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Sample records for acetic acid acetic

  1. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  7. Acetic Acid Off Gassing in Clamshell Enclosures

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Allison

    2013-01-01

    . This presentation will investigate the use of acid detection strips (A-D strips) to study acetic acid off gassing occurring in custom-made, cloth covered book boxes constructed and used by conservators in research libraries....

  8. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  9. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  10. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  11. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [?] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ?M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [?] and ?M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied. PMID:26344278

  12. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  13. Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Oxindole-3-acetic Acid to 2,3-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H Indole-3-acetic Acid-7?-O-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Zea mays Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Nonhebel, Heather M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7?-O-?-d-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid ? Oxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. PMID:11540902

  14. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  15. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  16. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  17. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...residues of the biochemical pesticide acetic acid when used as a...

  18. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

  20. Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

  1. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra ; Reva, I. Fausto, R.

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup ?1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup ?1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup ?1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup ?1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup ?1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  7. Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Delaquis, P J; Sholberg, P L; Stanich, K

    1999-08-01

    Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:10456753

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  9. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  10. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  11. Determination of Formic and Acetic Acid in Chondritic Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, J. F.; Moore, C. B.

    1993-07-01

    The concentrations of formic and acetic acid have been determined using ion exclusion chromatography after water extraction from several chondritic meteorite samples. Monocarboxylic acids are of great importance because of their high concentration in meteorites and for their role as precursor molecules in organic synthesis [1]. The concentration of acetic acid has been determined previously using gas chromatography [2,3]. Prior gas chromatographic analyses failed to resolve formic acid and so the results were limited to carboxylic acids having two or more carbons. Alternatively, wet chemical methods for the determination of formic acid, although precise, are lengthy and difficult to reproduce [4]. Ion exclusion chromatography (ICE) is an excellent technique for the simultaneous determination of formic and acetic acids. Using ICE the carboxylic acids can be determined in less time and with minimal sample handling. In most cases the amount of formic acid present is found to be lower than the amount of acetic acid present. This contradicts the accepted synthesis scheme of higher homologs being made from lower members, where the formic acid would be expected to have a higher concentration than acetic acid. Other monocarboxylic acids in the homologous series (C(sub)2-C(sub)7) have been shown to decrease with increasing carbon number as expected [2,3]. This data suggests that either the formic acid may have been preferentially depleted or it may have a different synthesis mechanism as compared with the other monocarboxylic acids present in meteorites. Additionally, there is a relationship between the amount of formic and acetic acid present and the oxidation state of the iron in the chondrites. As the matrix environment becomes more oxidizing, the amount of the two monocarboxylic acids increases comparatively. Furthermore, the ratio of formic to acetic acid starts to increase as the metal phase is more oxidized, suggesting that a more oxidized matrix environment in some way makes the production of higher homologs from lower members more favorable. References: [1] Cronin J. R. et al. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 819-857. Univ. of Arizona. [2] Yuen G. U. and Kvenvolden K. A. (1974) Nature, 246, 301-303. [3] Yuen G. et al. (1984) Nature, 307, 252-254. [4] Kimball B. (1988) M.S. thesis, Arizona State Univ. [5] Urey H. C. and Craig H. (1953) GCA, 4, 36-82. [6] Sears D. W. and Dodd R. T. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 3-31. Univ. of Arizona. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows a representative concentration of formic and acetic acid (in ppm) for select chondrites as measured by ion exclusion chromatography.

  12. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  13. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole...acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification...acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to...treatment of carcinoid tumors of endocrine tissue. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a curing and pickling agent as defined in §...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a curing and pickling agent as defined in §...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a curing and pickling agent as defined in §...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a curing and pickling agent as defined in §...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates or by organic synthesis. The principal synthetic methods currently employed are oxidation of...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates or by organic synthesis. The principal synthetic methods currently employed are oxidation of...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates or by organic synthesis. The principal synthetic methods currently employed are oxidation of...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement...biochemical pesticide acetic acid when used as a preservative...timothy, hay; vetch, hay; and wheat, grain, or commodities...

  7. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350... § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or...

  8. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  9. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    PubMed

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (<10(3) cfu/mL), which under conducive conditions might proliferate. Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine. PMID:18237809

  10. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  11. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  12. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  15. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  16. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (?QDR3 and ?IKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ?QDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:25698512

  17. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  18. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  19. Boswellic acid acetate induces apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways in myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijuan; Chen, Duo; Han, Rui; Fang, Qicheng; Waxman, Samuel; Jing, Yongkui

    2005-03-01

    The mechanism of the cytotoxic effect of boswellic acid acetate, a 1:1 mixture of alpha-boswellic acid acetate and beta-boswellic acid acetate, isolated from Boswellia carterri Birdw on myeloid leukemia cells was investigated in six human myeloid leukemia cell lines (NB4, SKNO-1, K562, U937, ML-1, and HL-60 cells). Morphologic and DNA fragmentation assays indicated that the cytotoxic effect of boswellic acid acetate was mediated by induction of apoptosis. More than 50% of the cells underwent apoptosis after treatment with 20 mug/mL boswellic acid for 24 hours. This apoptotic process was p53 independent. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-XL were not modulated by boswellic acid acetate. Boswellic acid acetate induced Bid cleavage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential without production of hydrogen peroxide. A general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and a specific caspase-8 inhibitor II (Z-IETD-FMK) blocked boswellic acid acetate-induced apoptosis. The mRNAs of death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) were induced in leukemia cells undergoing apoptosis after boswellic acid acetate treatment. These data taken together suggest that boswellic acid acetate induces myeloid leukemia cell apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 by induced expression of DR4 and DR5, and that the activated caspase-8 either directly activates caspase-3 by cleavage or indirectly by cleaving Bid, which in turn decreases mitochondria membrane potential. PMID:15767547

  20. Brønsted Acid/Lewis Acid Cooperatively Catalyzed Addition of Diazoester to 2H-chromene Acetals

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Yi; Qi, Yue; Gao, Hongyi; Ma, Qianqian; Schaus, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel Brønsted acid/Lewis acid dual catalyst system has been developed to promote an efficient C–C bond formation between a range of oxocarbenium precursors derived from chromene acetals and ethyl diazoacetate. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions and is tolerant of common functionalized 2H-chromene and isochromene acetals. In addition, an asymmetric variant of diazoacetate addition towards 2H-chromene acetal is described. Continued investigations include the further optimization of asymmetric induction towards the formation of diazo ester substituted 2H-chromene. PMID:25411552

  1. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects, as well as their association with different plants and contribution through BNF are described as an overview. PMID:18177965

  2. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  3. Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

  4. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  5. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  6. Evidence for a Complex Between Thf and Acetic Acid from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Bittner, Dror M.; Mullaney, John Connor; Stephens, Susanna L.; King, Adrian; Habgood, Matthew; Walker, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Evidence for a complex between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and acetic acid from broadband rotational spectroscopy will be presented. Transitions believed to belong to the complex were first identified in a gas mixture containing small amounts of THF, triethyl borane, and acetic acid balanced in argon. Ab initio calculations suggest a complex between THF and acetic acid is more likely to form compared to the analogous acetic acid complex with triethyl borane, the initial target. The observed rotational constants are also more similar to those predicted for a complex formed between THF and acetic acid, than for those of a complex formed between triethyl borane and acetic acid. Subsequently, multiple isotopologues of acetic acid have been measured, confirming its presence in the structure. No information has yet been obtained through isotopic substitution within the THF sub-unit. Ab initio calculations predict the most likely structure is one where the acetic acid subunit coordinates over the ring creating a "bridge" between the THF oxygen, the carboxylic O-H, and the carbonyl oxygen to a hydrogen atom on the back of the ring.

  7. Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

  8. [Effects of gossypol acetic acid on transport and development of fertilized eggs in rats].

    PubMed

    Lei, H Q; Xu, Y X

    1990-01-01

    The effects of gossypol acetic acid on the transport and development of fertilized eggs have been observed in rats. The results showed that gossypol acetic acid apparently delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct. It is suggested that these two effects may be important causes of the antiimplantation action of gossypol. PMID:2082677

  9. Improved isolation of zein from corn gluten meal using acetic acid as solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop new uses for corn zein, an improved means of isolating zein is needed. We have evaluated the ability of acetic acid to remove zein from corn gluten meal, distillers dried grains and ground corn. Acetic acid removed zein more quickly, at lower temperatures and in higher yields when compa...

  10. CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF 6,6´-DIMETHOXY-GOSSYPOL:ACETIC ACID (1:1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By crystallization from dilute solutions of acetic acid (2-4%) in diethyl ether, acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, 6,6´-dimethoxy-gossypol forms an inclusion complex with acetic acid in a one-to-one molar ratio. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic P1bar1¯space group and has unit cell dimensio...

  11. Formation of biologically relevant carboxylic acids during the gamma irradiation of acetic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid with gamma rays produced several carboxylic acids in small yield. Their identification was based on the technique of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Some of these acids are Krebs Cycle intermediates. Their simultaneous formation in experiments simulating the primitive conditions on the earth suggests that metabolic pathways may have had their origin in prebiotic chemical processes.

  12. Production of Formic Acid and Acetic Acid by Hydrothermal Oxidation of Alkali Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xu; Jin, Fangming; Cao, Jianglin; Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yalei; Zhao, Jianfu

    2010-11-01

    The production of formic acid and acetic acid by hydrothermal oxidation of alkali lignin, a kind of biomasses, was investigated using a batch reactor with H2O2 oxidant. Experiments were performed over a wide range of conditions with temperature varying from 260 to 320° C, oxygen supply varying from 60% to 120%, and reaction time varying from 30 to 150 s. The highest yield of formic acid was 4.9% at 280° C for 120 s with the additive ratio of H2O2 100%. The highest value of acetic acid was 12.3% at 300° C for 120 s with the additive ratio of H2O2 100%. Based on the intermediate products identified by GC/MS and HPLC, reaction pathways of alkali lignin are discussed. It was found that maleic acid and fumaric acid were two primary unsaturated intermediate products. The production of formic acid and acetic acid were come from the oxidative decomposition of intermediate products in the oxidation process. Increasing the formation of saturated dicarboxylic acids and glutaconic acid would enhance the acetic acid yield.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  16. Development of xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production at high acetic acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, D.V.; Whelan, D.R.; Panchal, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Mutants resistant to comparatively high levels of acetic acid were isolated from the xylose-fermenting yeasts Candida shehatae and Pichia Stipitis by adapting these cultures to increasing concentrations of acetic acid grown in shake-flask cultures. These mutants were tested for their ability to ferment xylose in presence of high acetic acid concentrations, in acid hydrolysates of wood, and in hardwood spent sulfite liquor, and compared with their wild-type counterparts and between themselves. The P. stipitis mutant exhibited faster fermentation times, better tolerance to acid hydrolysates, and tolerance to lower pH.

  17. Distinct Effects of Sorbic Acid and Acetic Acid on the Electrophysiology and Metabolism of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, J. W. A.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. J.; Hellingwerf, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances, they are assumed to diffuse across the membrane as neutral undissociated acids. We show here that the level of initial intracellular acidification depends on the concentration of undissociated acid and less on the nature of the acid. Recovery of the internal pH depends on the presence of an energy source, but acidification of the cytosol causes a decrease in glucose flux. Furthermore, sorbic acid is a more potent uncoupler of the membrane potential than acetic acid. Together these effects may also slow the rate of ATP synthesis significantly and may thus (partially) explain sorbic acid's effectiveness. PMID:25038097

  18. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  19. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  20. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...acetates. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...acetates. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...acetates. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...acetates. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting . (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...

  5. Acetic acid induces pH-independent cellular energy depletion in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sin Mei; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-03-01

    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (p<0.05) that was apparent for the four Salmonella strains. We suggest that this effect was probably due solely to the action of undissociated acid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56 ± 1.27; p<0.05), where the role of both pH and undissociated acid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH. PMID:25562466

  6. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  7. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 ���± 0.7% and 8.8 ���± 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 ���± 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 ���± 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 ���± 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...chemical substance identified as acetic acid, 2-chloro-,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl...chemical substance identified as acetic acid, 2-chloro-,...

  10. Isolation of cellulose from rice straw and its conversion into cellulose acetate catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guozhi; Wang, Min; Liao, Chongjing; Fang, Tao; Li, Jianfen; Zhou, Ronghui

    2013-04-15

    Cellulose was isolated from rice straw by pretreatment with dilute alkaline and acid solutions successively, and it was further transferred into cellulose acetate in the presence of acetic anhydride and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40·6H2O). The removal of hemicellulose and lignin was affected by the concentration of KOH and the immersion time in acetic acid solution, and 83wt.% content of cellulose in the treated rice straw was obtained after pretreatment with 4% KOH and immersion in acetic acid for 5h. Phosphotungstic acid was found to be an effective catalyst for the acetylation of the cellulose derived from rice straw. The degree of substitution (DS) values revealed a significant effect for the solubility of cellulose acetate, and the acetone-soluble cellulose acetate with DS values around 2.2 can be obtained by changing the amount of phosphotungstic acid and the time of acetylation. Both the structure of cellulose separated from rice straw and cellulose acetate were confirmed by FTIR and XRD. PMID:23544511

  11. Acetic acid bacteria, newly emerging symbionts of insects.

    PubMed

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-11-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

  12. Acetic Acid Bacteria, Newly Emerging Symbionts of Insects?

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects. PMID:20851977

  13. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    PubMed

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2?mutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. PMID:24761971

  14. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

  15. l-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure l-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. PMID:26168904

  16. Kinetic model for methanogenesis of acetic acid in a multireactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.N.; Ghose, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    Bioconversion of acetic acid to methane by a crude culture of methanogens in a continuous multireactor system was investigateed. Culture of methanogens was drawn from an active cow-dung digester (12 days) and was grown in a semisynthetic medium (pH 6.3, 37/sup 0/C) with acetic acid as the sole carbon source. The solubilities of CO/sub 2/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ increased with the rise in pH and exercised considerable influence on the gas composition. Various mechanisms for methanogenesis of acetic acid based on the available pathways were considered. Experimental data were compared with these mechansims, the best fit was determined, and the corresponding rate expression was identified. This mechanism predicted that, of the total methane produced, 72% comes from acetic acid directly and 28% via the CO/sub 2/ reduction route.

  17. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...activity in all cells that utilize oxygen as part of their respiration process. The krebs cycle is carried out in the mitochondria...believes that because acetic acid biodegrades rapidly under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the environment, residues...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system....

  19. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes. PMID:23500418

  20. Use of pooled sodium acetate acetic acid formalin-preserved fecal specimens for the detection of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing detection of intestinal parasites from single unpreserved stool sample vs. sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-preserved pooled samples, and stained with chlorazol black dye in routine practice. Unpreserved samples were collected from 120 patients and represented as Group I. Other three SAF-preserved samples were collected from the same patients over a 6-day period and represented as Groups IIa, IIb, and IIc. The latter groups were equally subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup of each of the three samples was examined individually, whereas the second subgroup of each were pooled and examined as a single specimen. All groups were examined by the routine diagnostic techniques; however, in group II when the diagnosis was uncertain, the chlorazol black dye staining procedure was carried out. Results demonstrated that out of 74 patients who continued the study, 12 cases (16%) were positive in group I, compared with 29 (39%) in the subgroups examined individually, and 27 (36%) in the pooled subgroups. Therefore, pooling of preserved fecal samples is an efficient and economical procedure for the detection of parasites. Furthermore, the chlorazol black dye was simple and effective in detecting the nuclear details of different parasites. PMID:21567472

  1. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L?1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h?1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L?1) and very high (100–200 g·L?1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L?1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L?1·h?1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L?1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L?1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

  2. Laboratory and field measurements to constrain atmospheric sources of acetic and formic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Hu, L.; Mitroo, D.; Martinez, R.; Walker, M.; Williams, B. J.; Millet, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Acetic and formic acids are the most abundant organic acids in the atmosphere. They play an important role in atmospheric aqueous chemistry as they can influence the acidity of precipitation, cloud droplets, and atmospheric aerosols. Sources of these acids are highly uncertain, but include secondary production from VOC oxidation, direct emissions, and possibly organic aerosol aging. Here we present measurements of formic and acetic acid, along with a suite of other gas and particle phase species, from a field study in St. Louis during summer 2013. Calibration procedures and results are discussed, and we interpret the ambient formic and acetic acid measurements in terms of patterns of variability and implied constraints on sources. Finally, we present results from oxidative aging experiments on both ambient and test organic aerosol designed to assess the importance of this mechanism as a source of gas-phase carboxylic acids.

  3. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Calaza, Florencia; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R; Xu, Ye; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acid desorb. DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.

  4. IR plus vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of neutral and ionic organic acid molecules and clusters: acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y J; Fu, H B; Bernstein, E R

    2006-11-14

    Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy of acetic acid (A) neutral and ionic monomers and clusters, employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), 10.5 eV single photon ionization of supersonically expanded and cooled acetic acid samples, is presented and discussed. Molecular and cluster species are identified by time of flight mass spectroscopy: the major mass features observed are A(n)H(+) (n=1-9), ACOOH(+) (VUV ionization) without IR radiation present, and A(+) with both IR and VUV radiation present. The intense feature ACOOH(+) arises from the cleavage of (A)(2) at the beta-CC bond to generate ACOOH(+)+CH(3) following ionization. The vibrational spectrum of monomeric acetic acid (2500-7500 cm(-1)) is measured by nonresonant ionization detected infrared (NRID-IR) spectroscopy. The fundamentals and overtones of the CH and OH stretches and some combination bands are identified in the spectrum. Mass selected IR spectra of neutral and cationic acetic acid clusters are measured in the 2500-3800 cm(-1) range employing nonresonant ionization dip-IR and IR photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopies, respectively. Characteristic bands observed at approximately 2500-2900 cm(-1) for the cyclic ring dimer are identified and tentatively assigned. For large neutral acetic acid clusters A(n)(n>2), spectra display only hydrogen bonded OH stretch features, while the CH modes (2500-2900 cm(-1)) do not change with cluster size n. The IRPD spectra of protonated (cationic) acetic acid clusters A(n)H(+) (n=1-7) exhibit a blueshift of the free OH stretch with increasing n. These bands finally disappear for n> or =6, and one broad and weak band due to hydrogen bonded OH stretch vibrations at approximately 3350 cm(-1) is detected. These results indicate that at least one OH group is not involved in the hydrogen bonding network for the smaller (n< or =5) A(n)H(+) species. The disappearance of the free OH stretch feature at n> or =6 suggests that closed cyclic structures form for A(n)H(+) for the larger clusters (n> or =6). PMID:17115753

  5. Absorption cross section for the 5?OH stretch of acetic acid and peracetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Collingwood, M.; Bililign, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report measurements of the absorption cross sections for the vibrational O-H stretch (5?OH) overtone transitions in glacial acetic acid and peracetic acid. The photochemistry that results from overtone excitation has been shown to lead to OH radical production in molecules containing O-H (HNO3, H2O2). In addition the overtone excitation has been observed to result in light initiated chemical reaction. A Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument comprising of an Nd:YAG pumped dye laser and 620nm high reflectivity mirrors (R=99.995%) was used to measure the cross sections. The dye laser wavelength was calibrated using water vapor spectrum and the HITRAN 2008 database. The instrument’s minimum detectable absorption is ?min =4.5 *10-9cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 2? noise level near the peak of the absorption feature. This measurement is the first for acetic acid at this excitation level. Preliminary results for acetic acid show the peak occurs near 615nm. Procedures for separating the monomer and dimer contribution will be presented. We would like to acknowledge support from NSF award #0803016 and NOAA-EPP award #NA06OAR4810187.

  6. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. PMID:25485864

  7. Inactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases Belonging

    E-print Network

    Pichersky, Eran

    Inactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases (salicylic acid binding protein 2) hydrolyzes methyl salicylate to salicylic acid. There are 20 homologs candidate MeIAA esterases that could hydrolyze MeIAA. MeIAA, like IAA, exerts inhibitory activity

  8. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid. PMID:24583209

  9. Candida zemplinina Can Reduce Acetic Acid Produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sweet Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ?0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response. PMID:22247148

  10. The Antibacterial Activity of Acetic Acid against Biofilm-Producing Pathogens of Relevance to Burns Patients

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Fenella D.; Rauf, Maryam; Moiemen, Naiem S.; Bamford, Amy; Wearn, Christopher M.; Fraise, Adam P.; Lund, Peter A.; Oppenheim, Beryl A.; Webber, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Localised infections, and burn wound sepsis are key concerns in the treatment of burns patients, and prevention of colonisation largely relies on biocides. Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against various planktonic organisms, however data is limited on efficacy, and few studies have been performed on biofilms. Objectives We sought to investigate the antibacterial activity of acetic acid against important burn wound colonising organisms growing planktonically and as biofilms. Methods Laboratory experiments were performed to test the ability of acetic acid to inhibit growth of pathogens, inhibit the formation of biofilms, and eradicate pre-formed biofilms. Results Twenty-nine isolates of common wound-infecting pathogens were tested. Acetic acid was antibacterial against planktonic growth, with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.16–0.31% for all isolates, and was also able to prevent formation of biofilms (at 0.31%). Eradication of mature biofilms was observed for all isolates after three hours of exposure. Conclusions This study provides evidence that acetic acid can inhibit growth of key burn wound pathogens when used at very dilute concentrations. Owing to current concerns of the reducing efficacy of systemic antibiotics, this novel biocide application offers great promise as a cheap and effective measure to treat infections in burns patients. PMID:26352256

  11. Olfactory receptor-based polypeptide sensor for acetic acid VOC detection.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Suranjan; Sankaran, Sindhuja; Mallik, Sanku; Gaddam, Bhushan; Hanson, Andrea A

    2012-08-01

    Rapid detection of food-borne pathogens in packaged food products can prevent the spread of infectious diseases. This study investigates the application of novel sensing material that is sensitive to specific indicator volatile organic compound (VOC) related to Salmonella contamination in packaged meat. Specifically, the objective was to develop an olfactory receptor-based synthetic polypeptide sensor for the detecting acetic acid in low concentrations and at room temperature. Synthetic polypeptide was deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode and was evaluated for detecting acetic acid at 10-100 ppm. Developed sensor exhibited repeatable response to a particular concentration of acetic acid and displayed reproducibility among multiple sensors during acetic acid detection. Mean estimated lower detection limits of these sensors were about 1-3 ppm and linear calibration models showed linear relationships. Thus, the QCM sensors exhibited a great potential for detecting low concentrations of acetic acid at room temperature and can be used in the sensor array for packaged meat spoilage and contamination detection. PMID:24364927

  12. Properties of MgB 2 superconductor chemically treated by acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hušeková, K.; Hušek, I.; Ková?, P.; Kulich, M.; Dobro?ka, E.; Štrbík, V.

    2010-03-01

    Commercial Alfa Aesar MgB 2 powder was chemically treated by acetic acid with the aim of MgO removing. Single-core MgB 2/Fe ex situ wires have been made by powder-in-tube (PIT) process using the powders treated with different acid concentration. All samples were annealed in argon at 950 °C/0.5 h. Differences in transition temperatures and critical currents of acetic acid treated MgB 2 are related to the normal state resistivity, effective carbon substitution from the organic solvent and the active area fraction (grain-connectivity).

  13. Extraction and sorption of acetic acid at pH above pK{sub a} to form calcium magnesium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, H.; King, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The use of rock salt for deicing roads has many negative effects on automobiles, highway systems, and the environment. Calcium magnesium acetate, hence-forth denoted CMA, has been identified as a more desirable, environmentally benign solid deicer for high-ways, airport runaways, and similar applications. CMA is also of interest as an additive for scavenging sulfur in combustion processes so as to reduce emissions of sulfur oxides and as a catalyst for coal gasification. Different extractants (trioctylphosphine oxide and secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines) and solid sorbents (tertiary and quaternary amines) were investigated as agents for recovery of acetic acid as part of a process for production of CMA from fermentation acetic acid. The pH and temperature dependencies for uptake of acetic acid by these extractants and sorbents were measured, along with the degrees of regeneration by aqueous suspensions of slaked dolomitic lime. These results enable identification of agents having optimal basicity. Among the extractants, the secondary amine Amberlite LA-2 gave the best combined performance for extraction and regeneration. Among the sorbents, a tertiary amine, Amberlite IRA-35, gave the best performance. Trioctylphosphine oxide does not maintain capacity in the pH range (about 6) most attractive for acetic acid fermentation. Slurred crushed dolomite is not sufficiently basic to accomplish regeneration.

  14. Laboratory Studies of the Tropospheric Loss Processes for Acetic and Peracetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2002-12-01

    Organic acids are ubiquitous components of tropospheric air and contribute to acid precipitation, particularly in remote regions. These species are present in the troposphere as the result of direct emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, and as the result of photochemical processing of hydrocarbons. Production of organic acids can occur following ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons, while both organic acids and peroxyacids are formed from the reactions of HO2 with acylperoxy radicals. For example, both acetic and peracetic acid are known products of the reaction of HO2 with acetylperoxy radicals. In this paper, data relevant to the gas-phase tropospheric destruction of both acetic and peracetic acid are reported, including studies of their UV absorption spectra and of their rate coefficients for reaction with OH radicals. The data, the first of their kind for peracetic acid, show that the gas-phase lifetime of this species will be on the order of 10 days, with OH reaction occurring more rapidly than photolysis. Data on the rate coefficient for reaction of OH with acetic acid appear to resolve some conflicting data in the previous literature, and show 1) that reaction of OH with the acetic acid dimer is slow compared to the monomer and 2) that the rate coefficient possesses a negative temperature dependence near room temperature.

  15. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  16. Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    P?n?ík, Aleš; Simonovik, Biljana; Petersson, Sara V.; Henyková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Estelle, Mark; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ond?ej; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The native auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is a major regulator of plant growth and development. Its nonuniform distribution between cells and tissues underlies the spatiotemporal coordination of many developmental events and responses to environmental stimuli. The regulation of auxin gradients and the formation of auxin maxima/minima most likely involve the regulation of both metabolic and transport processes. In this article, we have demonstrated that 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) is a major primary IAA catabolite formed in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissues. OxIAA had little biological activity and was formed rapidly and irreversibly in response to increases in auxin levels. We further showed that there is cell type–specific regulation of oxIAA levels in the Arabidopsis root apex. We propose that oxIAA is an important element in the regulation of output from auxin gradients and, therefore, in the regulation of auxin homeostasis and response mechanisms. PMID:24163311

  17. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting

    PubMed Central

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80?°C to 160?°C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods. PMID:26640089

  18. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25°C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25°C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS. PMID:26593546

  19. Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties. PMID:24574887

  20. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

  2. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid and methylglyoxal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Lim, Y. B.; Altieri, K. E.; Seitzinger, S. P.; Turpin, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including pyruvate, oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Acetic acid plays a central role in the aqueous oxidation of methylglyoxal and it is a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid (20 ?M-10 mM) was oxidized by OH radicals, and pyruvic acid and methylglyoxal experimental samples were analyzed using new analytical methods, in order to better understand the formation of SOA from acetic acid and methylglyoxal. Glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids formed from acetic acid and OH radicals. In contrast to the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal, the aqueous OH radical oxidation of acetic acid did not produce succinic acid and oligomers. This suggests that the methylgloxal-derived oligomers do not form through the acid catalyzed esterification pathway proposed previously. Using results from these experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  3. Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L?1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L?1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large rearrangements in its lipid profile. PMID:24023914

  4. Acetate induced enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide production from oxalic acid and dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yusuke; Nomura, Akifumi; Miyahigashi, Takamitsu; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-05-01

    The addition of acetate ion to an O2-saturated mixed solution of acetonitrile and water containing oxalic acid as a reductant and 2-phenyl-4-(1-naphthyl)quinolinium ion (QuPh(+)-NA) as a photocatalyst dramatically enhanced the turnover number of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. In this photocatalytic H2O2 production, a base is required to facilitate deprotonation of oxalic acid forming oxalate dianion, which acts as an actual electron donor, whereas a Brønsted acid is also necessary to protonate O2(•-) for production of H2O2 by disproportionation. The addition of acetate ion to a reaction solution facilitates both the deprotonation of oxalic acid and the protonation of O2(•-) owing to a pH buffer effect. The quantum yield of the photocatalytic H2O2 production under photoirradiation (? = 334 nm) of an O2-saturated acetonitrile-water mixed solution containing acetate ion, oxalic acid and QuPh(+)-NA was determined to be as high as 0.34, which is more than double the quantum yield obtained by using oxalate salt as an electron donor without acetate ion (0.14). In addition, the turnover number of QuPh(+)-NA reached more than 340. The reaction mechanism and the effect of solvent composition on the photocatalytic H2O2 production were scrutinized by using nanosecond laser flash photolysis. PMID:23631436

  5. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section 862.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. 862.1390 Section 862.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  7. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  8. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  9. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components...

  10. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  11. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  12. GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

  13. Visualization of Early Events in Acetic Acid Denaturation of HIV-1 Protease: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Borkar, Aditi Narendra; Rout, Manoj Kumar; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2011-01-01

    Protein denaturation plays a crucial role in cellular processes. In this study, denaturation of HIV-1 Protease (PR) was investigated by all-atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. The PR dimer and monomer were simulated separately in 9 M acetic acid (9 M AcOH) solution and water to study the denaturation process of PR in acetic acid environment. Direct visualization of the denaturation dynamics that is readily available from such simulations has been presented. Our simulations in 9 M AcOH reveal that the PR denaturation begins by separation of dimer into intact monomers and it is only after this separation that the monomer units start denaturing. The denaturation of the monomers is flagged off by the loss of crucial interactions between the ?-helix at C-terminal and surrounding ?-strands. This causes the structure to transit from the equilibrium dynamics to random non-equilibrating dynamics. Residence time calculations indicate that denaturation occurs via direct interaction of the acetic acid molecules with certain regions of the protein in 9 M AcOH. All these observations have helped to decipher a picture of the early events in acetic acid denaturation of PR and have illustrated that the ?-helix and the ?-sheet at the C-terminus of a native and functional PR dimer should maintain both the stability and the function of the enzyme and thus present newer targets for blocking PR function. PMID:21738569

  14. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Register of November 19, 2008, (FR 69635) (FRL- 8389-6), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3... a final rule dated August 3, 2005, (70 FR 44483) (FRL-7717-2), EPA established an exemption from the... profile of acetic acid, no adverse effects to the endocrine system are known or expected. Overall,...

  15. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  16. Role of Acetic Acid Irrigation in Medical Management of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chhavi; Agrawal, Anjana; Gargav, Narendra Dutt

    2015-09-01

    Chronic otitis media is persistent and insidious disease. It is one of the most common bacterial infections in the field of otolaryngology having significant economic and individual repercussion. Medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) for dry ear is essential before surgical treatment. The objective is to consider the most appropriate medical treatment modalities for patients of CSOM. To assess results of acetic acid irrigation and topical and systemic antibiotic in CSOM and consider, the most appropriate medical management. This study was conducted prospectively from Nov 2011 to Sep 2013 in 100 patients of CSOM (tubotympanic type). Patient included in the present study were divided in two groups. In one group patients were treated with aural toilet and irrigation with acetic acid and in other group patients were treated with topical and systemic antibiotic. After a follow up period of 3 months duration results were assessed on the basis of absence of discharge, healing of perforation and status of middle ear. Otorrhoea resolution in group treated with acetic acid was 84 % and healing of perforation was noted in 26 % while failure rate of 16 % was noted. In group treated with topical and systemic antibiotic 58 % of patient shows otorrhoea resolution, 14 % achieve healing of perforation and 32 % had failure. Medical management of CSOM without Cholesteatoma by frequent aural cleaning and irrigation using dilute acetic acid can be more desirable choice as compared to the topical and oral antibiotics. PMID:26405670

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION A diazotrophic, indole-3-acetic acid-producing endophyte

    E-print Network

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    nitrogen fixation and plant hormone (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) production (Tran Van et al. 2000). B plant growth, when incubated with L-tryptophan. In addition, its plant growth promotion capacity to uninoculated control plants, the plants inoculated with WPB gained more dry weight (42%, p=0.01) and more

  18. Vinegar (20% acetic acid) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic weed control research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the effect of broadcast over-the-top applications of acetic acid (vinegar) on weed control efficacy, crop injury and onion yields. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes, 2 hand-weeding ...

  19. EXTRACTION AND ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN EXTRACTED FROM CORN GLUTEN MEAL USING ACETIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that zein fibers can be produced using the electrospinning technique. Fibers electrospun from acetic acid solution under suitable conditions provide fibers with a more consistent morphology (round 0.5-2.0 micro fibers) compared to fibers produced from aqueous ethanol soluti...

  20. Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of Indole-3-acetic Acid Methyltransferase from Poplar (Populus trichocarpa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most active endogenous auxin involved in various physiological processes in higher plants. Concentrations of IAA in plant tissues are regulated at multiple levels including de novo biosynthesis, degradation, and conjugation/deconjugation. In this paper, we report id...

  1. Adsorption and Thermal Processing of Glycolaldehyde, Methyl Formate, and Acetic Acid on Graphite at 20 K.

    PubMed

    Burke, Daren J; Puletti, Fabrizio; Woods, Paul M; Viti, Serena; Slater, Ben; Brown, Wendy A

    2015-07-01

    We present the first detailed comparative study of the adsorption and thermal processing of the three astrophysically important C2O2H4 isomers glycolaldehyde, methyl formate, and acetic acid adsorbed on a graphitic grain analogue at 20 K. The ability of the individual molecule to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds is extremely important, dictating the growth modes of the ice on the surface and the measured desorption energies. Methyl formate forms only weak intermolecular bonds and hence wets the graphite surface, forming monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer ices, with the multilayer having a desorption energy of 35 kJ mol(-1). In contrast, glycolaldehyde and acetic acid dewet the surface, forming clusters even at the very lowest coverages. The strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding for glycolaldehyde and acetic acid is reflected in their desorption energies (46.8 and 55 kJ mol(-1), respectively), which are comparable to those measured for other hydrogen-bonded species such as water. Infrared spectra show that all three isomers undergo structural changes as a result of thermal processing. In the case of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde, this can be assigned to the formation of well-ordered, crystalline, structures where the molecules form chains of hydrogen-bonded moieties. The data reported here are of relevance to astrochemical studies of hot cores and star-forming regions and can be used to model desorption from interstellar ices during the warm up phase with particular importance for complex organic molecules. PMID:26057183

  2. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. 721.304 Section 721.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  3. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Wade, Leslie E. (Corpus Christi, TX); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  4. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  5. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Progress report, May 15, 1989--May 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-06-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH{sub 4}. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  6. Calibration and intercomparison of acetic acid measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, K.B.; Keene, W.C.; Pszenny, A.A.P.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.W.; Sive, B.C.

