutions of Cyclic Acetals  

PubMed Central

The effect of nucleophile strength on diastereoselectivity in the nucleophilic substitution of cyclic acetals was explored. Stereoselectivity remained constant and high as nucleophilicity increased until a threshold value was reached. Beyond this point, however, selection of Lewis acid determined whether stereochemical inversion or erosion was observed.

Krumper, Jennifer R.; Salamant, Walter A.; Woerpel, K. A.

2009-01-01

311

Dispersion stability of indium tin oxide nanoparticles in butyl acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colloidal dispersion of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles in butyl acetate solvent was achieved using a milling process in which PVP or PEG were used as a dispersant. The influences of Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and Polyethylene glycol (PEG) dispersants on the stability of ITO suspension were studied by Zeta potential value, Nano-particle size measurement and sedimentation experiment. The results

Qiming Xu; Zhang Lei; Yanyan Yao

2011-01-01

312

Electrical and thermal properties of polyvinyl acetal based nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water chemistry procedure is used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can later be blended with a polymer to form a nanodielectric. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in two grades of polyvinyl acetal (commercially available under the trade names BX-L and KS-10, manufactured by SEKISUI Chemicals). Nanocomposite materials were prepared with 15 and 33 wt% titanium dioxide. The variation

G. Polizos; E. Tuncer; Isidor Sauers; David Randy James; A. R. Ellis; Marshall O Pace

2009-01-01

313

Diffusion of retinol acetate (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) retinol acetate; (2) carbon dioxide

Winkelmann, J.

314

Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid for hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of supported metal catalysts were tested under conditions of steam reforming of acetic acid (HAc), which was selected as a model compound for pyrolysis oil. The influence of several parameters on catalytic activity and selectivity were examined, including catalyst composition, i.e. nature of the metal and the carrier, reaction temperature and time on stream. The metallic phase of

A. C. Basagiannis; X. E. Verykios

2007-01-01

315

Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-13

316

Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-03

317

Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-05

318

Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-03-06

319

Effects of acetic acid on light scattering from cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Acetic acid has been used for decades as an aid for the detection of precancerous cervical lesions, and the use of acetic acid is being investigated in several other tissues. Nonetheless, the mechanism of acetowhitening is unclear. This work tests some of the hypotheses in the literature and measures changes in light scattering specific to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Wide angle side scattering from both the nucleus and the cytoplasm increases with acetic application to tumorigenic cells, with the increase in nuclear scattering being greater. In one cell line, the changes in nuclear scattering are likely due to an increase in number or scattering efficiency of scattering centers smaller than the wavelength of excitation light. There are likely several cellular changes that cause acetowhitening and the cellular changes may differ with cell type. These results should lead to a better understanding of acetowhitening and potentially the development of adjunct techniques to improve the utility of acetic acid application. For the well-studied case of cervical tissue, acetowhitening has been shown to be sensitive, but not specific for oncogenic changes needing treatment.

Marina, Oana C.; Sanders, Claire K.; Mourant, Judith R.

2012-01-01

320

HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR 2-METHOXYETHANOL ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 2-methoxyethanol acetate was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for e...

321

THERMOREGULATION IN MICE FOLLOWING ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD ACETATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Several reports in the literature suggest a relationship between lead intoxication and thermoregulatory capacity. To investigate the effects of lead on the control of body temperature, mice of the BALB/c strain were injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (0 to 100 mg/kg) wh...

322

Acetate metabolism and its regulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid producing Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. Among the substrates metabolized are glucose and acetate which both can also serve as substrates for amino acid production. Based on biochemical, genetic and regulatory studies and on quantitative determination of metabolic fluxes during utilization

Robert Gerstmeir; Volker F. Wendisch; Stephanie Schnicke; Hong Ruan; Mike Farwick; Dieter Reinscheid; Bernhard J. Eikmanns

2003-01-01

323

Homolytic copolymerization of vinyl acetate and trichlorethylene at high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Vinyl acetate and trichlorethylene show copolymerization at atmospheric pressure. The molecular weight of the copolymer increases as the pressure is raised. The fact that the chlorine composition in the resulting copolymers is independent of pressure shows that the reduction in volume is approximately the same whether the activated complex is formed by adding the radical with the end group CH2.CHOCOCH3

M. G. Gonikberg; R. I. Baikova; V. M. Zhulin

1962-01-01

324

Electrosynthesis of anisidines in aqueous sulfuric and acetic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the concentrations of acetic and sulfuric acids on the efficiency of anisole amination by means of hydroxylamine and Ti(IV)/Ti(III) mediator was studied. Ortho- and para-anisidines were obtained with the total yields of about 79% by current and hydroxylamine.

Lisitsyn, Yu. A.; Grigor'eva, L. V.

2009-03-01

325

21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons having had added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl...

2009-04-01

326

4-Hy-droxy-anilinium 2-chloro-acetate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal of the title salt, C6H8NO+·C2H2ClO2 ?, the 4-hy­droxy­anilinium cation links to adjacent chloro­acetate anions via N—H?O and O—H?O hydrogen bonds; weak C—H?O inter­actions also occur between the anions and cations.

Wang, Ying-Chun

2012-01-01

327

Methanogenesis from Acetate, a Key Intermediate in Nature: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is now well appreciated that methanogenic bacteria obtain energy for growth during formation of methane from a limited range of substrates: H sub 2 CO sub 2 ; formate; methanol; acetate; and the methylamines. Methane may also be produced from CO and me...

R. A. Mah D. R. Boone

1988-01-01

328

Silver Nanoparticles in Cellulose Acetate Polymers: Rheological and Morphological Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nitrate was incorporated in cellulose acetate with different substitution degrees as a dispersion medium. Silver-containing polymer solutions in 2-methoxyethanol were rheologically investigated, both before and after boiling, which permitted a better understanding of the morphological aspects of the corresponding cast films. The different distribution of the obtained silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, as well as the influence of

Adina Maria Necula; Iuliana Stoica; Niculae Olaru; Florica Doroftei; Silvia Ioan

2011-01-01

329

Liquid Crystal Structures in a Vitreous Acetates of Alkali Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of anhydrous melt glasses of alkali metals acetates in nematic and smectic LC-mesophases have been studied. A change of electric conductivity of samples over the phase transformation has been observed. Textures corresponding to the nematic and smectic mesophases were revealed with the use of polarizing microscopy. It was studied the influence of external pulse unidirectional electric field at

G. I. Baranova; D. N. Glebovsky; T. V. Zhuchkova; I. A. Panteleev

2001-01-01

330

Effects of acetic acid on light scattering from cells.  

PubMed

Acetic acid has been used for decades as an aid for the detection of precancerous cervical lesions, and the use of acetic acid is being investigated in several other tissues. Nonetheless, the mechanism of acetowhitening is unclear. This work tests some of the hypotheses in the literature and measures changes in light scattering specific to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Wide angle side scattering from both the nucleus and the cytoplasm increases with acetic application to tumorigenic cells, with the increase in nuclear scattering being greater. In one cell line, the changes in nuclear scattering are likely due to an increase in number or scattering efficiency of scattering centers smaller than the wavelength of excitation light. There are likely several cellular changes that cause acetowhitening and the cellular changes may differ with cell type. These results should lead to a better understanding of acetowhitening and potentially the development of adjunct techniques to improve the utility of acetic acid application. For the well-studied case of cervical tissue, acetowhitening has been shown to be sensitive, but not specific for oncogenic changes needing treatment. PMID:23224185

Marina, Oana C; Sanders, Claire K; Mourant, Judith R

2012-08-01

331

On the Structure of Cellulose Acetate Molecules in Acetone Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained from sedimentation velocity and viscosity measurements on a series of cellulose acetate fractions in acetone are interpreted in terms of two models, the impenetrable ellipsoid of rotation and the uniform density random coil. The lack of agreement using the former model is shown to be a real effect, rather than one determined by experimental inaccuracy. As other investigations

Seymour J. Singer; Herman Mark

1948-01-01

332

Production of n-Propyl Acetate by Reactive Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

First steps of the development of a catalytic reactive distillation process for the production of n-propyl acetate based on experiments and simulations are proposed. The kinetics for homogeneously (sulphuric acid) and heterogeneously (Amberlyst 15) catalysed reaction were investigated and the constants for a pseudo-homogeneous model are presented. Pilot plant experiments were performed using a homogeneous strong acid catalyst in a

M. Brehelin; F. Forner; D. Rouzineau; J.-U. Repke; X. Meyer; M. Meyer; G. Wozny

2007-01-01

333

Intramolecular carbon isotope distribution of acetic acid in vinegar.  

PubMed

Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of acetic acid is useful for origin discrimination and quality control of vinegar. Intramolecular carbon isotope distributions, which are each carbon isotope ratios of the methyl and carboxyl carbons in the acetic acid molecule, may be required to obtain more detailed information to discriminate such origin. In this study, improved gas chromatography-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-GC-C-IRMS) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to measure the intramolecular carbon isotope distributions of acetic acid in 14 Japanese vinegars. The results demonstrated that the methyl carbons of acetic acid molecules in vinegars produced from plants were mostly isotopically depleted in (13)C relative to the carboxyl carbon. Moreover, isotopic differences (?(13)C(carboxyl) - ?(13)C(methyl)) had a wide range from -0.3 to 18.2‰, and these values differed among botanical origins, C3, C4, and CAM plants. PMID:21830825

Hattori, Ryota; Yamada, Keita; Kikuchi, Makiko; Hirano, Satoshi; Yoshida, Naohiro

2011-08-18

334

Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays.  

PubMed

7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products. PMID:11539052

Lewer, P; Bandurski, R S

1987-01-01

335

[Metabolism of C(14)-acetate by some trematodes  

PubMed

The adult trematodes, Fasciola hepatica, Eurytrema pancreaticum and Paramphistomum cervi, employed in this experiment were obtained from the cattle slaughtered at the local abbatoir. The worms selected and washed several times in normal sterilized saline solution. Each about ten of intact F. hepatica, fourty of E. pancreaticum, and twenty of P. cervi were incubated in 50 cc volume of special incubation flasks with incubation medium consisting of 10 cc. of Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer(pH 7.4) The incubation medium was added C(14)-1-acetate and non-radioactive carrier Na-acetate so as to contain acetate concentration of 50 mg per cent. The worms were allowed to incubate for 5 hours in the Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 38 degrees C. After incubation period, respiratory CO2 samples from central well of incubation flask were analysed for total CO2 production rate and their specific activity of respiratory CO2. The lactate and pyruvate appearance rates were determined by analyzing the lactate and pyruvate concentration in a medium after incubation. The glycogen samples isolated from worms were analyzed for the tissue concentration and their radioactivities in order to determine the turnover rate of glycogen pool. Radioactivities of these series of experiments were counted by an endwindow Geiger-Muller counter as an infinitely thin samples. The quantitative analysis of C(14)-acetate utilized by F. hepatica, E. pancreaticum and P. cervi were compared and discussed in this report. According to these data of the experiment, it is suggested that the fatty acid such as acetate may play a part of their oxidative process into the respiratory CO2 and the synthetic process into glycogen in the above species of trematodes. PMID:12913583

Seo, Byong Seol; Rim, Han Jong; Min, Yong Ok; Rhee, Sang Don; Lee, Tong Hoon; Yun, Myong Soon

1965-12-01

336

Metabolic rates during sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on acetate.  

PubMed

We have quantified yeast carbon and oxygen consumption fluxes and estimated anabolic fluxes through glyoxylate and gluconeogenic pathways under various conditions of sporulation on acetate. The percentage of sporulation reached a maximum of 55% to 60% after 48 h in sporulation medium, for cells harvested from logarithmic growth in acetate minimal medium. When cells were harvested in the stationary phase of growth before transfer to sporulation medium, the maximum percentage of sporulation decreased to 40% along with the occurrence of meiosis as could be judged by counting of bi- and tetra-nucleated cells. In both experiments, the rates of acetate and oxygen consumption decreased as a function of time when exposed to sporulation medium. Apparently, the decrease of metabolic rates was not due to alkalinization. By systematically varying the cell concentration in sporulation medium from 1.4 x 10(7) to 20 x 10(7) cell ml-1, the percentage of sporulating cells was found to decrease in parallel with the rate of acetate consumption. When the sporulation efficiency attained under the different experimental conditions was plotted as a function of the rate of acetate consumption, a linear correlation was found. Anabolic fluxes estimation revealed a decrease of the rate through gluconeogenic and glyoxylate pathways occurring during sporulation progression. The pattern of metabolic fluxes progressively evolved toward a predominance of more oxidative catabolic fluxes than those exhibited under growth conditions. The results obtained are discussed in terms of a characteristic pattern of metabolic fluxes and energetics, associated to the development of yeast sporulation. PMID:8740908

Aon, J C; Cortassa, S

1996-04-01

337

Phase and reaction equilibria of the acetic acid-isopropanol-isopropyl acetate-water system at 760 mmHg  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy-saving process, the so-called reactive distillation process, is attracting more and more attention in the chemical industry. This process is based on the simultaneous implementation of chemical reaction and phase equilibria in a process unit. The esterification of acetic acid and isopropyl alcohol is one of the processes that use this technology. In order to understand the thermodynamic behavior

Liang-sun Lee; Ming-zhong Kuo

1996-01-01

338

High resolution acetic acid survey and water vapor radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planets, comets, stars, galaxies and the interstellar medium (ISM) emit complex but distinct molecular spectra. These spectra reveal the chemical composition and physical conditions in the objects. For example, many biologically important molecules, such as acetic acid, formic acid, vinyl cyanide and ethyl cyanide, have been detected in hot molecular cores in the ISM. A diversity of molecules creates complicated and yet interesting astrochemistry in hot cores. However, the formation mechanisms of large molecules are still unclear. Hence large molecule observations are essential to understand hot core chemistry. Among these molecules, acetic acid is one of the most important large species in hot cores. It is a possible precursor of glycine, the simplest amino acid. It only has been detected in high-mass hot cores without oxygen/nitrogen chemical differentiation, which is key to hot core chemical models. Using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), we have conducted an acetic acid survey in hot cores. In our survey, we have discovered a new acetic acid hot core, G19.61-0.23, which also shows no chemical differentiation. Therefore, we suggest that both large oxygen and nitrogen- bearing species play important roles in acetic acid formation. Ground-based interferometric observations are severely affected by atmospheric conditions. Phase correction is a technique to obtain high quality data and achieve great scientific goals. For our acetic acid survey, a better phase correction technique can not only detect weaker transitions of large molecules, but also increase the map resolution of hot cores. Water vapor radiometers (WVRs) are designed to improve the technique by observing tropospheric water vapor along the lines of sight of interferometers. We have numerically demonstrated the importance of phase correction for interferometric observations and examined the water vapor phase correction technique. Furthermore, we have built two WVR prototypes with new calibration, thermal regulation and backend systems. The WVR prototypes had been tested in a laboratory, on a roof and at the CARMA site to verify their performance. We conclude the WVR thermal stability and dynamic range are critical while the enormous and rapid fluctuations of the sky background emission overwhelm the WVR dynamic range and degrade the WVR sensitivity.

Shiao, Yu-Shao

2008-08-01

339

Condensation of Vinyl Alkyl Ethers with Functionally Substituted Acetals (Kondensatsiya Vinilalkilovykh Efirov s Funktsionalnozameshchennymi Atsetalyami).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The introduction of different functional substituents in the molecule of acetals has a very strong influence on their capacity for adding to vinyl alkyl ethers. The authors studied acetals of fatty series and also of different ethylene, acetylene, aromati...

S. M. Makin V. B. Mochalin

1973-01-01

340

Specificity and Induction of Undecyl Acetate Esterase from Pseudomonas cepacia Grown on 2-Tridecanone  

PubMed Central

Undecyl acetate esterase from Pseudomonas cepacia grown on 2-tridecanone was strongly inhibited by organophosphates and other esterase inhibitors. Also, p-chloromercuribenzoate at 1 × 10?4 M showed a 70% inhibition of esterase activity. The enzyme hydrolyzed both aliphatic and aromatic acetate esters at substrate concentrations of 0.25 M. Under these conditions the highest reaction rate was toward undecyl acetate. No lipase or proteolytic activity was demonstrated. Undecyl acetate esterase was classified as a carboxylesterase (B-esterase). Cell-free activity studies on the production of undecyl acetate esterase grown on different carbon sources plus zymogram studies demonstrated that the enzyme was inducible when 2-tridecanone, 2-tridecanol, undecyl acetate and, to a lesser extent, 1-undecanol were growth substrates. Induction of undecyl acetate esterase during oxidation of 2-tridecanone supports the view that undecyl acetate is an intermediate in the degradation of the methyl ketone.

Shum, A. C.; Markovetz, A. J.

1974-01-01

341

Adaptation of glycolysis and growth to acetate in Sporolactobacillus sp. Y2-8.  

PubMed

Exogenous addition of a low concentration of acetate (2 g/L sodium acetate) effectively decreased acetic acid excretion and lowered the ATP content in Sporolactobacillus sp. Y2-8 without any growth defect although the acetate could not be utilized at an initial glucose concentration of 150 g/L. This induced an enhanced glycolytic flux with increased specific activities of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, probably to compensate for the lowered efficiency of ATP production. However, with increasing concentrations (5 g/L sodium acetate), acetate was utilized first before being produced again, causing a growth lag at the transition. Glucose consumption was also reduced at high acetate concentrations, resulting in decreased D-lactic acid production. These results demonstrate that acetate plays a significant role in regulating glycolysis and growth of Sporolactobacillus. PMID:22798166

Liu, Dong; Chen, Yong; Li, An; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Tao; Li, Bingbing; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Bai, Jianxin; Hu, Yanan; He, Bingfang; Ying, Hanjie

2012-07-14

342

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone - 21 - acetate (C24 H31 FO6 ). Betamethasone...phosphate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone-21-disodium phosphate (C22...

2009-04-01

343

21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone - 21 - acetate (C24 H31 FO6 ). Betamethasone...phosphate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone-21-disodium phosphate (C22...

2013-04-01

344

The Use of Polymeric Gels to Reduce Compaction in Cellulose Acetate Reverse Osmosis Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polymeric gels were synthesized by crosslinking cellulose acetate in emulsion and solution reactions. These gels were used to replace a portion of the linear cellulose acetate in a standard Manjikian-type asymmetric membrane, with the aim of reducing long...

S. L. Rosen C. Irani L. Baayens

1972-01-01

345

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate...524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate. (a) Specifications. (1) Calcium amphomycin is the calcium salt...

2013-04-01

346

The Effects of Porous and Solid Fillers on the Permeability of Cellulose Acetate Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several types of filled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared to determine the effect of filler properties and polymer properties on permeability of the composite materials. Casting procedures were chosen to give a dense cellulose acetate phase and a ...

P. Harriott J. Wu F. Klunker

1973-01-01

347

The formation of acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by anaerobic spore-forming bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Further experiments on an anaerobic bacillus synthesising acetic acid from CO2 and H2 are described. The organism in question was classified asClostridium aceticum n.sp. Acetic acid is also formed from sugar.

K. T. Wieringa

1939-01-01

348

Investigations of sodium acetate trihydrate for solar latent heat storage, controlling the melting point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of different acetate salts and acetamide lowers the melting point of sodium acetate trihydrate. Between 0 and 10 percent of lithium acetate dihydrate a linear relationship was observed between the melting point and the molal concentration, and the cryoscopic constant of Kf = -6.8 C (+ or - 10 percent) was evaluated. Information on dissociation or dimerization of the various additives could be deduced from the results. The positive properties of sodium acetate trihydrate were retained.

Ulman, A.; Valentin, B.

1983-09-01

349

Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

2008-01-01

350

Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ? †  

PubMed Central

Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Helene; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

2011-01-01

351

Analyses of the acetate-producing pathways in Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen-deprived conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corynebacterium glutamicum R efficiently produces valuable chemicals from glucose under oxygen-deprived conditions. In an effort to reduce acetate as\\u000a a byproduct, acetate productivity of several mutant-disrupted genes encoding possible key enzymes for acetate formation was\\u000a determined. Disruption of the aceE gene that encodes the E1 enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex resulted in almost complete elimination of acetate\\u000a formation under

Kaori Yasuda; Toru Jojima; Masako Suda; Shohei Okino; Masayuki Inui; Hideaki Yukawa

2007-01-01

352

Experimental study of aluminum-, calcium-, and magnesium-acetate complexing at 80 degree C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilities of Al-, Ca-, and Mg-acetate complexes were determined separately at 80°C by measuring the solubilities of gibbsite, portlandite, and brucite as functions of acetate concentrations. The experiments were conducted using geologically realistic acetate concentrations in order to observe the acetate complexes that are important in sedimentary basin fluids. The experimental measurements are used to calculate the stoichiometries and

J FEIN

1991-01-01

353

Autotrophic synthesis of activated acetic acid from two CO 2 in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro system of autotropic synthesis of activated acetic acid from14CO2 inMethanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was developed.(1)A recognized14CO2-fixation product in vitro was activated [14C] acetic acid. It could be trapped enzymatically into citrate and released again as [14C] acetate by citrate synthase and citrate lyase, respectively.(2)The synthesis of both activated acetic acid and methane from CO2 proceeded in parallel under a

Erhard Stupperich; Georg Fuchs

1984-01-01

354

Mechanism of acetate oxidation to CO 2 with elemental sulfur in Desulfuromonas acetoxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strict anaerobe Desulfuromonas acetoxidans can oxidize acetate to CO2 with elemental sulfur as electron acceptor. 14C-labelling experiments and enzyme studies are described revealing that acetate oxidation proceeds via the citric acid cycle with the synthesis of oxaloacetate from acetate and 2 CO2 via pyruvate as anaplerotic reaction. An oxidation of acetate via one carbon unit intermediates as proposed for

Norbert A. Gebhardt; Rudolf K. Thauer; Dietmar Linder; Paul-M. Kaulfers; Norbert Pfennig

1985-01-01

355

Determination of Formic and Acetic Acid in Chondritic Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of formic and acetic acid have been determined using ion exclusion chromatography after water extraction from several chondritic meteorite samples. Monocarboxylic acids are of great importance because of their high concentration in meteorites and for their role as precursor molecules in organic synthesis [1]. The concentration of acetic acid has been determined previously using gas chromatography [2,3]. Prior gas chromatographic analyses failed to resolve formic acid and so the results were limited to carboxylic acids having two or more carbons. Alternatively, wet chemical methods for the determination of formic acid, although precise, are lengthy and difficult to reproduce [4]. Ion exclusion chromatography (ICE) is an excellent technique for the simultaneous determination of formic and acetic acids. Using ICE the carboxylic acids can be determined in less time and with minimal sample handling. In most cases the amount of formic acid present is found to be lower than the amount of acetic acid present. This contradicts the accepted synthesis scheme of higher homologs being made from lower members, where the formic acid would be expected to have a higher concentration than acetic acid. Other monocarboxylic acids in the homologous series (C(sub)2-C(sub)7) have been shown to decrease with increasing carbon number as expected [2,3]. This data suggests that either the formic acid may have been preferentially depleted or it may have a different synthesis mechanism as compared with the other monocarboxylic acids present in meteorites. Additionally, there is a relationship between the amount of formic and acetic acid present and the oxidation state of the iron in the chondrites. As the matrix environment becomes more oxidizing, the amount of the two monocarboxylic acids increases comparatively. Furthermore, the ratio of formic to acetic acid starts to increase as the metal phase is more oxidized, suggesting that a more oxidized matrix environment in some way makes the production of higher homologs from lower members more favorable. References: [1] Cronin J. R. et al. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 819-857. Univ. of Arizona. [2] Yuen G. U. and Kvenvolden K. A. (1974) Nature, 246, 301-303. [3] Yuen G. et al. (1984) Nature, 307, 252-254. [4] Kimball B. (1988) M.S. thesis, Arizona State Univ. [5] Urey H. C. and Craig H. (1953) GCA, 4, 36-82. [6] Sears D. W. and Dodd R. T. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 3-31. Univ. of Arizona. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows a representative concentration of formic and acetic acid (in ppm) for select chondrites as measured by ion exclusion chromatography.