    2012-01-01

    Acetic acid is one of the most abundant organic acids in the ambient atmosphere, with maximum mixing ratios reaching into the tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv) range. The identities and associated magnitudes of the major sources and sinks for acetic acid are poorly characterized, due in part to the limitation in available measurement techniques. This paper demonstrates that Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) can reliably quantify acetic acid vapor in ambient air. Three different PTR-MS configurations were calibrated at low ppbv mixing ratios using permeation tubes, which yielded calibration factors between 7.0 and 10.9 normalized counts per second per ppbv (ncps ppbv?1) at a drift tube field strength of 132 townsend (Td). Detection limits ranged from 0.06 to 0.32 ppbv with dwell times of 5 s. These calibration factors showed negligible humidity dependence. Using the experimentally determined calibration factors, PTR-MS measurements of acetic acid during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign were validated against results obtained using Mist Chambers coupled with Ion Chromatography (MC/IC). An orthogonal least squares linear regression of paired data yielded a slope of 1.14 ± 0.06 (2?), an intercept of 0.049 ± 20 (2?) ppbv, and an R2 of 0.78. The median mixing ratio of acetic acid on Appledore Island, ME during the ICARTT campaign was 0.530 ± 0.025 ppbv with a minimum of 0.075 ± 0.004 ppbv, and a maximum of 3.555 ± 0.171 ppbv.

  7. A nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid/acetic acid route for the deposition of epitaxial cerium oxide films as high temperature superconductor buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, T.T.; Lommens, P.; Narayanan, V.; Van de Velde, N.; De Buysser, K.; Herman, G.G.; Cloet, V.; Van Driessche, I.

    2010-09-15

    A water based cerium oxide precursor solution using nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid (NTA) and acetic acid as complexing agents is described in detail. This precursor solution is used for the deposition of epitaxial CeO{sub 2} layers on Ni-5at%W substrates by dip-coating. The influence of the complexation behavior on the formation of transparent, homogeneous solutions and gels has been studied. It is found that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the gelification. The growth conditions for cerium oxide films were Ar-5% gas processing atmosphere, a solution concentration level of 0.25 M, a dwell time of 60 min at 900 {sup o}C and 5-30 min at 1050 {sup o}C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), pole figures and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the CeO{sub 2} films with different thicknesses. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to determine the carbon residue level in the surface of the cerium oxide film, which was found to be lower than 0.01%. Textured films with a thickness of 50 nm were obtained. - Graphical abstract: Study of the complexation and hydrolysis behavior of Ce{sup 4+} ions in the presence of nitrilo-tri-acetic acid and the subsequent development of an aqueous chemical solution deposition route suited for the processing of textured CeO{sub 2} buffer layers on Ni-W tapes.

  8. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice

    PubMed Central

    Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

    2014-01-01

    Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMTM (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of ?-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM. PMID:24717228

  10. The Acetate Switch

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the “acetate switch,” occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the “switch” (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl?P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl?P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl?P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl?P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to “flip the switch,” the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the “acetate switch” as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described. PMID:15755952

  11. Microwave Spectroscopy and Proton Transfer Dynamics in the Formic Acid-Acetic Acid Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, B. J.; Steer, E.; Page, F.; Tayler, M.; Ouyang, B.; Leung, H. O.; Marshall, M. D.; Muenter, J. S.

    2012-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the doubly hydrogen-bonded {hetero} dimer formed between formic acid and acetic acid has been recorded between 4 and 18 GHz using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Each rigid-molecule rotational transition is split into four as a result of two concurrent tunnelling motions, one being proton transfer between the two acid molecules, and the other the torsion/rotation of the methyl group within the acetic acid. We present a full assignment of the spectrum for {J} = 1 to {J} = 7 for these four torsion/tunnelling states. Spectra have been observed for the main isotopic species, with deuterium substitution at the C of the formic acid and all 13C species in natural abundance, The observed transitions are fitted to within a few kilohertz using a molecule-fixed effective rotational Hamiltonian for the separate {A} and {E} vibrational species of the G12 permutation-inversion group which is applicable to this complex. To reduce the effects of internal angular momentum, a non-principal axis system is used throughout. Interpretation of the internal motion uses an internal-vibration and overall rotation scheme, and full sets of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants are determined. The proton tunnelling rates and the internal angular momentum of the methyl group in the {E} states is interpreted in terms of a dynamical model which involves coupled proton transfer and internal rotation. The resulting potential energy surface not only describes these internal motions, but can also explain the observed shifts in rotational constants between {A} and {E} species, and the deviations of the tunnelling frequencies from the expected 2:1 ratio. It also permits the determination of spectral constants free from the contamination effects of the internal dynamics. M.C.D. Tayler, B. Ouyang and B.J. Howard, J. Chem. Phys., {134}, 054316 (2011).

  12. STABILITY OF MFI ZEOLITE-FILLED PDMS MEMBRANES DURING PERVAPORATIVE ETHANOL RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS MIXTURES CONTAINING ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation is a potential process for recovering bioethanol produced from biomass fermentation. Fermentation broths contain ethanol, water, and a variety of other compounds, often including carboxylic acids. The effects of acetic acid on long-term pervaporation of aqueous et...

  13. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical. PMID:26056774

  14. PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers electrospun using diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate solvent system for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Binulal, N S; Natarajan, Amrita; Menon, Deepthy; Bhaskaran, V K; Mony, Ullas; Nair, Shantikumar V

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofibrous scaffolds with various poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 wt.%) were successfully electrospun using diluted acetic and ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of this solvent system on the solution properties of the composites and its electrospinning properties were investigated. Viscosity and conductivity of the solutions, with the addition of gelatin, allowed for the electrospinning of uniform nanofibers with increasing hydrophilicity and degradation. Composite nanofibers containing 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin showed an optimum combination of hydrophilicity and degradability and also maintained the structural integrity of the scaffold. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) showed favorable interaction with and proliferation on, the composite scaffolds. hMSC proliferation was highest in the 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin containing composites. Our experimental data suggested that PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers containing 30-40 wt.% of gelatin and electrospun in diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate mixture produced nanofiber scaffolds with optimum hydrophilicity, degradability, and bio-functionality for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering. PMID:24274102

  15. Ulcer healing activity of Mumijo aqueous extract against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Nader; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gastric ulcer is an important clinical problem, chiefly due to extensive use of some drugs. The aim was to assess the activity of Mumijo extract (which is used in traditional medicine) against acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of Mumijo was prepared. Animals were randomly (n = 10) divided into four groups: Control, sham-operated group (received 0.2 ml of acetic acid to induce gastric ulcer), Mumijo (100 mg/kg/daily) were given for 4 days postacetic acid administration, and ranitidine group (20 mg/kg). The assessed parameters were pH and pepsin levels (by Anson method) of gastric contents and gastric histopathology. Ranitidine was used as reference anti-ulcer drug. Results: The extract (100 mg/kg/daily, p.o.) inhibited acid acetic-induced gastric ulceration by elevating its pH versus sham group (P < 0.01) and decreasing the pepsin levels compared to standard drug, ranitidine (P < 0.05). The histopathology data showed that the treatment with Mumijo extract had a significant protection against all mucosal damages. Conclusion: Mumijo extract has potent antiulcer activity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin levels. The obtained results support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine. PMID:25709338

  16. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy of Chronically Infected Wounds Using 1% Acetic Acid Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeong Ho; Lee, Hye Kyung; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Moon, Min Seon; Suh, In Suck

    2015-01-01

    Background Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) induces angiogenesis and collagen synthesis to promote tissue healing. Although acetic acid soaks normalize alkali wound conditions to raise tissue oxygen saturation and deconstruct the biofilms of chronic wounds, frequent dressing changes are required. Methods Combined use of NPWT and acetic acid irrigation was assessed in the treatment of chronic wounds, instilling acetic acid solution (1%) beneath polyurethane membranes twice daily for three weeks under continuous pressure (125 mm Hg). Clinical photographs, pH levels, cultures, and debrided fragments of wounds were obtained pre- and posttreatment. Tissue immunostaining (CD31, Ki-67, and CD45) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], vascular endothelial growth factor receptor [VEGFR]; procollagen; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha [HIF-1-alpha]; matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1,-3,-9; and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase [TIMP]) were also performed. Results Wound sizes tended to diminish with the combined therapy, accompanied by drops in wound pH (weakly acidic or neutral) and less evidence of infection. CD31 and Ki-67 immunostaining increased (P<0.05) post-treatment, as did the levels of VEGFR, procollagen, and MMP-1 (P<0.05), whereas the VEGF, HIF-1-alpha, and MMP-9/TIMP levels declined (P<0.05). Conclusions By combining acetic acid irrigation with negative-pressure dressings, both the pH and the size of chronic wounds can be reduced and infections be controlled. This approach may enhance angiogenesis and collagen synthesis in wounds, restoring the extracellular matrix. PMID:25606491

  17. Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (?5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at ?600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ?5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ?6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at ?765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at ?800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying ?800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate (?=?4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

  18. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    DOE PAGESBeta

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominatedmore »community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).« less

  19. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).

  20. A theoretical study on the selective oxygen K-edge soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Naohiro; Kanai, Seiji; Tokushima, Takashi; Horikawa, Yuka; Takahashi, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    We have performed theoretical calculations to reproduce the site-selective X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) spectra of liquid acetic acid at the oxygen K-edge (OCdbnd O,1s and OOH,1s). Structure sampling of an acetic acid cluster model was performed from the ab initio molecular dynamics trajectory. Relative XES intensities for the core-hole excited state dynamics simulations were calculated using density functional theory. We found that the theoretical XES spectra reproduced well the experimental spectra and that these calculations gave us electronic and molecular structure information about liquid acetic acid.

  1. The integration of acetic acid iontophoresis, orthotic therapy and physical rehabilitation for chronic plantar fasciitis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ivano A; Dyson, Anita

    2007-01-01

    A 15-year-old female soccer player presented with chronic plantar fasciitis. She was treated with acetic acid iontophoresis and a combination of rehabilitation protocols, ultrasound, athletic taping, custom orthotics and soft tissue therapies with symptom resolution and return to full activities within a period of 6 weeks. She reported no significant return of symptoms post follow-up at 2 months. Acetic acid iontophoresis has shown promising results and further studies should be considered to determine clinical effectiveness. The combination of acetic acid iontophoresis with conservative treatments may promote recovery within a shorter duration compared to the use of one-method treatment approaches. PMID:17885679

  2. DFT computation and experimental analysis of vibrational and electronic spectra of phenoxy acetic acid herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

    2013-05-01

    An absolute vibrational analysis has been attempted on the basis of experimental FTIR and NIR-FT Raman spectra with calculated vibrational wavenumbers and intensities of phenoxy acetic acids. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated with the help of B3LYP method with Dunning correlation consistent basis set aug-cc-pVTZ. The electronic structures of molecular fragments were described in terms of natural bond orbital analysis, which shows intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O and intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The electronic absorption spectra with different solvents have been investigated in combination with time-dependent density functional theory calculation. The pKa values of phenoxy acetic acids were compared.

  3. (S) 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylsulfonylamino)acetic acid. Structure, acidity and its alkali carboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Hernández, Angélica M.; Contreras, Rosalinda; Suárez-Moreno, Galdina V.; Montes-Tolentino, Pedro; Ramos-García, Iris; González, Felipe J.; Flores-Parra, Angelina

    2015-03-01

    The structure and the preferred conformers of (S) 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylsulfonylamino)acetic acid (1) are reported. Compound 1 is a derivative of the unnatural aminoacid the (S) phenyl glycine. The X-ray diffraction analyses of the complexes of 1 with water, methanol, pyridine and its own anion are discussed. In order to add information about the acidity of the COOH and NH protons in compound 1, its pKa in DMSO and those of N-benzyl-p-tolylsulfonamide and (S) N-methylbenzyl-p-tolylsulfonamide were determined by cyclic voltammetry. Data improved the scarce information about pKa in DMSO values of sulfonamides. The products of the reactions of compound 1 with one and two equivalents of LiOH, NaOH and KOH in methanol were analyzed. Crystals of the lithium (2) and sodium (3) carboxylates and the dipotassium sulfonylamide acetate (7) were obtained, they are coordination polymers. In compound 2, the lithium is bound to four oxygen atoms with short bond lengths. The coordination of the lithium atom to two carboxylates gives an infinite ribbon by formation of fused six membered rings. In the crystal of compound 3, two pentacoordinated sodium atoms are bridged by three oxygen atoms, one from a water molecule and two from DMSO. The short distance between the sodium atoms (3.123 Å), implies a metal-metal interaction. The sodium couples are linked by two carboxylate groups, forming a planar ribbon of fused twelve membered rings. A notable discovery was a water molecule quenched in the middle of the ring, with a tetra coordinated oxygen atom in a square planar geometry. In compound 7, the carboxylate and the amide are bound to heptacoordinated potassium atoms. The 2D polymer of 7 has a sandwich structure, with the carboxylate and potassium atoms in the inner layer covered by the aromatic rings.

  4. Crystal structure of 3-acet-oxy-2-methyl-benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Saranya, Matheswaran; Subashini, Annamalai; Arunagiri, Chidambaram; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C10H10O4, the carb-oxy-lic acid group is twisted by 11.37?(15)° from the plane of the benzene ring and the acet-oxy group is twisted from this plane by 86.60?(17)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of O-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with the expected R 2 (2)(8) graph-set motif. PMID:26279915

  5. Determination of Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Plagiochila arctica (Hepaticae) 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Basile, Dominick V.; Basile, Margaret R.

    1985-01-01

    Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was found in axenically cultured gametophytes of the leafy liverwort, Plagiochila arctica Bryhn and Kaal., by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Identification of the methylated auxin was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Addition of 57 micromolar IAA to cultures increased relative production of ethylene. This is the first definitive (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) demonstration of the natural occurrence of IAA in a bryophyte. PMID:16664164

  6. Trifluoroacetic anhydride promoted tandem conjugate addition of boronic acids/acetal ring opening.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Silvia; Csáky, Aurelio G

    2012-03-01

    A new stereoselective tandem reaction consisting of the metal-free conjugate addition of boronic acids followed by an intramolecular ring opening of a cyclic acetal has been disclosed. Optically pure polysubstituted tetrahydropyrans have been synthesized diastereoselectively by this new reaction. Two new C-C bonds and up to three stereocenters are formed in a single step, allowing the generation of quaternary stereocenters. PMID:22339156

  7. Adaptive laboratory evolution of ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis strain tolerant to furfural and acetic acid inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shui, Zong-Xia; Qin, Han; Wu, Bo; Ruan, Zhi-yong; Wang, Lu-shang; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jing-Li; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; He, Ming-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Furfural and acetic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysates are the prevalent inhibitors to Zymomonas mobilis during cellulosic ethanol production. Developing a strain tolerant to furfural or acetic acid inhibitors is difficul by using rational engineering strategies due to poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, strategy of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used for development of a furfural and acetic acid-tolerant strain. After three round evolution, four evolved mutants (ZMA7-2, ZMA7-3, ZMF3-2, and ZMF3-3) that showed higher growth capacity were successfully obtained via ALE method. Based on the results of profiling of cell growth, glucose utilization, ethanol yield, and activity of key enzymes, two desired strains, ZMA7-2 and ZMF3-3, were achieved, which showed higher tolerance under 7 g/l acetic acid and 3 g/l furfural stress condition. Especially, it is the first report of Z. mobilis strain that could tolerate higher furfural. The best strain, Z. mobilis ZMF3-3, has showed 94.84% theoretical ethanol yield under 3-g/l furfural stress condition, and the theoretical ethanol yield of ZM4 is only 9.89%. Our study also demonstrated that ALE method might also be used as a powerful metabolic engineering tool for metabolic engineering in Z. mobilis. Furthermore, the two best strains could be used as novel host for further metabolic engineering in cellulosic ethanol or future biorefinery. Importantly, the two strains may also be used as novel-tolerant model organisms for the genetic mechanism on the "omics" level, which will provide some useful information for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:25935346

  8. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  9. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  10. Corrosion resistance of aluminum-magnesium alloys in glacial acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, L.V.; Romaniv, V.I.

    1984-05-01

    Vessels for the storage and conveyance of glacial acetic acid are produced from ADO and AD1 aluminum, which are distinguished by corrosion resistance, weldability and workability in the hot and cold conditions but have low tensile strength. Aluminum-magnesium alloys are stronger materials close in corrosion resistance to technical purity aluminum. An investigation was made of the basic alloying components on the corrosion resistance of these alloys in glacial acetic acid. Both the base metal and the weld joints were tested. With an increase in temperature the corrosion rate of all of the tested materials increases by tens of times. The metals with higher magnesium content show more pitting damage. The relationship of the corrosion resistance of the alloys to magnesium content is confirmed by the similar intensity of failure of the joint metal of all of the investigated alloys and by electrochemical investigations. The data shows that AMg3 alloy is close to technically pure ADO aluminum. However, the susceptibility of even this material to local corrosion eliminates the possibility of the use of aluminum-magnesium alloys as reliable constructional materials in glacial acetic acid.

  11. Improving the environmental profile of wood panels via co-production of ethanol and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Earles, J Mason; Halog, Anthony; Shaler, Stephen

    2011-11-15

    The oriented strand board (OSB) biorefinery is an emerging technology that could improve the building, transportation, and chemical sectors' environmental profiles. By adding a hot water extraction stage to conventional OSB panel manufacturing, hemicellulose polysaccharides can be extracted from wood strands and converted to renewably sourced ethanol and acetic acid. Replacing fossil-based gasoline and acetic acid has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, among other possible impacts. At the same time, hemicellulose extraction could improve the environmental profile of OSB panels by reducing the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during manufacturing. In this study, the life cycle significance of such GHG, VOC, and other emission reductions was investigated. A process model was developed based on a mix of laboratory and industrial-level mass and energy flow data. Using these data a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built. Sensitive process parameters were identified and used to develop a target production scenario for the OSB biorefinery. The findings suggest that the OSB biorefinery's deployment could substantially improve human and ecosystem health via reduction of select VOCs compared to conventionally produced OSB, gasoline, and acetic acid. Technological advancements are needed, however, to achieve desirable GHG reductions. PMID:21967719

  12. Preparation and characterization of physicochemical properties of glacial acetic acid modified Gadung (Diocorea hispida Dennst) flours.

    PubMed

    Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Amalia, Rizka; Budiyati, Catarina Sri; Retnowati, Diah Susetyo; Ratnawati, Ratnawati

    2015-10-01

    In addition to the presence of antinutrients, the inferior physicochemical properties of flours has caused gadung (Dioscorea hispida dennst) becomes one of the underutilized tubers in the world. Acetylation is one of the starch modification methods to alter the physicochemical properties of starch, namely swelling power and solubility. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of reaction time, glacial acetic acid/flour mass ratio and pH on gadung flour acetylation at ambient temperature. The acetylation was carried out by reacting gadung flour slurry of 20 % consistency with glacial acetic acid under alkaline condition. The results show that in general degree of substitution and swelling power increased with the increase of reaction time, while the solubility was not affected by reaction time after 10 min acetylation. Acetylation led to significant changes in morphology and structure of gadung flour starch granules. Overall, all the acetylated gadung flours obtained in this work were having higher swelling power and solubility than the native flour. Acetylation of gadung flour using glacial acetic acid with 1:3 mass ratio and pH 8.0 at ambient temperature for 30 min resulted gadung flours with swelling power and solubility similar to that of Korean wheat flour. PMID:26396408

  13. Screening and characterization of ethanol-tolerant and thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria from Chinese vinegar Pei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Bai, Ye; Li, Dongsheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important microorganisms in the vinegar industry. However, AAB have to tolerate the presence of ethanol and high temperatures, especially in submerged fermentation (SF), which inhibits AAB growth and acid yield. In this study, seven AAB that are tolerant to temperatures above 40 °C and ethanol concentrations above 10 % (v/v) were isolated from Chinese vinegar Pei. All the isolated AAB belong to Acetobacter pasteurianus according to 16S rDNA analysis. Among all AAB, AAB4 produced the highest acid yield under high temperature and ethanol test conditions. At 4 % ethanol and 30-40 °C temperatures, AAB4 maintained an alcohol-acid transform ratio of more than 90.5 %. High alcohol-acid transform ratio was still maintained even at higher temperatures, namely, 87.2, 77.1, 14.5 and 2.9 % at 41, 42, 43 and 44 °C, respectively. At 30 °C and different initial ethanol concentrations (4-10 %), the acid yield by AAB4 increased gradually, although the alcohol-acid transform ratio decreased to some extent. However, 46.5, 8.7 and 0.9 % ratios were retained at ethanol concentrations of 11, 12 and 13 %, respectively. When compared with AS1.41 (an AAB widely used in China) using a 10 L fermentor, AAB4 produced 42.0 g/L acetic acid at 37 °C with 10 % ethanol, whereas AS1.41 almost stopped producing acetic acid. In conclusion, these traits suggest that AAB4 is a valuable strain for vinegar production in SF. PMID:26712629

  14. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples. PMID:26599728

  15. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  20. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure. PMID:26484732

  1. The effect of propionic to acetic acid ratio on anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjing; Chen, Yinguang; Gu, Guowei

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, three lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBR-A, B, and C) operated with anaerobic/aerobic (low dissolved oxygen, 0.15-0.45 mg L(-1)) configuration were long-term cultured, respectively with single acetic acid and propionic/acetic acid of 1/1 and 2/1 (carbon molar ratio), and the comparisons of anaerobic and aerobic transformations of phosphorus and nitrogen among them were made. With the increase of propionic/acetic acid, lower anaerobic phosphorus release and higher phosphorus release to short-chain fatty acids uptake ratio were observed, and less anaerobic and aerobic transformations of glycogen and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate as well as total polyhydroxyalkanoates occurred, but the transformations of poly-3-hydroxyvalerate and poly-3-hydroxy-2-methyvalerate increased. The phosphorus removal efficiency was respectively 81, 94 and 97% in SBR-A, B and C. Almost all ammonium was removed and no significant nitrite was accumulated at different propionic/acetic acid ratios. However, the nitrate accumulation and total nitrogen removal were observed to be affected by propionic/acetic acid ratio. The total nitrogen removal efficiency was 61, 68 and 82%, and the aerobic end nitrate concentration was 8.05, 6.40 and 3.54 mg L(-1) in three SBRs, respectively. All the above studies indicated that the sole acetic acid caused more nitrate accumulation than propionic and acetic acids mixture, and a pertinent increase of wastewater propionic/acetic acid ratio was of benefit to both nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an anaerobic/aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process. PMID:17919901

  2. Modified technique to recover microsporidian spores in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples by light microscopy and correlation with transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, P L; MacPherson, D W; McKenzie, R A

    1996-01-01

    Microsporidia are an emerging cause of significant disease, particularly in the immunocompromised host. Until recently, the diagnosis of enteric infections has required invasive sampling, the use of expensive technology, and considerable technological expertise. The purpose of the present study was to examine three modifications to the processing of fecal specimens for light microscopy (LM) examination for microsporidian spores: the use of pretreatment with potassium hydroxide, modified centrifugation conditions, and a modified staining technique. A sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal sample containing numerous microsporidian spores confirmed to be positive by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in all studies performed. A simulation of a heavy to lightly infected individual was used. The results of LM were correlated with those of TEM. Duplicate smears were stained with Weber's modified trichrome and Giemsa (GS) stains. The stained slides were randomized and examined blindly by LM at x 625 and x 1,250 magnifications. A portion of the dilutions after centrifugation were fixed for TEM. The Weber modified trichrome stain performance rating was higher than the Giemsa stain rating because of ease of interpretation, and material stained with Weber modified trichrome stain required less examination time at a lower magnification. The number of positive smears and the quantity of spores detected were significantly higher following pretreatment of the sample with KOH. TEM was positive only when numerous spores were present, but the quality of the photomicrographs was superior after pretreatment with KOH. Pretreatment of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed fecal samples with 10% KOH and then a 5-min centrifugation time and staining with Weber modified trichrome stain provide for the excellent recovery of microsporidia in the routine diagnostic parasitology laboratory. PMID:8897162

  3. Effective Trapping of Fruit Flies with Cultures of Metabolically Modified Acetic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yuri; Akasaka, Naoki; Goda, Itsuko; Sakoda, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Acetoin in vinegar is an attractant to fruit flies when combined with acetic acid. To make vinegar more effective in attracting fruit flies with increased acetoin production, Komagataeibacter europaeus KGMA0119 was modified by specific gene disruption of the acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase gene (ilvC). A previously constructed mutant lacking the putative ligand-sensing region in the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (KeLrp, encoded by Kelrp) was also used. The ilvC and Kelrp disruptants (KGMA5511 and KGMA7203, respectively) produced greater amounts of acetoin (KGMA5511, 0.11%; KGMA7203, 0.13%) than the wild-type strain KGMA0119 (0.069%). KGMA7203 produced a trace amount of isobutyric acid (0.007%), but the other strains did not. These strains produced approximately equal amounts of acetic acid (0.7%). The efficiency of fruit fly attraction was investigated with cultured Drosophila melanogaster. D. melanogaster flies (approximately 1,500) were released inside a cage (2.5 m by 2.5 m by 1.5 m) and were trapped with a device containing vinegar and a sticky sheet. The flies trapped on the sticky sheet were counted. The cell-free supernatant from KGMA7203 culture captured significantly more flies (19.36 to 36.96% of released flies) than did KGMA0119 (3.25 to 11.40%) and KGMA5511 (6.87 to 21.50%) cultures. Contrastingly, a 0.7% acetic acid solution containing acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%), which mimicked the KGMA7203 supernatant, captured significantly fewer flies (0.88 to 4.57%). Furthermore, the KGMA0119 supernatant with additional acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%) captured slightly more flies than the original KGMA0119 supernatant but fewer than the KGMA7203 supernatant, suggesting that the synergistic effects of acetic acid, acetoin, isobutyric acid, and unidentified metabolites achieved the efficient fly trapping of the KGMA7203 supernatant. PMID:25595769

  4. Potential antibacterial activity of coumarin and coumarin-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Fauzia Anjum; Munawar, Munawar Ali; Nisa, Mehrun; Ashraf, Mohammad; Kousar, Samina; Arshad, Shafia

    2015-05-01

    Coumarin and coumarin-3-acetic acid derivatives were synthesized by reacting phenols with malic acid, ethyl acetoacetate and ethyl acetylsuccinate in appropriate reaction conditions. All synthesized compounds were subjected to test for their antimicrobial activities against variety of gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacterial stains (Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli) by agar dilution method. Several of them exhibited appreciable good antibacterial activity against the different strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. These findings suggest a great potential of these compounds for screening and use as antibacterial agents for further studies with a battery of bacteria. PMID:26004713

  5. Inhibition of spoilage mould conidia by acetic acid and sorbic acid involves different modes of action, requiring modification of the classical weak-acid theory.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhardt; Archer, David B

    2009-11-30

    Fungal spoilage of many foods is prevented by weak-acid preservatives such as sorbic acid or acetic acid. We show that sorbic and acetic acids do not both inhibit cells by lowering of internal pH alone and that the "classical weak-acid theory" must be revised. The "classical weak-acid theory" suggests that all lipophilic acids with identical pK(a) values are equally effective as preservatives, causing inhibition by diffusion of molecular acids into the cell, dissociation, and subsequent acidification of the cytoplasm. Using a number of spoilage fungi from different genera, we have shown that sorbic acid was far more toxic than acetic acid, and no correlation existed between resistance to acetic acid and resistance to sorbic acid. The molar ratio of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (acetic: sorbic) was 58 for Paecilomyces variotii and 14 for Aspergillus phoenicis. Using flow cytometry on germinating conidia of Aspergillusniger, acetic acid at pH 4.0 caused an immediate decline in the mean cytoplasmic pH (pH(i)) falling from neutrality to approximately pH 4.7 at the MIC (80 mM). Sorbic acid also caused a rapid but far smaller drop in pH(i), at the MIC (4.5 mM); the pH remained above pH 6.3. Over 0-5 mM, a number of other weak acids caused a similar fall in cytoplasmic pH. It was concluded that while acetic acid inhibition of A. niger conidia was due to cytoplasmic acidification, inhibition by sorbic acid was not. A possible membrane-mediated mode of action of sorbic acid is discussed. PMID:19846233

  6. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids. PMID:26742620

  7. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo(11)C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through (13)C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that (13)C acetate from fermentation of (13)C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic (13)C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic (13)C acetate regionally increases the (13)C labelling of the glutamate-glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic (13)C lactate reaching higher levels than the 'remaining brain'. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  8. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  9. Toxicokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Halogenated Acetic Acids Mixtures in Naive and GSTzeta-Depleted Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saghir, Shakil A.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2005-04-01

    Pharmacokinetics of halogenated acetic acid (HAA) mixtures in native and GSTzeta depleted rats was investigated. Rats were administered orally or i.v. to Mixture-1 (monobromo- dichloro-, chlorodibromo-, tribromo- acetic acids) or Mixture-2 (bromochloro-, dibromo-, trichloro- bromodichloro- acetic acids) at a dose of 25 ?mol/kg HAA and blood samples collected up to 36 h. GSTzeta depleted rats were also orally dosed with each mixture and euthanized at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h to determine tissue distribution. In Mixture-1, GSTzeta depletion only affected the pharmacokinetics of DCAA, which increased the elimination t? from 9 min to 1.3 h. After oral administration, DCAA exhibited a complex time-course plasma profile with secondary peaks appearing long after completion of the initial absorption phase. This phenomenon coincided with elevated DCA levels in the lower portion of the GI tract compared to CDBAA and TBAA. For Mixture-2, all di-HAAs were eliminated extremely rapidly from plasma in both na?ve and GSTzeta depleted animals (t? was 4-11 min in na?ve and 11-24 min in GSTzeta depleted rats), t? of BDCAA and TCAA was 3.5 and 12 h in na?ve and 2.3 and 7.5 h in GSTzeta depleted rats. The primary difference in the pharmacokinetics among HAAs when administered as mixture was the total body clearance (Clb) which was reduced compared to after individual administration. These results suggest competitive interactions between tri- and di-HAAs beyond what would be predicted from individual HAA studies. For di-HAAs, the total dose is important as clearance is dose dependent due to competition for GSTzeta. When considering HAAs dosimetry, importance should be placed on both the components of the mixture and prior exposure history to di-HAAs.

  10. Graft Loss Due to Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of a Lymphocele Using Acetic Acid After Renal Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi Baccarani, Umberto; Bresadola, Vittorio; Lorenzin, Dario; Montanaro, Domenico; Risaliti, Andrea; Terrosu, Giovanni; Sponza, Massimo; Bresadola, Fabrizio

    2005-12-15

    Development of lymphoceles after renal transplantation is a well-described complication that occurs in up to 40% of recipients. The gold standard approach for the treatment of symptomatic cases is not well defined yet. Management options include simple aspiration, marsupialization by a laparotomy or laparoscopy, and percutaneous sclerotherapy using different chemical agents. Those approaches can be associated, and they depend on type, dimension, and localization of the lymphocele. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is considered to be less invasive than the surgical approach; it can be used safely and effectively, with low morbidity, in huge, rapidly accumulating lymphoceles. Moreover, this approach is highly successful, and the complication rate is acceptable; the major drawback is a recurrence rate close to 20%. We herewith report a renal transplant case in which the patient developed a symptomatic lymphocele that was initially treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and thereafter using acetic acid for early recurrence. A few hours after injection of acetic acid in the lymphatic cavity, the patient started to complain of acute pain localized to the renal graft and fever. An ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thrombosis of the renal vein and artery. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room, where the diagnosis of vascular thrombosis was confirmed and the graft was urgently explanted. In conclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding the use of acetic acid as a slerosating agent for the percutaneous treatment of post-renal transplant lymphocele because, based on our experience, it could be complicated by vascular thrombosis of the kidney, ending in graft loss.

  11. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  12. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  13. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  14. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  15. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions II: Acetic acid

    E-print Network

    S. Pilling; A. C. F. Santos; H. M. Boechat-Roberty

    2005-12-22

    Fragments from organic molecule dissociation (such as reactive ions and radicals) can form interstellar complex molecules like amino acids. The goal of this work is to experimentally study photoionization and photodissociation processes of acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH), a glycine (NH$_2$CH$_2$COOH) precursor molecule, by soft X-ray photons. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, that only 4-6% of CH$_3$COOH survive the strong ionization field. CH$_3$CO$^+$, COOH$^+$ and CH$_3^+$ ions are the main fragments, and the presence of the former may indicate that the production-destruction process of acetic acid in hot molecular cores (HMCs) could decrease the H$_2$O abundance since the net result of this process converts H$_2$O into OH + H$^+$. The COOH$^+$ ion plays an important role in ion-molecule reactions to form large biomolecules like glycine.

  16. Heterogeneity in human acid beta-glucosidase revealed by cellulose-acetate electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sa Miranda, M C; Aerts, J M; Pinto, R A; Magalhaes, J A; Barranger, J A; Tager, J M; Schram, A W

    1988-05-12

    Cellulose-acetate gel electrophoresis, a technique commonly used for the separation of human acid hydrolases, was applied to study heterogeneity in acid beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.45). With this technique, three forms of beta-glucosidase were distinguishable in extracts of several tissues. The most anodic beta-glucosidase activity (band 3) represents the broad-specificity beta-glucosidase that is not deficient in Gaucher disease and is not inhibited by conduritol B-epoxide (CBE). The beta-glucosidase activity was deficient in Gaucher disease. A third beta-glucosidase activity with an intermediate mobility (band 2) was also inhibited by CBE and deficient in Gaucher disease. Band 1 and band 2 beta-glucosidase thus represent different forms of glucocerebrosidase. By adding phosphatidylserine and sphingolipid activator protein (SAP-2), monomeric glucocerebrosidase could be completely converted into a form that comigrated with band 2 beta-glucosidase of tissue extracts. The addition of phosphatidylserine only also resulted in a changed mobility of the monomeric enzyme, but the migration in this case differed from that of band 2 beta-glucosidase of tissue extracts. The electrophoretic profile of beta-glucosidase activity of tissue extracts changed upon ethanol/chloroform extraction: the two glucocerebrosidase forms were converted into a band with a mobility identical to that of band 1 beta-glucosidase. Our findings indicate that the interaction of glucocerebrosidase with phospholipid and SAP-2 has major effects on the mobility of the enzyme in the cellulose-acetate gel electrophoresis system. The findings with the cellulose-acetate gel electrophoretic system are discussed in relation to the heterogeneity in glucocerebrosidase observed with sucrose density gradient analysis, immunochemical methods and isoelectric focussing studies. PMID:3130106

  17. Main and interaction effects of acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on growth and ethanol productivity of yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Palmqvist, E.; Grage, H.; Meinander, N.Q.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1999-04-05

    The influence of the factors acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on the ethanol yield (Y{sub EtOH}) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bakers` yeast, S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581, and Candida shehatae NJ 23 was investigated using a 2{sup 3}-full factorial design with 3 centerpoints. The results indicated that acetic acid inhibited the fermentation by C. shehatae NJ 23 markedly more than by bakers` yeast, whereas no significant difference in tolerance towards the compounds was detected between the S. cerevisiae strains. Furfural and the lignin derived compound p-hydroxybenzoic acid did not affect any of the yeasts at the cell mass concentration used. The results indicated that the linear model was not adequate to describe the experimental data. Based on the results from the 2{sup 3}-full factorial experiment, an extended experiment was designed based on a central composite design to investigate the influence of the factors on the specific growth rate ({mu}), biomass yield (Y{sub x}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub EtOH}), and Y{sub EtOH}. Bakers` yeast was chosen in the extended experiment due to its better tolerance towards acetic acid, which makes it a more interesting organism for use in industrial fermentations of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  18. High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    2014-07-01

    Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications. PMID:24706214

  19. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  20. The Partitioning of Acetic, Formic, and Phosphoric Acids Between Liquid Water and Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Marshall, S.L.; Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.