Briscoe, J. F.; Moore, C. B.

1993-07-01

356

Medroxyprogesterone acetate for refractory emesis in cisplatin-treated patients.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most distressing side effects in systemic chemotherapies. Recently, several effective agents have been developed to prevent CINV, and CINV can be prevented in 70%-80% of patients receiving chemotherapies. Conversely, 20%-30% of patients still suffer from CINV despite recommended optimal antiemetic preventions. Refractory emesis is defined as emesis occuring despite the use of antiemetic prophylaxis during the previous cycle of chemotherapy. Salvage treatments for refractory emesis are necessary, but there are few effective treatments at present. We consider medroxyprogesterone acetate to be a potentially promising agent for refractory emesis. We encountered three cases in which medroxyprogesterone acetate was extremely effective for refractory emesis induced by cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. PMID:22650802

Hata, Akito; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Shiro; Horai, Aya; Takatori, Kento; Ose, Takayuki; Kitajima, Naoto

2012-05-31

357

[Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].  

PubMed

We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale(NRS)to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method(p<0.001). Further, ice application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain. PMID:24105059

Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

2013-10-01

358

A freshwater anaerobe coupling acetate oxidation to tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation.  

PubMed Central

Strain TT4B has been isolated from anaerobic sediments known to be contaminated with a variety of organic solvents. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium and grew anaerobically with acetate as the electron donor and tetrachloroethylene as the electron acceptor in a mineral medium. cis-Dichloroethylene was the halogenated product. This strain did not grow fermentatively and used only acetate or pyruvate as electron donors. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were used as electron acceptors, as were ferric nitriloacetate and fumarate. Nitrogen and sulfur oxyanions were not able to substitute as the electron acceptor for this organism. Modest growth occurred in a two-phase system with 1 ml of hexadecane containing 50 to 200 mM tetrachloroethylene (aqueous concentrations, 25 to 100 microM) and 10 ml of anaerobic mineral solution with Na2S as the reducing agent. Growth was completely inhibited at tetrachloroethylene levels above 100 microM.

Krumholz, L R; Sharp, R; Fishbain, S S

1996-01-01

359

Ethyl acetate: X-ray, solvent and computed structures.  

PubMed

Ethyl acetate (ethyl ethanoate) was crystallized in situ and the crystal structure was determined. In the solid, the molecule is flat with trans conformation. The geometric details of ethyl acetate as a solvate are analyzed statistically using the Cambridge Structural Database, uncovering a high degree of hidden disorder. Despite the disorder, they exhibit a preference of the trans over the gauche isomer, with a negligible contribution of the cis isomer. These results are compared to ab initio calculations on both solid-state and molecular level. For the molecular structures, the computed energy differences of the isomers match the statistics found as a solvent. Several DFT-D2 methods used to calculate the solid state yield results that differ significantly from the experiment. PMID:23108979

Boese, A Daniel; Kirchner, Michael; Echeverria, Gustavo A; Boese, Roland

2012-10-25

360

Discretization of quasi-sinusoidal diffraction gratings printed on acetates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to propose the use of printed acetate sheets as quasi-sinusoidal diffraction gratings, as low-cost alternative gratings for application in non-invasive optical tests. Gratings were generated with Matlab® software and made with various models of laser printers. A study of the discretization effects that depend on the symmetry in the sample was included, gratings were placed in the entrance pupil of a positive lens (illuminated by a collimated plane wave) to observe their Fourier transforms. It was found that diffraction patterns of various types of semi-sinusoidal profiles were very close to that of sinusoidal gratings. Gradual change in the size of printed ink spots was observed in more detail through a magnification of 40x. Additionally, an atomic force microscope was used to measure the roughness average of the impressions as to observe the behavior of the ink on the acetate.

Mora-González, Miguel; Pérez Ladrón de Guevara, Héctor; Muñoz-Maciel, Jesús; Chiu-Zarate, Roger; Casillas, Francisco J.; Gómez-Rosas, Gilberto; Peña-Lecona, Francisco G.; Vázquez-Flores, Zuleima Montserrat

2009-09-01

361

Design and control of acetic acid dehydration system via heterogeneous azeotropic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid dehydration is an important operation in the production of aromatic acid, such as terephthalic acid or in the manufacture of cellulose acetate. Although acetic acid and water does not form azeotrope, but using simple distillation to separate these two components is not practical. The reason is because the system has tangent pinch on the pure water end, thus

I. Lung Chien; Kai-Luen Zeng; Huan-Yi Chao; Jun Hong Liu

2004-01-01

362

Investigations of sodium acetate trihydrate for solar latent heat storage, controlling the melting point  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of different acetate salts and acetamide lowers the melting point of sodium acetate trihydrate. Between 0 and 10 percent of lithium acetate dihydrate a linear relationship was observed between the melting point and the molal concentration, and the cryoscopic constant of Kf = -6.8 C (+ or - 10 percent) was evaluated. Information on dissociation or dimerization of

A. Ulman; B. Valentin

1983-01-01

363

75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY...residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane; when used as an inert ingredient...residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane on food or feed...

2010-08-25

364

Electrochemical behavior of graphite in electrolyte of sulfuric and acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical formation of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) has been studied in the electrolyte with mixed sulfuric acid and acetic acid. The results show that, with addition of acetic acid, GICs can be synthesized in the electrolyte with sulfuric acid concentration as low as 3.6M, even though no GIC is formed in pure acetic acid. The stage structure of the synthesized

F. Kang; T.-Y. Zhang; Y. Leng

1997-01-01

365

40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium...substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

2013-07-01

366

Acetobacter aceti Possesses a Proton Motive Force-Dependent Efflux System for Acetic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria are obligate aerobes able to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding acids. Among them, Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter species have very high ethanol oxidation capacity, leading to accumulation of vast amounts of acetic acid outside the cell. Since these bacteria are able to grow in media with high concentrations of acetic acid, they must possess

Kazunobu Matsushita; Taketo Inoue; Osao Adachi; Hirohide Toyama

2005-01-01

367

Biomass chemicals production by thermochemical conversion. [Wacker synthesis, Eastman acetic anhydride process, Organosolv process kraft pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews novel concepts for the production of chemicals by the thermochemical conversion of biomass. An engineering and economic analysis builds upon recent laboratory developments to provide a perspective of new process potentials and identifies areas requiring further investigation. Candidate processes fall into two categories: production of acetate esters, vinyl acetate and acetic anhydride by biomass gasification; and production

Klausmeier

1983-01-01

368

Effects of acetic acid treatment on plant chromosome structures analyzed by atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid treatment has been frequently used to remove cellular contaminants from plant chromosome samples for structural analyses by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of acetic acid treatments on barley chromosome structures by using AFM. The long-term 45% acetic acid treatment significantly damaged the chromosome structures, although the treatment effectively

Shigeru Sugiyama; Tomoyuki Yoshino; Hiroko Kanahara; Motoharu Shichiri; Daisuke Fukushi; Toshio Ohtani

2004-01-01

369

Separation of acetic acid-water mixtures by pervaporation through silicalite membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline silicalite membranes were prepared on two kinds of porous supports by hydrothermal synthesis. The pervaporation performance of the silicalite membrane obtained was investigated using an acetic acid-water mixture as a feed. The silicalite membrane on the sintered stainless steel support selectively permeates acetic acid in the concentration of the feed acetic acid in the region of 5 to 40

Tsuneji Sano; Shigeyuki Ejiri; Kiyoshi Yamada; Yusuke Kawakami; Hiroshi Yanagishita

1997-01-01

370

Polyphasic taxonomy of acetic acid bacteria: An overview of the currently applied methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria are Gram-negative, obligate aerobic bacteria that have the ability to incompletely oxidize alcohols or sugars to organic acids as end products. They are widespread in nature and most of them are capable to oxidize ethanol as substrate to acetic acid. This characteristic makes that acetic acid bacteria are often involved in foods and beverages, either in a

Ilse Cleenwerck; Paul De Vos

2008-01-01

371

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4–6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry,

D C McMillan; S J Wigmore; K C H Wigmore; P O’Gorman; C E Wright; C S McArdle

1999-01-01

372

Direct Determination of Citric Acid in Milk with an Improved Pyridine-Acetic Anhydride Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The determination of citric acid with pyridine and acetic anhydride has been in- vestigated at reaction temperatures from 17 to 60 ° C. The optimum proportions of pyridine, acetic anhydride, water, and acetic acid for maximum color intensity and stability are given for each temperature. The procedure has been modified to eliminate the violent nature of the reaction, even

J. R. Marier; M. Boulet

1958-01-01

373

Water in polymer membranes. 4. Raman scattering from cellulose acetate films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman scattering was observed from thin film optical waveguides of cellulose acetate exposed to water vapor from 0% to 100% relative humidity (RH), and from dilute solutions of water in methyl acetate. Spectra of cellulose acetate (CA398, 39.8% acetyl) at low RH and cellulose triacetate (CTA) at low and high RH are consistent with the presence of water monomers that

J. R. Scherer; G. F. Bailey; S. Kint; R. Young; D. P. Malladi; B. Bolton

1985-01-01

374

Oxidation of 4Nitrotoluene by Ozone in Acetic Anhydride in the Presence of Manganese Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of 4-nitrotoluene oxidation with ozone in acetic anhydride in the presence of MnSO4and sulfuric acid was studied. The main reaction product is 4-nitrobenzyl acetate, the yield of which is 63.2%. Based on an analysis of the experimental data, a mechanism of the catalytic ozonation of 4-nitrotoluene in acetic anhydride was proposed.

E. V. Potapenko; G. A. Galstyan; A. G. Galstyan; Yu. P. Kudyukov

2001-01-01

375

Gateways to clinical trials.  

PubMed

Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate; ACP-103, Ad.Egr.TNF.11 D, adalimumab, AF-IL 12, AIDSVAX gp120 B/B, alefacept, alemtuzumab, a-Galactosylceramide, ALVAC vCP 1452, alvimopan hydrate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, anidulafungin, antarelix, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic sulfide, asoprisnil, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BrachySil, brivudine; Caffeine, calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, capsaicin for injection, caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, cetuximab, CGP-36742, clofazimine, CpG-7909, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, dimethylfumarate, dronabinol/cannabidiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fampridine, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, GPI-0100; hA 20, HTU-PA, human insulin, HuOKT 3 gamma 1(Ala 234-Ala 235), hyaluronic acid; Icatibant, imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, INKP-100, INKP-102, iodine (I131) tositumomab, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lacosamide, landiolol, lanthanum carbonate, lasofoxifene tartrate, LB-80380, lenalidomide, lidocaine/tetracaine, linezolid, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Maribavir, morphine glucuronide, MVA-5 T 4; NBI-56418, NCX-4016, nesiritide, nicotine conjugate vaccine, NSC-330507; Oglufanide, omalizumab, oxipurinol; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, PEGylated interferon alfacon-1, perospirone hydrochloride, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plerixafor hydrochloride, PowderJect lidocaine, pradefovir mesylate, prasterone, pregabalin, Prostvac VF, PT-141, PTC-124, pyridoxamine; QS-21, quercetin; R-126638, R-411, ralfinamide, rasagiline mesilate, rF-PSA, RG-2077, rhThrombin, rimonabant hydrochloride, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rV-PSA; S-18886, S-303, seocalcitol, SGN-40, sitaxsentan sodium, SPP-301, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenatoprazole, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone MDTS, testosterone transdermal patch, tgAAC-09, TH-9507, thioacetazone, tipifarnib, TQ-1011, trabectedin, travoprost, trimethoprim; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valopicitabine, voriconazole; Xcellerated T cells. PMID:16179960

Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

376

Measurement of acetic acid using a fibre Bragg grating interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol-gel-PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders the interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks changes

C. Jesus; S. F. O. Silva; M. Castanheira; G. González Aguilar; O. Frazão; P. A. S. Jorge; J. M. Baptista

2009-01-01

377

Sorption of ammonia and nitrogen on cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption isotherms of ammonia and nitrogen on cellulose acetate in the temperature range 303-333 K are measured by reversed-phase chromatography. It is established that ammonia specifically interacts with the polymer matrix of the sorbent. The experimental data are described in terms of the Laatikainen-Lindstrom quasi-chemical model of vapor sorption. The enthalpies of sorption are determined, and their dependences on the ammonia and nitrogen concentrations in the sorbent are established.

Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Drozdov, P. N.; Mochalov, G. M.; Smirnova, N. N.; Suvorov, S. S.

2006-12-01

378

Organisms Associated with Acetic Acid Bacteria in Vinegar Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinegars are the product of scalar fermentations carried out by several groups of microorganisms acting at different moments\\u000a in time. The initial phase is generally represented by an alcoholic fermentation commonly carried out by yeasts. Lactic acid\\u000a bacteria (LAB) can also play a role in releasing ethanol and acetic acid from heterofermentative lactic acid fermentations.\\u000a Depending on the nature of

Sandra Rainieri; Carlo Zambonelli

379

Acute synovitis and intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate in ponies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine how acute synovitis, with and without intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), affect synthesis of proteoglycan, total protein, and collagen in articular cartilage and total protein synthesis in synovial membrane.Design: Synovitis was induced in 10 ponies by the injection of 0.5 ng lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the left radiocarpal and midcarpal joints every 2 days for a total of four

Rory J. Todhunter; Susan L. Fubini; Margaret Vernier-Singer; Joyce A. M. Wootton; George Lust; Kathleen P. Freeman; James N. MacLeod

1998-01-01

380

Interferometric fibre-optic sensor for acetic acid measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol-gel-PVP (polyVynil Pirrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks change

C. Jesus; S. F. O. Silva; M. Castanheira; G. Gonzalez Aguilar; O. Frazao; P. A. S. Jorge; J. M. Baptista

2009-01-01

381

Auto-catalyzed acetic acid pulping of jute  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of acetic acid (HAc) based pulping trials were carried out to determine the best conditions to produce a jute pulp with low residual lignin content and high physical properties. The extended delignification, with increasing temperature, strongly affected the strength properties. The highest tensile strength of 24Nm\\/g was found at 150°C and 10min, 300ml CSF condition. However, increasing temperature

Halil Turgut Sahin; Raymond A. Young

2008-01-01

382

The environmental fate of anabolic steroid trenbolone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

17?-trenbolone Acetate (TBA) is a synthetic anabolic hormone widely used in beef cattle across the U.S. TBA is administered as a subcutaneous implant and often in combination with 17?-estradiol (E2) for growth promotion in beef cattle. Implanted cattle excrete primarily 17?-trenbolone along with small amounts of 17?-trenbolone and trendione. Quantifying the fate of these hormones after being land-applied is important

Bushra Khan

2009-01-01

383

Dehydration of acetic acid by pervaporation with charged membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified Nafion membranes were prepared by charging Nafion 117 membrane with different long-chained counter ions and used for pervaporation of acetic acid–water mixture. It was observed, that the selectivity of Nafion membrane was enhanced by charging with long-chained counter ions. However, it led to a decrease in permeate flux because of decreasing solubility and diffusivity of the membranes. The results

Samuel P. Kusumocahyo; Masao Sudoh

1999-01-01

384

Potential energy surfaces for proton abstractions from acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abstractions of hydrogen from both carbon and oxygen in acetic acid by hydride, fluoride, and hydroxide anions have been studied using ab initio electronic structure calculations. Molecular structures were optimized at the Hartree-Fock level of theory using the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. For energetics, the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was used, with second- and fourth-order perturbation theory corrections, for both minima

Mark S. Gordon; David R. Gano; Eugene Curtiss

1996-01-01

385

Modified alginate composite membranes for the dehydration of acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alginate composite membranes cross-linked with 1,6-hexanediamine (HDM) or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by casting an aqueous solution of alginate and HDM or PVA on a hydrolyzed microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane and characterized by pervaporation separation of acetic acid\\/water mixtures. The influence of hydrolysis of PAN support layer and HDM content in dense layer on separation performance of the composite

Xin-Ping Wang

2000-01-01

386

2-Amino-anilinium 2-chloro-acetate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, C6H9N2 +·ClCH2COO?, prepared by the reaction of OPDA (orthophenelynediamine) with chloro­acetic ­acid, N—H?O hydrogen bonds generate ladder-like chains and very weak inter­molecular C—H?Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the anions and cations lead to a supra­molecular network. C—H?O inter­actions also occur.

Rao, A. Srinivasa; Tripuramallu, Bharat Kumar; Ravada, Kishore; Das, Samar K.

2010-01-01

387

Preirradiation grafting of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylic acid was graft copolymerised on to EVA powdered resins containing 9%, 18% and 28% vinyl acetate. A preirradiation grafting method was used and the effect on graft level of varying the parameters of gamma irradiation dose (2–50 kGy), dose rate (0.5–5 kGy h?1), monomer concentration (2.5–25%) and grafting time (1–4 h) and temperature (35–98°C) was investigated. The graft copolymer resins

B. J Ringrose; E Kronfli

1999-01-01

388

Liquid crystalline solutions of cellulose acetate in phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence has been studied of both the acid strength of phosphoric acid and the degree of substitution of cellulose acetate on the formation of an anisotropic phase. The solvent composition is expressed as a P2O5 concentration. It was found that the clearing temperature increases strongly with decreasing amount of water in the solvent.The influence of the degree of substitution

H Boerstoel; H Maatman; S. J Picken; R Remmers; J. B Westerink

2001-01-01

389

2-(3-Hy-droxy-benzyl-amino)-acetic acid  

PubMed Central

There are two independent 2-(3-hy­droxy­benzyl­amino)­acetic acid mol­ecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent mol­ecules is 58.12?(4)°. The crystal packing is stablized by inter­molecular O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds.

Zhi, Li-Hua; Wu, Wei-Na

2011-01-01

390

Electroacupuncture ameliorates experimental colitis induced by acetic acid in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on experimental colitis was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. EA (2 Hz, 0.05 ms, 2 V for 20 min) was applied to bilateral Hoku (LI- 4) and Zusanli (ST-36) on 12 hrs and 36 hrs after induction of colitis. EA-treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic damage and

Jeoung-Woo Kang; Tae-Wan Kim; Jun-Ho La; Tae-Sik Sung; Hyun-Ju Kim; Young-Bae Kwon; Jeum-Yong Kim; Il-Suk Yang

2004-01-01

391

Carbonic anhydrase activity in acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell extracts (27000xg supernatant) of acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri were found to have carbonic anhydrase activity (0.41 U\\/mg protein), which was lost upon heating or incubation with proteinase K. The activity was inhibited by Diamox (apparent Ki=0.5 mM), by azide (apparent Ki=1 mM), and by cyanide (apparent Ki=0.02 mM). These and other properties indicate that the archaebacterium contains the enzyme

Marion Karrasch; Michael Bott; Rudolf K. Thauer

1989-01-01

392

The effects of acetate buffer concentration on lysozyme solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The

Elizabeth L. Forsythe; Marc L. Pusey

1996-01-01

393

Oxidation of carene by thallium(III) acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-p-Tolylpropanol-2, p-menth-1,8-dien-3-ol, p-menth-1-en-3a, 8-diol, p-menth-1-en-3ß, 8-diol, p-menth-1-en-3-on-8-ol, p-menth-1,8-dien-5,6-diol, and 2,3-dihydroxy-1,8-cineole are formed during the oxidation of 2-carene by thallium (III) acetate.

V. V. Ratner; Z. G. Isaeva; I. P. Povodyreva; N. F. Goryachkina; Yu. Ya. Efremov; B. A. Arbuzov

1983-01-01

394

Indole3-acetic acid induces microencephaly in mouse fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), known as natural auxin, on developing fetus, pregnant mice were injected with 500 or 1000mg\\/kg on various gestation days (Days). With the repeated treatment during Days 7–15, the fetal brains exhibited a reduction in size and weight in a dose-dependent manner on Day 18. Histopathologically, hypoplasia of the cortical plate, piriform cortex,

Satoshi Furukawa; Koji Usuda; Masayoshi Abe; Seigo Hayashi; Izumi Ogawa

2007-01-01

395

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v\\/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H2SO4 (w\\/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L\\/S) 10 (v\\/w), pulping temperature 105°C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15%

Xuejun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

2005-01-01

396

Ethane to acetic acid oxidation over supported heteropoly acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdo(vanado)phosphoric heteropoly acids of Keggin structure supported on oxide supports (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3) were used as catalysts for ethane to acetic acid oxidation in the range of reaction temperature from 250 to 400°C. Vanadium atoms introduced into Keggin structure enhanced oxidative activity of catalytic system, while vanadyl groups exchanged into cationic position diminished ethane conversion. Nature of support (acidic or

M. Sopa; A. W?c?aw-Held; M. Grossy; J. Pijanka; K. Nowi?ska

2005-01-01

397

Use of fibre wastes from production of acetate fibres  

SciTech Connect

The rational use of production wastes is an important part of the Fergana Chemical Fibre Plant in Russia. This recycling reduces the negative effect of the technological process on the environment, increases the economy of production, and produces additional consumer goods. Consumer goods began to be produced at the plant in 1978 with processing of amide-acetate textured fibres into yarn for hand knitting. The need to increase the volumes and expand the variety of goods for the market predetermined an important increase in production of this product. Production of consumer goods has increased since 1990, and both fibre wastes and untreated low-grade fibres and filaments have been used as the starting material. Technological processes for processing wastes and low-grade figured, textured polyamide-acetate fibres into knitting yarn, haberdashery cord, and finishing tape and fringe were created and introduced in subsequent years. The primary technological formulation for production of these materials is well known and is used in light industry. However, production of each type of product in the plant was preceded by research related to selection of the optimum linear density of the filaments used, composition of blends, and the structure of figured fibres, as well as the concrete technological parameters and operating regimes of the equipment to produce articles of the required quality. Development and testing of new decorative textiles are continuing. Low grade and nonstandard acetate semifinished fibre from spinning machines and low grade, bulk dyed acetate fibres have been selected as the raw material for fabrication of these articles.