    1999-06-22

    The chemical carryover of impurities and treatment chemicals from the boiler to the steam phase, and ultimately to the low-pressure turbine and condenser, can be quantified based on laboratory experiments preformed over ranges of temperature, pH, and composition. The two major assumptions are that thermodynamic equilibrium is maintained and no deposition, adsorption or decomposition occurs. The most recent results on acetic, formic and phosphoric acids are presented with consideration of the effects of hydrolysis and dimerization reactions. Complications arising from thermal decomposition of the organic acids are discussed. The partitioning constants for these acids and other solutes measured in this program have been incorporated into a simple thermodynamic computer code that calculates the effect of chemical and mechanical carryover on the composition of the condensate formed to varying extents in the water/steam cycle.

  1. Dynamics of H Atom Production from Photodissociation of Acetic Acid-d(1).

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Man; Kwon, Chan Ho; Kim, Hong Lae

    2015-09-10

    Detailed dissociation dynamics of H(D) from acetic acid-d1 (CH3COOD) has been investigated upon electronic excitation to the (1)(n,?*), S1 state at 205 nm by measuring laser-induced fluorescence spectra of the fragment H(D) atoms. In addition, quantum yields for the H(D) atom dissociation channels, CH3COO + D and CH2COOD + H, were measured, which are 0.07 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.03, respectively. From the Doppler broadened spectra, the center-of-mass translational energy releases into products were obtained. To determine the detailed dissociation dynamics, two-dimensional potential energy surfaces along the reaction coordinate including the coordinate directly coupled to the dissociation coordinate were examined by employing quantum chemical calculations. For the CH3COO + D channel, the coupled coordinate is the dihedral angle of D against the COO plane. The dissociation of D(H) from acetic acid should take place along the triplet surface via surface crossing from the initially excited S1 state. Along the triplet surface, an exit channel barrier exists, which originates from the structural difference between the T1 and the product asymptotes, especially the dihedral angle of D against the COO plane. The observed translational energy releases were successfully estimated by the barrier impulsive model based upon the calculated two-dimensional potential energy surfaces at the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of theory. PMID:26294176

  2. Acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal fractionation of empty fruit bunches for high hemicellulosic sugar recovery with low byproducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Um, Byung Hwan; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2015-07-01

    Xylose, mannose, and galactose (xmg) recovery from empty fruit bunches using acetic acid-assisted hydrothermal (AAH) fractionation method was investigated. Acetic acid has been demonstrated to be effective in xmg recovery in comparison with the liquid hot-water (LHW) fractionation. The maximum xmg recovery yield (50.7 %) from the empty fruit bunch (EFB) was obtained using AAH fractionation at optimum conditions (6.9 wt.% acetic acid at 170 °C and for 18 min); whereas, only 16.2 % of xmg recovery was obtained from the LHW fractionation at the same reaction conditions (170 °C and 18 min). Releasing out the glucose from EFB was kept at low level (<1.0 %) through all tested conditions and consequently negligible 5-HMF and formic acid were analyzed in the hydrolyzate. The production of furfural was also resulted with extremely low level (1.0 g/L). PMID:25962829

  3. Partition coefficients for acetic, propionic, and butyric acids in a crude oil/water system

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsel, M.A.; Borkowski, J.J.; Sears, J.T. . National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Biofilm Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic acid concentration on the partition coefficients for short-chain organic acids were measured in a crude oil/water system. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, as probable substrates for microbial souring of oil reservoirs, were used in conjunction with two types of crude oil. Temperatures of 35--75 C, pH values of 4.0--7.0, and acid concentrations of 10--1,000 mg/L were studied. Initial naturally occurring levels of organic acids in the crude oils were also determined. pH had by far the largest effect on the partition coefficient for all three organic acids for both types oil. At conditions normally seen in an oil reservoir (pH 5--7), the great percentage (85+%) of these acids were dissolved in the aqueous phase. The log of the partition coefficient K increased approximately linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the acid. It was seen that organic acids are readily available carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at normal reservoir conditions, and that crude oil may provide a source of organic acids in a low-pH, water-flooded reservoir.

  4. A peculiar stimulatory effect of acetic and lactic acid on growth and fermentative metabolism of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F

    2009-05-01

    Stimulatory or protective effects of organic acids at low concentrations, e.g. acetic and lactic acid, on microorganisms have previously been reported. Especially in case of Zygosaccharomyces bailii, a peculiar growth stimulation by these two acids has recently been noticed. In order to elucidate this interesting phenomenon, growth and fermentative metabolism of Z. bailii was investigated in media with low pH (pH 4.0), high sugar (15% (w/v)) and different acetic and lactic acid concentrations. At both experimental temperatures (7 and 30 degrees C), a growth stimulation in the presence of 2.5% (v/v) lactic acid was observed. Furthermore at 7 degrees C, the yeast exhibited another unusual behaviour as it grew much faster in media containing 1.25% (v/v) acetic acid than in the control (without any acid). Production of fermentative metabolites was also increased together with the enhanced growth at both temperatures. These possible stimulatory effects of acetic and lactic acid should be taken into consideration when the acids are used at low doses for food preservative purpose. Presence of the acids may stimulate Z. bailii growth and fermentative metabolism, particularly at refrigeration temperature, consequently resulting in an earlier spoilage. PMID:19269576

  5. Regulation of acetic acid production by homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Anaya, M A; Llin, M L; Pilar Macías, M; Collar, C

    1994-09-01

    The efficiency of sour-dough as a possible preservative agent of microbial spoilage of bread depends on its acetic acid content. As a secondary metabolite of sugar fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid may be promoted in the presence of O2 or H+ acceptors. This paper studies the influence of O2 and high fructose content products (pure sugar, invert sugar, fructose syrup) addition on acetic acid production by hetero- (Lactobacillus brevis 25a, B-21, L-62; L. sanfrancisco L-99) and homofermentative (L. plantarum B-39) lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs [280 and 250 dough yield (DY)]. The pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) of sour-doughs after 44 h fermentation varied with DY and strain. As expected, the addition of O2 promoted greater increases in TTA with heterofermentative lactobacilli (15-42%) than with L. plantarum (15%). Fructose addition was only effective for heterofermentative strains, but the overall effects were smaller than those observed for oxygenation. The ability of lactobacilli to produce acetic acid in sour-doughs without treatment varied from 0.16 g/100 g flour at 44 h (B-39, 280, 350 DY) to 0.47-0.65% (L-62, 280, 350 DY). The production of acetic acid was positively promoted by all treatments. Oxygenation was again the most effective way of inducing acetic acid production; increases ranged from 54% (B-21) to 269% (L-99, 350 DY). The addition of H+ acceptors had variable effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7975904

  6. Gluconacetobacter maltaceti sp. nov., a novel vinegar producing acetic acid bacterium.

    PubMed

    Slapšak, Nina; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Tr?ek, Janja

    2013-02-01

    Comparison of HaeIII- and HpaII-restriction profiles of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA ITS regions of Gluconacetobacter sp. LMG 1529(T) and SKU 1109 with restriction profiles of reference strains of acetic acid bacteria described by Tr?ek and Teuber [34] revealed the same but unique restriction profiles for LMG 1529(T) and SKU 1109. Further analyses of nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, nearly complete 16S-23S rDNA ITS sequences, as well as concatenated partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB, allocated both strains to a single phylogenetic cluster well separated from the other species of the genus Gluconacetobacter. DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed their novel species identity by 73% DNA-DNA relatedness between both strains, and values below the species level (<70%) between SKU 1109 and the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbors. The classification of strains LMG 1529(T) and SKU 1109 into a single novel species was confirmed also by AFLP and (GTG)(5)-PCR DNA fingerprinting data, as well as by phenotypic data. Strains LMG 1529(T) and SKU 1109 can be differentiated from their closely related Gluconacetobacter species, Gluconacetobacter entanii and Gluconacetobacter hansenii, by their ability to form 2-keto-d-gluconic acid from d-glucose, their ability to use d-mannitol, d-gluconate and glycerol as carbon source and form acid from d-fructose, and their ability to grow without acetic acid. The major fatty acid of LMG 1529(T) and SKU 1109 is C(18:1?7c) (60.2-64.8%). The DNA G+C content of LMG 1529(T) and SKU 1109 is 62.5 and 63.3mol% respectively. The name Gluconacetobacter maltaceti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 1529(T) (=NBRC 14815(T)=NCIMB 8752(T)). PMID:23273842

  7. Development of a pH sensor based on a nanostructured filter adding pH-sensitive fluorescent dye for detecting acetic acid in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takashi; Itayama, Tomohiro; Nagasaki, Hideaki; Iwami, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Hara, Yukiko; Masuda, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid formed via the hydrolysis of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as an encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) modules causes a decrease in the conversion efficiency of such modules by grid corrosion. Here, a nondestructive and simple optical method for evaluating the condition of PV modules is proposed. This method uses a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye to detect acetic acid in PV modules using a change in pH. The change in pH induced by the formation of acetic acid is detected by the change in the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of two peaks of the dye. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye showed sensitivity for small amounts of acetic acid such as that produced from EVA. Furthermore, a membrane filter dyed with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye was confirmed to detect acetic acid in aged EVA after a damp-heat test (85 °C, 85%) for 5000 h in PV modules.

  8. Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Huijgen, Wouter J J; de Wild, Paul J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Gerritsma, Jort; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing. PMID:24508905

  9. An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and particulate phase concentrations of formic and acetic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keene, William C.; Talbot, Robert W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Beecher, Kristene; Berresheim, Harold

    1989-05-01

    During June 1986, eight systems for measuring vapor phase and four for measuring particulate phase concentrations of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were intercompared in central Virginia. HCOOH and CH3COOH vapors were sampled by condensate, mist, Chromosorb 103 GC resin, NaOH-coated annular denuders, NaOH-impregnated quartz filters, K2CO3 and NaCO3-impregnated cellulose filters, and Nylasorb membranes. Atmospheric aerosol was collected on Teflon and Nuclepore filters using both hi-vol and lo-vol systems to measure particulate phase concentrations. Performances of the mist chamber and K2CO3-impregnated filter techniques were evaluated using zero air and ambient air spiked with HCOOH(g) and CH3COOH(g), and formaldehyde from permeation sources. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are reported and discussed.

  10. An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and particulate phase concentrations of formic and acetic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keene, William C.; Talbot, Robert W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Beecher, Kristene; Berresheim, Harold

    1989-01-01

    During June 1986, eight systems for measuring vapor phase and four for measuring particulate phase concentrations of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were intercompared in central Virginia. HCOOH and CH3COOH vapors were sampled by condensate, mist, Chromosorb 103 GC resin, NaOH-coated annular denuders, NaOH-impregnated quartz filters, K2CO3 and NaCO3-impregnated cellulose filters, and Nylasorb membranes. Atmospheric aerosol was collected on Teflon and Nuclepore filters using both hi-vol and lo-vol systems to measure particulate phase concentrations. Performances of the mist chamber and K2CO3-impregnated filter techniques were evaluated using zero air and ambient air spiked with HCOOH(g) and CH3COOH(g), and formaldehyde from permeation sources. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are reported and discussed.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Esters of Indole-3-Acetic Acid from the Liquid Endosperm of the Horse Chestnut (Aesculus species) 1

    PubMed Central

    Domagalski, Wojciech; Schulze, Aga; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A.pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose. PMID:11539676

  12. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Saadullah G; Osman, Osman I; Elroby, Shaaban A; Hilal, Rifaat H

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I) and imidazole-5-acetic (II) acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP) and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ?B97XD) with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital-Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO-LUMO) energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750-0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8??*O14-H15). This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS), TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67-49.92 and 49.55-52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp³-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed. PMID:26556336

  13. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Saadullah G.; Osman, Osman I.; Elroby, Shaaban A.; Hilal, Rifaat H.

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I) and imidazole-5-acetic (II) acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP) and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ?B97XD) with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO) energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8??*O14–H15). This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS), TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed. PMID:26556336

  14. Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Yang, Qian; Hu, Tong-Liang; Du, Wen-Ping; Bu, Xian-He

    2009-10-01

    Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co( L1) 2] n ( 1) , [Cu L1N 3] n ( 2), [Cu( L2) 2·0.5C 2H 5OH·H 2O] n ( 3) and [Co( L2) 2] n ( 4) (here, H L1=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, H L2=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4 4-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4 3) 2(4 6)-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear ?1,1-bridging azido Cu II entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  15. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains. PMID:26691589

  16. Developmental toxicity of mixtures: the water disinfection by-products dichloro-, dibromo- and bromochloro acetic acid in rat embryo culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chlorination of drinking water results in production of numerous disinfection by-products (DBPs). One of the important classes of DBPs is the haloacetic acids. We have previously shown that the haloacetic acids (HAs), dichloro (DCA), dibromo (DBA) and bromochloro (BCA) acetic...

  17. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  18. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  20. Treatment of Myositis Ossificans with acetic acid phonophoresis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bagnulo, Angela; Gringmuth, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create awareness of myositis ossificans (MO) as a potential complication of muscle contusion by presenting its clinical presentation and diagnostic features. An effective method of treatment is offered for those patients who develop traumatic MO. Management: Patients in this case series developed traumatic MO, confirmed on diagnostic ultrasound. Patients participated in a treatment regimen consisting of phonophoresis of acetic acid with ultrasound. Outcome: In all cases, a trial of phonophoresis therapy significantly decreased patient signs, symptoms and the size of the calcification on diagnostic ultrasound in most at a 4-week post diagnosis mark. Discussion: Due to the potential damage to the muscle and its function, that surgical excision carries; safe effective methods of conservative treatment for MO are crucial. MO deserves more attention in the literature due to its common presentation in athletes. PMID:25550659

  1. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-17

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263+-0.02 g cellulose L{sup -1} for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  2. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-01

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  3. An EPR study on radiation-induced 4-hydroxyphenyl-acetic acid polycrystalline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Y.; Usta, K.; Usta, A.; Aydogmus, H. Yumurtaci; Guner, A.

    2015-11-01

    To determine of irradiation effect on 4-hydroxyphenyl-acetic acid polycrystalline, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were carried out. Two samples were used, which were given dose of 22.8 and 49 kGy by gamma rays using 60Co-source. EPR signals were not observed from irradiated sample, taken dose of 22.8 kGy. The measurements were performed on the sample, absorbed dose of 49 kGy, at the temperature between 120 K and 450 K. The two radical structures were suggested within experimental error. Though the radicals are identical, it was determined that they have different EPR parameters. It was observed that the intensities of the EPR spectra were to be dependent on the temperature. Also, in this study, it was aimed to test success of the machine learning methods to select the best method can be implemented theoretically.

  4. Contribution of acetic acid to the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under abiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2015-06-01

    Acetic acid was used in abiotic experiments to adjust the solution pH and investigate its influence on the chemical hydrolysis of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW). Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) was used to measure the hydrolysis under oxidative conditions (positive oxidation-reduction potential values), and pH 4 allowed for 20% (±2%) of the COD added to be solubilized, whereas only 12% (±1%) was solubilized at pH7. Under reducing conditions (negative oxidation-reduction potential values) and pH 4, 32.3% (±3%) of the OFMSW was solubilized which shows that acidogenesis at pH 4 during the anaerobic digestion of solid waste can result in chemical hydrolysis. In comparison, bacterial hydrolysis resulted in 54% (±6%) solubilization. PMID:25794810

  5. Vapor phase ketonization of acetic acid on ceria based metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjun; Karim, Ayman M.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    The activities of CeO2, Mn2O3-CeO2 and ZrO2-CeO2 were measured for acetic acid ketonization under reaction conditions relevant to pyrolysis vapor upgrading. We show that the catalyst ranking changed depending on the reaction conditions. Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 oC, while ZrO2 - CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 450 oC. Under high CO2 and steam concentration in the reactants, Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 and 450 °C. The binding energies of steam and CO2 with the active phase were calculated to provide the insight into the tolerance of Mn2O3-CeO2 to steam and CO2.

  6. Identification and biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid glucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R G; Lim, E K; Li, Y; Kowalczyk, M; Sandberg, G; Hoggett, J; Ashford, D A; Bowles, D J

    2001-02-01

    Biochemical characterization of recombinant gene products following a phylogenetic analysis of the UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) multigene family of Arabidopsis has identified one enzyme (UGT84B1) with high activity toward the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and three related enzymes (UGT84B2, UGT75B1, and UGT75B2) with trace activities. The identity of the IAA conjugate has been confirmed to be 1-O-indole acetyl glucose ester. A sequence annotated as a UDP-glucose:IAA glucosyltransferase (IAA-UGT) in the Arabidopsis genome and expressed sequence tag data bases given its similarity to the maize iaglu gene sequence showed no activity toward IAA. This study describes the first biochemical analysis of a recombinant IAA-UGT and provides the foundation for future genetic approaches to understand the role of 1-O-indole acetyl glucose ester in Arabidopsis. PMID:11042207

  7. Investigations of the pore formation in the lead selenide films using glacial acetic acid- and nitric acid-based electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel synthesis of porous PbSe layers on Si substrates by anodic electrochemical treatment of PbSe/CaF2/Si(111) epitaxial structures in an electrolyte solution based on glacial acetic acid and nitric acid. Electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and local chemical microanalysis investigation results for the porous layers are presented. Average size of the synthesized mesopores with approximately 1010 cm?2 surface density was determined to be 22 nm. The observed phenomenon of the active selenium redeposition on the mesopore walls during anodic treatment is discussed. PMID:22726822

  8. Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-05-01

    U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs. PMID:24780334

  9. Evaluation of the tolerance of acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde on the growth of Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Muñiz, B; Rasgado-Mellado, J; Solis-Pacheco, J; Nolasco-Hipólito, C; Domínguez-González, J M; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2014-10-01

    The use of lignocellulosic residues for ethanol production is limited by toxic compounds in fermenting yeasts present in diluted acid hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde. The respiratory deficient phenotype gives the cell the ability to resist several toxic compounds. So the aim of this work was to evaluate the tolerance to toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde in Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient strains. The respiratory deficient phenotype was induced by exposure to chemical agents such as acriflavine, acrylamide and rhodamine; 23 strains were obtained. The selection criterion was based on increasing specific ethanol yield (g ethanol g(-1) biomass) with acetic acid and furaldehyde tolerance. The screening showed that P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124 ACL 2-1RD (lacking cytochrome c), obtained using acrylamide, presented the highest specific ethanol production rate (1.82 g g(-1 )h(-1)). Meanwhile, the ACF8-3RD strain showed the highest acetic acid tolerance (7.80 g L(-1)) and the RHO2-3RD strain was able to tolerate up to 1.5 g L(-1) 2-furaldehyde with a growth and ethanol production inhibition of 23 and 22 %, respectively. The use of respiratory deficient yeast phenotype is a strategy for ethanol production improvement in a medium with toxic compounds such as hydrolysed sugarcane bagasse amongst others. PMID:24700134

  10. Bombella intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from bumble bee crop.

    PubMed

    Li, Leilei; Praet, Jessy; Borremans, Wim; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of a bumble bee gut microbiota study, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated using a combination of direct isolation methods and enrichment procedures. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of the isolates and a comparison of these profiles with profiles of established AAB species identified most isolates as Asaia astilbis or as 'Commensalibacter intestini', except for two isolates (R-52486 and LMG 28161(T)) that showed an identical profile. A nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 28161(T) was determined and showed the highest pairwise similarity to Saccharibacter floricola S-877(T) (96.5%), which corresponded with genus level divergence in the family Acetobacteraceae. Isolate LMG 28161(T) was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing; a 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence as well as partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB were extracted for phylogenetic analyses. The obtained data confirmed that this isolate is best classified into a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae. The DNA G+C content of strain LMG 28161(T) was 54.9 mol%. The fatty acid compositions of isolates R-52486 and LMG 28161(T) were similar to those of established AAB species [with C18:1?7c (43.1%) as the major component], but the amounts of fatty acids such as C19:0 cyclo ?8c, C14:0 and C14:0 2-OH enabled to differentiate them. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. Both isolates could also be differentiated from the known genera of AAB by means of biochemical characteristics, such as their inability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, negligible acid production from melibiose, and notable acid production from d-fructose, sucrose and d-mannitol. In addition, they produced 2-keto-d-gluconate, but not 5-keto-d-gluconate from d-glucose. Therefore, the name Bombella intestini gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this new taxon, with LMG 28161(T) (?=DSM 28636(T)?=R-52487(T)) as the type strain of the type species. PMID:25336723

  11. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid inhibits urokinase synthesis by phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated LLC-PK1 cells.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, E; Guidet, B; Lacave, R; Bens, M; Sraer, J; Nagamine, Y; Ardaillou, R; Sraer, J D

    1990-11-12

    Protein kinase C (PKC) activation is regulated by Ca2+, phospholipids, diacylglycerol (DAG) and fatty acids. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) which mimics the effect of DAG on PKC induces transcriptional activation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) gene in LLC-PK1 cells. We examined in the present work the relationships between PKC activity, fatty acids, and u-PA synthesis in this cell line. We showed that H7, an inhibitor of PKC, inhibited the PMA-induced u-PA synthesis by LLC-PK1 cells. PMA-induced u-PA synthesis was enhanced by eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), a competitive inhibitor of both the lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and inhibited by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway. Three other unrelated lipoxygenase inhibitors (phenidone 100 microM, BW755 50 microM and diethylcarbamazine 50 microM) had no effect on u-PA biosynthesis. Two polyunsaturated fatty acids other than ETYA, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid, also potentiated the PMA effect and a lipoxygenase derivative, 12 hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12 HETE), did not modify the basal and PMA-stimulated u-PA syntheses. PKC activity purified from cytosol of LLC-PK1 cells was stimulated by addition of 16 nM PMA in vitro and this effect was blunted by simultaneous addition of 5 microM NDGA. By Northern blot analysis using a pig u-PA cDNA probe we found that PMA increased the steady state level of u-PA mRNA after 2 h of incubation and that NDGA inhibited this effect. These data suggest that NDGA inhibits PMA-stimulated PKC activity in intact cells leading to a decrease of u-PA mRNA level and u-PA biosynthesis in PMA-stimulated LLC-PK1 cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have opposite effects. PMID:2122915

  12. Growth inhibitory effect of grape phenolics against wine spoilage yeasts and acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pastorkova, E; Zakova, T; Landa, P; Novakova, J; Vadlejch, J; Kokoska, L

    2013-02-15

    This paper investigates the in vitro antimicrobial potential of 15 grape phenolic compounds of various chemical classes (phenolic acids, stilbenes and flavonoids) using the broth microdilution method against yeasts and acetic acid bacteria frequently occurring in deteriorated wine. Pterostilbene (MICs=32-128 ?g/mL), resveratrol (MICs=256-512 ?g/mL) and luteolin (MICs=256-512 ?g/mL) are among six active compounds that possessed the strongest inhibitory effects against all microorganisms tested. In the case of phenolic acids, myricetin, p-coumaric and ferulic acids exhibited selective antimicrobial activity (MICs=256-512 ?g/mL), depending upon yeasts and bacteria tested. In comparison with potassium metabisulphite, all microorganisms tested were more susceptible to the phenolics. The results revealed the antibacterial and antiyeast effects against wine spoilage microorganisms of several highly potent phenolics naturally occurring in grapes. These findings also provide arguments for further investigation of stilbenes as prospective compounds reducing the need for the use of sulphites in winemaking. PMID:23334100

  13. Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Bowen; Zhao Jiongpeng; Yang Qian; Hu Tongliang; Du Wenping; Bu Xianhe

    2009-10-15

    Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co(L{sup 1}){sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [CuL{sup 1}N{sub 3}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(L{sup 2}){sub 2}.0.5C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH.H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (3) and [Co(L{sup 2}){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) (here, HL{sup 1}=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, HL{sup 2}=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4{sup 4}-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6})-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear mu{sub 1,1}-bridging azido Cu{sup II} entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied. - Graphical Abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups are reported.

  14. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, F.; Watanabe, Y.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Kishida, H.

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300°C, 1 min for the first step, and 300°C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  15. ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

  16. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  17. INFLUENCE OF DILUTE ACETIC ACID TREATMENTS ON SURVIVAL OF AMERICAN PONDWEED WINTER BUDS IN THE NEVADA IRRIGATION DISTRICT, CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir.) is commonly found in northern California irrigation canals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure of American pondweed winter buds to dilute acetic acid under field conditions would result in reduced survivorship and subsequ...

  18. Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiwen; Hu, Yongjun; Zou, Hao; Cao, Lanlan; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi

    2012-09-28

    In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH(3)COOH)(n)·H(+), the feature related to the fragment ions (CH(3)COOH)H(+)·COO (105 amu) via ?-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH(3)COOH)·H(+) and (CH(3)COOH)H(+)·COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH(3)COOH)H(+)·COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 ± 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH(3)COOH)(+) becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH(3)COOH)·CH(3)CO(+). Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV. PMID:23020332

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae UW5, a Rhizobacterium Capable of High Levels of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Thomas J D; Patten, Cheryl L

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae UW5, an indole-3-acetic acid-producing rhizobacterium originally isolated from the rhizosphere of grass. The 4.9-Mbp genome has a G+C content of 54% and contains 4,496 protein-coding sequences. PMID:26251488

  20. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...

  1. GC-MS QUANTIFICATION OF THE METHANOL AND ACETIC ACID CONTENT OF PECTIN USING HEADSPACE SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, fast, and direct procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of the methanol and acetic acid present as esters in the plant cell wall polysaccharide pectin. After base-hydrolysis of esters and acidification of pectin samples, headspace solid-phase microextraction was perfor...

  2. Acetyl xylan esterase of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Moon

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant acetyl xylan esterase (rAXE) of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid (PAA) from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide. Ten micrograms of rAXE catalyzed the synthesis of 1.34 mM of PAA, which can be used for the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in situ. PMID:21824816

  3. Efficient Diacetoxylation of Alkenes via Pd(II)/Pd(IV) Process with Peracetic Acid and Acetic Anhydride

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Pil; Lee, Joo Ho; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2010-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed diacetoxylation of alkenes in the presence of peracetic acid and acetic anhydride was developed to produce diacetates efficiently and diastereoselectively. Due to its mild conditions, this method was suitable for a broad range of substrates encompassing conjugated and non-conjugated olefins. PMID:20455553

  4. Efficient diacetoxylation of alkenes via Pd(II)/Pd(IV) process with peracetic acid and acetic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Pil; Lee, Joo Ho; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2010-06-01

    A palladium-catalyzed diacetoxylation of alkenes in the presence of peracetic acid and acetic anhydride was developed to produce diacetates efficiently and diastereoselectively. Due to its mild conditions, this method was suitable for a broad range of substrates encompassing conjugated and nonconjugated olefins. PMID:20455553

  5. INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO-, AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID.

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO- AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID. JE Andrews, H Nichols, J Schmid 1, and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, 1Research Support Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    ...

  6. Improved Monitoring of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Pear Ester Plus Acetic Acid in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in clear delta traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA) in separate lures (PE+AA) was compared with catch in orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing PE and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadie...

  7. Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid by first derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Wan, Yiqun

    2013-07-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method for simultaneously determining 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) in mixtures has been developed using derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy based on their synchronous fluorescence. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were obtained with ?? = 100 nm in a pH 8.5 NaH2PO4-NaOH buffer solution, and the detected wavelengths of quantitative analysis were set at 239 nm for BNOA and 293 nm for IAA respectively. The over lapped fluorescence spectra were well separated by the synchronous derivative method. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.003 ?g/mL for BNOA and 0.012 ?g/mL for IAA. This method is simple and expeditious, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in fruit juice samples with satisfactory results. The samples were only filtrated through a 0.45 ?m membrane filter, which was free from the tedious separation procedures. The obtaining recoveries were in the range of 83.88-87.43% for BNOA and 80.76-86.68% for IAA, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 5.0%. Statistical comparison of the results with high performance liquid chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between these two methods.

  8. Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Ruben; Weigt, Stefan; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2013-04-15

    In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 ?g/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ? 80 ?g/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 ?g/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ? 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ? Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ? Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ? LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ? Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ? Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head.

  9. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

  10. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414651

  11. Fragrance material review on anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and phototoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414654

  12. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each of 7...

  13. Regulation of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by branched-chain amino acids in Enterobacter cloacae UW5.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Cassandra V; Harris, Danielle M M; Patten, Cheryl L

    2015-09-01

    The soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae UW5 produces the rhizosphere signaling molecule indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via the indolepyruvate pathway. Expression of indolepyruvate decarboxylase, a key pathway enzyme encoded by ipdC, is upregulated by the transcription factor TyrR in response to aromatic amino acids. Some members of the TyrR regulon may also be controlled by branched-chain amino acids and here we show that expression from the ipdC promoter and production of IAA are downregulated by valine, leucine and isoleucine. Regulation of the IAA synthesis pathway by both aromatic and branched-chain amino acids suggests a broader role for this pathway in bacterial physiology, beyond plant interactions. PMID:26347301

  14. Analysis of Bacterial Diversity During Acetic Acid Fermentation of Tianjin Duliu Aged Vinegar by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Yang, Yanping; Guo, Yanyun; Han, Ye

    2015-08-01

    The vinegar pei harbors complex bacterial communities. Prior studies revealing the bacterial diversity involved were mainly conducted by culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities in vinegar pei during the acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Tianjin Duliu aged vinegar (TDAV). The results showed that there were 7 phyla and 24 families existing in the vinegar pei, with 2 phyla (Firmicutes, Protebacteria) and 4 families (Lactobacillaceae, Acetobacteracae, Enterobacteriaceae, Chloroplast) predominating. The genus-level identification revealed that 9 genera were the relatively stable, consistent components in different stages of AAF, including the most abundant genus Lactobacillus followed by Acetobacter and Serratia. Additionally, the bacterial community in the early fermentation stage was more complex than those in the later stages, indicating that the accumulation of organic acids provided an appropriate environment to filter unwanted bacteria and to accelerate the growth of required ones. This study provided basic information of bacterial patterns in vinegar pei and relevant changes during AAF of TDAV, and could be used as references in the following study on the implementation of starter culture as well as the improvement of AAF process. PMID:25903266

  15. Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate in wine.

    PubMed

    Khopkar, Yashdeep; Kojtari, Arben; Swearer, Dayne; Zivanovic, Sandra; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-09-01

    We report the application of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate. The conductivity of the crystalline nano/microwires increases quickly and selectively in the presence of ethyl acetate vapor, but not with water, acid and alcohol vapors, suggesting that the nanowires of PTCDI may be used for monitoring ethyl acetate during a wine manufacturing process. PMID:25924331

  16. Improvement of sensitivity of electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury using acetic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, R

    2012-05-15

    A method has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury determination. Effects of various low molecular weight organic solvents at different volume percentages as well as at different acid molarities on the mercury signal were investigated using ELCAD-AES. The addition of few percent of organic solvent, acetic acid produced significant enhancement in mercury signal. Acetic acid of 5% (v/v) with the 0.2M acidity has been found to give 500% enhancement for mercury signal in flow injection mode. Under the optimized parameters the repeatability, expressed as the percentage relative standard deviation of spectral peak area for mercury with 5% acetic acid was found to be 10% for acid blank solution and 5% for 20 ng/mL mercury standard based on multiple measurements with a multiple sample loading in flow injection mode. Limit of detection of this method was determined to be 2 ng/mL for inorganic mercury. The proposed method has been validated by determining mercury in certified reference materials, Tuna fish (IAEA-350) and Aquatic plant (BCR-060). Accuracy of the method for the mercury determination in the reference materials has been found to be between 3.5% and 5.9%. This study enhances the utility of ELCAD-AES for various types of biological and environmental materials to quantify total mercury at very low levels. PMID:22483872

  17. Identifying (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene plus acetic acid as a new lure for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to measure the responses of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to several plant volatiles presented alone and in combination with acetic acid. Plant volatiles included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-ß-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate...

  18. Cellulose production and cellulose synthase gene detection in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

    2015-02-01

    The ability of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) to produce cellulose has gained much industrial interest due to the physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cellulose. The production of cellulose occurs in the presence of oxygen and in a glucose-containing medium, but it can also occur during vinegar elaboration by the traditional method. The vinegar biofilm produced by AAB on the air-liquid interface is primarily composed of cellulose and maintains the cells in close contact with oxygen. In this study, we screened for the ability of AAB to produce cellulose using different carbon sources in the presence or absence of ethanol. The presence of cellulose in biofilms was confirmed using the fluorochrome Calcofluor by microscopy. Moreover, the process of biofilm formation was monitored under epifluorescence microscopy using the Live/Dead BacLight Kit. A total of 77 AAB strains belonging to 35 species of Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter were analysed, and 30 strains were able to produce a cellulose biofilm in at least one condition. This cellulose production was correlated with the PCR amplification of the bcsA gene that encodes cellulose synthase. A total of eight degenerated primers were designed, resulting in one primer pair that was able to detect the presence of this gene in 27 AAB strains, 26 of which formed cellulose. PMID:25381910

  19. A diverse assemblage of indole-3-acetic acid producing bacteria associate with unicellular green algae.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, Christopher E; Piskorska, Magdalena; Soule, Tanya; Petelos, Angela; Yeager, Chris M

    2014-08-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of liquid transportation fuels. In natural waters, the importance of physical associations and biochemical interactions between microalgae and bacteria is generally well appreciated, but the significance of these interactions to algal biofuels production have not been investigated. Here, we provide a preliminary report on the frequency of co-occurrence between indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing bacteria and green algae in natural and engineered ecosystems. Growth experiments with unicellular algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, revealed IAA concentration-dependent responses in chlorophyll content and dry weight. Importantly, discrete concentrations of IAA resulted in cell culture synchronization, suggesting that biochemical priming of cellular metabolism could vastly improve the reliability of high density cultivation. Bacterial interactions may have an important influence on algal growth and development; thus, the preservation or engineered construction of the algal-bacterial assembly could serve as a control point for achieving low input, reliable production of algal biofuels. PMID:24879600

  20. Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Nakajo, S; Xia, L; Nakaya, K; Fang, Q; Waxman, S; Han, R

    1999-01-01

    Boswellic acid acetate (BC-4), a compound isolated from the herb Boswellia carterii Birdw., can induce differentiation and apoptosis of leukemia cells. Based on cell morphology and NBT reduction, BC-4 induced monocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia HL-60, U937 and ML-1 cells at a dose under 12.5 microg/ml (24.2 microM). BC-4 was a potent inducer, with 90% of the cells showing morphologic changes and 80-90% of the cells showing NBT reduction. Specific and non-specific esterase were also increased by BC-4. Based on benzidine staining assay, BC-4 failed to induce erythroid leukemia DS-19 and K562 cells differentiation. In contrast to its selective differentiation effect, BC-4 strongly inhibited growth of all cell lines tested. The growth inhibition effect was dose- and time-dependent. In HL-60 cells, 20 microg/ml (38.8 microM) of BC-4 decreased viable cell number by 60% at 24 h, whereas at 3 days there was virtually no viable cells. Morphologic and DNA fragmentation analysis proved that BC-4 induced cell apoptosis. The dual apoptotic and differentiation effects of BC-4 suggest that it may be a powerful agent in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:9933134

  1. Fluorescent rhodanine-3-acetic acids visualize neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    PubMed

    Anumala, Upendra Rao; Gu, Jiamin; Lo Monte, Fabio; Kramer, Thomas; Heyny-von Haußen, Roland; Hölzer, Jana; Goetschy-Meyer, Valerie; Schön, Christian; Mall, Gerhard; Hilger, Ingrid; Czech, Christian; Herms, Jochen; Schmidt, Boris

    2013-09-01

    There is a high demand for the development of an imaging agent for neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) detection in Alzheimer's diagnosis. In the present study, a series of rhodanine-3-acetic acids was synthesized and evaluated for fluorescence imaging of NFTs in brain tissues of AD patients. Five out of seven probes have shown excellent binding affinity to NFTs over amyloid plaques in the Thiazine red R displacement assay. However, the selectivity in this in vitro assay is not confirmed by the histopathological evaluation, which indicates significant differences in the binding sites in the assays. Probe 6 showed binding affinity (IC50=19nM) to tau aggregates which is the highest among this series. Probes 2, 3, 4 and 5 display IC50 values of lower than 100nM to tau aggregates to displace Thiazine red R. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of these five probes with human liver carcinoma cells revealed that these compounds excert negligible cytotoxicity. The in vivo studies with zebrafish embryos confirmed negligible cytotoxicity at 24 and 72h post fertilization. PMID:23859773

  2. Acetic acid dimers in a nitrogen matrix: Observation of structures containing the higher-energy conformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Susy; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Räsänen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Fausto, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Acetic acid (AA) dimers are studied experimentally by infrared spectroscopy in a N2 matrix and theoretically at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level of approximation. This work is focused on the first preparation and characterization of structures containing the higher-energy (cis) conformer of AA. Nine trans-trans, fourteen trans-cis, and six cis-cis dimers are theoretically predicted. Five trans-trans and a number of trans-cis dimers are identified in the experiments, but no indication of cis-cis dimers is found. Two trans-trans dimers and the trans-cis dimers are reported for the first time. One trans-cis dimer is prepared by selective vibrational excitation of the structurally related trans-trans dimer, which converts one of the trans subunits to the cis form. Several trans-cis dimers are obtained by annealing of a matrix containing both trans and cis monomers of AA. Tunneling-induced conversion of the trans-cis dimers into trans-trans forms (including two new trans-trans forms) is observed at low temperatures.