Askarov, M.I.; Tashpulatova, A.B.

1995-07-01

398

Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (<10(3) cfu/mL), which under conducive conditions might proliferate. Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine. PMID:18237809

Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

2007-12-23

399

Fire retardant mechanism in intumescent ethylene vinyl acetate compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal and combustion behaviour of an intumescent fire retardant system based on Polyamide 6 (PA6) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP), used to improve flame retardant properties of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA), loaded with Mg(OH)2 (MH) was examined. The study of the interactions between the additives introduced in EVA was focused in particular on the MH-APP interaction. The evolution of water from

A. Riva; G. Camino; L. Fomperie; P. Amigouët

2003-01-01

400

Galangal pungent component, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, activates TRPA1.  

PubMed

We investigated the activation of transient receptor potential cation channel (TRP) subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and TRP subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) by 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), the main pungent component in galangal. ACA did not activate TRPV1-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, but strongly activated TRPA1-expressing HEK cells. ACA was more potent than allyl isothiocyanate, the typical TRPA1 agonist. PMID:20699565

Narukawa, Masataka; Koizumi, Kanako; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kubota, Kikue; Watanabe, Tatsuo

2010-08-07

401

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-01-01

402

Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of octyl acetate in rats.  

PubMed

Octyl acetate (CAS RN 108419-32-5) was administered via oral gavage to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on Gestation Days 6 through 15 at dose levels of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/kg. The dams were weighed and observed for clinical signs of toxicity during pregnancy, and food consumption was measured. On Gestation Day 20 the dams were sacrificed and the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations and variations. The mid- and high-dose levels resulted in maternal toxicity as evidenced by reductions in body weight gain and food consumption. There were no statistically significant effects on embryo-fetal lethality or fetal growth for any treatment group. The number of litters with at least one malformed fetus and the mean percentage of the litter malformed were significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated in the high-dose group only. The results of the present study demonstrate that octyl acetate produced some evidence of developmental toxicity at a dose (1.0 g/kg) that was maternally toxic. Developmental toxicity was not observed at the maternally toxic 0.5 g/kg dose level or the maternally nontoxic dose level (0.1 g/kg). Therefore, these data indicate that octyl acetate is not a selective developmental toxicant in the rat. PMID:2792597

Daughtrey, W C; Wier, P J; Traul, K A; Biles, R W; Egan, G F

1989-08-01

403

Abiraterone acetate in castration-resistant prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The palliative goal of the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer is to prolong survival and decrease cancer-related complications. Androgen ablation therapy is widely accepted as the initial treatment of choice; when the disease becomes resistant to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), docetaxel-based chemotherapy aids in prolonging overall survival and controlling disease-related symptoms. Until a few years ago, no drug had showed efficacy in docetaxel-resistant patients. Recently, cabazitaxel, a taxane family compound, has been shown to help prolong survival in patients previously treated with docetaxel, even if a high grade of myelotoxicity has been reported. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of CRPC has demonstrated that prostate cancer proliferation is largely mediated through the androgen receptor, which could be reactivated by androgens produced by the adrenal glands. Abiraterone acetate is an orally active acetate salt of the steroidal compound abiraterone with antiandrogen activity. Abiraterone inhibits the enzymatic activity of steroid 17?-monooxygenase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family that catalyzes the 17?-hydroxylation of steroid intermediates involved in testosterone synthesis from the adrenal glands. This review focuses on abiraterone acetate, the first compound that, through the inhibition of adrenal gland production of testosterone, increases the overall survival in CRPC patients. The role of possible predictive biomarkers and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:22123334

Iacovelli, Roberto; Palazzo, Antonella; Procopio, Giuseppe; Gazzaniga, Paola; Cortesi, Enrico

2012-03-01

404

Stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate  

SciTech Connect

In isolated perfused rat livers, infusion of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (150 nM) resulted in a three-fold stimulation of the rate of glucose production. This response was maximal at perfusate phorbol ester concentration of 150 nM, and was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of the phorbol ester (e.g. 300 nM). Stimulation of glycogenolysis by phorbol ester was greatly decreased in livers perfused infusion into livers perfused with calcium-free medium. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate infusion into livers perfused in the absence of calcium did not result in calcium efflux from the livers. Additionally, in hepatocytes isolated from livers of fed rats neither the phorbol ester nor 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol, stimulated the rate of glucose production. This last result along with the observations that in isolated perfused rat livers, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate increases portal pressure, and decreases oxygen consumption suggests that stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol ester is the result of increased vasoconstriction, and is not a consequence of a direct effect of the phorbol ester on liver parenchymal cells.

Patel, T.B.

1986-05-01

405

Observations on a Laboratory Method for Submerged Acetic Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Submerged acetic fermentation experiments were performed for the purpose of determining the conditions under which this type of fermentation should be conducted under laboratory conditions. The apparatus used consisted of a set of glass tubes provided with air spargers. Acetobacter acetigenum was found to be the most suitable bacterium among six Acetobacter compared under submerged acetic fermentation conditions in a synthetic medium. Statistically significant different rates of fermentation were observed in acetators that were identical in construction, fermentation medium, and aeration characteristics. Extremely long growth lag periods and complete absence of growth were often observed when starting fermentations. The causes of this behavior were investigated. It was found that it was not produced by lack of nutrients or by presence of a bacteriophage. Different kinds of bacterial starters were studied and compared. Cultures maintained in a liquid medium were reliable starters with a short growth lag period. Liquid medium cultures maintained their good starter characteristics after periods of storage of up to 11 weeks at 40 F (4 C).

Lopez, Anthony; Johnson, L. W.; Wood, C. B.

1961-01-01

406

Non-trivial behavior of palladium(II) acetate.  

PubMed

Reaction of activated palladium metal with a HNO3/acetic acid mixture produces both orange Pd3(OAc)6, 1, and purple Pd3(OAc)5(NO2), 2. Compound has a trinuclear structure derived from that of the well-known triangular complex 1 in which one acetate group has been replaced by a nitrite group which is bonded to one palladium atom by the nitrogen atom and to another Pd atom using one of the oxygen atoms. Highly pure 1 can be made by continuous removal of the nitric oxides from the reaction mixture using a flow of N2. 1H NMR spectra of solutions of 1 in CDCl3 and C6D6 show several signals of various intensities when a small amount of water is present in the deuterated solvents but only one signal when the solvents are thoroughly dried. These results are consistent with the occurrence of one or more hydrolysis processes when the solvents contain water and suggest that hypotheses about various [Pd(OAc)2]n aggregates that have previously been brought forward in the literature to explain the complexity of the spectrum of 1 are unnecessary, especially for nonpolar solvents. Compound 2 does not hydrolyze, and in wet or dried solvents shows a 1H NMR spectrum that consists of five equal-intensity signals due to the five nonequivalent acetate groups. PMID:15909048

Bakhmutov, Vladimir I; Berry, John F; Cotton, F Albert; Ibragimov, Sergey; Murillo, Carlos A

2005-05-04

407

Treatment of clozapine-induced priapism by goserline acetate injection  

PubMed Central

Clozapine (Denzapine) is a treatment for resistant schizophrenia. Among the serious but rare side effects of clozapine are agranulocytosis and priapism. We hereby present the case of a 30-year-old man with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who has spent nearly 12 years of his adult life on various psychiatric in-patient units including open wards, secure units, psychiatric intensive care units and rehab wards. Diagnosed at the age of 15, he only responded to clozapine at the age of 18. Whilst being on clozapine he developed priapism in June 2010 and needed emergency surgical treatment in the form of surgical decompression. He again responded only to clozapine and fortunately he did not redevelop priapism; however, he was readmitted in February 2011 due to relapse, and he remained resistant to other antipsychotics. He was rechallenged with clozapine and recovered, but unfortunately redeveloped priapism which required emergency surgical and medical intervention (goserline acetate and tinzaperin injection). In order to relieve the recurrent priapism, he agreed to continue clozapine and goserline acetate injection. This decision was made by the patient in a compos mentis state. As far as we are aware, this is the first time goserline acetate has been reported as a successful treatment for clozapine-induced priapism.

Nayar, Jitendra; Bashier, Adnan; Varghese, Soosamma

2013-01-01

408

Oxidation of acetate through reactions of the citric acid cycle by Geobacter sulfurreducens in pure culture and in syntrophic coculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA oxidized acetate to CO2 via citric acid cycle reactions during growth with acetate plus fumarate in pure culture, and with acetate plus nitrate in coculture with Wolinella succinogenes. Acetate was activated by succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and also via acetate kinase plus phosphotransacetylase. Citrate was formed by citrate synthase. Soluble isocitrate and malate dehydrogenases reduced NADP+ and NAD+,

Alexander S. Galushko; Bernhard Schink

2000-01-01

409

Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weigh...

1987-01-01

410

Comparison of the activity of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and the diglyceride glycerol 1-myristate 2-acetate.  

PubMed

Diglycerides function as analogs of the phorbol ester tumor promoters. We compare here the activity of glycerol 1-myristate 2-acetate (GMA) with the corresponding phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). GMA inhibited phorbol ester binding to reconstituted protein kinase C, stimulated protein kinase C enzymatic activity, and, upon addition to intact 3T3 cells, inhibited [125I]EGF binding. Its potency was much less than that of PMA, however (2.9 X 10(4)-fold less for phorbol ester binding, greater than 1.2 X 10(5)-fold less for inhibition of EGF binding), and its activity on the intact cells was more transient. The marked difference in potency contrasts with the much smaller differences found previously for the corresponding pairs of dilaurate and dioleate derivatives. PMID:3486050

Sharkey, N A; Blumberg, P M

1986-04-01

411

[Effect of acetate on the formation of the phyoeffector tentoxin by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler].  

PubMed

The effect of the cosubstrate acetate on the formation of the phytotoxic substance tentoxin by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler was investigated. Acetate was taken up and metabolized during growth. The added acetate stimulated considerably the biosynthesis of tentoxin depending on its concentration and time of introduction. There was an increased incorporation of (U-14C)-glucose into the toxin molecule in the presence of acetate in the medium. The results indicate an induction of the biosynthesis of tentoxin by the precursor acetate, probably mediated through the accumulation of the glycolytic intermediates pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate. PMID:4045707

Hänel, I; Liebermann, B; Brückner, B; Tröger, R

1985-01-01

412

Lead acetate action on anaphylactic response of guinea pig smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to evaluate lead acetate effects on the anaphylactic contraction in guinea pigs smooth muscles. Aortic rings from guinea pigs exposed to lead acetate developed an anaphylactic contraction significantly lower than the contraction induced by the antigen in controls. In the smooth muscle of the intestine, lead acetate did not modify the anaphylactic response. Lead induced immunosuppression of the anaphylactic response of aortic rings, whereas sodium acetate had no effect on the anaphylactic reaction of the guinea pig smooth muscle. The amplitude of the norepinephrine contraction was not modified by lead nor by sodium acetate. PMID:11793963

Gijón, E; Cartas, L; García, X

2001-01-01

413

Acetate Binding of Spinach Chloroplasts as a Facet of Fatty Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

A particulate fraction of spinach chloroplasts is the major site of binding when either acetate or acetyl-CoA is used as substrate. The acetate is linked covalently, and the binding is inhibited by reagents which react with sulfhydryl groups. The amount of acetate bound is lowered by both citrate and oxaloacetate; however, the binding is not reversed by oxaloacetate. Reversal of binding is also not brought about by the addition of unlabeled acetyl-CoA. If cofactors for fatty acid synthesis and cold acetyl-CoA are added, the binding of labeled acetate is reversed. Acyl carrier protein from E. coli increases the binding of labeled acetate.

Devor, K. A.; Mudd, J. B.

1968-01-01

414

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw II: Behavior of Ash and Silica in Rice Straw during Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping and Bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A detailed examination was made of the behavior and distribution of ash and silica during atmospheric acetic acid pulping and subsequent bleaching of rice straw. Ash-rich pulps (in unbleached pulp, about 18 %; and in bleached pulp, 16 %) with matchable strength properties for conventional alkaline pulps were obtained from rice straw by acetic acid pulping. More than 50

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano; Toshiaki Ito

1999-01-01

415

New approach for the production of cellulose acetate: acetylation of mechanical pulp with subsequent isolation of cellulose acetate by differential solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heretofore uninvestigated approach to the production of cellulose acetate is the acetylation of mechanical pulp with subsequent isolation of the cellulose derivative by differential solubility. The mechanical pulp is produced by refining aspen wood chips in a disc-refiner. Two conventional acetylation techniques, the fibrous and solution process, are employed to acetylate all components of the pulp. The cellulose acetate

Barkalow

1987-01-01

416

Hydrolysis of RRR-?-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate) in the skin and its UV protecting activity (an in vivo study with the rat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin E acetate is often used rather than vitamin E as an ingredient of skin care products and dermatological preparations, because it lacks the free phenolic OH group. However, because of this the acetate as such is biologically inactive. In spite of this intrinsic inactivity, the skin is protected against the harmful effects of sunlight after topical application of vitamin

Gerard M. J. Beijersbergen van Henegouwen; Hans E. Junginger; Henk de Vries

1995-01-01

417

Generation of phenylpropanoid pathway-derived volatiles in transgenic plants: rose alcohol acetyltransferase produces phenylethyl acetate and benzyl acetate in petunia flowers.  

PubMed

Esters are important contributors to the aroma of numerous flowers and fruits. Acetate esters such as geranyl acetate, phenylethyl acetate and benzyl acetate are generated as a result of the action of alcohol acetyltransferases (AATs). Numerous homologous AATs from various plants have been characterized using in-vitro assays. To study the function of rose alcohol acetyltransferase (RhAAT) in planta, we generated transgenic petunia plants expressing the rose gene under the control of a CaMV-35S promoter. Although the preferred substrate of RhAAT in vitro is geraniol, in transgenic petunia flowers, it used phenylethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol to produce the corresponding acetate esters, not generated by control flowers. The level of benzyl alcohol emitted by the flowers of different transgenic lines was ca. three times higher than that of phenylethyl alcohol, which corresponded to the ratio between the respective products, i.e. ca. three times more benzyl acetate than phenylethyl acetate. Feeding of transgenic petunia tissues with geraniol or octanol led to the production of their respective acetates, suggesting the dependence of volatile production on substrate availability. PMID:16525891

Guterman, Inna; Masci, Tania; Chen, Xinlu; Negre, Florence; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia; Weiss, David; Vainstein, Alexander

2006-03-01

418

A combination of norethindrone acetate and leuprolide acetate blocks the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonistic response and minimizes cyst formation during ovarian stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol utilizing both leuprolide acetate (LA) and norethindrone acetate (NETA) in subjects undergoing ovarian suppression prior to follicle aspiration proved more effective than LA alone in reducing the incidence of ovarian cyst formation without affecting clinical outcome. Patients (n = 105) undergoing ovarian stimulation followed by follicle aspiration and in-vitro fertilization (TVF) were prospectively randomized and studied. Study measures

Edward C. Ditkoff; Mark V. Sauer

1996-01-01

419

Conformational studies of hydantoin-5-acetic acid and orotic acid.  

PubMed

Hydantoin-5-acetic acid [2-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)acetic acid] and orotic acid (2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid) each contain one rigid acceptor-donor-acceptor hydrogen-bonding site and a flexible side chain, which can adopt different conformations. Since both compounds may be used as coformers for supramolecular complexes, they have been crystallized in order to examine their conformational preferences, giving solvent-free hydantoin-5-acetic acid, C(5)H(6)N(2)O(4), (I), and three crystals containing orotic acid, namely, orotic acid dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate, C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4)·C(2)H(6)OS, (IIa), dimethylammonium orotate-orotic acid (1/1), C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(5)H(3)N(2)O(4)(-)·C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4), (IIb), and dimethylammonium orotate-orotic acid (3/1), 3C(2)H(8)N(+)·3C(5)H(3)N(2)O(4)(-)·C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4), (IIc). The crystal structure of (I) shows a three-dimensional network, with the acid function located perpendicular to the ring. Interestingly, the hydroxy O atom acts as an acceptor, even though the carbonyl O atom is not involved in any hydrogen bonds. However, in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc), the acid functions are only slightly twisted out of the ring planes. All H atoms of the acidic functions are directed away from the rings and, with respect to the carbonyl O atoms, they show an antiperiplanar conformation in (I) and synperiplanar conformations in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc). Furthermore, in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc), different conformations of the acid O=C-C-N torsion angle are observed, leading to different hydrogen-bonding arrangements depending on their conformation and composition. PMID:22307261

Gerhardt, Valeska; Tutughamiarso, Maya; Bolte, Michael

2012-01-18

420

A subchronic toxicity study of octyl acetate in rats.  

PubMed

The subchronic toxicity of octyl acetate was assessed following its administration to rats via oral gavage, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Treated rats received undiluted octyl acetate at doses of 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g/kg. Control rats received distilled water at a dose of 1.0 g/kg. An interim termination was made after 45 days of dosing at which time five animals per sex per group were terminated and necropsied. Blood samples were collected and liver tissues were prepared for histological examination. After 13 weeks of dosing all animals were terminated and necropsied. Blood samples were obtained and selected organs were weighed and prepared for subsequent histological examination. Several treatment-related effects were observed in the high-dose group (1.0 g/kg) animals. These effects included slight reductions in body weight and food consumption, increased liver and kidney weights, and evidence of hydrocarbon nephropathy in high-dose males only. The significance of these observations is discussed in the report. With the exception of increased liver weights in the mid-dose group, no other significant treatment-related effects were observed in the mid- or low-dose groups of animals. It is believed that the increases in liver weight which were observed are a compensatory response to an increased metabolic load, and not a reflection of true hepatotoxicity. The results of this study indicated that octyl acetate possessed an overall low degree of systemic toxicity when administered orally to rats for 13 weeks. PMID:2714531

Daughtrey, W C; Eutermoser, M; Thompson, S W; Biles, R W

1989-02-01

421

Measurements of thermophysical properties of sodium acetate hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods to measure the thermal conductivity, the specific heat capacity, and the heat of fusion of sodium acetate hydrate have been developed and the measured results have been reported for various concentrations and especially for various supercooling temperatures. Thermal conductivity was measured by using a probe method with a thermistor. The sensor element is very small, with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of 1.5 mm. Data for both the ordinary liquid and the supercooled liquid are smoothly connected to each other.

Araki, N.; Futamura, M.; Makino, A.; Shibata, H.

1995-11-01

422

Effects of electron beam irradiation of cellulose acetate cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to reduce the molecular weight of cellulose acetate used in cigarette filters by using electron beam irradiation is demonstrated. Radiation levels easily obtained with commercially available electron accelerators result in a decrease in average molecular weight of about six-times with no embrittlement, or significant change in the elastic behavior of the filter. Since a first step in the biodegradation of cigarette filters is reduction in the filter material's molecular weight this invention has the potential to allow the production of significantly faster degrading filters.

Czayka, M.; Fisch, M.

2012-07-01

423

Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.  

PubMed

Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks). PMID:17230337

Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

1993-02-01

424

Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

2012-07-01

425

Superconducting films made by spin-coating of acetate solutions  

SciTech Connect

Metallic silver substrates were spin-coated with several layers of mixed acetate solutions containing bismuth, lead, strontium, calcium, and copper. The viscosities of the cation solutions were modified by the addition of polyvinyl alcohol. The films were heat treated at various temperatures in air, O{sub 2}, and 1% O{sub 2} (balance N{sub 2}) atmospheres. Bismuth cuprate films with transport critical current densities {approx}500 A/cm{sup 2} were obtained in this work. New conditions of coating and sintering have been tried to produce superconducting films.

Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); dos Santos, D.I.; Carvalho, C.L.; da Silva, R.R.; Aegerter, M.A. (Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica)

1990-12-01

426

Electrical and Thermal Properties of Polyvinyl Acetal Based Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

A water chemistry procedure is used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can later be blended with a polymer to form a nanodielectric. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in two grades of polyvinyl acetal (commercially available under the trade names BX-L and KS-10, manufactured by SEKISUI Chemicals). Nanocomposite materials were prepared with 15 and 33 wt% titanium dioxide. The variation of the glass transition temperature with increasing filler weight fraction is presented. The dielectric breakdown strengths of the nanodielectric samples are reported. The presented results can be employed to optimize the dielectric properties of the studied nanocomposites for potential use in cryogenic high voltage applications.

Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

2009-10-01

427

Indole 3-acetic acid production by ectomycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Ability of 8 ectomycorrhizal fungi to synthesise indole 3-acetic acid from L-tryptophan and their growth rate were studied. Differences in the levels of IAA synthesis and biomass production among the 8 mycorrhizal fungi were observed. A positive correlation was recorded between IAA level and mycelial growth. The synthesis of IAA and mycelial biomass were maximum on 30th day after incubation. Pisolithus tinctorius and Laccaria laccata exhibited higher amounts of IAA production than other fungi, whereas Amanita muscaria and Rhizopogon luteolus showed least quantity of IAA. PMID:1521864

Gopinathan, S; Raman, N

1992-02-01

428

Measurements of thermophysical properties of sodium acetate hydrate  

SciTech Connect

Methods to measure the thermal conductivity, the specific heat capacity, and the heat of fusion of sodium acetate hydrate have been developed and the measured results have been reported for various concentrations and especially for various supercooling temperatures. Thermal conductivity was measured by using a probe method with a thermistor. The sensor element is very small, with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of 1.5mm. Data for both the ordinary liquid and the supercooled liquid are smoothly connected to each.