  3. Acetic acid effects on methanogens in the second stage of a two-stage anaerobic system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Keke; Guo, Chenghong; Zhou, Yan; Maspolim, Yogananda; Ng, Wun-Jern

    2016-02-01

    This study reports on biomass tolerance towards high concentrations of acetic acid (HAc) within the system. Biomass from the second stage of a two-stage anaerobic sludge digestion system was used for this study. Microbial community analysis by 454 pyrosequencing highlighted hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales was the predominant archaeal population in the second stage (>99% of the total archaeal community). Second stage biomass degraded HAc up to 4200 mg HAc L(-1) without observable lag phase. However, at HAc-shock loading of 7400 mg HAc L(-1), it showed a one day lag phase associated with decreased biomass activity. After stepwise HAc-acclimation over 27 d, the biomass degraded HAc of up to 8200 mg HAc L(-1) without observable lag phase. The dominance of Methanomicrobiales had remained unchanged in proportion - while the total archaeal population increased during acclimation. This study showed stepwise acclimation could be an approach to accommodate HAc accumulation and hence higher concentrations resulting from an enhanced first stage. PMID:26498097

  4. Rate Motifs Tune Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid Degradation Dynamics1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Britney L.; Mao, Haibin; Guseman, Jessica M.; Hinds, Thomas R.; Hellmuth, Antje; Kovenock, Marlies; Noorassa, Anisa; Lanctot, Amy; Villalobos, Luz Irina A. Calderón; Zheng, Ning; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a common feature in diverse plant cell signaling pathways; however, the factors that control the dynamics of regulated protein turnover are largely unknown. One of the best-characterized families of E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitates ubiquitination of auxin (aux)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) repressor proteins in the presence of auxin. Rates of auxin-induced degradation vary widely within the Aux/IAA family, and sequences outside of the characterized degron (the minimum region required for auxin-induced degradation) can accelerate or decelerate degradation. We have used synthetic auxin degradation assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in plants to characterize motifs flanking the degron that contribute to tuning the dynamics of Aux/IAA degradation. The presence of these rate motifs is conserved in phylogenetically distant members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Aux/IAA family, as well as in their putative Brassica rapa orthologs. We found that rate motifs can act by enhancing interaction between repressors and the E3, but that this is not the only mechanism of action. Phenotypes of transgenic plants expressing a deletion in a rate motif in IAA28 resembled plants expressing degron mutations, underscoring the functional relevance of Aux/IAA degradation dynamics in regulating auxin responses. PMID:26149575

  5. Utilization of the Plant Hormone Indole-3-Acetic Acid for Growth by Pseudomonas putida Strain 1290†

    PubMed Central

    Leveau, Johan H. J.; Lindow, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated from plant surfaces several bacteria with the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). One of them, isolate 1290, was able to utilize IAA as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The strain was identified by its 16S rRNA sequence as Pseudomonas putida. Activity of the enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was induced during growth on IAA, suggesting that catechol is an intermediate of the IAA catabolic pathway. This was in agreement with the observation that the oxygen uptake by IAA-grown P. putida 1290 cells was elevated in response to the addition of catechol. The inability of a catR mutant of P. putida 1290 to grow at the expense of IAA also suggests a central role for catechol as an intermediate in IAA metabolism. Besides being able to destroy IAA, strain 1290 was also capable of producing IAA in media supplemented with tryptophan. In root elongation assays, P. putida strain 1290 completely abolished the inhibitory effect of exogenous IAA on the elongation of radish roots. In fact, coinoculation of roots with P. putida 1290 and 1 mM concentration of IAA had a positive effect on root development. In coinoculation experiments on radish roots, strain 1290 was only partially able to alleviate the inhibitory effect of bacteria that in culture overproduce IAA. Our findings imply a biological role for strain 1290 as a sink or recycler of IAA in its association with plants and plant-associated bacteria. PMID:15870323

  6. Photo-activated 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid induces apoptosis of prostate and bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yun-Mi; Li, Hailan; Kim, Su Yeon; Park, Woo-Jae; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2011-04-01

    5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), an indole derivative, is the main metabolite of serotonin in the human body. We determined whether or not ultraviolet B (UVB)-activated 5-HIAA (5-HIAA(UVB)) affects the viability of human prostate (LnCaP and PC-3) and bladder cancer cells (TCCSUP). While 5-HIAA alone had no cytotoxic effect at <1mM, 5-HIAA(UVB) induced LnCaP, PC-3, and TCCSUP cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis showed that 5-HIAA(UVB) markedly increased the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase and resulted in cell cycle disruption. To elucidate the death mechanism by 5-HIAA(UVB), we examined the signal transduction pathways related to apoptosis using Western blot analysis. 5-HIAA(UVB) led to phosphorylation of stress-activated signaling proteins, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and/or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, 5-HIAA(UVB) activated caspase-8, -9, and -3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which are indicators of apoptosis. From these findings, the present study demonstrated that 5-HIAA(UVB) induces apoptotic cell death of prostate and bladder cancer cells via stress-mediated signaling and apoptotic pathways. Therefore, we suggest that 5-HIAA might be used as a new photosensitizer for photodynamic cancer therapy. PMID:21310627

  7. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  8. Rate Motifs Tune Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid Degradation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Moss, Britney L; Mao, Haibin; Guseman, Jessica M; Hinds, Thomas R; Hellmuth, Antje; Kovenock, Marlies; Noorassa, Anisa; Lanctot, Amy; Villalobos, Luz Irina A Calderón; Zheng, Ning; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a common feature in diverse plant cell signaling pathways; however, the factors that control the dynamics of regulated protein turnover are largely unknown. One of the best-characterized families of E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitates ubiquitination of auxin (aux)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) repressor proteins in the presence of auxin. Rates of auxin-induced degradation vary widely within the Aux/IAA family, and sequences outside of the characterized degron (the minimum region required for auxin-induced degradation) can accelerate or decelerate degradation. We have used synthetic auxin degradation assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in plants to characterize motifs flanking the degron that contribute to tuning the dynamics of Aux/IAA degradation. The presence of these rate motifs is conserved in phylogenetically distant members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Aux/IAA family, as well as in their putative Brassica rapa orthologs. We found that rate motifs can act by enhancing interaction between repressors and the E3, but that this is not the only mechanism of action. Phenotypes of transgenic plants expressing a deletion in a rate motif in IAA28 resembled plants expressing degron mutations, underscoring the functional relevance of Aux/IAA degradation dynamics in regulating auxin responses. PMID:26149575

  9. Hydrogen peroxide is a mediator of indole-3-acetic acid/horseradish peroxidase-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Jeon, Sang-Eun; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Kim, So-Young; Kwon, Sun-Bang; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2006-02-20

    Recently, we reported that a combination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) induces apoptosis in G361 human melanoma cells. However, the apoptotic mechanism involved has been poorly studied. It is known that when IAA is oxidized by HRP, free radicals are produced, and since oxidative stress can induce apoptosis, we investigated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in IAA/HRP-induced apoptosis. Our results show that IAA/HRP-induced free radical production is inhibited by catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase or sodium formate. Furthermore, catalase was found to prevent IAA/HRP-induced apoptotic cell death, indicating that IAA/HRP-produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be involved in the apoptotic process. Moreover, the antiapoptotic effect of catalase is potentiated by NADPH, which is known to protect catalase. On further investigating the IAA/HRP-mediated apoptotic pathway, we found that the IAA/HRP reaction leads to caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, which was also blocked by catalase. Additionally, we found that IAA/HRP produces H2O2 and induces peroxiredoxin (Prx) sulfonylation. Consequently, our results suggest that H2O2 plays a major role in IAA/HRP-induced apoptosis. PMID:16460736

  10. Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. PMID:25518064

  11. Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the morpholinium salts of four phen­oxy­acetic acid analogues

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Lynch, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    The anhydrous salts morpholinium (tetra­hydro-2-H-1,4-oxazin-4-ium) phen­oxy­acetate, C4H10NO+·C8H7O3 ?, (I), morpholinium (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetate, C4H10NO+·C8H6?FO3 ?, (II), and isomeric morpholinium (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetate (3,5-D), (III), and morpholinium (2,4-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid (2,4-D), C4H10NO+·C8H5Cl2O3 ?, (IV), have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In the crystals of (I), (III) and (IV), one of the the aminium H atoms is involved in a three-centre asymmetric cation–anion N—H?O,O? R 1 2(4) hydrogen-bonding inter­action with the two carboxyl O-atom acceptors of the anion. With the structure of (II), the primary N—H?O inter­action is linear. In the structures of (I), (II) and (III), the second N—H?Ocarbox­yl hydrogen bond generates one-dimensional chain structures extending in all cases along [100]. With (IV), the ion pairs are linked though inversion-related N—H?O hydrogen bonds [graph set R 4 2(8)], giving a cyclic hetero­tetra­meric structure. PMID:26594518

  12. Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the morpholinium salts of four phen-oxy-acetic acid analogues.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Lynch, Daniel E

    2015-11-01

    The anhydrous salts morpholinium (tetra-hydro-2-H-1,4-oxazin-4-ium) phen-oxy-acetate, C4H10NO(+)·C8H7O3 (-), (I), morpholinium (4-fluoro-phen-oxy)acetate, C4H10NO(+)·C8H6?FO3 (-), (II), and isomeric morpholinium (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetate (3,5-D), (III), and morpholinium (2,4-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid (2,4-D), C4H10NO(+)·C8H5Cl2O3 (-), (IV), have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In the crystals of (I), (III) and (IV), one of the the aminium H atoms is involved in a three-centre asymmetric cation-anion N-H?O,O' R 1 (2)(4) hydrogen-bonding inter-action with the two carboxyl O-atom acceptors of the anion. With the structure of (II), the primary N-H?O inter-action is linear. In the structures of (I), (II) and (III), the second N-H?Ocarbox-yl hydrogen bond generates one-dimensional chain structures extending in all cases along [100]. With (IV), the ion pairs are linked though inversion-related N-H?O hydrogen bonds [graph set R 4 (2)(8)], giving a cyclic hetero-tetra-meric structure. PMID:26594518

  13. The Acid Hydrolysis Mechanism of Acetals Catalyzed by a Supramolecular Assembly in Basic Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-09-24

    A self-assembled supramolecular host catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetals in basic aqueous solution. The mechanism of hydrolysis is consistent with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. Further investigation of the rate limiting step of the reaction revealed a negative entropy of activation ({Delta}S{double_dagger} = -9 cal mol{sup -1}K{sup -1}) and an inverse solvent isotope effect (k(H{sub 2}O)/k(D{sub 2}O) = 0.62). These data suggest that the mechanism of hydrolysis that takes place inside the assembly proceeds through an A-2 mechanism, in contrast to the A-1 mechanism operating in the uncatalyzed reaction. Comparison of the rates of acetal hydrolysis in the assembly with the rate of the reaction of unencapsulated substrates reveals rate accelerations of up to 980 over the background reaction for the substrate diethoxymethane.

  14. Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.

    PubMed

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA. PMID:24412985

  15. Conversion of acetic acid to methane: thermophilic bacteria and their symbiotic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A thermophilic (60/sup 0/C), anaerobic coculture conspired of an acetate-oxidizing eubacterial rod (AOR) and a H/sub 2/-using methanogen, Methanobacterium sp. strain THF, was studied. The AOR was isolated from the coculture by dilution into medium, with ethylene glycol. It grew on ethylene glycol, 1,2 propanediol, formate, pyruvate, glycinebetaine, and H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/, usually forming acetate as the main product. Evidence was obtained consistent with the hypothesis that the AOR oxidized acetate via a series of reactions resembling the reversal of the acetyl CoA acetogenesis pathway. Two key enzymes were present in high activity; carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), although formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase was not detectable. Tetrahydrofolate, an important C/sub 1/ carrier in acetogens, was not detectable indirectly via enzyme assays, inhibitor studies, or fluorescence spectra, suggesting an alternate carries in the AOR. Anaerobic activity stains for CODH in native polyacrylamide gels showed a novel major band in the coculture not detected in the component organisms, suggesting regulation of this enzyme and the reversal of the pathway. Enzyme assays also indicated regulate of CODH and FDH in Methanobacterium. THF.

  16. Decontamination of aquatic vegetable leaves by removing trace toxic metals during pickling process with acetic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbiao; Yang, Yixing

    2011-01-01

    The heavy-metal content of aquatic plants is mainly dependent upon their ecological system. This study indicated that although the toxic heavy-metal contents could be above the recommended maximum levels depending upon their concentrations in growing water, they can be decontaminated by pickling with 5% acetic acid solution. Almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.5% Pb, 96.7% Ag, or 97.1% Al were removed from Water Spinach leaves by soaking in acetic acid solution. For Water-Shield leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Pb, Ba, or Sb and 95.0% Ag or 96.1% Al were removed. For Watercress leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Pb or 99.7% Ag were removed. For Water Hyacinth leaves, almost all Cd, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Hg, 98.5% Pb, 95.0% Ag, or 98.7% Al were removed. PMID:21888602

  17. A study of the effect of salicylic acetic acid on a lymphocyte cell model of cellular activation and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Enrique Aranda; de la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan; Macho, Antonio; Lucena, Concha; Gómez, Auxiliadora; Calzado, Marco; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2006-01-18

    Salicylic acetic acid (SAA) is a drug that has formed part of the treatment of many diseases for many years. Its anti-inflammatory activity is well known, but recently its possible role in the interference in the oncogenesis mechanisms has become apparent. With the aim of supporting these yet preliminary observations, we studied the effect of salicylic acetic acid on a cellular activation and proliferation model. We used lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, which were later exposed to cellular activation and proliferation stimulus by the SEB antigen. Lymphocyte activation was determined by direct immunoflourescence through expression of the receptor IL-2 (CD25) alpha chain and proliferation through the incorporation of tritiated thymidine to the DNA in synthesis together with the determination of the cellular cycle by flow cytometry. We found that both processes, activation and proliferation, are inhibited by increasing doses of SAA. PMID:16011873

  18. Matrix Isolation IR Spectroscopy of 1:1 Complexes of Acetic Acid and Trihaloacetic Acids with Water and Benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Pujarini; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2015-06-01

    A comparative study of infrared spectral effects for 1:1 complex formation of acetic acid (AA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TFAA) with water and benzene has been carried out under a matrix isolation environment. Despite the large difference in aqueous phase acidities of the three acids, the measured ?b{OH}stretching frequencies of the monomers of the three molecules are found to be almost same, and in agreement with gas phase electronic structure calculations. Intrinsic acidities are expressed only in the presence of the proton acceptors, water or benzene. Although electronic structure calculations predict distinct ?b{OH} red-shifts for all three acids, the measured spectral features for TCAA and TFAA in this range do not allow unambiguous assignments for the 1:1 complex. On the other hand, the spectral changes in the ?b{C=O} region are more systematic, and the observed changes are consistent with predictions of theory. Components of overall binding energy of each complex have been obtained from energy decomposition analysis, which allows determination of the relative contributions of various physical forces towards overall stability of the complexes, and the details will be discussed in the talk.

  19. Effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Xie, Bijun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Liang; Wang, Yadong; Chen, Chudi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPC) on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach and its possible mechanism. The sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPC) were extracted with 60% alcohol/H2O from sea buckthorn bark and purified by macropore adsorption resin column, with a purity of >96%. The chemical character of SBPC was analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Chronic gastric ulceration was induced by injecting acetic acid into the subserosa of stomach. Different concentrations of SBPC were orally administrated to gastric ulcers rats. After treatment 7d and 14d, rats were sacrificed respectively. The healing of the acetic acid induced ulcerations was measured by ulcer index (UI). The level of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in plasma was determined; the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) around ulcer was detected by immunohistochemical method. SBPC was found to reduce the size of the ulcers at day 7 and 14 in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control, the UI of SBPC group was significantly lower (p< 0.01) and the level of EGF in the plasma of SBPC group increased significantly (p< 0.01), meanwhile the expression of EGFR and PCNA around ulcer in high-dose SBPC stomach were enhanced (p< 0.05). The results implied that SBPC plays an important role in healing of acetic acid-induced gastric lesions possibly by the acceleration of the mucosal repair. PMID:17392110

  20. Stability of the Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Irritation Model in Alpha Chloralose-Anesthetized Female Cats

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, F. Aura; Wells, Grace I.; Langdale, Christopher L.; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B.

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in ?-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min “quiet period” (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

  1. The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Cohen, S M; Doull, J; Feron, V J; Goodman, J I; Marnett, L J; Munro, I C; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L; Waddell, W J; Wagner, B M

    2005-08-01

    This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of phenethylalcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food, their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals, their low level of flavor use, the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances. PMID:15950814

  2. Acetic acid as an adjunct vital stain in diagnosis of tobacco-associated oral lesions: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Vinuth, DP; Agarwal, Poonam; Kale, Alka D; Hallikeramath, Seema; Shukla, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most important risk factors for oral precancer and cancer in India is the use of tobacco. In chronic tobacco users, the mucosa may appear clinically healthy, however, changes are observed histologically. Screening of such tobacco users for an early diagnosis is, therefore, of paramount importance. Several adjunctive diagnostic modalities have been used in the past, but none has been conclusively validated as confirmative and cost-effective screening methodology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of 5% acetic acid as a vital staining agent in tobacco-associated oral lesions. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were divided into two groups. Group I (n = 40) subjects with a history of chronic tobacco use and clinically apparent normal mucosa. Group II (n = 40) subjects suspected of having oral cancer, 5% acetic acid was applied to the mucosa/lesions, followed by incisional biopsy for confirmatory diagnosis. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for Groups I and II were 97%, 50% and 95%, 60%, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Group I were 0.95 and 0.66. Group II showed PPV and NPV of 0.95 and 0.60. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that acetic acid holds promise for future. Hence, further studies are needed to be undertaken on a large scale to assess its potential as a screening tool for high-risk individuals and oral cancer.

  3. Carbon monoxide fermentation to ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum in a bioreactor with no accumulation of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of CO or syngas offers an attractive route to produce bioethanol. However, during the bioconversion, one of the challenges to overcome is to reduce the production of acetic acid in order to minimize recovery costs. Different experiments were done with Clostridium autoethanogenum. With the addition of 0.75 ?M tungsten, ethanol production from carbon monoxide increased by about 128% compared to the control, without such addition, in batch mode. In bioreactors with continuous carbon monoxide supply, the maximum biomass concentration reached at pH 6.0 was 109% higher than the maximum achieved at pH 4.75 but, interestingly, at pH 4.75, no acetic acid was produced and the ethanol titer reached a maximum of 867 mg/L with minor amounts of 2,3-butanediol (46 mg/L). At the higher pH studied (pH 6.0) in the continuous gas-fed bioreactor, almost equal amounts of ethanol and acetic acid were formed, reaching 907.72 mg/L and 910.69 mg/L respectively. PMID:25812815

  4. Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our computations. In those molecules, where dispersion forces contribute significantly to the binding mechanism, the water layer has a stronger screening effect. Additionally, this effect can be enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups in the molecule. Thus, with the introduction of a water layer, the adsorption energy of isooctane and ethanol is reduced but it is increased in the case of the acetic acid. The adsorption configuration of ethanol is changed, while the one of acetic acid is moderately, and for isooctane only very slightly altered. Therefore, the effect of a water layer in the adsorption of organic molecules on an Fe(100) surface strongly depends on the type of bond and consequently, so do the tribological properties. PMID:25243045

  5. Sol-gel process for preparation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} from acidic acetates/ammonia/ascorbic acid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Deptula, A.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Goretta, K.C.; Bartolomeo, A.; Casadio, S.

    1997-03-01

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub x} sols were prepared by addition of ammonia to acidic acetate solutions of Y{sup 3+}, Ba{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+}. Ascorbic acid was added to part of the sol. The resultant sols were gelled to a shard or a coating by evaporation at 60 C. Addition of ethanol to the sols facilitated formation of gel coatings, fabricated by a dipping technique, on Ag or glass or substrates. At 100 C, gels formed in the presence of ascorbic acid were perfectly amorphous, in contrast to crystalline acetate gels. The quality of coatings prepared from ascorbate gels was superior to that of acetate gel coatings.

  6. Sensitivity of acid-adapted and acid-shocked Shigella flexneri to reduced pH achieved with acetic, lactic, and propionic acids.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, G L; Beuchat, L R

    2001-07-01

    Survival and growth characteristics of unadapted, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked Shigella flexneri 2a cells in acidified (pH 3.5 to 5.5) tryptic soy broth with 0.25% glucose (TSB) and tryptic soy agar (TSA) were determined. S. flexneri was grown at 37 degrees C for 18 h in tryptic soy broth without glucose (TSBNG) (unadapted) and TSBNG supplemented with 1% glucose (TSBG) (acid-adapted). Cells grown in TSBNG were acid shocked by adjusting 16-h cultures to pH 5.05 +/- 0.05 with lactic acid. Cells were then inoculated into TSB acidified with acetic, lactic, or propionic acids to pH 5.5, 4.5, or 3.5 and incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 h. The order of lethality at a given pH was lactic acid < acetic acid < propionic acid. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher numbers of acid-adapted cells, compared to acid-shocked and unadapted cells, were recovered from TSB acidified (pH 3.5) with lactic or acetic acids. None of the cells survived a 30-min exposure in TSB acidified with propionic acid to pH 3.5. When the three cell types were plated on TSA acidified with lactic, acetic, or propionic acids at pH < or = 4.5, < or = 5.5, and < or = 5.5, respectively, visible colonies were not detected. Viable unadapted, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells were, however, recovered from TSA acidified with all three acids at pH > or = 4.5. Acid-adapted and, to a lesser extent, acid-shocked cells survived at lower pH than did unadapted cells, indicating that prior exposure to mild acidic environment results in increased acid resistance. Survival of S. flexneri at a given pH was influenced by the type of acidulant used, a response characteristic exhibited by other gram-negative enteric pathogens. PMID:11456206

  7. Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in highly metastatic melanoma and fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wanzhou; Entschladen, Frank; Liu, Hongyan; Niggemann, Bernd; Fang, Qicheng; Zaenker, Kurt S; Han, Rui

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the antitumor and/or preventive effect of BC-4, an isomeric compound isolated from the plant Boswellia carteri Birdw. containing alpha- and beta-boswellic acid acetate in 1:1, MW 498.3. We used the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay to study the growth inhibition activity of BC-4. Tumor cells migration within a three-dimensional collagen matrix was recorded by time-lapse videomicroscopy and computer-assisted cell tracking. Topoisomerase II was isolated from mouse melanoma B16F10 cells and its activity was determined by its ability to cut plasmid pBR322 DNA. The secretion and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells were determined by gelatin zymography. BC-4 was a cytostatic compound and could induce the differentiation of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, blocked the cell population in G1 phase and inhibited topoisomerase II activity. The G1 phase population of B16F10 cells was increased from 57.4 to 87.7%, while S phase population was reduced from 33.3 to 5.9% after treatment with BC-4 at 25 microM concentration for 48 h. BC-4 also inhibited the migration activity of B16F10. BC-4 could induce apoptosis of HT-1080 cells, as proved by acridine orange fluorescence staining, Wright-Giemsa staining, electromicroscopy, DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry. BC-4 inhibited the secretion of MMPs from HT-1080 cells, too. In conclusion, if it turns out that BC-4 is a well tolerated substance, exhibiting no significant toxicity or side effects, being evaluated currently in China, BC-4 is a good candidate for the prevention of primary tumor, invasion and metastasis. PMID:12600419

  8. Double proton transfer in the complex of acetic acid with methanol: Theory versus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Ramos, Antonio; Smedarchina, Zorka; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús

    2001-01-01

    To test the approximate instanton approach to intermolecular proton-transfer dynamics, we report multidimensional ab initio bimolecular rate constants of HH, HD, and DD exchange in the complex of acetic acid with methanol in tetrahydrofuran-d8, and compare them with the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) experiments of Gerritzen and Limbach. The bimolecular rate constants are evaluated as products of the exchange rates and the equilibrium rate constants of complex formation in solution. The two molecules form hydrogen-bond bridges and the exchange occurs via concerted transfer of two protons. The dynamics of this transfer is evaluated in the complete space of 36 vibrational degrees of freedom. The geometries of the two isolated molecules, the complex, and the transition states corresponding to double proton transfer are fully optimized at QCISD (quadratic configuration interaction including single and double substitutions) level of theory, and the normal-mode frequencies are calculated at MP2 (Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order) level with the 6-31G (d,p) basis set. The presence of the solvent is taken into account via single-point calculations over the gas phase geometries with the PCM (polarized continuum model). The proton exchange rate constants, calculated with the instanton method, show the effect of the structure and strength of the hydrogen bonds, reflected in the coupling between the tunneling motion and the other vibrations of the complex. Comparison with experiment, which shows substantial kinetic isotopic effects (KIE), indicates that tunneling prevails over classic exchange for the whole temperature range of observation. The unusual behavior of the experimental KIE upon single and double deuterium substitution is well reproduced and is related to the synchronicity of two-atom tunneling.

  9. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  10. Preparation of macroporous lime from natural lime by swelling method with acetic acid for high-temperature desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaoka, Eiji; Sada, Norimasa; Uddin, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    To develop a highly active calcium oxide high-temperature desulfurization sorbent, a method of preparation of macroporous calcium oxides from lime was studied. This method is composed of two steps: swelling of the lime and calcination of the swelled sample. Swelling occurred when lime was exposed to the vapor of acetic acid. The swelling resulted from calcium acetate formation in the sample. The swelling rate was at a maximum in the presence of acetic acid and depressed by the presence of water vapor. The swelled sample was converted to macroporous calcium oxide by heating to 850 C. The reactivity of the macroporous calcium oxide for the removal of SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor was higher than that of the calcined raw limestone. In particular, its SO{sub 2} removal capacity and the oxidative character of CaS to CaSO{sub 4} and Cao were greatly improved by this swelling method. These characteristics were also compared with those of a sample prepared from limestone by this swelling method.

  11. Precipitation polymerization in acetic acid: study of the solvent effect on the morphology of poly(divinylbenzene).

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Zhao, Tongyang; Bai, Yaowen; Zhang, Fen; Yang, Wantai

    2009-03-12

    This paper reports on two important results regarding the precipitation polymerization of poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) in acetic acid (HAc). (1) Acetic acid is a novel kind of solvent worthy of investigation because it is amphipathic and innoxious. Thus, two kinds of model solvents, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and n-heptane, were selected to investigate the solvent effect on the particle morphology of PDVB-55 during precipitation polymerization in acetic acid. Monodisperse PDVB-55 microspheres were obtained with an MEK content of 30 vol % and a DVB loading of 2 vol %. Odd-shaped particles were found to almost disappear when MEK was added. For MEK contents up to 90 vol %, space-filling macrogels consisting of small particles with diameters of around 10 nm were obtained. More homocoagulated particles were produced when n-heptane was added, for which concentrations up to 50 vol % gave rise to cauliflower-like particles. Thus, in the acetic acid system, microspheres, pumpkin-like particles, macrogels, and coagulum could be successfully obtained. (2) The preparation of nonpolar PDVB-55 particles could be more predictable. For the first time-based on the regulation of former studies--the regularity of the dispersive term (delta(d)) on the particle morphology for a PDVB precipitation polymerization system was reported. The three-dimensional Hansen solubility parameters were utilized to perfect the regularity of the Hildebrand solubility parameter. Microspheres or particles were formed in the range of moderate delta values for both parameters, i.e., delta = 20.2-24.3 MPa1/2 or delta = 16 MPa1/2. What was even more important, delta(d) was found to be around 15.4 MPa1/2, and delta(h) should be below 13.5 MPa1/2. Cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, n-butyl acetate, and 1,4-dioxane were used to verify this regularity, and positive results were obtained. Stable, uniform, and well-separated PDVB-55 microspheres and particles were produced as a result of interaction forces between oligomers, polymers, and solvent. PMID:19708162

  12. The Cytosolic pH of Individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Is a Key Factor in Acetic Acid Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Niño, Miguel; Marquina, Maribel; Swinnen, Steve; Rodríguez-Porrata, Boris; Nevoigt, Elke; Ariño, Joaquín

    2015-11-15

    It was shown recently that individual cells of an isogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae population show variability in acetic acid tolerance, and this variability affects the quantitative manifestation of the trait at the population level. In the current study, we investigated whether cell-to-cell variability in acetic acid tolerance could be explained by the observed differences in the cytosolic pHs of individual cells immediately before exposure to the acid. Results obtained with cells of the strain CEN.PK113-7D in synthetic medium containing 96 mM acetic acid (pH 4.5) showed a direct correlation between the initial cytosolic pH and the cytosolic pH drop after exposure to the acid. Moreover, only cells with a low initial cytosolic pH, which experienced a less severe drop in cytosolic pH, were able to proliferate. A similar correlation between initial cytosolic pH and cytosolic pH drop was also observed in the more acid-tolerant strain MUCL 11987-9. Interestingly, a fraction of cells in the MUCL 11987-9 population showed initial cytosolic pH values below the minimal cytosolic pH detected in cells of the strain CEN.PK113-7D; consequently, these cells experienced less severe drops in cytosolic pH. Although this might explain in part the difference between the two strains with regard to the number of cells that resumed proliferation, it was observed that all cells from strain MUCL 11987-9 were able to proliferate, independently of their initial cytosolic pH. Therefore, other factors must also be involved in the greater ability of MUCL 11987-9 cells to endure strong drops in cytosolic pH. PMID:26341199

  13. Isolation of a high malic and low acetic acid-producing sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain screened from respiratory inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Shingo; Kiyoshi, Keiji; Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kadokura, Toshimori; Nakazato, Atsumi; Nakayama, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant sake yeast strains by UV mutagenesis. Among the DNP-resistant mutants, we focused on strains exhibiting high malic acid and low acetic acid production. The improved organic acid composition is unlikely to be under the control of enzyme activities related to malic and acetic acid synthesis pathways. Instead, low mitochondrial activity was observed in DNP-resistant mutants, indicating that the excess pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis is not metabolized in the mitochondria but converted to malic acid in the cytosol. In addition, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the DNP-resistant strains was higher than that of the parental strain K901. These results suggest that the increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio together with the low mitochondrial activity alter the organic acid composition because malic acid synthesis requires NADH, while acetic acid uses NAD(+). PMID:23867095

  14. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99?U mg?1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64?U?mg?1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  15. Protective Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid against Lead Acetate-Induced Toxicity in Liver and Kidney of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Heba M.; Hassan, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against lead acetate-induced toxicity in liver and kidney of female rats. Animals were divided into four equal groups; group 1 served as control while groups 2 and 3 were treated orally with Omega-3 fatty acids at doses of 125 and 260?mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 10 days. These groups were also injected with lead acetate (25?mg/kg body weight) during the last 5 days. Group 4 was treated only with lead acetate for 5 days and served as positive control group. Lead acetate increased oxidative stress through an elevation in MDA associated with depletion in antioxidant enzymes activities in the tissues. Moreover, the elevation of serum enzymes activities (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and the levels of urea and creatinine were estimated but total proteins were decreased. Also, lead acetate-treatment induced hyperlipidemia via increasing of lipid profiles associated with decline in HDL-c level. Significant changes of Hb, PCV, RBCs, PLT, and WBCs in group 4 were recorded. The biochemical alterations of lead acetate were confirmed by histopathological changes and DNA damage. The administration of Omega-3 provided significant protection against lead acetate toxicity. PMID:25045676

  16. Preferential Stereocomplex Crystallization in Enantiomeric Blends of Cellulose Acetate-g-Poly(lactic acid)s with Comblike Topology.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianna; Han, Lili; Shan, Guorong; Bao, Yongzhong; Pan, Pengju

    2015-10-01

    Although stereocomplex (sc) crystallization is highly effective for improving the thermal resistance of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), it is much less predominant than homocrystallization in high-molecular-weight (HMW) poly(l-lactic acid)/ poly(d-lactic acid) (PLLA/PDLA) racemic blends. In this contribution, the sc crystallization of HMW PLLA/PDLA racemic blends was facilitated by using comblike PLAs with cellulose acetate as the backbone. Competing crystallization kinetics, polymorphic crystalline structure, and structural transition of comblike PLLA/PDLA blends with a wide range of MWs were investigated and compared with the corresponding linear/comblike and linear blends. The HMW comblike blend is preferentially crystallized in sc polymorphs and exhibits a faster crystallization rate than does the corresponding linear blend. The sc crystallites are predominantly formed in nonisothermal cold crystallization and isothermal crystallization at temperatures above 120 °C for the comblike blends. Except for the facilitated sc formation in primary crystallization, synchrotron radiation WAXD analysis indicates that the presence of a comblike component also facilitates the transition or recrystallization from homocrystallite (hc) to sc crystallite upon heating. Preferential sc formation of comblike blends is probably attributable to the favorable interdigitation between enantiomeric branches and the increased mobility of polymer segments. After crystallization under the same temperature, the comblike blends, which mainly contain sc crystallites, show smaller long periods and thinner crystalline lamellae than do the corresponding PLLA with homocrystalline structures. PMID:26352621

  17. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  18. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  19. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ?-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  20. Visual Inspection after Acetic Acid (VIA) Is Highly Heterogeneous in Primary Cervical Screening in Amazonian Peru

    PubMed Central

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Luciani, Silvana; Gonzales, Miguel; Delgado, Jose M.; Santos, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional cytology (Pap) and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA) are currently used in primary screening in Peru. Studies suggest that the quality of VIA is highly variable. Over 36 000 women were screened with Pap and VIA in the TATI (Tamizaje y Tratamiento Inmediato de Lesiones Cervico-uterinas) project conducted in Amazonian Peru. Within a nested study to compare several screening techniques (C-TATI), a total of 5435 women were additionally screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC) and high-risk human papillomavirus testing (HR-HPV). We investigate the variation of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV in C-TATI and of VIA in the full TATI intervention. Methods At the screening visit, midwives collected three cervical samples for Pap, LBC and HC2 before performing VIA. The dispersion factor “D” (D = Pearson chi-square value/degrees-of-freedom) was used to measure the variability of tests results. Within C-TATI, the variability of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV was also graphically assessed with box- and scatter plots by midwife and month of screening. Funnel plots and smoothed scatter plots were used to correlate the variation of VIA by the number of examinations performed by each midwife over the full TATI intervention. Results Consistently over TATI, VIA results were highly variable, independently of the examiner, the time when the test was performed and the number of tests the examiner performed (D>6, p-values<0.001). In C-TATI, VIA results varied the most while those of HR-HPV varied the least (Ds>25, p-values<0.001 for VIA, Ds<1.6, p-values>0.05 for HR-HPV). No evidence for correlation between the number of VIAs done per midwife and the variability of VIA results was observed. Conclusion The lack of over-dispersion for HR-HPV detection suggests that the variable VIA results do not reflect true variation in underlying disease, but a lack of consistency in human judgement. PMID:25635965

  1. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-?/IFN-?-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-?B and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  2. Thermal decomposition of acetate: III. Catalysis by mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Julie L. S.; Palmer, Donald A.; Barnes, H. L.; Drummond, S. E.