Araki, N.; Makino, A. [Shizuoka Univ. Hamamatsu (Japan); Futamura, M. [Toshiba Co., Yokohama (Japan)] [and others

1995-11-01

429

[Histrelin acetate--the first once yearly LHRH agonist].  

PubMed

Long-acting synthetic luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists have become the mainstay for androgen-deprivation therapy, because they avoid the physical and psychological discomfort associated with orchidectomy and lack the potential cardiotoxicity associated with estrogens such as diethylstilbestrol. Currently available luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist analogues include leuprolide, goserelin, triptorelin, degarelix and buserelin were administered as either intramuscular or subcutaneous depot injections on a 1, 2, 3 or 6 months basis. Histrelin acetate is the first long-acting luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist available as a once-yearly subcutaneous implant. PMID:22165080

Altarac, Silvio

430

Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.  

PubMed

The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity. PMID:23351147

Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

2013-01-28

431

Phonon transport in an initially twisted polyvinyl acetate nanofiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reduction in phonon thermal conductivity enhances thermoelectric performance. One method to accomplish this is by applying mechanical stress to a nanostructure. We consider an initially twisted 20 nm polyvinyl acetate nanofiber undergoing torsion. Our analytical method uses the continuum approach of Mooney's model. Torsion modifies the phonon dispersion. Angles of twist between 45° and 70° reduce the averaged phonon group velocity and the phonon thermal conductivity but when these angles are increased further, this conductivity increases. This suggests a phonon engineering approach to tune the thermal conductivity of nanomaterials.

Liangruksa, Monrudee; Puri, Ishwar K.

2013-05-01

432

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailiram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mukherjee, Rudra Palash [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Bantraj, Kandi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Orissa (India)

2010-10-26

433

A Specialized Citric Acid Cycle Requiring Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA):Acetate CoA-Transferase (AarC) Confers Acetic Acid Resistance on the Acidophile Acetobacter aceti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbes tailor macromolecules and metabolism to overcome specific environmental challenges. Acetic acid bacteria perform the aerobic oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and are generally resistant to high levels of these two membrane-permeable poisons. The citric acid cycle (CAC) is linked to acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti by several observations, among them the oxidation of acetate to CO2 by

Elwood A. Mullins; Julie A. Francois; T. Joseph Kappock

2008-01-01

434

Multiple genetic control of acetate-induced olfactory responses in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.  

PubMed

Behavioural responses of Drosophila melanogaster larvae were measured in response to olfactory stimulation with an homologous series of eight aliphatic n-acetates (methyl ... octyl acetate) and with cis-vaccenyl acetate. Larvae tended to be attracted to short-chain acetates (methyl ... pentyl) and repelled by longer chain acetates (hexyl, heptyl and octyl acetate). All larvae were strongly attracted to propyl acetate, irrespective of the dose studied. Larval olfactory responses generally declined with age. Two geographical strains showed specific anosmias. Katsunuma (Japan) larvae showed no response to hexyl acetate; chromosome substitution showed this behaviour to be controlled by genes on chromosome II. Tai (Ivory Coast) larvae showed no response to pentyl acetate; chromosome substitution showed that two genetic factors were primarily involved, on the X chromosome and chromosome III. The response was modulated by chromosome II. No effect of the Y chromosome was found. Two olfactory mutants were studied, olfC (X chromosome) and Indf (chromosome III); both mutants showed abnormal responses to certain acetates. The results are discussed in terms of various models of olfactory processing and the implications of these models for the number of genes involved in olfaction. PMID:7989222

Cobb, M; Dannet, F

1994-10-01

435

Anaerobic microbial biogeochemistry in a northern bog: Acetate as a dominant metabolic end product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements and incubation techniques were used to determine the dynamics of acetate formation, iron reduction, and methanogenesis in surficial peat of an Alaskan bog. Acetate concentrations were ˜100 ?M early in the season and decreased to ˜20 ?M in July when the water table decreased. Acetate levels increased rapidly to ˜1000 ?M when the water table rose to the surface in August. Acetate production in anaerobic slurries occurred at rates of 2.8-420 nmol carbon mL-1 day-1, which was 7-120 times more rapid than CH4 production. Experiments utilizing 14C-acetate confirmed that methanogenesis was not acetoclastic although acetate was converted very slowly to CO2. Peat incubated anaerobically for 4.5 months at 24°C never produced methane from acetate, suggesting that anaerobic acetate accumulation would have occurred all season if the water table had remained high. CO2 production was the most rapid process measured in laboratory incubations (up to 750 nmol mL-1 day-1) and appeared to be due primarily to fermentation. Acetate was the primary organic terminal product of anaerobic decomposition in the bog, and acetate was ultimately oxidized to CO2 via aerobic respiration and to a much lesser extent anaerobically by Fe reduction.

Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Kinney, Monica A.; Kiene, Ronald P.; Hines, Mark E.

2002-12-01

436

Kinetic study and mathematical modeling of methanogenesis of acetate using pure cultures of methanogens  

SciTech Connect

Kinetics of methanogenesis from acetate was studied using pure cultures of Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina mazei. Methane formation was found to be associated with cell growth. Nearly equimolar methane was produced from acetate during the methanogenic growth, and about 1.94 g of cells were formed from each mole of acetate consumed. Cell growth can be estimated from methane production. Significant substrate inhibition was found when acetate concentration was higher than 0.12 M. Among the three methanogenic strains studied, M. mazei strain 56 had the highest specific growth rate at all acetate concentrations studied and was least sensitive to environmental factors investigated (e.g., acetate concentration). The maximum specific growth rate found for strain S6 was 0.022/hour at acetic acid concentration around 7 g/L. The other two strains studied were M. barkeri strain 227 and strain MS. Growth of M. barkeri was completely inhibited at sodium acetate concentrations higher than 0.24 M. The maximum specific growth rate found for strains 227 and MS was 0.019 and 0.021/hour at acetic acid concentrations of 3.6 and 6.8 g/L, respectively. A kinetic model with substrate inhibition was developed and can be used to simulate the methane formation from M. mazei strain S6 grown on acetate at 35 degrees C, pH 7. (Refs. 29).

Yang, S.T.; Okos, M.R.

1987-01-01

437

E¡ect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without 13C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the

Johannes C. M. Scholten; Peter M. van Bodegom; Jaap Vogelaar; Alexander van Ittersum; Kees Hordijk; Wim Roelofsen; Alfons J. M. Stams

438

Corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid solutions  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of mild steel in acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) solutions was studied by weight loss and potentiostatic polarization techniques. The variation in corrosion rate of mild steel with concentrations of CH{sub 3}COOH, evaluated by weight loss and electrochemical techniques, showed marked resemblance. From both techniques, the maximum corrosion rate was observed for 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution at all three experimental temperatures (25, 35, and 45 C). Anodic polarization curves showed active-passive behavior at each concentration, except at 80% CH{sub 3}COOH. Critical current density (i{sub c}) passive current density (I{sub n}), primary passivation potential (E{sub pp}), and potential for passivity (E{sub p}) had their highest values in 20% CH{sub 3}COOH solution. With an increase in temperature, while the anodic polarization curves shifted toward higher current density region at each concentration, the passive region became progressively less distinguishable. With the addition of sodium acetate (NaCOOCH{sub 3}) as a supporting electrolyte, the passive range was enlarged substantially. However, the transpassive region commenced at more or less the same potential. Cathodic polarization curves were almost identical irrespective of the concentration of CH{sub 3}COOH or temperature.

Singh, M.M.; Gupta, A.

2000-04-01

439

Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate, a respiratory stimulant, on the incidence and duration of episodes of apnea and disordered breathing in 13 nonhypercapnic men with obstructive sleep apnea. Nocturnal polysomnography was done before and after four weeks of treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (60 mg/day) and one week after cessation of treatment. There were no significant (p less than 0.05) differences in the mean frequency of apneic episodes per hour of sleep before (31.3 +/- 5.7 [+/- SE]), during (26.8 +/- 6.6), or after (23.6 +/- 7.0) treatment, or in the mean number of disordered breathing episodes per hour of sleep before (19.4 +/- 5.6), during (21.4 +/- 5.8), or after (23.1 +/- 6.3) the period of treatment. Medroxyprogesterone did not alter significantly the total time of apnea or the total time for disordered breathing, expressed as percentages of total sleep time. Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea and disordered breathing did not change with treatment. Medroxyprogesterone increased the minute ventilation and occlusion pressure responses to hypercapnia measured in the awake state; however, the results of this study demonstrate that medroxyprogesterone does not improve the breathing disorders during sleep in the nonhypercapnic patient with obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:2946559

Rajagopal, K R; Abbrecht, P H; Jabbari, B

1986-12-01

440

Dielectric relaxation of alpha -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E).  

PubMed

Dielectric loss spectra are reported for alpha -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The alpha -relaxation times, tau_{alpha} , measured over a 190 degrees range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured tau_{alpha} . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature T_{g} show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the alpha -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the alpha process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the alpha -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the alpha -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the alpha relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

Kaminski, K; Maslanka, S; Ziolo, J; Paluch, M; McGrath, K J; Roland, C M

2007-01-08

441

Molecular orbital calculations for modeling acetate-aluminosilicate adsorption and dissolution reactions  

SciTech Connect

Possible molecular configurations of acetic acid and acetate adsorbed onto aluminosilicate minerals are examined. Molecular orbital calculations were performed on molecules and dimers; that are intended to mimic inner sphere and outer sphere adsorption complexes on mineral surfaces. The results predict the structure, energetics, and vibrational spectra of the acetic acid and acetate bonded to alumino-silicate groups. The most likely surface complexes are determined by reaction energetics and comparison of theoretical to experimental vibrational spectra. In addition, a reaction pathway of Si-O-Al cleavage by acetic acid and chemisorption of acetate with tetrahedral Al{sup 3+} is predicted. An activation energy for this reaction is estimated from constrained energy minimizations of the reactants along a reaction pathway. 89 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Kubicki, J.D.; Apitz, S.E. [Naval Command Control and Surveillance Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Blake, G.A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1997-03-01

442

Biomass bioconversion to calcium magnesium acetate deicing salt. Final project report on Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The project experimentally investigated using biomass as feedstock for conversion to calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an alternative road salt. This new organic road salt will prevent corrosion of bridge decks, underground cables, and rusting of cars and trucks. CMA from biomass will reduce costs, compared to petroleum and natural gas for making this material. Phase I work focused on bioconversion of sewage sludge residuals to CMA. The process is based on a packed bed fermenter to produce acetic acid from biomass, as well as liquid ion exchange to recover acetic acid from the fermenter broth prior to the final production step which occurs by passing the acetic acid over limestone. In Phase I: (1) percent bioconversion and kinetics of biomass to acetic acid have been confirmed in small batch fermenters; (2) equilibrium constants for acetic acid recovery via liquid ion exchange have been documented; and (3) rates of conversion to CMA have been determined.

Trantolo, D.J.