    1994-10-01

    The kinetics of thermal decarboxylation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid and sodium acetate were evaluated at 335 and 355°C in contact with various surfaces as potential catalysts. Quartz, fused quartz, calcite, natural pyrite, titanium oxide, and Au apparently do not catalyze aqueous decarboxylation reactions, in contrast to Pyrex, Ca-montmorillonite, Fe-bearing montmorillonite, hematite, synthetic pyrite, and magnetite. The dependence of the rate of acetic acid decarboxylation on the surface area of pyrite per unit solution volume was also studied. The results show that the decarboxylation of acetic acid and acetate is catalyzed heterogeneously, with the cleavage of the C-C bond occurring while the acetate molecule is adsorbed onto a surface. Entropies and enthalpies of activation obtained from these experiments are compatible with the isokinetic relationship established previously for acetic acid and acetate under similar experimental conditions, indicating the existence of a common rate-determining step. Experimental evidence indicates that oxidation of acetic acid can occur with hematite and defected magnetite. These oxidative decomposition reactions differ from the decarboxylation reaction in that CO 2 and polycondensates are produced instead of CO 2 and CH 4.

  3. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  4. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Aaron M; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S; Muday, Gloria K

    2003-10-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins. PMID:14526119

  5. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  6. Expansins are involved in cell growth mediated by abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid under drought stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-rong; Han, Yang-yang; Feng, Ya-nan; Li, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Expansin protein is a component of the cell wall generally accepted to be the key regulator of cell wall extension during plant growth. Plant hormones regulate expansin gene expression as well as plant growth during drought stress. However, the relationship between expansin and plant hormone is far from clear. Here, we studied the involvement of expansin in plant cell growth mediated by the hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) under osmotic stress which was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000. Wheat coleoptiles from a drought-resistant cultivar HF9703 and a drought-sensitive cultivar 921842 were used to evaluate cell growth and expansin activity. Osmotic stress induced the accumulation of ABA. ABA induced expansin activity mainly by enhancing expansin expression, since ABA induced cell wall basification via decreasing plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, which was unfavorable for expansin activity. Although ABA induced expansin activity and cell wall extension, treatment with exogenous ABA and/or fluridone (FLU, an ABA inhibitor) suggested that ABA was involved in the coleoptile growth inhibition during osmotic stress. IAA application to detached coleoptiles also enhanced coleoptile growth and increased expansin activity, but unlike ABA, IAA-induced expansin activity was mainly due to the decrease of cell wall pH by increasing plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. Compared with drought-sensitive cultivar, the drought-resistant cultivar could maintain greater expansin activity and cell wall extension, which was contributive to its resultant faster growth under water stress. PMID:22076248

  7. Citric acid and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as effective washing agents to treat sewage sludge for agricultural reuse.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Yan, Rui; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Kou, Ying-Ying; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S; Park, Yong-Jin; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the effects of different concentrations of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) when used as additive reagents for the treatment of sewage sludge for agricultural use. Herein, both the retention of nutrients and removal of metals from the sewage sludge are examined. The average removal rate for the metals after treatment by CA decreased in the order Cu>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn, while the rates after treatment by EDTA decreased in the order of Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Zn. After treatment with CA and EDTA, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the sludge decreased, while the content of available nitrogen and Olsen-P increased. In addition, a multi-criteria analysis model-fuzzy analytic network process method (with 3 main factors and 12 assessment sub-factors) was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment methods. The results showed that the optimal CA and EDTA concentrations for sewage sludge treatment were 0.60 and 0.125mol/L, respectively. PMID:26235448

  8. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance...D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7;...

  13. Characterization of the Acetate Binding Pocket in the Methanosarcina thermophila Acetate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ingram-Smith, Cheryl; Gorrell, Andrea; Lawrence, Sarah H.; Iyer, Prabha; Smith, Kerry; Ferry, James G.

    2005-01-01

    Acetate kinase catalyzes the reversible magnesium-dependent synthesis of acetyl phosphate by transfer of the ATP ?-phosphoryl group to acetate. Inspection of the crystal structure of the Methanosarcina thermophila enzyme containing only ADP revealed a solvent-accessible hydrophobic pocket formed by residues Val93, Leu122, Phe179, and Pro232 in the active site cleft, which identified a potential acetate binding site. The hypothesis that this was a binding site was further supported by alignment of all acetate kinase sequences available from databases, which showed strict conservation of all four residues, and the recent crystal structure of the M. thermophila enzyme with acetate bound in this pocket. Replacement of each residue in the pocket produced variants with Km values for acetate that were 7- to 26-fold greater than that of the wild type, and perturbations of this binding pocket also altered the specificity for longer-chain carboxylic acids and acetyl phosphate. The kinetic analyses of variants combined with structural modeling indicated that the pocket has roles in binding the methyl group of acetate, influencing substrate specificity, and orienting the carboxyl group. The kinetic analyses also indicated that binding of acetyl phosphate is more dependent on interactions of the phosphate group with an unidentified residue than on interactions between the methyl group and the hydrophobic pocket. The analyses also indicated that Phe179 is essential for catalysis, possibly for domain closure. Alignments of acetate kinase, propionate kinase, and butyrate kinase sequences obtained from databases suggested that these enzymes have similar catalytic mechanisms and carboxylic acid substrate binding sites. PMID:15774882

  14. A gaseous acetic acid treatment to disinfect fenugreek seeds and black pepper inoculated with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nei, Daisuke; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of spices by pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria can be deleterious to consumer's health and cause deterioration of foods, and inactivation of such bacteria is necessary for the food industry. The present study examined the effect of gaseous acetic acid treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Bacillus subtilis populations inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper. Treatment with gaseous acetic acid at 0.3 mmol/L, 0.6 mmol/L and 4.7 mmol/L for 1-3 h significantly reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on black pepper and fenugreek seeds at 55 °C (p < 0.05). The gas treatments at 4.7 mmol/L were more effective in inactivating the pathogens than the treatment at 0.3 mmol/L. An approximately 5.0 log reduction was obtained after 3 h of treatment with 4.7 mmol/L acetic acid. No significant reductions in the population of B. subtilis spores inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper were obtained after the gas treatments at 0.3 mmol/L or 0.6 mmol/L (p > 0.05). However, the gas treatment at 4.7 mmol/L significantly reduced B. subtilis spores (p < 0.05), and 4.0 log CFU/g and 3.5 log CFU/g reductions on fenugreek seeds and black pepper, respectively, were obtained after 3 h of treatment. PMID:25846935

  15. Ethanol and Acetic Acid Production from Carbon Monoxide in a Clostridium Strain in Batch and Continuous Gas-Fed Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Nalakath Abubackar, Haris; Veiga, María C.; Kennes, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied. In a first set of assays, under batch conditions, either NH4Cl, trypticase soy broth or yeast extract (YE) were used as sources of nitrogen. The use of YE was found statistically significant (p < 0.05) on the product spectrum in such batch assays. In another set of experiments, three bioreactors were operated with continuous CO supply, in order to estimate the effect of running conditions on products and biomass formation. The bioreactors were operated under different conditions, i.e., EXP1 (pH = 5.75, YE 1g/L), EXP2 (pH = 4.75, YE 1 g/L) and EXP3 (pH = 5.75, YE 0.2 g/L). When compared to EXP2 and EXP3, it was found that EXP1 yielded the maximum biomass accumulation (302.4 mg/L) and products concentrations, i.e., acetic acid (2147.1 mg/L) and ethanol (352.6 mg/L). This can be attributed to the fact that the higher pH and higher YE concentration used in EXP1 stimulated cell growth and did, consequently, also enhance metabolite production. However, when ethanol is the desired end-product, as a biofuel, the lower pH used in EXP2 was more favourable for solventogenesis and yielded the highest ethanol/acetic acid ratio, reaching a value of 0.54. PMID:25608591

  16. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone...

  17. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  18. Stereoselective Alkylation of the Vinylketene Silyl N,O-Acetal and Its Application to the Synthesis of Mycocerosic Acid.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Kubota, Kei; Ieki, Takanori; Hosokawa, Seijiro

    2016-01-01

    Stereoselective alkylation of the vinylketene silyl N,O-acetal possessing a chiral auxiliary has been achieved by using activated alkyl halides including allyl iodides, benzyl iodides, and propargyl iodide with Ag(I) ion in the presence of BF3·OEt2. The reaction proceeded to give reduced polyketides in high stereoselectivity. The synthesis of mycocerosic acid, a component of the cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been accomplished by this methodology. During the synthetic studies, 2-methylbenzimidazole was found to be a bulky proton source which worked in the presence of liquid ammonia. PMID:26673532

  19. Indole-3-acetic Acid Levels of Plant Tissue as Determined by a New High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method 1

    PubMed Central

    Sweetser, Philip B.; Swartzfager, Dennis G.

    1978-01-01

    A method for the analysis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in plant extracts has been developed based on high performance liquid chromatography separation of IAA on a microparticulate strong anion exchange column followed by quantitation with two selective detectors: an electrochemical, carbon paste amperometric detector and/or a fluorescence detector. The detection limit for IAA is less than 1 nanogram with the fluorescence detector and less than 50 picograms with the electrochemical detector. The IAA levels are reported for various tissues of wheat, pinto beans, soybeans, cotton, and corn. PMID:16660271

  20. Selective response inversion to NO2 and acetic acid in ZnO and CdS nanocomposite gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calestani, D.; Villani, M.; Mosca, R.; Lazzarini, L.; Coppedè, N.; Dhanabalan, S. C.; Zappettini, A.

    2014-09-01

    High sensitivity zinc oxide (ZnO) tetrapods (TPs) have been functionalized by nucleating cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) directly on their surface with a spotted coverage thanks to an optimized synthesis in dimethylformamide (DMF). The obtained hybrid coupled material has been used to realize a gas sensing device with a highly porous nanostructured network, in which the proper alternation of ZnO-TPs and CdS-NPs gives rise to unconventional chemoresistive behaviours. Among the different tested gases and vapours, the sensor showed a unique fingerprint response-inversion between 300 °C and 400 °C only for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and acetic acid (CH3COOH).

  1. Crystal growth, structure analysis and characterisation of 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Sankari, R. Siva; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-04-24

    Single crystal of dielectric material 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The grown crystal was harvested in 25 days. The crystal structure was analyzed by Single crystal X - ray diffraction. UV-vis-NIR analysis was performed to examine the optical property of the grown crystal. The thermal property of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The dielectric measurements were carried out and the dielectric constant was calculated and plotted at all frequencies.

  2. Enhanced acetic acid and succinic acid production under microaerobic conditions by Corynebacterium glutamicum harboring Escherichia coli transhydrogenase gene pntAB.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yuto; Hirasawa, Takashi; Nishii, Masato; Furusawa, Chikara; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Some microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, harbor transhydrogenases that catalyze the interconversion between NADPH and NADH. However, such transhydrogenase genes have not been found in the genome of a glutamic acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this study, the E. coli transhydrogenase genes udhA and pntAB were introduced into the C. glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032, and the metabolic characteristics of the recombinant strains under aerobic and microaerobic conditions were examined. No major metabolic changes were observed following the introduction of the E. coli transhydrogenase genes under aerobic conditions. Under microaerobic conditions, significant metabolic change was not observed following the introduction of the udhA gene. However, the specific production rates of lactic acid, acetic acid, and succinic acid, and the overall production levels of acetic acid and succinic acid were increased by introducing the E. coli pntAB gene. Moreover, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio was increased by introduction of pntAB. Our results suggest that the E. coli PntAB transhydrogenase enhances the conversion of NADPH to NADH in C. glutamicum under microaerobic conditions, and the increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio results in increased succinic acid production. In addition, acetic acid production might be enhanced to supply ATP to the anaplerotic reaction catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase. PMID:25008167

  3. In situ FTIR investigation of acetic acid electrooxidation on carbon supported Pt-Sn based trimetallic catalysts: Influence of the nature of the third metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyhan, Seden; Léger, Jean-Michel; Kad?rgan, Figen

    2014-12-01

    The effect of adding a third metal (Ni, Co, Pd, Rh) to Pt-Sn/C catalyst has been investigated for the adsorption and oxidation of acetic acid in acidic medium using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the decomposition of acetic acid on the surface leads to the formation of different intermediate species and products such as acetate, acetyl, carbonate, CO and CO2. The reaction pathway of CO2 production proceeds via the formation of acetyl or carbonate through surface acetate species. It has been found that the selectivity of the acetate was enhanced by the addition of any third metal. However, the presence of Pd or Co increases the relative intensity of IR band for CO2. This is probably due to success in facilitating of the Csbnd C bond cleavage of acetyl. On the other hand, the conversion of acetate to carbonate is strongly affected by the adsorbed water, as is evident from the pronounced changes in the OH stretching region with the presence of Pd or Ni.

  4. A unique enzyme of acetic acid bacteria, PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, is also present in Frateuria aurantia.

    PubMed

    Tr?ek, Janja; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2013-08-01

    A membrane-bound, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was purified from Frateuria aurantia LMG 1558(T). Although F. aurantia belongs to a group of ?-Proteobacteria, the characteristics of its PQQ-ADH were similar to the enzyme characteristics of the typical high-acetic acid-resistant bacterium Gluconacetobacter europaeus from the group of ?-Proteobacteria. The PQQ-dependent ADH was solubilized from the membranes and purified after anionic, cationic, and affinity chromatography with specific activity of 117 U/mg. The purified enzyme was estimated to be composed of two subunits of ca. 72 and 45 kDa, as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had maximum activity at pH 4.5 and showed the highest substrate specificity to ethanol, isoamyl alcohol, 1-butanol, and 1-propanol. The deduced sequences of cloned genes adhA and adhB encoding subunits I and II of PQQ-ADH showed 80 % amino acid (AA) identity to AdhA and 68 % AA identity to AdhB of Ga. europaeus V3 (LMG 18494). Because of the high similarity between genes encoding subunits I and II of PQQ-ADH and its homologous genes found in a distantly related taxonomic group of acetic acid bacteria, the results suggest the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between these two groups of genera. PMID:23760531

  5. Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

  6. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22387848

  7. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22421639

  8. Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414644

  9. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445840

  10. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  18. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate. 522.2476 Section 522.2476 Food... Trenbolone acetate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (d) of... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trenbolone acetate. 522.2476 Section 522.2476 Food... Trenbolone acetate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use as in paragraph (d) of... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each...

  20. Effects of propionate and methylmalonate on conversions of acetate, butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate to fatty acids and carbon dioxide by mammary tissue slices of goats

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Incorporations of (1-carbon-14) acetate, (1-carbon-14) propionate, n-(1-carbon-14) butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxy(3-carbon-14) butyrate into individual milk fatty acids and their conversion to carbon dioxide were studied in vitro with caprine mammary tissue slices in the presence and absence of propionate and methylmalonate. Neither propionate nor methylmalonate affected incorporation of these substances into fatty acids. In a decreasing order butyrate, acetate, propionate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate were converted to carbon dioxide. Acetate had the highest incorporation rate into fatty acids followed by D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, butyrate, and propionate. Labeled propionate was incorporated mainly into odd-numbered fatty acids. Results do not support the theory that either propionate or its metabolite, methylmalonate, inhibit de novo synthesis of fatty acids in the mammary gland in relation to the etiology of low milk fat syndrome.

  1. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput. PMID:21896164

  2. Wet deposition and related atmospheric chemistry in the São Paulo metropolis, Brazil: Part 2—contribution of formic and acetic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, Adalgiza; Gutz, Ivano G. R.

    Wet-only deposition samples were collected at a site in the urban area of the São Paulo metropolis between February (end of the rainy summer) and October (beginning of spring) 2000, an atypical period due to rainfall 40% below the 30-year average. The majority ions in rainwater were measured by capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, CZE-CCD, applied for the first time to the organic anions acetate and formate. The volume weight mean (VWM) concentrations of the majority anions NO 3-, SO 42- and Cl - were, respectively, 15.6, 9.5 and 4.7 ?mol l -1. The VWM concentration of HCOO -t, (HCOO -+HCOOH) was 17.0 ?mol l -1, about twice the 8.9 ?mol l -1 of CH 3COO -t. The VWM concentration of free H + was low ( 16.9 ?mol l -1), corresponding to pH 4.77. This denotes the relevance of species like ammonia, analyzed as NH4+ ( VWM=27.9 ?mol l -1), and calcium carbonate ( VWM=5.3 ?mol l -1 Ca2+) as partial neutralizers of the acidity. By hypothetically assuming that H + is the only counterion of the non-sea-salt fraction of the dissociated anions, their contribution to the total potential acidity would decrease in the following order: sulfate (29%), formate (29%), nitrate (26%), acetate (15%) and chloride (1%). The 44% potential participation of the carboxylic acids reveals their importance to the acidity of São Paulo's rainwater during the study period. Direct vehicular emission of lower carboxylic acids and aldehydes (in particular, acetic acid and acetaldehyde) is singularly high in the metropolis due to the extensive use of ethanol and gasohol (containing ˜20% of ethanol) as fuels of the light fleet of 5.5 million cars; in addition, regional atmospheric conditions favor the photochemical formation of the acids, since concentrations of ozone and aldehydes are high and solar irradiation is intense at the 23°34'S latitude. The presence of higher concentrations of HCOOH than CH 3COOH indicates a prevalence of its photochemical production by H 2CO oxidation in the atmosphere.

  3. Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement-A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedira, Sofiane; Ayachi, Ahmed Abdelhakim; Lakehal, Sihem; Fateh, Merouane; Achour, Slimane

    2014-08-01

    Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag+. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag+ release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  4. Mechanosensitive neurons on the internal reproductive tract contribute to egg-laying-induced acetic acid attraction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Bin; Liu, Ying; Guntur, Ananya R.; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Selecting a suitable site to deposit their eggs is an important reproductive need of Drosophila females. While their choosiness towards egg-laying sites is well documented, the specific neural mechanism that activates females’ search for attractive egg-laying sites is not known. Here we show that distention/contraction of females’ internal reproductive tract triggered by egg-delivery through the tract plays a critical role in activating such search. We found that females start to exhibit acetic acid attraction prior to depositing each egg but no attraction when they are not laying eggs. Artificially distending the reproductive tract triggers acetic acid attraction in non-egg-laying females whereas silencing the mechanosensitive neurons we identified that can sense the contractile status of the tract eliminates such attraction. Our work uncovers the circuit basis of an important reproductive need of Drosophila females and provides a simple model to dissect the neural mechanism that underlies a reproductive need-induced behavioral modification. PMID:25373900

  5. Identification of acetic acid bacteria in traditionally produced vinegar and mother of vinegar by using different molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal

    2015-07-01

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level. PMID:25828705

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pycnocycla spinosa extract and its component isoacetovanillone on acetic acid induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Sadraei, Hassan; Feili, Edris

    2015-01-01

    Colitis is an inflammatory disease of the intestine with unknown etiology involving multiple immune, genetic and environmental factors. We were interested to examine the effect of total extract from Pycnocycla spinosa Boiss. on the treatment of experimental colitis. Mediators involved in colonic inflammation are prostaglandins, interleukins, leukotriene as well as an increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Therefore, MPO activity was also determined in this research. P. spinosa hydroalcoholic extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or isoacetovanillone (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg) were administered orally, started 2 h before induction of colitis by intrarectal administration of acetic acid (3%) in rats. Prednisolone (4 m/kg) was used as the standard drug for comparison. Biochemical evaluation of inflamed colon was done using assay of MPO activity. After 5 days treatments, mucosal ulceration was evaluated. Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused significant inflammatory reactions as indicated by macroscopic and microscopic changes. The activity of MPO increased in vehicle treated groups while recovered to normal level by pretreatment of animals with P. spinosa extract, isoacetovanillone and prednisolone. P. spinosa and isoacetovanillone-treated groups showed significantly lower score values of macroscopic and microscopic characters when compared with the vehicle treated negative control group. The beneficial effect of P. spinosa was comparable with that of prednisolone. This research has shown the anti-inflammatory potential of P. spinosa extract and isoacetovanillone in experimentally induced colitis. PMID:26600861

  7. Dietary glutamine supplementation prevents mucosal injury and modulates intestinal epithelial restitution following acetic acid induced intestinal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial effects of glutamine (GLN) have been described in many gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventative effect of oral GLN supplementation against acetic acid (AA) induced intestinal injury in a rat. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (CONTR) rats underwent laparotomy, control-glutamine (CONTR-GLN) rats were treated with enteral glutamine given in drinking water (2%) 48 hours before and five days following laparotomy, AA rats underwent laparotomy and injection of AA into an isolated jejunal loop, and acetic acid-glutamine (AA-GLN) rats underwent AA-induced injury and were treated with enteral GLN 48 hours before and 5 days following laparotomy. Intestinal mucosal damage (Park’s injury score), mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined five days following intestinal injury. Western blotting was used to determine p-ERK and bax protein levels. AA-induced intestinal injury resulted in a significantly increased intestinal injury score with concomitant inhibition of cell turnover (reduced proliferation and enhanced apoptosis). Treatment with dietary GLN supplementation resulted in a decreased intestinal injury score with concomitant stimulation of cell turnover (enhanced proliferation and reduced apoptosis). In conclusion, pre-treatment with oral GLN prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following AA-induced intestinal injury in rats. PMID:23919638

  8. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is frequently performed for treatment of early gastric cancers. This procedure inevitably leads to ulcers and bleeding. Bleeding control is the major concern in endoscopic mucosectomy, and some endoscopic hemostatic agents are currently under clinical and preclinical studies. MRU was developed as a model for these induced ulcers and the evaluation of the healing process. The clinical relevancy of those models was compared with that of rat models. Progressive healing was observed for 7 days based on histology. Rabbit models demonstrate round, deep ulcers with clear margins and well-defined healing stages that were difficult to define in rat models. PMID:23825482

  9. Sulphydryl groups and iodo-(/sup 3/H)acetic acid labeling in proteolipids from Torpedo electroplax

    SciTech Connect

    Criado, M.; Aguilar, J.S.; De Robertis, E.

    1983-05-01

    Several fractions of proteolipids from Torpedo electroplax were separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography in organic solvents, and the sulphydryl groups were determined by a spectrophotometric method. On the same fractions the covalent labeling with iodo-(/sup 3/H)acetic acid to sulphydryl groups was studied. In total proteolipids there were 30.3 nmol/mg protein of sulphydryl groups of which 20.6 nmoles were in the form of disulfide bonds and 10.9 nmol as free--SH groups. The highest content of sulphydryl groups (36.7 nmol/mg protein) was found in fraction II; while fraction I, that binds the cholinergic ligands, has a lower content (23.7 nmol/mg protein). The 42 Kdaltons polypeptide, which is the major band in Fraction II, has the strongest labeling with iodo-(/sup 3/H)acetic acid, while the 39 Kdaltons cholinergic polypeptide shows a lower labeling. The importance of proteolipids as channel-forming macromolecules is discussed in connection with the possible significance of the 42 Kdaltons polypeptide.

  10. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins. PMID:26076971

  11. Distinct Characteristics of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Phenylacetic Acid, Two Common Auxins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Satoko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Keita; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Sakai, Tatsuya; Hanada, Kousuke; Kinoshita-Tsujimura, Kaori; Yu, Hong; Dai, Xinhua; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro; Estelle, Mark; Zhao, Yunde; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. IAA is the most studied natural auxin that possesses the property of polar transport in plants. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has also been recognized as a natural auxin for >40 years, but its role in plant growth and development remains unclear. In this study, we show that IAA and PAA have overlapping regulatory roles but distinct transport characteristics as auxins in plants. PAA is widely distributed in vascular and non-vascular plants. Although the biological activities of PAA are lower than those of IAA, the endogenous levels of PAA are much higher than those of IAA in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis. PAA and IAA can regulate the same set of auxin-responsive genes through the TIR1/AFB pathway in Arabidopsis. IAA actively forms concentration gradients in maize coleoptiles in response to gravitropic stimulation, whereas PAA does not, indicating that PAA is not actively transported in a polar manner. The induction of the YUCCA (YUC) genes increases PAA metabolite levels in Arabidopsis, indicating that YUC flavin-containing monooxygenases may play a role in PAA biosynthesis. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by different types of auxins. PMID:26076971

  12. GAS-PHASE SYNTHESIS OF PRECURSORS OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ACETIC ACID WITH HYDROXYLAMINE AND ITS IONIZED AND PROTONATED DERIVATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Laura; Rayon, Victor M.; Largo, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    A computational study of the reactions of hydroxylamine and its ionized and protonated derivatives with acetic acid is provided. The reaction of neutral hydroxylamine with acetic acid, despite being clearly exothermic, involves a very large energy barrier. The reaction of ionized hydroxylamine with acetic acid is also clearly exothermic, but again a significant energy barrier is found (around 24 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). The reaction of the most stable protonated isomer of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, with acetic acid also involves a high barrier (more than 27 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Only the higher energy isomer, NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}{sub 2}, leads to a sensibly lower energy barrier (about 2.3 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Nevertheless, an estimate of the reaction coefficient at low temperatures such as those reigning in the interstellar medium gives very low values. Therefore, it seems that precursors of interstellar glycine could not be efficiently produced from the reactions of hydroxylamine-derived ions with acetic acid.

  13. Performance, kinetics, and equilibrium of methylene blue adsorption on biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Dongmei; Wan, Shungang; Yu, Zebin

    2015-12-01

    Biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids at low temperatures was utilized as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the carboxyl group was introduced on the biochar surface. Adsorption experiment data indicated that eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric acid showed higher MB adsorption efficiency than that modified with tartaric and acetic acids. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing MB adsorption on biochar compared with pseudo-first-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The calculated values of ?G(0) and ?H(0) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. MB adsorption on biochar followed the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities for eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids were 178.57, 99.01, and 29.94mgg(-1), respectively, at 35°C. PMID:26402873

  14. Direct determination of peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid in disinfectant solutions by far-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Noboru; Yokota, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Satoru; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we propose a rapid and highly selective far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopic method for the simultaneous determination of peracetic acid (PAA), hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid (AA). For this purpose we developed a novel FUV spectrometer that enables us to measure the spectra down to 180 nm. Direct determination of PAA, H(2)O(2), and AA, the three main species in disinfectant solutions, was carried out by using their absorption bands in the 180-220-nm region. The proposed method does not require any reagents or catalysts, a calibration standard, and a complicated procedure for the analysis. The only preparation procedure requested is a dilution of H(2)O(2) with pure water to a concentration range lower than 0.2 wt % in the sample solutions. Usually, the required concentration range can be obtained by the 10 times volume dilution of the actual disinfectant solutions. As the measured sample does not leave any impurity for the disinfection, it can be reused completely by using a circulation system. The detection limit for PAA of the new FUV spectrometer was evaluated to be 0.002 wt %, and the dynamic ranges of the measured concentrations were from 0 to 0.05 wt %, from 0 to 0.2 wt %, and from 0 to 0.2 wt % for PAA, H(2)O(2), and AA, respectively. The response time for the simultaneous determination of the three species is 30 s, and the analysis is applicable even to the flowing samples. This method may become a novel approach for the continuous monitoring of PAA in disinfectant solutions on the process of sterilization. PMID:15801764

  15. Adsorption of acetic acid on ice studied by ambient-pressure XPS and partial-electron-yield NEXAFS spectroscopy at 230-240 K.

    PubMed

    K?epelová, Adéla; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Brown, Matthew A; Bluhm, Hendrik; Ammann, Markus

    2013-01-17

    Ice plays a key role in the environment, and the ice-air interface influences heterogeneous chemical reactions between snowpack or cirrus clouds and the surrounding air. Soluble gases have been suspected to affect the topmost, disordered layer on ice (often referred to as a quasiliquid layer, QLL). Changes are especially expected in the hydrogen-bonding structure of water in the presence of solutes at the ice surface. Here, we used ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to detect acetic acid at the ice surface at 230-240 K under atmospheric conditions for the first time. Electron-kinetic-energy-dependent C 1s spectra indicate that acetic acid remains confined to the topmost ice surface layers. Spectral analysis provides information about the protonation state of acetate at the ice surface. Surface-sensitive Auger-electron-yield C-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra were recorded to probe the molecular state of the adsorbed species. The O-edge NEXAFS spectra show only minor differences between clean ice and ice with adsorbed acetic acid and thus indicate that acetic acid does not lead to an extended disordered layer on the ice surface between 230 and 240 K. PMID:23252403

  16. Uptake measurements of acetic acid on ice and nitric acid-doped thin ice films over upper troposphere/lower stratosphere temperatures.

    PubMed

    Romanias, Manolis N; Zogka, Antonia G; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption of gaseous acetic acid (CH(3)C(O)OH) on thin ice films and on ice doped with nitric acid (1.96 and 7.69 wt %) was investigated over upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) temperatures (198-208 K), and at low gas concentrations. Experiments were performed in a Knudsen flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The initial uptake coefficients, ?(0), on thin ice films or HNO(3)-doped ice films were measured at low surface coverage. In all cases, ?(0) showed an inverse temperature dependence, and for pure thin ice films, it was given by the expression ?(0)(T) = (4.73 ± 1.13) × 10(-17) exp[(6496 ± 1798)/T]; the quoted errors are the 2? precision of the linear fit, and the estimated systematic uncertainties are included in the pre-exponential factor. The inverse temperature dependence suggests that the adsorption process occurs via the formation of an intermediate precursor state. Uptakes were well represented by the Langmuir adsorption model, and the saturation surface coverage, N(max), on pure thin ice films was (2.11 ± 0.16) × 10(14) molecules cm(-2), independent of temperature in the range 198-206 K. Light nitration (1.96 and 7.69 wt %) of ice films resulted in more efficient CH(3)C(O)OH uptakes and larger N(max) values that may be attributed to in-bulk diffusion or change in nature of the gas-ice surface interaction. Finally, it was estimated that the rate of adsorption of acetic acid on high-density cirrus clouds in the UT/LS is fast, and this is reflected in the short atmospheric lifetimes (2-8 min) of acetic acid; however, the extent of this uptake is minor resulting in at most a 5% removal of acetic acid in UT/LS cirrus clouds. PMID:22313232

  17. Identification of enzyme activity that conjugates indole-3-acetic acid to aspartate in immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the first identification of plant enzyme activity catalyzing the conjugation of indole-3-acetic acid to amino acids. Enzymatic synthesis of indole-3-acetylaspartate (IAA-Asp) by a crude enzyme preparation from immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) was observed. The reaction yielded a product with the same Rf as IAA-Asp standard after thin layer chromatography. The identity of IAA-Asp was verified by HPLC analysis. IAA-Asp formation was dependent on ATP and Mg2+, and was linear during a 60 min period. The enzyme preparation obtained after poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 fractionation showed optimum activity at pH 8.0, and the temperature optimum for IAA-Asp synthesis was 30 degrees C. PMID:17920159

  18. Micelles Based on Acid Degradable Poly(acetal urethane): Preparation, pH-Sensitivity, and Triggered Intracellular Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fushi; Cheng, Ru; Meng, Fenghua; Deng, Chao; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-07-13

    Polyurethanes are a unique class of biomaterials that are widely used in medical devices. In spite of their easy synthesis and excellent biocompatibility, polyurethanes are less explored for controlled drug delivery due to their slow or lack of degradation. In this paper, we report the design and development of novel acid degradable poly(acetal urethane) (PAU) and corresponding triblock copolymer micelles for pH-triggered intracellular delivery of a model lipophilic anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). PAU with Mn ranging from 4.3 to 12.3 kg/mol was conveniently prepared from polycondensation reaction of lysine diisocyanate (LDI) and a novel diacetal-containing diol, terephthalilidene-bis(trimethylolethane) (TPABTME) using dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) as a catalyst in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The thiol-ene click reaction of Allyl-PAU-Allyl with thiolated PEG (Mn = 5.0 kg/mol) afforded PEG-PAU-PEG triblock copolymers that readily formed micelles with average sizes of about 90-120 nm in water. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements revealed fast swelling and disruption of micelles under acidic pH. UV/vis spectroscopy corroborated that acetal degradation was accelerated at pH 4.0 and 5.0. The in vitro release studies showed that doxorubicin (DOX) was released in a controlled and pH-dependent manner, in which ca. 96%, 73%, and 30% of drug was released within 48 h at pH 4.0, 5.0, and 7.4, respectively. Notably, MTT assays displayed that DOX-loaded PEG-PAU-PEG micelles had a high in vitro antitumor activity in both RAW 264.7 and drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that PEG-PAU-PEG micelles mediated efficient cytoplasmic delivery of DOX. Importantly, blank PEG-PAU-PEG micelles were shown to be nontoxic to RAW 264.7 and MCF-7/ADR cells even at a high concentration of 1.5 mg/mL. Hence, micelles based on poly(acetal urethane) have appeared as a new class of biocompatible and acid-degradable nanocarriers for efficient intracellular drug delivery. PMID:26110553

  19. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gois, Jefferson S.; Maranhão, Tatiane de A.; Oliveira, Fernando J. S.; Frescura, Vera L. A.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Borges, Daniel L. G.