1989-06-01

443

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues  

SciTech Connect

Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

Reinecke, D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-04-01

444

Escherichia coli-catalyzed bioelectrochemical oxidation of acetate in the presence of mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of acetate was investigated under anaerobic conditions by using Escherichia coli K-12 (IFO 3301) cells cultured on aerobic media containing poly-peptone, glucose or acetate as the sole carbon source. It was found that all E. coli cells cultured on the three media work as good catalysts of the electrochemical oxidation of acetate as well as glucose with Fe(CN)63?,

Yung-Fu Wang; Sheng-Shung Cheng; Seiya Tsujimura; Tokuji Ikeda; Kenji Kano

2006-01-01

445

Carbon CP-MASS NMR and X-ray crystal structure of paramagnetic lanthanide acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-ray crystal structures of praseodymium(III) acetate monohydrate and europium(III) acetate trihydrate have been solved and cross-polarization carbon-13 NMR spectra obtained in the polycrystalline solids. The static and magic angle spinning spectra are compared with diamagnetic acetate spectra. The shifts in the paramagnetic compounds are large, permitting sample heterogeniety to be readily detected. THE CP-MASS carbon spectra are assigned by

S. Ganapathy; V. P. Chacko; R. G. Bryant; M. C. Etter

1986-01-01

446

Toxicokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Halogenated Acetic Acids Mixtures in Naive and GSTzeta-Depleted Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacokinetics of halogenated acetic acid (HAA) mixtures in native and GSTzeta depleted rats was investigated. Rats were administered orally or i.v. to Mixture-1 (monobromo- dichloro-, chlorodibromo-, tribromo- acetic acids) or Mixture-2 (bromochloro-, dibromo-, trichloro- bromodichloro- acetic acids) at a dose of 25 ?mol\\/kg HAA and blood samples collected up to 36 h. GSTzeta depleted rats were also orally dosed with

Shakil A. Saghir; Irvin R. Schultz

2005-01-01

447

Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data  

SciTech Connect

Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

2005-05-01

448

RamB, a Novel Transcriptional Regulator of Genes Involved in Acetate Metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptation of Corynebacterium glutamicum to acetate as a carbon and energy source involves transcrip- tional regulation of the pta-ack operon coding for the acetate-activating enzymes phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase and of the aceA and aceB genes coding for the glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively. Deletion and mutation analysis of the respective promoter regions led to

Robert Gerstmeir; Annette Cramer; Petra Dangel; Steffen Schaffer; B. J. Eikmanns

2004-01-01

449

Evaluation of kinetic parameters of uranyl acetate complexes in ethanolic solution by cyclic voltammetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexation of uranyl ion with acetate ions was investigated in 20% ethanolic solution by using cyclic voltammetry. The\\u000a uranium formed 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with acetate ions. The values of log ?1 and log ?2 for uranyl acetate complexes were 2.05 ± 0.08 and 5.25 ± 0.06 respectively. The diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous rate\\u000a constants for the reduction of uranyl ion at hanging

A. S. A. Khan; R. Ahmed; M. L. Mirza

2010-01-01

450

Level of enzymes involved in acetate, butyrate, acetone and butanol formation by Clostridium acetobutylicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium acetobutylicum cells were collected from chemostats which were run at pH 4.3 or 6.0 and which produced either acetone-butanol or acetate-butyrate; they were used to determine the level of enzymes involved either in solvent or in acid formation. The highest activity of phosphotransacetylase, phosphotransbutyrylase, acetate kinase, and butyrate kinase was found in cells which carried out an acetate-butyrate fermentation;

Wolfram Andersch; Hubert Bahl; Gerhard Gottschalk

1983-01-01

451

Inhibition of propionate degradation by acetate in methanogenic fluidized bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The degradation of acetate, propionate and butyrate was monitored during start-up of five lab-scale methanogenic fluidized bed reactors on an artificially prepared waste water. The acetate concentration in the reactor content was found to influence the degradation of propionate but not of butyrate. In general, at acetate levels over 200 mg\\/l the degradation of propionate was below 60%, whereas

L G M Gorris; J M A van Deursen; C van der Drift; G D Vogels

1989-01-01

452

The stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate and methane in freshwater environments  

SciTech Connect

Methane produced in freshwater sediments, where acetate is the major substrate utilized by methanogenic bacteria, is commonly depleted in {sup 13}C. Variations in the carbon-isotopic composition of methane have been related to flows of acetate carbon to various fates within microbial communities. To examine these processes, the isotopic compositions of biogenic methane and its sedimentary sources (acetate and CO{sub 2}) were considered along with related isotope effects. A method of preparation for carbon isotope analyses of both carbons in acetate was developed. Uncertainties in measurements are less than 0.4{per thousand} for samples greater than 5 {mu}mol of acetate. Advantages of this technique include good separation of acetate from other compounds and the applicability to samples containing micromolar quantities of acetate. Carbon kinetic isotope effects associated with synthesis of acetate from CO{sub 2} by Acetobacterium woodii were measured by isotopic analyses of CO{sub 2}, methyl-carbon, and total acetate. Closed systems allowing construction of complete mass balances at varying stages of growth were utilized, and the effects of the partitioning of carbon between CO{sub 2} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were taken into account. For the overall reaction total carbonate {yields} total acetate, the isotope effect measured {minus}58.6 {plus minus} 0.7{per thousand}; there is no evidence for intramolecular isotopic ordering in the acetate. Carbon isotope effects associated with synthesis of methane from acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri and by a natural community of methanogens were measured in closed system experiments. For the process of methyl-carbon {yields} methane, the isotope effect measured {minus}21.5 {plus minus} 1.3{per thousand}.

Gelwicks, J.T.

1989-01-01

453

Interspecies Acetate Transfer Influences the Extent of Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Syntrophic Consortia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture withDesulfovibriosp. strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 mM. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparentVmaxandapparentKmforbenzoatedegradationdecreasedwithincreasingacetateconcentration,but the benzoate degradation capacities (Vmax\\/Km) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium

VEENA WARIKOO; MICHAEL J. MCINERNEY; JOSEPH A. ROBINSON; ANDJOSEPH M. SUFLITA

1996-01-01

454

Kinetic mechanism for the ability of sulfate reducers to out-compete methanogens for acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanosarcina barkeri and Desulfobacter postgatei are ubiquitous anaerobic bacteria which grow on acetate or acetate plus sulfate, respectively, as sole energy sources. Their apparent Ks values for acetate were determined and found to be approximately 0.2 mM for the sulfate-reducing bacterium and 3 mM for the methanogenic bacterium. In mixed cell suspensions of the two bacteria (adjusted to equal Vmax)

Peter Schönheit; Jakob K. Kristjansson; Rudolf K. Thauer

1982-01-01

455

Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof  

DOEpatents

A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

2000-01-01

456

Acetate and Formate Stress: Opposite Responses in the Proteome of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate and formate are major fermentation products of Escherichia coli. Below pH 7, the balance shifts to lactate; an oversupply of acetate or formate retards growth. E. coli W3110 was grown with aeration in potassium-modified Luria broth buffered at pH 6.7 in the presence or absence of added acetate or formate, and the protein profiles were compared by two-dimensional sodium

CHRISTOPHER KIRKPATRICK; LISA M. MAURER; NIKKI E. OYELAKIN; YULIYA N. YONCHEVA; RUSSELL MAURER; JOAN L. SLONCZEWSKI

2001-01-01

457

Effects of Acetic Acid on the Regrowth of Heterotrophic Bacteria in the Drinking Water Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three laboratory-scale water pipe systems were set up to study the effects of adding two levels of acetic acid (10 and 50 ?g acetate eq-C l?1) on the bacterial regrowth in water pipes. The results of the water pipe test showed that nearly all carbon in the acetic acid could be readily utilized by bacteria and resulted in an increase

Chungsying Lu; Chenghwa Chu

2005-01-01

458

Effects of Acetic Acid Pretreatment and Hot Air Drying on Resistance of Salmonella on Cabbage Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat resistance of Salmonella anatum inoculated onto the surface of cabbage slices as affected by acetic acid pretreatment (0.5–1.5% v\\/v) and hot air drying at 50–60°C was investigated. Approximately 1.5 log10 of Salmonella numbers was reduced after soaking the vegetables in acetic acid solution. The inhibitory effect of acetic acid on the bacteria was more pronounced during drying. The heat

Naphaporn Chiewchan; Pornpen Morakotjinda

2009-01-01

459

Electron transport in acetate-grown Methanosarcina acetivorans  

PubMed Central

Background Acetate is the major source of methane in nature. The majority of investigations have focused on acetotrophic methanogens for which energy-conserving electron transport is dependent on the production and consumption of H2 as an intermediate, although the great majority of acetotrophs are unable to metabolize H2. The presence of cytochrome c and a complex (Ma-Rnf) homologous to the Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes distributed in the domain Bacteria distinguishes non-H2-utilizing Methanosarcina acetivorans from H2-utilizing species suggesting fundamentally different electron transport pathways. Thus, the membrane-bound electron transport chain of acetate-grown M. acetivorans was investigated to advance a more complete understanding of acetotrophic methanogens. Results A component of the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CdhAE) was partially purified and shown to reduce a ferredoxin purified using an assay coupling reduction of the ferredoxin to oxidation of CdhAE. Mass spectrometry analysis of the ferredoxin identified the encoding gene among annotations for nine ferredoxins encoded in the genome. Reduction of purified membranes from acetate-grown cells with ferredoxin lead to reduction of membrane-associated multi-heme cytochrome c that was re-oxidized by the addition of either the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoM-S-S-CoB) or 2-hydoxyphenazine, the soluble analog of methanophenazine (MP). Reduced 2-hydoxyphenazine was re-oxidized by membranes that was dependent on addition of CoM-S-S-CoB. A genomic analysis of Methanosarcina thermophila, a non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogen, identified genes homologous to cytochrome c and the Ma-Rnf complex of M. acetivorans. Conclusions The results support roles for ferredoxin, cytochrome c and MP in the energy-conserving electron transport pathway of non-H2-utilizing acetotrophic methanogens. This is the first report of involvement of a cytochrome c in acetotrophic methanogenesis. The results suggest that diverse acetotrophic Methanosarcina species have evolved diverse membrane-bound electron transport pathways leading from ferredoxin and culminating with MP donating electrons to the heterodisulfide reductase (HdrDE) for reduction of CoM-S-S-CoB.

2011-01-01

460

Thermodynamic Properties of Alkanediols+Acetates at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present experimental values of the density, refractive index, speed of sound, isentropic compressibility and\\u000a liquid-liquid equilibria of the binary mixtures (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, and butyl acetate) with (1,2-ethanediol,\\u000a 1,2-propanediol, or 1,3-propanediol) at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, as a function of mole fraction. From the experimental\\u000a values, the corresponding excess and deviation values

J. M. Canosa; A. Rodríguez; M. Iglesias; B. Orge; J. Tojo

1998-01-01

461

Boswellic acid acetate induces apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways in myeloid leukemia cells.  

PubMed

The mechanism of the cytotoxic effect of boswellic acid acetate, a 1:1 mixture of alpha-boswellic acid acetate and beta-boswellic acid acetate, isolated from Boswellia carterri Birdw on myeloid leukemia cells was investigated in six human myeloid leukemia cell lines (NB4, SKNO-1, K562, U937, ML-1, and HL-60 cells). Morphologic and DNA fragmentation assays indicated that the cytotoxic effect of boswellic acid acetate was mediated by induction of apoptosis. More than 50% of the cells underwent apoptosis after treatment with 20 mug/mL boswellic acid for 24 hours. This apoptotic process was p53 independent. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-XL were not modulated by boswellic acid acetate. Boswellic acid acetate induced Bid cleavage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential without production of hydrogen peroxide. A general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and a specific caspase-8 inhibitor II (Z-IETD-FMK) blocked b