    2012-11-01

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L- 1 HNO3 solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for 75As and 82Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 (208Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 (107Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 (82Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 (52Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of 40Ar12C+. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes, with the exception of Hg, after continuous aspiration for 70 min. The nebulization efficiency ranged from 4.6% to 64% for CF and MM nebulizers, respectively. Leaching solution from a solid waste residue was analyzed using all the studied systems in three different calibration media. In general, the results indicate that calibration solutions should be prepared in the same medium as the leachate, although for USN and MMN a reasonable agreement among the results was obtained regardless of the calibration solution used. Detection limits ranging from 0.01 ?g L- 1 to 2 ?g L- 1 were obtained, with little discrepancy among the different nebulizers used.

  20. Conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid by TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASES OF ARABIDOPSIS and YUCCAs in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Won, Christina; Shen, Xiangling; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Zheng, Zuyu; Dai, Xinhua; Cheng, Youfa; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Chory, Joanne; Zhao, Yunde

    2011-11-01

    Auxin is an essential hormone, but its biosynthetic routes in plants have not been fully defined. In this paper, we show that the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of amino transferases converts tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) and that the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases participates in converting IPA to indole-3-acetic acid, the main auxin in plants. Both the YUCs and the TAAs have been shown to play essential roles in auxin biosynthesis, but it has been suggested that they participate in two independent pathways. Here, we show that all of the taa mutant phenotypes, including defects in shade avoidance, root resistance to ethylene and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), are phenocopied by inactivating YUC genes. On the other hand, we show that the taa mutants in several known auxin mutant backgrounds, including pid and npy1, mimic all of the well-characterized developmental defects caused by combining yuc mutants with the auxin mutants. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of YUC1 partially suppresses the shade avoidance defects of taa1 and the sterile phenotypes of the weak but not the strong taa mutants. In addition, we discovered that the auxin overproduction phenotypes of YUC overexpression lines are dependent on active TAA genes. Our genetic data show that YUC and TAA work in the same pathway and that YUC is downstream of TAA. The yuc mutants accumulate IPA, and the taa mutants are partially IPA-deficient, indicating that TAAs are responsible for converting tryptophan to IPA, whereas YUCs play an important role in converting IPA to indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:22025721

  1. Improved Procedure for the Estimation of Nanogram Quantities of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Plant Extracts using the Indolo-?-pyrone Fluorescence Method

    PubMed Central

    Iino, Moritoshi; Yu, Richard S.-T.; Carr, Denis J.

    1980-01-01

    The indolo-?-pyrone fluorescence method of determining indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is improved by adding butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), an antioxidant, to samples: addition of BHT increases the fluorescence intensities and decreases their variability so that amounts of IAA as small as 0.1 to 1 nanogram become measurable. Interfering compounds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, can be separated from IAA by thin-layer chromatography using polyamide as the solid support, and benzene-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (70:25:5, v/v) as the developing solvent. Polyamide thin-layer chromatography is also superior in purifying IAA without significant loss or decomposition. A serious problem in extracting IAA from plant tissues is the considerable loss. Losses can result from decomposition of IAA when its solutions in organic solvents are evaporated to dryness, apparently due to some impurity in the solvents. Decomposition can be eliminated by simple treatments of the solvents, i.e. addition of BHT, washing with water, and passage through cotton wool. The latter is particularly effective in the case of ethyl acetate and ether. Loss of IAA by photodecomposition is also substantial even in dried samples. Ways to minimize the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid to IAA during extraction procedure are also described. A revised procedure of IAA extraction and determination is proposed. Applied to etiolated shoots of maize seedlings, it enables content to be estimated (18 nanograms per gram fresh weight) with over 90% recovery in terms of [14C]IAA added at the beginning of the extraction. PMID:16661584

  2. Year-round records of gas and particulate formic and acetic acids in the boundary layer at Dumont d'Urville, coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Michel; Preunkert, Susanne; Jourdain, Bruno; Aumont, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    Multiple year-round levels of acetate and formate in gas and aerosol phases were investigated at Dumont d'Urville (DDU, a coastal Antarctic site) by using mist chamber and aerosol filter sampling. Formate and acetate aerosol levels range from <0.5 ppt in winter to 3 ppt in summer. With corresponding gas phase levels of more than a hundred of pptv, formic and acetic acids are mainly (99%) present in the gas phase, representing the 2 major acidic gases before inorganic species (HCl, HNO3 and SO2) there. Mixing ratios of formic acid are minimal from May to August (70 pptv) and increase regularly toward November-February months when levels reach ˜200 pptv. Mixing ratios of acetic acid exhibit a more well-marked seasonal cycle with values remaining close to 70 pptv from April to October and strongly increase during November-February months (mean value of 400 pptv). These seasonal changes suggest that the 2 carboxylic acids mainly originate from biogenic emissions of the Antarctic ocean whose variations follow the annual cycle of sea ice extent and solar radiation via photochemical production of alkenes from dissolved organic carbon released by phytoplankton. In summer, acetic acid levels show daily variations with maxima at noon and minima at night whereas formic acid levels peaks later in the afternoon. These dial variations in summer suggest that carboxylic acids are rapidly produced during the day and lost at night due to dry deposition on wet surface. It is suggested that the reactions of peroxy acetyl radical produced from propene with HO2 and CH3O2 in these poor NOx environments represent in summer the dominant chemical mechanisms producing acetic acid whereas ozone-alkene reactions remain of minor importance at that season. Neither ozone-alkene reactions nor aqueous phase HCHO oxidation can explain the summer levels of formic acid. In winter the long range transport of alkenes emitted at more temperate oceanic regions and reactions with ozone could account for the observed level of formic acid and possibly of acetic acid.

  3. Inhibitory effect of echinocystic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Joh, Eun-Ha; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    The rhizome of Codonopsis lanceolata (family Campanulaceae), which contains lancemaside A as a main constituent, is frequently used in the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Lancemaside A exhibits anti-inflammatory effect in vitro and in vivo. However, orally administered lancemaside A is metabolized to echinocystic acid by the intestinal microflora and the metabolite is absorbed into the blood. Therefore, to understand whether echinocystic acid is effective against skin inflammatory diseases, we assessed its inhibitory effect against 12-O-tetra decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear inflammation in mice. Topically administered echinocystic acid potently suppressed TPA-induced ear swelling. The suppression rates at 0.05 and 0.10 % concentrations were 65 and 73 %, respectively. Echinocystic acid also inhibited TPA-induced myeloperoxidase activity, as well as COX-2, iNOS, TNF-? and IL-1? expressions. Echinocystic acid inhibited NF-?B in TPA-treated mouse ears, as well as in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Its potency is comparable with that of dexamethasone. These findings indicate that echinocystic acid may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as dermatitis. PMID:23515933

  4. Effect of Deseeding on the Indole-3-acetic Acid Content of Shoots and Roots of Zea mays Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Momonoki, Yoshie S.; Schulze, Aga; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    We wished to determine the effect of endosperm removal on the amounts of free and esterified indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in young Zea mays seedlings. The increases of IAA derived from endosperm and from biosynthesis, but without correction for catabolic losses, were 0.9 picomole of free IAA per shoot per hour, and 1.1 picomoles per shoot per hour of ester IAA. After deseeding, free IAA in the shoot declines by 40% following kernel removal and total (free + ester) IAA declines at a rate of about 1 picomole per shoot per hour. A slight, but insignificant increase of ester IAA occurs following endosperm removal. In the primary roots, the decreases of free IAA and total (free + ester) IAA are accelerated by seed removal. Thus, the endosperm appears to be a major source of IAA for the shoot and root. PMID:16663036

  5. Enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seokhyeon; Park, Chulhwan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we report the enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol and methyl acetate. Lipases are essential for the catalysis of this reaction. To find the optimum conditions for glycerol acetate production, sequential experiments were designed. Type of lipase, lipase concentration, molar ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and solvents were investigated for the optimum conversion of glycerol to glycerol acetate. As the result of lipase screening, Novozym 435 (Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) was turned out to be the optimal lipase for the reaction. Under the optimal conditions (2.5 g/L of Novozym 435, 1:40 molar ratio of glycerol to methyl acetate, 40 °C and tert-butanol as the solvent), glycerol acetate production was achieved in 95.00% conversion. PMID:25640720

  6. Root-Uptake of C-14 Acetic Acid by Various Plants and C-14 Dynamics Surrounding the Experimental Tessera

    SciTech Connect

    Ogiyama, S.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, S.; Suzuki, H.; Inubushi, K.

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-14 (C-14, t{sub 1/2} = 5.73x10{sup 3} yrs) from radioactive waste is one of the most important radioactive nuclides for environmental assessment in the context of geological disposal, and understanding the transfer of radioactive elements to plants is essential for public health safety. In order to obtain fundamental knowledge, culture experiments using marigold (Tagetes patula L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea S.), paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants were conducted to examine root-uptake and dynamics of C-14 in the laboratory. The C-14 radioactivity in each plant part (e.g. shoot, root, edible part, etc.), medium (e.g. culture solution, sand, etc.), and air was determined. The distribution of C-14 in the plants was visualized using autoradiography. For a comparison, autoradiography was also done using Na-22. Results of the present study indicated that C-14 labeled CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution to the atmosphere. Clear autoradiography images were observed in plants for the shoots and lower roots which were soaked in the culture solution. The upper roots which were not soaked in the culture solution were not clearly imaged. In the radiotracer experiment using Na-22, a clear image was observed for the whole carrot seedling, even including the upper root, on the autoradiography. However, the amounts of C-14 acetic acid absorbed by all the plants through their roots were considered to be very small. Inorganic carbon transformed from C-14 acetic acid would be taken up by plants through the roots, and some fraction of C-14 would be assimilated into the shoots by photosynthesis. (authors)

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4%) and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 ml/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6) and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm) as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg) was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive. PMID:25050310

  8. Polyacrylonitrile/manganese acetate composite nanofibers and their catalysis performance on chromium (VI) reduction by oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Xiang; Bian, Xiujie; Zheng, Tian; Wang, Ce

    2012-08-30

    Polyacrylonitrile(PAN)/manganese acetate(Mn(CH(3)COO)(2)) composite nanofibers have been fabricated by electrospinning, a simple and effective technology. The obtained composite nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The composite nanofibers are amorphous in structure, continuous, even and smooth. At the same time, the reduction performance of Cr(VI) by oxalic acid in the presence of the composite nanofibers is also investigated. The results indicate that the composite nanofibers have exhibited excellent catalysis performance for Cr(VI) reduction from a Cr(2)O(7)(2-)-containing solution by oxalic acid. And the critical parameters, such as the catalyst dosage, oxalic acid content, chromium concentration, the pH value of the reaction solution and light have important impact on the reduction process. Under the simulated solar light irradiation, after only 60 min, 1.2mM initial Cr(VI) solution was reduced absolutely in the presence of PAN/Mn(CH(3)COO)(2) composite nanofibers containing 17.5 wt.% Mn(CH(3)COO)(2) by 0.3 mL 0.5M oxalic acid. In light, the reduction of Cr(VI) by oxalic acid is markedly accelerated. PMID:22709851

  9. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...per cubic centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol...preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram of citric acid; water for injection...

  10. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...per cubic centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol...preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram of citric acid; water for injection...

  11. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...per cubic centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol...preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram of citric acid; water for injection...

  12. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...per cubic centimeter: 2 milligrams of flumethasone acetate; 20 milligrams of propylene glycol; 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol...preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram of citric acid; water for injection...

  13. Viscosity Behavior of ?-Amino Acids in Acetate Salt Solutions at Temperatures (303.15 to 323.15) K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Jamal Akhter; Naqvi, Saeeda

    2012-01-01

    Viscosities of l-lysine monohydrochloride, l-histidine, and l-arginine in 1 m (mol · kg-1) aqueous solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and calcium acetate salts has been determined at (303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K. The Falkenhagen coefficient, A, and Jones-Dole coefficient, B, relative viscosity, and specific viscosity of the solutions have also been determined using the measured viscosities. The results are interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring in the system under investigation and also discussed in terms of the structure-making/breaking ability of the solute in these salt solutions. The structure making/breaking abilities of the solutes in the studied systems are strongly influenced by temperature.

  14. Multiple-anion nonvolatile acetal (MANA) resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevremont, Jeffrey M.; Brainard, Robert L.; Reeves, Scott D.; Zhou, Xin; Nguyen, Thinh B.; Mackevich, Joseph F.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, Gary N.

    2001-08-01

    New acetal or ketal blocking reagents were investigated for use in e-beam lithography and compared with the performance of ethyl vinyl either (EVE). Three blocking groups, (alpha) -Angelicalactone (AL), 6-methylene-5,6-benzo-1,4- dioxane (MBD), and MANA50 (an undisclosed blocking group used to show the potential of this chemistry) were reacted with poly(p-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) under acid catalyzed conditions to form AL-PHS, MBD-PHS, MANA50-PHS. The performance objectives pursued in the design of these new materials was to use acetal (ketal) chemistry to deliver wide process latitudes (e.g. good PED performance and minimal PEB sensitivity), use high molecular weight blocking groups to eliminate outgassing, and use the novel concept of multiple anions to deliver lithographic performance. These new materials are called Multiple Anion Nonvolatile Acetal (MANA) resists. Resists films were exposed with 50kV electrons, post exposure baked (PEB), and developed with 0.26 N TMAH. Resists prepared with the third blocking group, MANA50, gave contrast and imaging performance independent of PEB humidity and were relatively insensitive to PEB temperature and post exposure delay (PED). These resists gave the best resolution (90 nm) and profiles of all the materials tested, as well as showing no outgassing (as measured by film thickness loss).

  15. Catalytic liquid-phase oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid over a Pt/CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2/?-alumina catalyst.

    PubMed

    Choi, Pil-Gyu; Ohno, Takanobu; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2015-10-01

    Pt/CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2/?-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation and wet impregnation methods for catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid in water. In the present catalysts, Pt and CeO2-ZrO2-SnO2 were successfully dispersed on the ?-Al2O3 support. Dependences of platinum content and reaction time on the selective oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions for obtaining both high acetaldehyde conversion and highest selectivity to acetic acid. Among the catalysts, a Pt(6.4wt.%)/Ce0.68Zr0.17Sn0.15O2.0(16wt.%)/?-Al2O3 catalyst showed the highest acetaldehyde oxidation activity. On this catalyst, acetaldehyde was completely oxidized after the reaction at 0°C for 8hr, and the selectivity to acetic acid reached to 95% and higher after the reaction for 4hr and longer. PMID:26456607

  16. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR INTRAVENOUS AND INHALATION-ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS OF BUTYL ACETATE AND METABOLITES N-BUTANOL AND N-BUTYRIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) can be accomplished with limited toxicity data and pharmacokinetic data for each compound through application of the "family approach" (Barton et al., 2000). The necessary quantita...

  17. First European Report of Social Wasps Trapped in Response to Acetic acid, Isobutanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol, and Heptyl butyrate in Tests Conducted in Hungary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of social wasps were captured in trapping tests in Hungary that evaluated the attractiveness of acetic acid, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and heptyl butyrate to social wasps. Both Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fabr.), were captured in traps baited with isobutanol, t...

  18. Improved growth and ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic acid by overexpression of SET5 and PPR1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Cheng, Cheng; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the contribution of zinc-finger proteins to environmental stress tolerance, particularly inhibition from acetic acid, which is a potent inhibitor for cellulosic ethanol production by microbial fermentations, SET5 and PPR1 were overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741. With 5 g/L acetic acid addition, engineered strains BY4741/SET5 and BY4741/PPR1 showed improved growth and enhanced ethanol fermentation performance compared to that with the control strain. Similar results were also observed in ethanol production using corn stover hydrolysate. Further studies indicated that SET5 and PPR1 overexpression in S. cerevisiae significantly improved activities of antioxidant enzymes and ATP generation in the presence of acetic acid, and consequently decreased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (50.9 and 45.7%, respectively). These results revealed the novel functions of SET5 and PPR1 for the improvement of yeast acetic acid tolerance, and also implicated the involvement of these proteins in oxidative stress defense and energy metabolism in S. cerevisiae. This work also demonstrated that overexpression of SET5 and PPR1 would be a feasible strategy to increase cellulosic ethanol production efficiency. PMID:26479519

  19. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  20. Trapping hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in hop yards in Washington State with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris, in commercial hop yards (Humulus lupulus L.) were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid plus 3-methyl-1-butanol (AAMB). The two chemicals were synergistic in attracting hop looper moths; in a comparison of the lure chemicals, most moths we...

  1. Modeling the survival of Salmonella on slice cooked ham as a function of apple skin polyphenols, acetic acid, oregano essential oil and carvacrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the combined effect of apple skin polyphenols (ASP), acetic acid (AA), oregano essential oil (O) and carvacrol (C) on the inactivation of Salmonella on sliced cooked ham. A full factorial experimental design was employed with control variables ...

  2. Survival of Salmonella strains differing in their biofilm-formation capability upon exposure to hydrochloric and acetic acid and to high salt.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Akio; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2011-09-01

    Acidic and osmotic treatments are part of hurdle systems to control pathogens such as Salmonella in food. In the current study, Salmonella enterica isolates previously shown to differ in their ability to form biofilms were grown in diluted tryptic soy broth (TSB) (1:5 dilution in distilled water) and subsequently exposed to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) adjusted to pH 3.0 with HCl, PBS adjusted to pH 3.9 with acetic acid or rice vinegar diluted 1:15 with distilled water (pH 3.9). Cells grown in diluted TSB were also exposed to distilled water, pH 7.6, containing 5 M NaCl. No differences in survival upon exposure to PBS adjusted to pH 3.0 with HCl or distilled water containing high salt were observed between the isolates; however, exposure to acetic acid and rice vinegar resulted in lower survival levels of isolates previously shown to be poor biofilm formers. The numbers (log(10) cfu/ml) of surviving cells after exposure for 36 hr to acetic acid and rice vinegar were 4.43 ± 0.24 vs. 2.27 ± 0.87 (P<0.05) and 5.19 ± 0.12 vs. 2.33 ± 0.93 (P<0.05) for isolates with a high vs. low biofilm-forming ability. The survival data could be fitted with the Weibull model. The data suggest that the ability of Salmonella strains to survive in the presence of acetic acid and rice vinegar parallels their ability to form biofilms. Thus, Salmonella with a high biofilm-formation capability might be more difficult to kill with acetic acid found in foods or cleaning solutions. PMID:21576891

  3. Crystal structure of a mixed solvated form of amoxapine acetate

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rajni M.; Raval, Vishal; Oswald, Iain D. H.; Florence, Alastair J.

    2015-01-01

    The mixed solvated salt 4-(2-chloro­dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxazepin-11-yl)piperazin-1-ium acetate–acetic acid–cyclo­hexane (2/2/1), C17H17ClN3O+·C2H3O2 ?·C2H4O2·0.5C6H12, crystallizes with one mol­ecule of protonated amoxapine (AXPN), an acetate anion and a mol­ecule of acetic acid together with half a mol­ecule of cyclo­hexane. In the centrosymmetric crystal, both enanti­omers of the protonated AXPN mol­ecule stack alternatively along [001]. Acetate anions connect the AXPN cations through N—H?O hydrogen bonding in the [010] direction, creating a sheet lying parallel to (100). The acetic acid mol­ecules are linked to the acetate anions via O—H?O hydrogen bonds within the sheets. Within the sheets there are also a number of C—H?O hydrogen bonds present. The cyclo­hexane solvent mol­ecules occupy the space between the sheets. PMID:25878802

  4. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  5. The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenberger, S.; Kleiss, B.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid was investigated with 2-3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography). Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited significant emissions of any of the compounds. A slight deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was mainly observed, instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid occurred only by the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning confirmed that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (3-200 nmol m-2 min-1 for ethanol and 5-500 nmol m-2 min-1 for acetaldehyde). Acetic acid emissions reached 12 nmol m-2 min-1. The observed differences in emission rates between the tree species are discussed with respect to their root adaptive strategies to tolerate long term flooding, providing an indirect line of evidence that the root ethanol production is a major factor determining the foliar emissions. Species which develop morphological root structures allowing for enhanced root aeration produced less ethanol and showed much lower emissions compared to species which lack gas transporting systems, and respond to flooding with substantially enhanced fermentation rates. The pronounced differences in the relative emissions of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid between the tree species indicate that not only the ethanol production in the roots but also the metabolic conversion in the leaf is an important factor determining the release of these compounds to the atmosphere.

  6. The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenberger, S.; Kleiss, B.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid in relation to assimilation and transpiration was investigated with 2 3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography). Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited measurable emissions of any of the compounds, but rather low deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was observed instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid were only observed from the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning suggest that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted, though we can not totally exclude other production pathways. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (25 1700 nmol m-2 min-1 for ethanol and 5 500 nmol m-2 min-1 for acetaldehyde). Acetic acid emissions reached 12 nmol m-2 min-1. The observed differences in emission rates between the tree species are discussed with respect to their root adaptive strategies to tolerate long term flooding, providing an indirect line of evidence that the root ethanol production is a major factor determining the foliar emissions. Species which develop morphological root structures allowing for enhanced root aeration produced less ethanol and showed much lower emissions compared to species which lack gas transporting systems, and respond to flooding with substantially enhanced fermentation rates and a non-trivial loss of carbon to the atmosphere. The pronounced differences in the relative emissions of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid between the tree species indicate that not only the ethanol production in the roots but also the metabolic conversion in the leaf is an important factor determining the release of these compounds to the atmosphere.

  7. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead content, calculated as Pb,...

  12. Dispersion in the presence of acetic acid or ammonia confers gliadin-like characteristics to the glutenin in wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tetsuya; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2015-02-01

    Spray-dried gluten has unique properties and is commercially available in the food industry worldwide. In this study, we examined the viscoelastic properties of gluten powder prepared by dispersion in the presence of acetic acid or an ammonia solvent and then followed by lyophilization instead of a spray drying. Mixograph measurements showed that the acid- and ammonia-treated gluten powders had marked decreases in the time to peak dough resistance when compared with the control gluten powder. The integrals of the dough resistance and bandwidth for 3 min after peak dough resistance decreased in both treated gluten powders. Similar phenomena were observed when gliadin was supplemented to gluten powders. Basic and acidic conditions were applied to the acid- and ammonia-treated gluten powders, respectively, and the viscoelastic behaviors were found to depend on the pH in the gluten dispersion just before lyophilization. These behaviors suggest that gluten may assume a reversible change in viscoelasticity by a fluctuation in pH during gluten dispersion. SDS-PAGE showed that the extractable proteins substantially increased in some polymeric glutenins including the low molecular weight-glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) when the ammonia-treated gluten powder was extracted with 70% ethanol. In contrast, the extractable proteins markedly increased in many polymeric glutenins including the high molecular weight-glutenin subunit and/or the LMW-GS when the acid-treated gluten powder was extracted with 70% ethanol. It thus follows that the extractability of polymeric glutenin to ethanol increases similarly to gliadin when gluten is exposed to an acidic or a basic pH condition; therefore, glutenin adopts gliadin-like characteristics. PMID:25588500

  13. Sol-gel process for preparing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} precursors from Y, Ba, and Cu acidic acetates/ammonia/ascorbic acid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Deptula, A.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Goretta, K.C.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Casadio, S.

    1995-08-01

    Sols were prepared by addition of ammonia to acidic acetate solutions of Y{sup 3+}, Ba{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+}. Ascorbic acid was added to a part of the sol. The resultant sols were gelled to a shard, a film, or microspheres by evaporation at 60 C or by extraction of water from drops of emulsion suspended in 2-ethylhexanol-1. Addition of ethanol to the sols facilitated the formation of gel films, fabricated by a dipping technique, on glass or silver substrates. At 100 C, gels that were formed in the presence of ascorbic acid were perfectly amorphous, in contrast to the crystalline acetate gels. Conversion of the amorphous ascorbate gels to final products was easier than for the acetate gels. The quality of coatings prepared from ascorbate gels was superior to that of acetate gel coatings.

  14. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?

    PubMed Central

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

  15. A Search for Methyl Acetate in Hot Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Matthew; Braakman, Rogier; Blake, Geoffrey

    2006-10-01

    We propose to search for methyl acetate, CH3COOCH3, in high mass hot cores. Methyl acetate is possibly synthesized through multiple reaction pathways from molecules previously detected in hot cores, most notably from acetic acid and methanol via esterification. Esterification, beyond the formation of methyl formate, has not yet been observed in the ISM. The project is already underway in nothern sources based on millimeter data from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We hope to study the chemically rich southern source G327.3 (decl B1950=-54.49'15.6"), amongst others, using MOPRA and to search for acetic acid and methyl acetate. Observations are supported by laboratory studies of methyl acetate in the 3 mm and 1 mm and successful spectral fitting by the Blake group at Caltech. If detected, methyl acetate, consisting of 11 atoms, would be one of the larger complex organic molecules detected in the interstellar medium and could point to previously unconsidered reaction mechanisms.

  16. Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lihong; Gulanski, Barbara Irene; De Feyter, Henk M.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Pittman, Brian; Guidone, Elizabeth; Koretski, Julia; Harman, Susan; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Krystal, John H.; Mason, Graeme F.

    2013-01-01

    When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking. Seven heavy drinkers, who regularly consumed at least 8 drinks per week and at least 4 drinks per day at least once per week, and 7 light drinkers, who consumed fewer than 2 drinks per week were recruited. The subjects were administered [2-13C]acetate for 2 hours and scanned throughout that time with magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to observe natural 13C abundance of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the appearance of 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, and acetate. Heavy drinkers had approximately 2-fold more brain acetate relative to blood and twice as much labeled glutamate and glutamine. The results show that acetate transport and oxidation are faster in heavy drinkers compared with that in light drinkers. Our finding suggests that a new therapeutic approach to supply acetate during alcohol detoxification may be beneficial. PMID:23478412

  17. Selective Cross-Coupling of Organic Halides with Allylic Acetates

    PubMed Central

    Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L.; Prinsell, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

  18. Functionalisation of mesoporous silica gel with 2-[(phosphonomethyl)-amino]acetic acid functional groups. Characterisation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarola, Dario; Mitev, Dimitar P.; Marlin, Lucile; Nesterenko, Ekaterina P.; Paull, Brett; Onida, Barbara; Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Carlo, Rosa Maria De; Sarzanini, Corrado; Nesterenko, Pavel N.

    2014-01-01

    A new complexing adsorbent was prepared by chemical modification of mesoporous silica Kieselgel 60 (dp = 37-63 ?m, average pore size 6 nm, specific surface area 425 m2 g-1) with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 2-[(phosphonomethyl)amino]acetic acid (PMA), commonly known as glyphosate. The prepared adsorbent was fully characterised using elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), acid-base potentiometric titration, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (BET), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The concentration of bonded PMA groups calculated from the nitrogen content was 0.38 mmol per gram. The adsorption of transition metal ions on PMA functionalised silica (HEPMAS) was studied from aqueous solutions having different pH and the following selectivity was established, Zn(II) < Co(II) < Cd(II) < Mn(II) < Ni(II) < Cu(II). The calculated values of distribution coefficients D for the adsorption of ecotoxic metal ions on HEPMAS are 5.0 × 104, 4.9 × 105 and 2.6 × 104 for Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively.

  19. Indole-3-acetic acid UDP-glucosyltransferase from immature seeds of pea is involved in modification of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Hetmann, Anna; Jakubowska, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The glycosylation of auxin is one of mechanisms contributing to hormonal homeostasis. The enzyme UDPG: indole-3-ylacetyl-?-D-glucosyltransferase (IAA glucosyltransferase, IAGlc synthase) catalyzes the reversible reaction: IAA+UDPG?1-O-IA-glucose+UDP, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of IAA-ester conjugates in monocotyledonous plants. In this study, we report IAA-glucosyltransferase isolated using a biochemical approach from immature seed of pea (Pisum sativum). The enzyme was purified by PEG fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography and preparative PAGE. LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides of the enzyme revealed the high identity with maize IAGlc synthase, but lack of homology with other IAA-glucosyltransferases from dicots. Biochemical characterization showed that of several acyl acceptors tested, the enzyme had the highest activity on IAA as the glucosyl acceptor (Km=0.52 mM, Vmax=161 nmol min(-1), kcat/Km=4.36 mM s(-1)) and lower activity on indole-3-propionic acid and 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Whereas indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-propionic acid were competitive inhibitors of IAGlc synthase, D-gluconic acid lactone, an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase activity, potentiated the enzyme activity at the optimal concentration of 0.3mM. Moreover, we demonstrated that the 1-O-IA-glucose synthesized by IAGlc synthase is the substrate for IAA labeling of glycoproteins from pea seeds indicating a possible role of this enzyme in the covalent modification of a class of proteins by a plant hormone. PMID:26057226

  20. Influence of curing times on the effectiveness of treatments with acetic acid on the control of P. digitatum on lemons.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Molinu, M G

    2011-01-01

    The restricted number of postharvest fungicides used in packing houses is leading to the selection of resistant strains of Penicillium digitatum (citrus green mould), one of the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing of lemons. Furthermore a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. Among the alternatives to synthetic postharvest fungicides, the use of acetic acid (classified as GRAS) together with a physical method such as curing, have led to encouraging results. In the present study is reported the combined use of curing, performed at reduced times compared to those reported to be effective, followed by acetic acid (AAC) treatments. Lemons of the variety "Limone di Massa" artificially inoculated with P. digitatum at a concentration of 10(4) spores/mL were cured for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours and then treated with three different concentrations of AAC (25, 50 and 75 microL/L) for 15 min. Fruit was then stored at 20 degrees C and 80% relative humidity (RH) for 9 days, when the number of decayed fruits was monitored. The same combined treatments were also carried out on naturally infected lemons, stored for 6 or 8 weeks at 5 degrees C and 90% RH. After 9 days of storage the lowest percentage of infected wounds, in artificially inoculated fruit, was 0% after 6 hours of curing followed by AAC fumigation performed at 50 microL/L, while lemons untreated or cured for three hours showed the worst results with 71.4 and 61.9% of rotted fruit respectively. In naturally infected lemons the best results were achieved with curing performed for 24 hours followed by AAC fumigation at 50 microL/L. In these cases the combined treatment reduced decay by the 91.0 and 66.5% after 6 or 8 weeks of storage respectively, if compared to untreated fruit. The weight loss was not affected by any of the treatments. These results show that a good control of green mould during storage could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining a reduced curing time of 24 hours to the effect of AAC. The best results were obtained after 6 week of storage even if a satisfactory control was observed after 8 weeks of storage. PMID:22702194

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of nesfatin-1 in rats with acetic acid - induced colitis and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, C C; Oktay, S; Yuksel, M; Akakin, D; Yarat, A; Kasimay Cakir, O

    2015-10-01

    Mucosal balance impairment, bacterial over-proliferation, cytokines, inflammatory mediators are known as responsible for inflammatory bowel disease. Besides known anorexigenic, neuroprotective, and anti-apoptotic effects, the major effect of nesfatin-1 on colitis is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory effects of nesfatin-1 in acetic acid induced colitis model and potential underlying mechanisms. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal ketamine (100 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (0.75 mg/kg). For nesfatin-1 and antagonist applications some of the rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) cannulated. In colitis group, intrarectally (i.r.) 4% acetic acid solution (1 ml) and 10 minutes later i.c.v. nesfatin-1 (0.05 ?g/5 ?l) or vehicle (5 ?l) were administered. Treatments continued for 3 days. In control group, physiological saline solution was used intrarectally. To identify the underlying effective mechanism of nesfatin-1, rats were divided into 3 subgroups, 5 minutes following colitis induction; i.c.v. atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist), SHU9119 (melanocortin receptor antagonist) or GHSR-1a antagonist (ghrelin receptor antagonist) were administered, 5 minutes later nesfatin-1 was administered for 3 days. On the fourth day, rats were decapitated, and colon tissues were sampled. Macroscopic and microscopic damage scores of distal colon, and colonic tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements were analysed. The increased myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores with colitis induction (P < 0.05 - 0.001) were decreased with nesfatin-1 treatment (P < 0.05 - 0.001). Nesfatin-1 may show this effect by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration through tissues and by decreasing formation of free oxygen radicals. Atosiban and GHSR-1a administration alleviated the protective effect of nesfatin-1 from microscopic and oxidant damage parameters and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The results of the study suggest that nesfatin-1 had a protective effect from colitis induction, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of nesfatin-1 on colitis might occur via oxytocin and ghrelin receptors. PMID:26579580

  2. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products. PMID:25836398

  3. Fragrance material review on 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate was evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414656

  4. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  5. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  9. Structural, Biochemical, and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest That Indole-3-Acetic Acid Methyltransferase

    E-print Network

    Pichersky, Eran

    observed for the related salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase from Clarkia breweri (Cb methylate the nitrogen atom or carboxyl groups found in a variety of plant small molecules. Salicylic acid- ylate (MeSA) from salicylic acid (SA) and S-adenosyl- L-Met (SAM; Ross et al., 1999; Negre et al., 2002

  10. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. Modelling the unexpected effect of acetic and lactic acid in combination with pH and aw on the growth/no growth interface of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, A; Dang, T D T; Geeraerd, A H; Bernaerts, K; Debevere, J; Van Impe, J; Devlieghere, F

    2008-05-10

    Microbial spoilage of shelf-stable acidified sauces is predominantly caused by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. A specific spoilage yeast in these products is Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as this fructophilic, osmotolerant, and weak acid resistant yeast is difficult to control. A growth/no growth model was developed describing the influence of (i) pH in a range from pH 3.0 to pH 5.0 (5 levels), (ii) acetic acid in a range from 0 to 3.5% (w/v), and (iii) lactic acid in a range from 0 to 3.0% (w/v). aw was fixed at a level of 0.95 which is representative for acidified sauces with high sugar content. Modified Sabouraud medium was inoculated at +/- 10(4) CFU/ml, incubated at 30 degrees C and growth was assessed by optical density measurements. All combinations of environmental conditions were tested in at least twelve replicates, yielding precise values for the probability of growth. Results showed that replacing acetic acid by lactic acid, which has a milder taste, may imply some risks on food spoilage because, under some conditions, stimulation of growth by lactic acid was observed. This stimulation had also consequences on the model development: (i) only ordinary logistic regression models were able to describe this phenomenon due to their flexible behaviour, (ii) it was necessary to split up the data set into two subsets to have the best description of the obtained data. Two different ordinary logistic regression models were fitted on these data sets taking either the total acid concentration as one of the explanatory variables or differentiating between the undissociated and dissociated acid concentrations. The obtained models were compared with the CIMSCEE code [CIMSCEE, 1992. Code for the production of microbiologically safe and stable emulsified and non-emulsified sauces containing acetic acid. Comité des Industries des Mayonnaise et Sauces Condimentaires, de la Communauté Economique Européenne, Brussels, Belgium], a formula which is nowadays often used by the food industry to predict the stability of acidified products based on the undissociated acetic acid, NaCl and sugars concentration. Comparing this formula and the newly developed models showed that the CIMSCEE code made a slight underestimation of the growth probability. Advantages of the newly developed models are the description of the gradual transition zone between growth and no growth and the incorporation of the effect of lactic acid, alone or in combination with acetic acid. PMID:18400324

  12. Large-Scale Distributions of Tropospheric Nitric, Formic, and Acetic acids Over the Westerm Pacific Basin During Wintertime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Lefer, B. L.; Scheuer, E. M.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Smyth, S.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E.; Gregory, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    We report here measurements of the acidic gases nitric (HNO3), formic (HCOOH), and acetic (CH3COOH) over the western Pacific basin during the February-March 1994 Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B). These data were obtained aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft as it flew missions in the altitude range of 0.3 - 12.5 km over equatorial regions near Guam and then further westward encompassing the entire Pacific Rim arc. Aged marine air over the equatorial Pacific generally exhibited mixing ratios of acidic gases less than 100 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered below 6 km altitude contained up to 8 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) HNO3 and 10 ppbv HCOOH and CH3COOH. Overall there was a general correlation between mixing ratios of acidic gases with those of CO, C2H2, and C2Cl4, indicative of emissions from combustion and industrial sources. The latitudinal distributions of HNO3 and CO showed that the largest mixing ratios were centered around 15 deg N, while HCOOH, CH3COOH, and C2Cl4 peaked at 25 deg N. The mixing ratios of HCOOH and CH3COOH were highly correlated (r(sup 2) = 0.87) below 6 km altitude, with a slope (0.89) characteristic of the nongrowing season at midlatitudes in the northern hemisphere. Above 6 km altitude, HCOOH and CH3COOH were marginally correlated (r(sup 2) = 0.50), and plumes well defined by CO, C2H2, and C2Cl4 were depleted in acidic gases, most likely due to scavenging during vertical transport of air masses through convective cloud systems over the Asian continent. In stratospheric air masses, HNO, mixing ratios were several parts per billion by volume (ppbv), yielding relationships with 03 and N2O consistent with those previously reported for NO(y).

  13. Co-administration of ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon ulceration of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis via facilitation of NO/COX-2/miR-210 cascade.

    PubMed

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M; Saad, Evan I; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A; Ibrahim, Einas R

    2015-11-01

    In this work, ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine demonstrated significant protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. We proposed that ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine co-administration might modulate their individual effects. Induction of ulcerative colitis in rats was performed by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration for 3 consecutive days. Effects of individual or combined used of ?-lipoic acid (35mg/kg ip) or cyclosporine (5mg/kg sc) for 6days starting 2days prior to acetic acid were assessed. Acetic acid caused colon ulceration, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Histologically, there was mucosal atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration in submucosa, associated with depletion of colon reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and elevated colon malondialdehyde, serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Colon gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 was also elevated. These devastating effects of acetic acid were abolished upon concurrent administration of ?-lipoic acid. Alternatively, cyclosporine caused partial protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Cyclosporine did not restore colon reduced glutathione, catalase activity, serum C-RP or TNF-?. Unexpectedly, co-administration of ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravated colon ulceration. Concomitant use of ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine significantly increased nitric oxide production, cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 gene expression compared to all other studied groups. The current findings suggest that facilitation of nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-2/miR-210 cascade constitutes, at least partially, the cellular mechanism by which concurrent use of ?-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon damage. Collectively, the present work highlights the probable risk of using ?-lipoic acid/cyclosporine combination in ulcerative colitis patients. PMID:26276312

  14. Perfecting a method of micro-analysis of water and acetic acid in a cocoa bean in the course of drying: applying to determine transportation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganhou, J.; Njomo, D.; Bénet, J. C.; Augier, F.; Berthomieu, G.

    2003-09-01

    This article is about the study of the diffusion of water and acetic acid in a grain of cocoa in course of drying. The authors present a method of microanalysis which enables the analysis of each little slice of the grain : a precise measurement of each slice is realised in view of the analysis from the centre to the surface of the grain with the aid of a cutting apparatus, designed and realised to this effect. At each instant of the drying process, the profiles of water and acetic acid contents are then determined. A one dimensional diffusion model enables a shell by shell evaluation of the diffusion of water and acid in the cocoa grain. The results obtained show an augmentation of transport coefficients in course of drying. We however observe a decrease of the diffusion coefficient of water to the low moisture content : what makes us think of the appearance of crusting phenomenon.

  15. Preliminary Studies on the Use of Acid-Soluble Cellulose Acetate Internal Capsules for Workplace Metals Sampling and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Martin; Ashley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW Particles entering filter cassettes used to collect samples of aerosol can deposit elsewhere than on the filter. One suggested procedure for ensuring that those deposits are included in the analysis is to collect them within an internal capsule that can subsequently be digested along with the filter. An inter-laboratory evaluation was carried out to evaluate the use of cellulosic capsule inserts for their suitability in the determination of trace elements in workplace air samples. The inter-laboratory study (ILS) was performed in accordance with an applicable ASTM International standard practice, ASTM E691, which describes statistical procedures for investigating inter-laboratory precision. Performance evaluation materials consisted of prototype cellulose acetate capsules attached to mixed-cellulose ester filters, which were spiked with lead-containing materials (aqueous salt solutions, certified reference soil and paint) at ? 20 and ? 50 µg Pb per sample. Triplicates of each spiked capsule plus media blanks were conveyed to each volunteer laboratory; spiking levels were unknown to the participants. The laboratories were asked to prepare the samples by acid digestion and analyze aliquots of extracted samples by atomic spectrometry procedures described in applicable ASTM International standard test methods D7035 and/or D7439. Participants were then asked to report their data in units of µg per sample. Preliminary inter-laboratory precision and recovery estimates from six participating laboratories demonstrated the utility of the cellulosic capsule inserts for the measurement of sampled trace elements. PMID:22702231

  16. Indole-3-Acetic Acid-Producing Yeasts in the Phyllosphere of the Carnivorous Plant Drosera indica L

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Li-Ying; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Fu, Shih-Feng; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and exist in association with other microorganisms as normal inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and aqueous environments. In this study, 12 yeast strains were enriched and isolated from leaf samples of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L., which is currently threatened because of restricted habitats and use in herbal industries. According to similarities in large subunit and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified 2 yeast species in 2 genera of the phylum Ascomycota, and 5 yeast species in 5 genera of the phylum Basidiomycota. All of the isolated yeasts produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when cultivated in YPD broth supplemented with 0.1% L-tryptophan. Growth conditions, such as the pH and temperature of the medium, influenced yeast IAA production. Our results also suggested the existence of a tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthetic pathway. We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of exogenous IAA on yeast growth and observed that IAA produced by wild yeasts modifies auxin-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that yeasts can promote plant growth and support ongoing prospecting of yeast strains for inclusion into biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25464336

  17. Biosynthesis and Secretion of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Its Morphological Effects on Tricholoma vaccinum-Spruce Ectomycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Krause, Katrin; Henke, Catarina; Asiimwe, Theodore; Ulbricht, Andrea; Klemmer, Sandra; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Boland, Wilhelm; Kothe, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Fungus-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is involved in development of ectomycorrhiza, affects both partners, i.e., the tree and the fungus. The biosynthesis pathway, excretion from fungal hyphae, the induction of branching in fungal cultures, and enhanced Hartig net formation in mycorrhiza were shown. Gene expression studies, incorporation of labeled compounds into IAA, heterologous expression of a transporter, and bioinformatics were applied to study the effect of IAA on fungal morphogenesis and on ectomycorrhiza. Tricholoma vaccinum produces IAA from tryptophan via indole-3-pyruvate, with the last step of this biosynthetic pathway being catalyzed by an aldehyde dehydrogenase. The gene ald1 was found to be highly expressed in ectomycorrhiza and induced by indole-3-acetaldehyde. The export of IAA from fungal cells is supported by the multidrug and toxic extrusion (MATE) transporter Mte1 found in T. vaccinum. The addition of IAA and its precursors induced elongated cells and hyphal ramification of mycorrhizal fungi; in contrast, in saprobic fungi such as Schizophyllum commune, IAA did not induce morphogenetic changes. Mycorrhiza responded by increasing its Hartig net formation. The IAA of fungal origin acts as a diffusible signal, influencing root colonization and increasing Hartig net formation in ectomycorrhiza. PMID:26231639

  18. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on Adventitious Root Development and Associated Physiological Changes in Stem Cutting of Hemarthria compressa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Quan; Yang, Wen-Yu; Wan, Yan; Ma, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Qun; Peng, Yan; Huang, Lin-Kai

    2014-01-01

    In order to find a way to induce rooting on cuttings of Hemarthria compressa cv. Ya’an under controlled conditions, a project was carried out to study the effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on rooting in stem cuttings and related physiological changes during the rooting process of Hemarthria compressa. The cuttings were treated with five concentrations of NAA (0, 100, 200 300, 400 mg/l) at three soaking durations (10, 20, 30 minutes), and cuttings without treatment were considered as control. Samples were planted immediately into pots after treatment. IAA-oxidase (IAAO) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were determined after planting. Results showed that NAA had positive effect on rooting at the concentration of 200 mg/l compared to other concentrations at 30 days after planting (DAP). Among the three soaking durations, 20 minutes (min) of 200 mg/l NAA resulted in higher percentages of rooting, larger numbers of adventitious roots and heavier root dry weight per cutting. The lowest IAAO activity was obtained when soaked at 200 mg/l NAA for 20 min soaking duration. This was consistent with the best rooting ability, indicating that the lower IAAO activity, the higher POD activity and PPO activity could be used as an indicator of better rooting ability for whip grass cuttings and might serve as a good marker for rooting ability in cuttings. PMID:24595064

  19. Asaia, a versatile acetic acid bacterial symbiont, capable of cross-colonizing insects of phylogenetically distant genera and orders.

    PubMed

    Crotti, Elena; Damiani, Claudia; Pajoro, Massimo; Gonella, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Ricci, Irene; Negri, Ilaria; Scuppa, Patrizia; Rossi, Paolo; Ballarini, Patrizia; Raddadi, Noura; Marzorati, Massimo; Sacchi, Luciano; Clementi, Emanuela; Genchi, Marco; Mandrioli, Mauro; Bandi, Claudio; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have been proposed for blocking transmission of vector-borne pathogens. However, in many vector models the ecology of symbionts and their capability of cross-colonizing different hosts, an important feature in the symbiotic control approach, is poorly known. Here we show that the acetic acid bacterium Asaia, previously found in the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, is also present in, and capable of cross-colonizing other sugar-feeding insects of phylogenetically distant genera and orders. PCR, real-time PCR and in situ hybridization experiments showed Asaia in the body of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, vectors of human viruses and a grapevine phytoplasma respectively. Cross-colonization patterns of the body of Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and S. titanus have been documented with Asaia strains isolated from An. stephensi or Ae. aegypti, and labelled with plasmid- or chromosome-encoded fluorescent proteins (Gfp and DsRed respectively). Fluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that Asaia, administered with the sugar meal, efficiently colonized guts, male and female reproductive systems and the salivary glands. The ability in cross-colonizing insects of phylogenetically distant orders indicated that Asaia adopts body invasion mechanisms independent from host-specific biological characteristics. This versatility is an important property for the development of symbiont-based control of different vector-borne diseases. PMID:19735280

  20. Response of chemically induced primary colon tumours of the mouse to flavone acetic acid (NSC 347 512).

    PubMed Central

    Pratesi, G.; Manzotti, C.; Damia, G.; D'Incalci, M.

    1988-01-01

    Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a compound with proven activity against various transplantable colon cancers in mice. In this study it was evaluated against primary colon tumours, chemically induced by methylazoxymethanol in outbred CF1 mice. FAA was given i.v. at doses of 70 or 100 or 150 mg kg-1 every 7 days for 6 weeks. Only 4 out of 60 FAA treated mice died of toxicity. FAA reduced tumour number and tumour burden compared to control mice (P less than 0.05 at least), with no apparent dose-response relationship. Antitumour activity of FAA was comparable to that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) used as standard. Moreover, FAA was more effective that 5-FU against large tumours. FAA levels in plasma and different tissues (including colonic neoplastic lesions) after a single i.v. dose of 150 mg kg-1 were investigated. Tumour FAA levels appear insufficient to be responsible for the antitumour activity based only on a direct FAA cytotoxic effect. The results confirm clinical interest in FAA and suggest that mechanisms other than direct cytotoxicity may be involved in its activity. PMID:3166904

  1. Gravity induced, asymmetric unloading of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele of Zea mays into the mesocotyl cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R.S.

    1987-04-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated an increase within 3 min in both free and ester indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the lower side of the mesocotyl cortex of a gravity stimulated Zea mays seedling. Since both free and ester IAA are being transported from endosperm to shoot through the stele these results suggest that the gravity stimulus affects movement of IAA and/or its esters from stele to cortex. To test this postulate they injected 5-(/sup 3/H)-IAA into the endosperm and, after a 30 min period with the plants held vertically, severed the kernel from the shoot and placed the plants in a horizontal position. After 60 min the distribution of radioactivity in the mesocotyl cortex was 55 + 3% in the lower half and 45 + 3% in the upper half. These results support the working theory that a target for the gravity stimulus is the gating mechanism for the movement of hormone from stele to cortex.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC extract on acetic acid — Induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghassemi-Dehkordi, Nasrollah; Mahzouni, Parvin; Ahmadi, Najme-Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. from Asteraceae family is an endemic plant growing wild in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of H. oligocephalum hydroalcoholic extract (HOHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by acetic acid (AA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were grouped (n = 6) and fasted for 24 h before colitis induction. Treatments were started 2 h before the induction of colitis and continued for two consecutive days with different doses of HOHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.). The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Results: Among the examined doses of HOHE, 100 mg/kg was the most effective dose that reduced the extent of UC lesions and resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/length ratio as an index of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished in the treatment group administered HOHE at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and the results showed correlation with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that HOHE (100 mg/kg) administered either p.o. or i.p. was effective in diminishing inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis in a non–dose-related manner. Conclusions: H. oligocephalum could be considered as a suitable anticolitis alternative; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting. PMID:24761395

  3. Mechanosensitive neurons on the internal reproductive tract contribute to egg-laying-induced acetic acid attraction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gou, Bin; Liu, Ying; Guntur, Ananya R; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2014-10-23

    Selecting a suitable site to deposit their eggs is an important reproductive need of Drosophila females. Although their choosiness toward egg-laying sites is well documented, the specific neural mechanism that activates females' search for attractive egg-laying sites is not known. Here, we show that distention and contraction of females' internal reproductive tract triggered by egg delivery through the tract plays a critical role in activating such search. We found that females start to exhibit acetic acid (AA) attraction prior to depositing each egg but no attraction when they are not laying eggs. Artificially distending the reproductive tract triggers AA attraction in non-egg-laying females, whereas silencing the mechanosensitive neurons we identified that can sense the contractile status of the tract eliminates such attraction. Our work uncovers the circuit basis of an important reproductive need of Drosophila females and provides a simple model for dissecting the neural mechanism that underlies a reproductive need-induced behavioral modification. PMID:25373900

  4. Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by New Klebsiella oxytoca Free and Immobilized Cells on Inorganic Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Celloto, Valéria R.; Oliveira, Arildo J. B.; Gonçalves, José E.; Watanabe, Cecília S. F.; Matioli, Graciette; Gonçalves, Regina A. C.

    2012-01-01

    While many natural and synthetic compounds exhibit auxin-like activity in bioassays, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is recognized as the key auxin in most plants. IAA has been implicated in almost all aspects of plant growth and development and a large array of bacteria have been reported to enhance plant growth. Cells of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from the rhizosphere of Aspidosperma polyneuron and immobilized by adsorption on different inorganic matrices were used for IAA production. The matrices were prepared by the sol-gel method and the silica-titanium was the most suitable matrix for effective immobilization. In operational stability assays, IAA production was maintained after four cycles of production, obtaining 42.80 ± 2.03??g?mL?1 of IAA in the third cycle, which corresponds to a 54% increase in production in relation to the first cycle, whereas free cells began losing activity after the first cycle. After 90 days of storage at 4°C the immobilized cells showed the slight reduction of IAA production without significant loss of activity. PMID:22623901

  5. Two-stage, acetic acid-aqueous ammonia, fractionation of empty fruit bunches for increased lignocellulosic biomass utilization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of EFB was conducted in two consecutive steps using a batch reaction system: hemicellulose hydrolysis using acetic acid (AA; 3.0-7.0wt.%) at 170-190°C for 10-20min in the first stage, and lignin solubilization using ammonium hydroxide (5-20wt.%) at 140-220°C for 5-25min in the second stage. The two-stage process effectively fractionated empty fruit bunches (EFB) in terms of hemicellulose hydrolysis (53.6%) and lignin removal (59.5%). After the two-stage treatment, the fractionated solid contained 65.3% glucan. Among three investigated process parameters, reaction temperature and ammonia concentration had greater impact on the delignification reaction in the second stage than reaction time. The two-stage fractionation processing improved the enzymatic digestibility to 72.9% with 15 FPU of cellulase/g of glucan supplemented with 70 pNPG of ?-glycosidase (Novozyme 188)/g-glucan, which was significantly enhanced from the equivalent digestibility of 28.3% for untreated EFB and 45.7% for AAH-fractionated solid. PMID:26419963

  6. A Radial Concentration Gradient of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Is Related to Secondary Xylem Development in Hybrid Aspen.

    PubMed Central

    Tuominen, H.; Puech, L.; Fink, S.; Sundberg, B.

    1997-01-01

    The radial distribution pattern of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was determined across the developing tissues of the cambial region in the stem of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx). IAA content was measured in consecutive tangential cryo-sections using a microscale mass spectrometry technique. Analysis was performed with wild-type and transgenic trees with an ectopic expression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens IAA-biosynthetic genes. In all tested trees IAA was distributed as a steep concentration gradient across the developing tissues of the cambial region. The peak level of IAA was within the cambial zone, where cell division takes place. Low levels were reached in the region where secondary wall formation was initiated. The transgenic trees displayed a lower peak level and a wider radial gradient of IAA compared with the wild type. This alteration was related to a lower rate of cambial cell division and a longer duration of xylem cell expansion in the transgenic trees, resulting in a decreased xylem production and a larger fiber lumen area. The results indicate that IAA has a role in regulating not only the rate of physiological processes such as cell division, but also the duration of developmental processes such as xylem fiber expansion, suggesting that IAA functions as a morphogen, conveying positional information during xylem development. PMID:12223825

  7. Indole-3-acetic acid-producing yeasts in the phyllosphere of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pei-Feng; Fang, Wei-Ta; Shin, Li-Ying; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Fu, Shih-Feng; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and exist in association with other microorganisms as normal inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and aqueous environments. In this study, 12 yeast strains were enriched and isolated from leaf samples of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L., which is currently threatened because of restricted habitats and use in herbal industries. According to similarities in large subunit and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified 2 yeast species in 2 genera of the phylum Ascomycota, and 5 yeast species in 5 genera of the phylum Basidiomycota. All of the isolated yeasts produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when cultivated in YPD broth supplemented with 0.1% L-tryptophan. Growth conditions, such as the pH and temperature of the medium, influenced yeast IAA production. Our results also suggested the existence of a tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthetic pathway. We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of exogenous IAA on yeast growth and observed that IAA produced by wild yeasts modifies auxin-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that yeasts can promote plant growth and support ongoing prospecting of yeast strains for inclusion into biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25464336

  8. Hexahydro-?-acids potently inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Huei; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Lai, Ching-Shu; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Chen, Li-Hua; Lin, Edwin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2013-11-27

    We previously reported that hexahydro-beta-acids (HBAs), reduced derivatives of beta-acids (BA) from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), displayed more potent anti-inflammatory activity than BA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of hexahydro-?-acids (HBAs) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mouse skin inflammation and in the two-stage carcinogenesis model. Female ICR mice pretreated with HBA at 1 and 10 ?g significantly reduced ear edema, epidermal hyperplasia, and infiltration of inflammatory cells caused by TPA. Molecular analysis exhibited that HBA suppressed iNOS, COX-2, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) protein and gene expression through interfering with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositiol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling as well as the activation of transcription factor NF-?B. Furthermore, application of HBA (1 and 10 ?g) prior to each TPA treatment (17.2 ± 0.9 tumors/mouse) resulted in the significant reduction of tumor multiplicity (5.1 ± 1.2, P < 0.01 and 2.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.001, respectively) in 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. The tumor incidence was significantly lowered to 75% (P < 0.05) and 58.7% (P < 0.01) by HBA pretreatment, respectively, and significantly reduced the tumor weight (0.34 ± 0.14 g, P < 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.10 g, P < 0.001, respectively) as compared to DMBA/TPA-induced tumors (0.76 ± 0.04 g). PMID:24206127

  9. Exogenous malic and acetic acids reduce cadmium phytotoxicity and enhance cadmium accumulation in roots of sunflower plants.

    PubMed

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Dresler, S?awomir; Matraszek, Renata

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) are involved in heavy metal resistance mechanisms in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous malic (MA) or acetic (AA) acids on the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Single Cd stress (5 ?M Cd for 14 days) induced strong phytotoxic effects, as indicated by a decrease in all growth parameters, concentration of photosynthetic pigments, and root activity, as well as a high level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. Exogenous MA or AA (250 or 500 ?M) applied to the Cd-containing medium enhanced the accumulation of Cd by the roots and limited Cd translocation to the shoots. Moreover, the MA or AA applied more or less reduced Cd phytotoxicity by increasing the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, decreasing accumulation of H2O2, and improving the root activity. Of the studied organic acids, MA was much more efficient in mitigation of Cd toxicity than AA, probably by its antioxidant effects, which were stronger than those of AA. Plant response to Cd involved decreased production of endogenous LMWOA, probably as a consequence of severe Cd toxicity. The addition of MA or AA to the medium increased endogenous accumulation of LMWOA, especially in the roots, which could be beneficial for plant metabolism. These results imply that especially MA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation, and tolerance in plants. PMID:26115548

  10. Circadian changes in endogenous concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, melatonin, serotonin, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid in Characeae (Chara australis Brown).

    PubMed

    Beilby, Mary J; Turi, Christina E; Baker, Teesha C; Tymm, Fiona Jm; Murch, Susan J

    2015-11-01

    Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after 3 day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to "light on." The plants pretreated for 3 d in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The "dark" IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for 3 d in the dark. The plants pretreated for 3 d in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways. PMID:26382914

  11. Non-growing Rhodopseudomonas palustris Increases the Hydrogen Gas Yield from Acetate by Shifting from the Glyoxylate Shunt to the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle*

    PubMed Central

    McKinlay, James B.; Oda, Yasuhiro; Rühl, Martin; Posto, Amanda L.; Sauer, Uwe; Harwood, Caroline S.

    2014-01-01

    When starved for nitrogen, non-growing cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris continue to metabolize acetate and produce H2, an important industrial chemical and potential biofuel. The enzyme nitrogenase catalyzes H2 formation. The highest H2 yields are obtained when cells are deprived of N2 and thus use available electrons to synthesize H2 as the exclusive product of nitrogenase. To understand how R. palustris responds metabolically to increase H2 yields when it is starved for N2, and thus not growing, we tracked changes in biomass composition and global transcript levels. In addition to a 3.5-fold higher H2 yield by non-growing cells we also observed an accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate to over 30% of the dry cell weight. The transcriptome of R. palustris showed down-regulation of biosynthetic processes and up-regulation of nitrogen scavenging mechanisms in response to N2 starvation but gene expression changes did not point to metabolic activities that could generate the reductant necessary to explain the high H2 yield. We therefore tracked 13C-labeled acetate through central metabolic pathways. We found that non-growing cells shifted their metabolism to use the tricarboxylic acid cycle to metabolize acetate in contrast to growing cells, which used the glyoxylate cycle exclusively. This shift enabled cells to more fully oxidize acetate, providing the necessary reducing power to explain the high H2 yield. PMID:24302724

  12. Ethylene-enhanced catabolism of ( sup 14 C)indole-3-acetic acid to indole-3-carboxylic acid in citrus leaf tissues. [Citrus sinensis

    SciTech Connect

    Sagee, O.; Riov, J.; Goren, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Exogenous ({sup 14}C)indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is conjugated in citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissues to one major substance which has been identified as indole-3-acetylaspartic acid (IAAsp). Ethylene pretreatment enhanced the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)IAA to indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), which accumulated as glucose esters (ICGlu). Increased formation of ICGlu by ethylene was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in IAAsp formation. IAAsp and ICGlu were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Formation of ICGlu was dependent on the concentration of ethylene and the duration of the ethylene pretreatment. It is suggested that the catabolism of IAA to ICA may be one of the mechanisms by which ethylene endogenous IAA levels.

  13. Targeting pain-depressed behaviors in preclinical assays of pain and analgesia: Drug effects on acetic acid-depressed locomotor activity in ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Glenn W.; Cormier, Jim; Mercer, Hannah; Adams, Chloe; Dunbar, Catherine; Negus, S. Stevens; Bilsky, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Pain depresses expression of many behaviors, and one goal of analgesic treatment is to restore pain-depressed behaviors. Assays that focus on pain-depressed behaviors may contribute to preclinical assessment of candidate analgesics. Main Methods This study compared effects of the mu opioid receptor agonist morphine (an acknowledged analgesic), the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (a non-analgesic sedative), the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (a non-analgesic stimulant) and the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist CJ 11,974-01 (a candidate analgesic) on acetic acid-induced writhing (a traditional pain-stimulated behavior) and acetic acid-induced suppression of locomotor activity (a pain-depressed behavior) in male ICR mice. Drug effects on non-depressed (baseline) locomotor activity were also examined. Key findings I.P. administration of acetic acid (0.18-1%) was equipotent in stimulating writhing and depressing locomotor activity. Morphine blocked both acid-induced stimulation of writhing and depression of locomotion, although it was 56-fold less potent in the assay of acid-depressed locomotion. Haloperidol and CJ 11,974-01 decreased acid-stimulated writhing, but failed to block acid-induced depression of locomotion. Caffeine had no effect on acid-stimulated writhing or acid-depressed locomotor activity, although it did increase non-depressed locomotion. Thus, morphine was the only drug to block both acid-stimulated writhing and acid-depressed locomotion. Significance Complementary assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behaviors may improve the predictive validity of preclinical studies that assess candidate analgesic drugs. The low potency of morphine to block acid-induced depression of locomotion suggests that locomotor activity may be a relatively insensitive measure for studies of pain-depressed behavior. PMID:19559034

  14. The implementation of high fermentative 2,3-butanediol production from xylose by simultaneous additions of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong-Ying; Liu, De-Hua; Song, Yuan-Quan

    2016-01-25

    The effective use of xylose may significantly enhance the feasibility of using lignocellulosic hydrolysate to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). Previous difficulties in 2,3-BD production include that the high-concentration xylose cannot be converted completely and the fermentation rate is slow. This study investigated the effects of yeast extract, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA), and acetic acid on 2,3-BD production from xylose. The central composite design approach was used to optimize the concentrations of these components. It was found that simultaneous addition of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid could significantly improve 2,3-BD production. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid were 35.2, 1.2, and 4.5g/L, respectively. The 2,3-BD concentration in the optimized medium reached 39.7g/L after 48hours of shake flask fermentation, the highest value ever reported in such a short period. The xylose utilization ratio and the 2,3-BD concentration increased to 99.0% and 42.7g/L, respectively, after 48hours of stirred batch fermentation. Furthermore, the 2,3-BD yield was 0.475g/g, 95.0% of the theoretical maximum value. As the major components of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are glucose, xylose, and acetic acid, the results of this study indicate the possibility of directly using the hydrolysate to effectively produce 2,3-BD. PMID:26248275

  15. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  16. Microbial enantioselective ester hydrolysis for the preparation of optically active 4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid derivatives as squalene synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tarui, Naoki; Nakahama, Kazuo; Nagano, Yoichi; Izawa, Motowo; Matsumoto, Kiyoharu; Kori, Masakuni; Nagata, Toshiaki; Miki, Takashi; Yukimasa, Hidefumi

    2002-01-01

    Microbial enantioselective ester hydrolysis for the preparation of optically active (3R,5S)-(-)-5-phenyl-4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid derivatives as potent squalene synthase inhibitors was investigated. Pseudomonas diminuta and Pseudomonas taetrolens hydrolyzed the racemic ethyl ester of the 5-(2-chlorophenyl) analogue to yield the (-)-carboxylic acid with excellent enantiomeric excess (>99% ee). We found that the (-)-enantiomer was an active inhibitor. Bulkiness of the ester moiety did not affect the enantioselectivity but did affect reactivity. The racemic ethyl ester of the 5-(2-methoxyphenyl) analogue, 5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl) analogue and 5-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl) analogue were also hydrolyzed with Pseudomonas taetrolens to afford enantiomerically pure (-)-carboxylic acids in large scale. As another route to (3R,5S)-(-)-7-chloro-5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-neopentyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid [(-)-1c], the earlier intermediate (-)-2-amino-5-chloro-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)benzyl alcohol [(-)-12] was successfully obtained by asymmetric hydrolysis of (+/-)-5-chloro-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-pivaloylaminobenzyl acetate with Pseudomonas sp. S-13 with >99% ee in kilogram scale followed by alkaline treatment. The product (-)-12 was converted to (-)-1c without racemization. PMID:11824586

  17. Nitrilase in biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetonitrile: cloning of the Alcaligenes gene and site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, M; Izui, H; Nagasawa, T; Yamada, H

    1993-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is the major auxin in most plants. In Cruciferae, including Brassicaceae, indole-3-acetic acid is synthesized from indole-3-acetonitrile by nitrilase, after indole-3-acetonitrile is formed from tryptophan via indole-3-acetaldoxime or indole glycosinolates as the intermediate. We cloned and sequenced the gene for nitrilase (EC 3.5.5.1), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of indole-3-acetonitrile to indole-3-acetic acid, from Alcaligenes faecalis JM3. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the nitrilase gene shows 34.7% identity with that of Klebsiella ozaenae nitrilase. A DNA clone containing the nitrilase gene expressed the active enzyme in Escherichia coli with excellent yield. Among five cysteine residues (Cys-40, Cys-115, Cys-162, Cys-163, and Cys-218) in the Alcaligenes nitrilase, only Cys-163 was conserved at the corresponding position in the Klebsiella nitrilase. Two mutant enzymes, in which Cys-162 and Cys-163 were replaced with Asn and Ala, respectively, were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. A 35% increase of the specific activity and a large reduction of the Km for thiophene-2-acetonitrile (which was used as a standard substrate for the nitrilase) were observed in the Cys-162-->Asn mutant enzyme. The Cys-163-->Ala mutation resulted in complete loss of nitrilase activity, clearly indicating that Cys-163 is crucial for the activity and Cys-162 could not provide the catalytic function of Cys-163. Images PMID:8419930

  18. Measuring acetic and formic acid by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry: sensitivity, humidity dependence, and quantifying interferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Millet, D. B.; Hu, L.; Mitroo, D.; Williams, B. J.

    2015-03-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the factors governing the quantification of formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA), and their relevant mass analogues by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), assess the underlying fragmentation pathways and humidity dependencies, and present a new method for separating FA and AA from their main isobaric interferences. PTR-MS sensitivities towards glycolaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and peroxyacetic acid at m/z 61 are comparable to that for AA; when present, these species will interfere with ambient AA measurements by PTR-MS. Likewise, when it is present, dimethyl ether can interfere with FA measurements. For a reduced electric field (E/N) of 125 Townsend (Td), the PTR-MS sensitivity towards ethanol at m/z 47 is 5-20 times lower than for FA; ethanol will then only be an important interference when present in much higher abundance than FA. Sensitivity towards 2-propanol is <1% of that for AA, so that propanols will not in general represent a significant interference for AA. Hydrated product ions of AA, glycolaldehyde, and propanols occur at m/z 79, which is also commonly used to measure benzene. However, the resulting interference for benzene is only significant when E/N is low (≲100 Td). Addition of water vapor affects the PTR-MS response to a given compound by (i) changing the yield for fragmentation reactions and (ii) increasing the importance of ligand switching reactions. In the case of AA, sensitivity to the molecular ion increases with humidity at low E/N but decreases with humidity at high E/N due to water-driven fragmentation. Sensitivity towards FA decreases with humidity throughout the full range of E/N. For glycolaldehyde and the alcohols, the sensitivity increases with humidity due to ligand switching reactions (at low E/N) and reduced fragmentation in the presence of water (at high E/N). Their role as interferences will typically be greatest at high humidity. For compounds such as AA where the humidity effect depends strongly on the collisional energy in the drift tube, simple humidity correction factors (XR) will only be relevant for a specific instrumental configuration. We recommend E/N ~ 125 Td as an effective condition for AA and FA measurements by PTR-MS, as it optimizes between the competing E/N-dependent mechanisms controlling their sensitivities and those of the interfering species. Finally, we present the design and evaluation of an online acid trap for separating AA and FA from their interfering species at m/z 61 and 47, and we demonstrate its performance during a field deployment to St. Louis, USA, during August-September of 2013.

  19. Measuring acetic and formic acid by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry: sensitivity, humidity dependence, and quantifying interferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Millet, D. B.; Hu, L.; Mitroo, D.; Williams, B. J.

    2014-10-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the factors governing the quantification of formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA) and their relevant mass analogues by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), assess the underlying fragmentation pathways and humidity dependencies, and present a new method for separating FA and AA from their main isobaric interferences. PTR-MS sensitivities towards glycolaldehyde, ethyl acetate and peroxyacetic acid at m/z 61 are comparable to that for AA; when present, these species will interfere with ambient AA measurements by PTR-MS. Likewise, when it is present, dimethyl ether can interfere with FA measurements. On the other hand, for E/N = 125 Townsend (Td), the PTR-MS sensitivity towards ethanol at m/z 47 is 5-20× lower than for FA; ethanol will then only be an important interference when present in much higher abundance than FA. Sensitivity towards 2-propanol is <1% of that for AA, so that propanols will not in general represent a significant interference for AA. Hydrated product ions of AA, glycoaldehyde, and propanols occur at m/z 79, which is also commonly used to measure benzene. However, the resulting interference for benzene is only significant when E/N is low (<∼100 Td). Addition of water vapor affects the PTR-MS response to a given compound by (i) changing the yield for fragmentation reactions, and (ii) increasing the importance of ligand switching reactions. In the case of AA, sensitivity to the molecular ion increases with humidity at low E/N, but decreases with humidity at high E/N due to water-driven fragmentation. Sensitivity towards FA decreases with humidity throughout the full range of E/N. For glycoaldehyde and the alcohols, the sensitivity increases with humidity due to ligand switching reactions (at low E/N) and reduced fragmentation in the presence of water (at high E/N). Their role as interferences will typically be greatest at high humidity. For compounds such as AA where the humidity effect depends strongly on the collisional energy in the drift tube, simple humidity correction factors (XR) will only be relevant for a specific instrumental configuration. We recommend E/N∼125 Td as an effective condition for AA and FA measurements by PTR-MS, as it optimizes between the competing E/N-dependent mechanisms controlling their sensitivities and those of the interfering species. Finally, we present the design and evaluation of an online acid trap for separating AA and FA from their interfering species at m/z 61 and 47, and demonstrate its performance during a field deployment to St. Louis, USA during August-September of 2013.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Silica Nanocomposites in Presence of EVA-g-Acrylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Tham, Do Quang; Tuan, Vu Manh; Thanh, Dinh Thi Mai; Chinh, Nguyen Thuy; Giang, Nguyen Vu; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, To Thi Xuan; Huong, Ho Thu; Dung, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Thai

    2015-04-01

    Here we report a facile approach to enhance the dispersibility of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)/silica nanocomposites (for the EVA/silica nanocomposites and interaction between silica nanoparticles (nanosilica) and EVA by adding EVA-g-acrylic acid (EVAgAA) as a compatibilizer, which was formed by grafting acrylic acid onto EVA chains with the aid of dicumyl peroxide). The above nanocomposites with and without EVAgAA were prepared by melt mixing in a Haake intermixer with different contents of silica and EVAgAA. Their structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the mechanical, rheological, dielectrical, and flammability properties of the nanocomposites were also investigated. The FT-IR spectra of the nanocomposites confirmed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the surface silanol groups of nanosilica and C=O groups of EVA and/or EVAgAA. The presence of EVAgAA remarkably increased the intensity of hydrogen bonding between nanosilica and EVA which not only enhanced the dispersion of nanosilica in EVA matrix but also increased the mechanical, viscosity and storage modulus of EVA/silica nanocomposites. In addition, the flammability of EVA/silica nanocomposites is also significantly reduced after the functionalization with EVAgAA. However, the mechanical properties of EVA/silica nanocomposites tended to level off when its content was above 1.5 wt.%. It has also been found that the dielectric constant value of the EVA/EVAgAA/silica nanocomposites is much lower than that of the EVA/silica nanocomposites, which is another evidence of the hydrogen bonding formation between EVAgAA and nanosilica. PMID:26353492

  1. Effect of different concentrations of acetic, citric, and propionic acid dipping solutions on bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin.

    PubMed

    Menconi, A; Shivaramaiah, S; Huff, G R; Prado, O; Morales, J E; Pumford, N R; Morgan, M; Wolfenden, A; Bielke, L R; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial contamination of raw, processed poultry may include spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens. We evaluated different combinations of organic acid (OA) wash solutions for their ability to reduce bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin and to inhibit growth of spoilage bacteria and pathogens on skin during refrigerated storage. In experiment 1, raw chicken skin samples were dipped into a suspension of either 10(8) cfu/mL of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes for 30 s and then immersed in PBS or an OA wash solution mixture of 0.8% citric, 0.8% acetic, and 0.8% propionic acid (at equal wt/vol concentrations) for an additional 30 s. In experiment 2, three different concentrations of the OA wash solution (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% at equal wt/vol concentrations) were tested against chicken skin samples contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium. Viable pathogenic bacteria on each skin sample were enumerated after 1 and 24 h of storage at 4°C in both experiments. In experiment 3, skin samples were initially treated on d 1 with PBS or 2 concentrations of the OA mixture (0.4 and 0.8%), and total aerobic bacteria were enumerated during a 2-wk storage period. In all experiments, significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed when skin samples were treated with the OA wash solution and no spoilage organisms were recovered at any given time point, whereas increasing log10 numbers of spoilage organisms were recovered over time in PBS-treated skin samples. These results suggest that 0.2 to 0.8% concentrations of an equal-percentage mixture of this OA combination may reduce pathogens and spoilage organisms and improve food safety properties of raw poultry. PMID:23873572

  2. Augmentation of protein-derived acetic acid production by heat-alkaline-induced changes in protein structure and conformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Li, Yanbo; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-01-01

    Waste-derived acetic acid (HAc) is an attractive feedstock for microbe-mediated biofuel production. However, fermentative conversion of HAc from waste-activated sludge (WAS) has low yield because of the high concentration of proteins not readily utilizable by microorganisms without prior hydrolysis. We investigated a combined technology for HAc augmentation during sludge protein fermentation. The maximal HAc yield increased over two-fold, reaching 0.502 ± 0.021 g/g protein (0.36 ± 0.01 g COD/g COD, ?52% of the total volatile fatty acids) when synthetic sludge protein was heated at 120 °C for 30 min, treated at pH 12 for 24 h, and fermented at pH 9 for 72 h. Comprehensive analysis illustrated that the heat-alkaline pretreatment significantly induced protein fragmentation, simultaneously increasing the efficiency of protein biohydrolysis (from 35.5% to 85.9%) by inducing conformational changes indicative of protein unfolding. Consequently, the native ?-helix content was decreased from 67.3% to 32.5% by conversion to an unordered shape, whose content increased from 27.5% to 45.5%; disulfide bonds were cleaved, whereas the main S-S stretching pattern was altered from gauche-gauche-gauche to gauche-gauche-trans, consequently causing increased protein susceptibility to proteolytic hydrolysis (76.3% vs. 47.0%). Economic analysis indicated that anaerobic fermentation with appropriate heat-alkaline pretreatment is a cost-effective approach for waste conversion to energy sources such as HAc. PMID:26562796

  3. 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a novel antivascular agent: phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Rustin, G J S; Bradley, C; Galbraith, S; Stratford, M; Loadman, P; Waller, S; Bellenger, K; Gumbrell, L; Folkes, L; Halbert, G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this phase I, dose-escalation study was to determine the toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic end points of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone acetic acid (DMXAA). In all, 46 patients received a total of 247 infusions of DMXAA over 15 dose levels ranging from 6 to 4900?mg?m?2. The maximum tolerated dose was established at 3700?mg?m?2; dose-limiting toxicities in the form of urinary incontinence, visual disturbance, and anxiety were observed at the highest dose level (4900?mg?m?2). The pharmacokinetics of DMXAA were dose dependent. Peak concentrations and area under the curve level increased from 4.8??M and 3.2??M?h, respectively, at 6?mg?m?2 to 1290??M and 7600??M?h at 3700?mg?m?2, while clearance declined from 7.4 to 1.7?l?h?1?m?2 over the same dose range. The terminal half-life was 8.1±4.3?h. More than 99% of the drug was protein bound at doses up to 320?mg?m?2; at higher doses the percent free drug increased to a maximum of 6.9% at 4900?mg?m?2. Dose-dependent increases in the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were observed at dose levels of 650?mg?m?2 and above. There was one unconfirmed partial response at 1300?mg?m?2. In conclusion, DMXAA is a novel vascular targeting agent and is well tolerated. PMID:12698178

  4. 21 CFR 522.1073 - Gonadorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1073 Gonadorelin acetate. (a) Specifications. Each...

  5. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    was originally applied to water desalination in which water was extracted from aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Here, we explore its potential to recover acetate produced via fermentation. At 40C 55C, which corresponds to typical fen-fermentation temperatures...

  6. [carbonyl-11 C]Benzyl acetate: Automated

    E-print Network

    Pike, Victor W.

    Fujita,a Osamu Inoue,b Robert B. Innis,a and Victor W. Pikea [carbonyl-11 C]Benzyl acetate ([11 C]1) has, so increasing the difficulty of their use in small-scale automated radiochemistry. Organolithium

  7. Concurrent profiling of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, and cytokinins and structurally related purines by high-performance-liquid-chromatography tandem electrospray mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cytokinins (CKs) are a group of plant growth regulators that are involved in several plant developmental processes. Despite the breadth of knowledge surrounding CKs and their diverse functions, much remains to be discovered about the full potential of CKs, including their relationship with the purine salvage pathway, and other phytohormones. The most widely used approach to query unknown facets of CK biology utilized functional genomics coupled with CK metabolite assays and screening of CK associated phenotypes. There are numerous different types of assays for determining CK quantity, however, none of these methods screen for the compendium of metabolites that are necessary for elucidating all roles, including purine salvage pathway enzymes in CK metabolism, and CK cross-talk with other phytohormones. Furthermore, all published analytical methods have drawbacks ranging from the required use of radiolabelled compounds, or hazardous derivatization reagents, poor sensitivity, lack of resolution between CK isomers and lengthy run times. Results In this paper, a method is described for the concurrent extraction, purification and analysis of several CKs (freebases, ribosides, glucosides, nucleotides), purines (adenosine monophosphate, inosine, adenosine, and adenine), indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid from hundred-milligram (mg) quantities of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue. This method utilizes conventional Bieleski solvents extraction, solid phase purification, and is unique because of its diverse range of detectable analytes, and implementation of a conventional HPLC system with a fused core column that enables good sensitivity without the requirement of a UHPLC system. Using this method we were able to resolve CKs about twice as fast as our previous method. Similarly, analysis of adenosine, indole-3-acetic acid, and abscisic acid, was comparatively rapid. A further enhancement of the method was the utilization of a QTRAP 5500 mass analyzer, which improved upon several aspects of our previous analytical method carried out on a Quattro mass analyzer. Notable improvements included much superior sensitivity, and number of analytes detectable within a single run. Limits of detection ranged from 2 pM for (9G)Z to almost 750 pM for indole-3-acetic acid. Conclusions This method is well suited for functional genomics platforms tailored to understanding CK metabolism, CK interrelationships with purine recycling and associated hormonal cross-talk. PMID:23061971

  8. Synthesis of g-C3N4 with heating acetic acid treated melamine and its photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xue-wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The g-C3N4 is synthesized by directly heating the acetic acid treatment melamine. A combination of XRD, SEM, TEM, PL and UV-vis are utilized to characterize the composition, morphology and optical properties of g-C3N4. This method synthesized g-C3N4 shows smaller particles and some holes which high up the photocatalytic activity compared with the bulk g-C3N4.

  9. Activation of methyl acetate on Pd(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Xu, Ye

    2010-06-01

    The adsorption and activation of methyl acetate (CH 3COOCH 3), one of the simplest carboxylic esters, on Pd(111) have been studied using self-consistent periodic density functional theory calculations. Methyl acetate adsorbs weakly through the carbonyl oxygen. Its activation occurs via dehydrogenation, instead of direct C-O bond dissociation, on clean Pd(111): It is much more difficult to dissociate the C-O bonds ( Ea ? 2.0 eV for the carbonyl and acetate-methyl bonds; Ea = 1.0 eV for the acetyl-methoxy bond) than to dissociate the C-H bonds to produce enolate (CH 2COOCH 3; Ea = 0.74 eV) or methylene acetate (CH 3COOCH 2; Ea = 0.82 eV). The barriers for C-H and C-O bond dissociation are directly calculated for enolate and methylene acetate, and estimated for further dehydrogenated derivatives (CH 3COOCH, CH 2COOCH 2, and CHCOOCH 3) based on the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi linear energy relations formed by the calculated steps. The enolate pathway leads to successive dehydrogenation to CCOOCH 3, whereas methylene acetate readily dissociates to yield acetyl. The selectivity for dissociating the acyl-alkoxy C-O bond, which is desired for alcohol formation, is therefore fundamentally limited by the facility of dehydrogenation under vacuum/low-pressure conditions on Pd(111).

  10. Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the anhydrous tryptaminium salts of the isomeric (2,4-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic and (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acids

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Lynch, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    The anhydrous salts of 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine (tryptamine) with isomeric (2,4-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) and (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic (3,5-D), both C10H13N2 +·C8H5Cl2O3 ? [(I) and (II), respectively], have been determined and their one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymeric structures are described. In the crystal of (I), the aminium H atoms are involved in three separate inter-species N—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, two with carboxyl­ate O-atom acceptors and the third in an asymmetric three-centre bidentate carboxyl­ate O,O? chelate [graph set R 1 2(4)]. The indole H atom forms an N—H?Ocarboxyl­ate hydrogen bond, extending the chain structure along the b-axis direction. In (II), two of the three aminium H atoms are also involved in N—H?Ocarboxyl­ate hydrogen bonds similar to (I) but with the third, a three-centre asymmetric inter­action with carboxyl­ate and phen­oxy O atoms is found [graph set R 1 2(5)]. The chain polymeric extension is also along b. There are no ?–? ring inter­actions in either of the structures. The aminium side-chain conformations differ significantly between the two structures, reflecting the conformational ambivalence of the tryptaminium cation, as found also in the benzoate salts. PMID:26090147

  11. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  12. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  13. Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

  14. Simultaneous Quantitation of Indole 3-Acetic Acid and Abscisic Acid in Small Samples of Plant Tissue by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Selected Ion Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Vine, John H.; Noiton, Dominique; Plummer, Julie A.; Baleriola-Lucas, Cristina; Mullins, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) was analyzed in apple, orange, and prune tissue by GC-MS by monitoring the protonated molecular ion of its methyl ester at mass to charge ratio (m/z) 190 together with the major fragment ion at m/z 130 and the corresponding ions from the methyl esters of either [2H4]IAA (m/z 194, 134) or [2H5]IAA (m/z 195, 135). Abscisic acid (ABA) was analyzed by monitoring the major fragment ions of its methyl ester at m/z 261 and m/z 247 and the corresponding ions from the methyl ester of [2H3]ABA (m/z 264, 250). Detection limits for IAA and ABA were 1 and 10 picograms, respectively using standards and 1 nanogram per gram dry weight for both phytohormones in plant tissue. PMID:16665713

  15. The influence of 2-propanol and acetone on oviposition rate and oviposition site preference for acetic acid and ethanol of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Eisses, K T

    1997-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster strains, homozygous for the alcohol dehydrogenase alleles AdhF, AdhS, and Adhn4 respectively, were tested for oviposition site preference with a Multiple Choice Device consisting of 18 patches per choice disk. Equal numbers of patches with ethanol-, acetic acid-, and water-supplemented medium were offered simultaneously. Patches with acetic acid-supplemented medium were chosen predominantly as oviposition sites. Pretreatment of flies with increasing concentrations of 2-propanol to inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity resulted not only in a decreasing choice of acetic acid patches, but also in the laying of a decreasing number of eggs. Adh-null mutant flies showed a similar change in behavior pattern after 2-propanol treatment. Therefore it was concluded that ADH activity is not involved primarily in oviposition site preference behavior. A complicating factor is acetone, the oxidation product of 2-propanol, which had an even larger impact on egg production. However, differences in ADH allozymes with respect to biochemical oxidation capacity of secondary alcohols will not necessarily lead to differences between the Adh genotypes in oviposition rates or apparent changes in preferences, due to additional biochemical differences in inhibition rates by acetone of the various allozymes and other enzyme systems. PMID:9210788

  16. Protective effect of cavidine on acetic acid-induced murine colitis via regulating antioxidant, cytokine profile and NF-?B signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Hailin; Li, Weifeng; Wang, Yu; Mu, Qingli; Wang, Xiumei; He, Zehong; Yao, Huan

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by neutrophils infiltration, oxidative stress, upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Cavidine possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used to treat various inflammatory diseases but its effect on ulcerative colitis has not been previously explored. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of cavidine on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Colitis mice induced by intra-rectal acetic acid (5%, v/v) administration received cavidine (1, 5 and 10mg/kg, i.g) or sulfasalazine (500mg/kg, i.g) for seven consecutive days. After euthanized by cervical dislocation, colonic segments of mice were excised for clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. Results suggested treatment with cavidine significantly decreased mortality rate, body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), wet colon weight, macroscopic and histological score when compared with that of acetic acid-induced controls. In addition, administration of cavidine effectively modulated expressions of MPO, GSH, SOD and MDA. Furthermore cavidine inhibited the level of TNF-? and IL-6 in the serum and colon tissue in response to the regulation of p65 NF-?B protein expression. All these results indicated cavidine exerts marked protective effect in experimental colitis, possibly by regulating the expression of oxygen metabolites, NF-?B and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:26102009

  17. Diethylentriaminepenta acetic acid glucose conjugates as a cell permeable iron chelator

    PubMed Central

    Mosayebnia, Mona; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Pasalar, Parvin; Mashayekhi, Mojgan; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether DTPA-DG complex can enhance clearance of intracellular free iron. Materials and Methods: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-deoxy-glucosamine (DTPA-DG) was synthesized and examined for its activity as a cell-permeable iron chelator in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) cell line exposed to high concentration of iron sulfate and compared with deferoxamine (DFO), a prototype iron chelator. The effect of DTPA-DG on cell viability was monitored using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay as well. Results: There was a significant increase of iron level after iron overload induction in HEPG2 cell culture. DTPA-DG presented a remarkable capacity to iron burden reducing with estimated 50% inhibitory concentration value of 65.77 nM. In fact, glycosyl moiety was gained access of DTPA to intracellular iron deposits through glucose transporter systems. Conclusion: DTPA-DG, more potent than DFO to sequester deposits of free iron with no profound toxic effect. The results suggest the potential of DTPA-DG in chelating iron and permitting its excretion from primary organ storage. PMID:24554907

  18. Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Hilton, R; Basoalto, E; Stelinski, L L

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to assess glacial acetic acid (GAA) with various host plant volatiles (HPVs) and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8, 10-dodecadien-1-ol, of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), as lures in traps for tortricid pests that often co-occur in tree fruits in the western United States. In addition to codling moth, field trapping studies were conducted with oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the eyespotted budmoth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller). HPVs included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, (E)-?-ocimene, (E)-?-farnesene, and farnesol. Three types of GAA co-lures differing in a 10-fold range in weekly evaporation rates were tested. The evaporation rate of GAA co-lures was an important factor affecting moth catches. The highest rate tested captured fewer codling moth but more leafrollers and eyespotted budmoth. GAA co-lures caught both sexes of each species. The field life of butyl hexanoate and (E)-?-ocimene lures were much shorter than pear ester or sex pheromone lures. Adding GAA to pear ester or to (E)-?-ocimene significantly increased the catches of only codling moth or oriental fruit moth, respectively. Combining pear ester or (E)-?-ocimene with GAA did not affect the catch of either species compared with the single more attractive HPV. Adding HPVs to GAA did not increase the catches of either leafroller species or eyespotted budmoth. Traps baited with pear ester, sex pheromone, and GAA for monitoring codling moth were also effective in classifying pest pressure of both leafroller species within orchards. PMID:25268327

  19. Differential involvement of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness of Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae.

    PubMed

    Manulis, S; Haviv-Chesner, A; Brandl, M T; Lindow, S E; Barash, I

    1998-07-01

    Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg), which induces galls on Gypsophila paniculata, harbors two major pathways for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyA) routes, as well as cytokinin biosynthetic genes. Mutants were generated in which the various biosynthetic routes were disrupted separately or jointly in order to assess the contribution of IAA of various origins and cytokinins to pathogenicity and epiphytic fitness. Inactivation of the IAM pathway or cytokinin biosynthesis caused the largest reduction in gall size. Inactivation of the IPyA pathway caused a minor, nonsignificant decrease in pathogenicity. No further reduction in gall size was observed by the simultaneous inactivation of both IAA pathways only or in combination with that of cytokinin production. However, inactivation of the IPyA pathway caused a 14-fold reduction in the population of Ehg on bean plants. Inactivation of the IAM pathway or cytokinin production did not affect epiphytic fitness. While the apparent transcriptional activity of iaaM-inaZ fusion increased slightly in cells of Ehg on bean and gypsophila leaves, compared with that in culture, very high levels of induction were observed in cells injected into gypsophila stems. In contrast, moderate levels of induction of ipdC-inaZ in Ehg were observed on leaves of these plants and in gypsophila stems, when compared with that in culture. These results suggest that the IAM pathway is involved primarily in gall formation and support the main contribution of the IpyA pathway to the epiphytic fitness of this bacterial species. PMID:9650296

  20. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-28

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth. PMID:25907061

  1. Diversity of culturable yeasts in phylloplane of sugarcane in Thailand and their capability to produce indole-3-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko

    2014-06-01

    Yeasts were isolated by the enrichment technique from the phylloplane of 94 samples of sugarcane leaf collected from seven provinces in Thailand. All sugarcane leaf samples contained yeasts and 158 yeast strains were obtained. On the basis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene sequence analysis, 144 strains were identified to 24 known species in 14 genera belonging to the Ascomycota viz. Candida akabanensis, Candida dendronema, Candida mesorugosa, Candida michaelii, Candida nivariensis, Candida rugosa, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida quercitrusa, Candida tropicalis, Candida xylopsoci, Cyberlindnera fabianii, Cyberlindnera rhodanensis, Debaryomyces nepalensis, Hannaella aff. coprosmaensis, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lachancea thermotolerans, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Metschnikowia koreensis, Meyerozyma caribbica, Millerozyma koratensis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Wickerhamomyces edaphicus, and 12 species in six genera of the Basidiomycota viz . Cryptococcus flavescens, Cryptococcus laurentii, Cryptococcus rajasthanensis, Kwoniella heveanensis, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodosporidium paludigenum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula sesimbrana, Rhodotorula taiwanensis, Sporidiobolus ruineniae, Sporobolomyces carnicolor and Sporobolomyces nylandii. Seven strains were identical or similar to four undescribed species. Another seven strains represented four novels species in the genus Metschnikowia, Nakazawaea, Wickerhamomyces and Yamadazyma. The results revealed 69 % of the isolated strains were ascomycete yeasts and 31 % were basidiomycete yeast. The most prevalent species was M. caribbica with a 23 % frequency of occurrence followed by Rh. taiwanensis (11 %) and C. tropicalis (10 %). All strains were assessed for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing capability showing that 69 strains had the capability of producing IAA when cultivated in yeast extract peptone dextrose broth supplemented with 1 g/L L-tryptophan. The highest IAA concentration of 565.1 mg/L was produced by R. fluviale DMKU-RK253. PMID:24442819

  2. Medicago truncatula improves salt tolerance when nodulated by an indole-3-acetic acid-overproducing Sinorhizobium meliloti strain.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The abiotic stress resistance of wild-type Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 was compared with that of RD64, a derivative of the 1021 strain harbouring an additional pathway for the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), expressed in both free-living bacteria and bacteroids. It is shown here that the IAA-overproducing RD64 strain accumulated a higher level of trehalose as its endogenous osmolyte and showed an increased tolerance to several stress conditions (55 degrees C, 4 degrees C, UV-irradiation, 0.5 M NaCl, and pH 3). Medicago truncatula plants nodulated by RD64 (Mt-RD64) showed re-modulation of phytohormones, with a higher IAA content in nodules and roots and a decreased IAA level in shoots as compared with plants nodulated by the wild-type strain 1021 (Mt-1021). The response of nodulated M. truncatula plants to salt stress, when 0.3 M NaCl was applied, was analysed. For Mt-RD64 plants higher internal proline contents, almost unchanged hydrogen peroxide levels, and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, total peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) were found compared with Mt-1021 plants. These results were positively correlated with reduced symptoms of senescence, lower expression of ethylene signalling genes, lower reduction of shoot dry weight, and better nitrogen-fixing capacity observed for these plants. Upon re-watering, after 0.3 M NaCl treatment, Mt-1021 plants almost die whereas Mt-RD64 plants showed visual signs of recovery. Finally, the shoot dry weight of Mt-RD64 plants treated with 0.15 M NaCl was not statistically different from that of Mt-1021 plants grown under non-stressed conditions. PMID:19436044

  3. Altered sensitivity to ellagic acid in neuroblastoma cells undergoing differentiation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Alfredsson, Christina Fjæraa; Rendel, Filip; Liang, Qui-Li; Sundström, Birgitta E; Nånberg, Eewa

    2015-12-01

    Ellagic acid has previously been reported to induce reduced proliferation and activation of apoptosis in several tumor cell lines including our own previous data from non-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The aim of this study was now to investigate if in vitro differentiation with the phorbol ester 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or the vitamin A derivative all-trans retinoic acid altered the sensitivity to ellagic acid in SH-SY5Y cells. The methods used were cell counting and LDH-assay for evaluation of cell number and cell death, flow cytometric analysis of SubG1- and TUNEL-analysis for apoptosis and western blot for expression of apoptosis-associated proteins. In vitro differentiation was shown to reduce the sensitivity to ellagic acid with respect to cell detachment, loss of viability and activation of apoptosis. The protective effect was phenotype-specific and most prominent in all-trans retinoic acid-differentiated cultures. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of Bcl-2 and integrin expression is introduced as possible protective mechanisms. The presented data also point to a positive correlation between proliferative activity and sensitivity to ellagic-acid-induced cell detachment. In conclusion, the presented data emphasize the need to consider degree of neuronal differentiation and phenotype of neuroblastoma cells when discussing a potential pharmaceutical application of ellagic acid in tumor treatment. PMID:26653548

  4. Direct Detection of the Acetate-forming Activity of the Enzyme Acetate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Matthew L.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J.; Smith, Kerry S.

    2011-01-01

    Acetate kinase, a member of the acetate and sugar kinase-Hsp70-actin (ASKHA) enzyme superfamily1-5, is responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of acetate to acetyl phosphate utilizing ATP as a substrate. Acetate kinases are ubiquitous in the Bacteria, found in one genus of Archaea, and are also present in microbes of the Eukarya6. The most well characterized acetate kinase is that from the methane-producing archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila7-14. An acetate kinase which can only utilize PPi but not ATP in the acetyl phosphate-forming direction has been isolated from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, and has thus far only been found in this genus15,16. In the direction of acetyl phosphate formation, acetate kinase activity is typically measured using the hydroxamate assay, first described by Lipmann17-20, a coupled assay in which conversion of ATP to ADP is coupled to oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by the enzymes pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase21,22, or an assay measuring release of inorganic phosphate after reaction of the acetyl phosphate product with hydroxylamine23. Activity in the opposite, acetate-forming direction is measured by coupling ATP formation from ADP to the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH by the enzymes hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase24. Here we describe a method for the detection of acetate kinase activity in the direction of acetate formation that does not require coupling enzymes, but is instead based on direct determination of acetyl phosphate consumption. After the enzymatic reaction, remaining acetyl phosphate is converted to a ferric hydroxamate complex that can be measured spectrophotometrically, as for the hydroxamate assay. Thus, unlike the standard coupled assay for this direction that is dependent on the production of ATP from ADP, this direct assay can be used for acetate kinases that produce ATP or PPi. PMID:22214984

  5. Studies of the chemistry of the [Ru(H{sub 2}O)Cl{sub 5}]{sup 2{minus}} form of ruthenium(III) in acetic acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Buslaeva, T.M.; Rudnitskaya, O.V.; Marov, I.N.; Red`kina, S.N.; Belyaeva, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The behavior of the [Ru(H{sub 2}O)Cl{sub 5}]{sup 2{minus}} form of ruthenium(III) in acetic acid solutions is studied for the first time. It is established that, when the solution of the title complex is allowed to stand in 8.5 M CH{sub 3}COOH at 50{degrees}C, it first hydrates with simultaneous substitution of the acetate ions for the water molecules to form the [Ru(H{sub 2}O)Cl{sub 4}(CH{sub 3}COO)]{sup 2{minus}} and/or [RuCl{sub 4}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}]{sup 3{minus}} complexes in addition to [Ru(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup {minus}}. The two former complexes yield EPR signals with 2.68 and 2.52 g-factors, respectively. It is noted that EPR spectra with g = 2.31, 2.21, 2.09, and 2.05 can belong both to the mono- and polynuclear ruthenium(III) compounds that are formed in reaction of the parent complex with acetic acid. Experimental evidence favoring both currently suggested concepts is presented.

  6. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  7. Novel nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov., associated with coffee plants.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ramírez, L E; Bustillos-Cristales, R; Tapia-Hernández, A; Jiménez-Salgado, T; Wang, E T; Martínez-Romero, E; Caballero-Mellado, J

    2001-07-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated, in two different years, from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants cultivated in Mexico; they were designated as type DOR and type SAd isolates. They showed characteristics of the family Acetobacteraceae, having some features in common with Gluconacetobacter (formerly Acetobacter) diazotrophicus, the only known N2-fixing species of the acetic acid bacteria, but they differed from this species with regard to several characteristics. Type DOR isolates can be differentiated phenotypically from type SAd isolates. Type DOR isolates and type SAd isolates can both be differentiated from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus by their growth features on culture media, their use of amino acids as nitrogen sources and their carbon-source usage. These results, together with the electrophoretic mobility patterns of metabolic enzymes and amplified rDNA restriction analysis, suggested that the type DOR and type SAd isolates represent two novel N2-fixing species. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences revealed that strains CFN-Cf55T (type DOR isolate) and CFN-Ca54T (type SAd isolate) were closer to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (both strains had sequence similarities of 98.3%) than to Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens, Gluconacetobacter sacchari (similarities < 98%) or any other acetobacteria. Strain CFN-Cf55T exhibited low levels of DNA-DNA reassociation with type SAd isolates (mean 42%) and strain CFN-Ca54T exhibited mean DNA-DNA reassociation of 39.5% with type DOR isolates. Strains CFN-Cf55T and CFN-Ca54T exhibited very low DNA reassociation levels, 7-21%, with other closely related acetobacterial species. On the basis of these results, two novel N2-fixing species are proposed for the family Acetobacteraceae, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov. (for the type DOR isolates), with strain CFN-Cf55T (= ATCC 700987T = DSM 13595T) as the type strain, and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov. (for the type SAd isolates), with strain CFN-Ca54T (= ATCC 70098ST = DSM 13594T) as the type strain. PMID:11491326

  8. Expression of the AZR1 gene (ORF YGR224w), encoding a plasma membrane transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, is required for adaptation to acetic acid and resistance to azoles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tenreiro, S; Rosa, P C; Viegas, C A; Sá-Correia, I

    2000-12-01

    In this work, we report results on the functional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORF YGR224w, predicted to code for an integral membrane protein, with 14 potential transmembrane segments, belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters which are required for multiple-drug resistance (MDR). This MFS-MDR homologue is required for yeast adaptation to high stress imposed by low-chain organic acids, in particular by acetic acid, and for resistance to azoles, especially to ketoconazole and fluconazole; the encoding gene was thus named the AZR1 gene. These conclusions were based on the higher susceptibility to these compounds of an azr1Delta deletion mutant strain compared with the wild-type and on the increased resistance of both azr1Delta and wild-type strains upon increased expression of the AZR1 gene from a centromeric plasmid clone. AZR1 gene expression reduces the duration of acetic acid-induced latency, although the growth kinetics of adapted cells under acetic acid stress is apparently independent of AZR1 expression level. Fluorescence microscopy observation of the distribution of the Azr1-GFP fusion protein in yeast living cells indicated that Azr1 is a plasma membrane protein. Studies carried out to gain some understanding of how this plasma membrane putative transporter facilitates yeast adaptation to acetic acid did not implicate Azr1p in the alteration of acetic acid accumulation into the cell through the active efflux of acetate. PMID:11113970

  9. The Low Biomass Yields of the Acetic Acid Bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus Are Due to a Low Stoichiometry of Respiration-Coupled Proton Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Luttik, M.; Van Spanning, R.; Schipper, D.; Van Dijken, J. P.; Pronk, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    Growth energetics of the acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus were studied with aerobic, ethanol-limited chemostat cultures. In these cultures, production of acetate was negligible. Carbon limitation and energy limitation were also evident from the observation that biomass concentrations in the cultures were proportional to the concentration of ethanol in the reservoir media. Nevertheless, low concentrations of a few organic metabolites (glycolate, citrate, and mannitol) were detected in culture supernatants. From a series of chemostat cultures grown at different dilution rates, the maintenance energy requirements for ethanol and oxygen were estimated at 4.1 mmol of ethanol (middot) g of biomass(sup-1) (middot) h(sup-1) and 11.7 mmol of O(inf2) (middot) g of biomass(sup-1) (middot) h(sup-1), respectively. When biomass yields were corrected for these maintenance requirements, the Y(infmax) values on ethanol and oxygen were 13.1 g of biomass (middot) mol of ethanol(sup-1) and 5.6 g of biomass (middot) mol of O(inf2)(sup-1), respectively. These biomass yields are very low in comparison with those of other microorganisms grown under comparable conditions. To investigate whether the low growth efficiency of A. pasteurianus might be due to a low gain of metabolic energy from respiratory dissimilation, (symbl)H(sup+)/O stoichiometries were estimated during acetate oxidation by cell suspensions. These experiments indicated an (symbl)H(sup+)/O stoichiometry for acetate oxidation of 1.9 (plusmn) 0.1 mol of H(sup+)/mol of O. Theoretical calculations of growth energetics showed that this low (symbl)H(sup+)/O ratio adequately explained the low biomass yield of A. pasteurianus in ethanol-limited cultures. PMID:16535681

  10. A randomized controlled study on the effects of acetate-free biofiltration on organic anions and acid-base balance in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Canel, Juan J; Hernández-Jaras, Julio; Pons-Prades, Ramón

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic acidosis correction is achieved by the transfer of bicarbonate and other buffer anions in dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the main anions of intermediary metabolism on standard hemodiafiltration (HDF) and on acetate-free biofiltration (AFB). A prospective, in-center, crossover study was carried out with 22 patients on maintenance dialysis. Patients were randomly assigned to start with 12 successive sessions of standard HDF with bicarbonate (34?mmol/L) and acetate dialysate (3?mmol/L) or 12 successive sessions of AFB without base in the dialysate. Acetate increased significantly during the standard HDF session from 0.078?±?0.062?mmol/L to 0.156?±?0.128?mmol/L (P?acetate levels were observed at two hours (P?acid-base equilibrium through a bicarbonate substitution fluid. It also prevents hyperacetatemia and restores internal homeostasis with less production of intermediary metabolites. PMID:25256567

  11. The effectiveness of acetic acid wash protocol and the interpretation patterns of blood contaminated cervical cytology ThinPrep® specimens

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Nora K.; Ahmed, Yasin; Sethi, Seema; Neill, Daniel; Kalinicheva, Tatyana; Shidham, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background: ThinPrep® (TP) cervical cytology, as a liquid-based method, has many benefits but also a relatively high unsatisfactory rate due to debris/lubricant contamination and the presence of blood. These contaminants clog the TP filter and prevent the deposition of adequate diagnostic cells on the slide. An acetic acid wash (AAW) protocol is often used to lyse red blood cells, before preparing the TP slides. Design: From 23,291 TP cervical cytology specimens over a 4-month period, 2739 underwent AAW protocol due to initial unsatisfactory smear (UNS) with scant cellularity due to blood or being grossly bloody. Randomly selected 2739 cervical cytology specimens which did not undergo AAW from the same time period formed the control (non-AAW) group. Cytopathologic interpretations of AAW and non-AAW groups were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: About 94.2% of the 2739 cases which underwent AAW were subsequently satisfactory for evaluation with interpretations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) 4.9% (135), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) 3.7% (102), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) 1% (28). From the 2739 control cases, 96.3% were satisfactory with ASCUS 5.5% (151), LSIL 5.1% (139), and HSIL 0.7% (19). The prevalence of ASCUS interpretations was similar (P = 0.33). Although there were 32% more HSIL interpretations in the AAW group (28 in AAW vs. 19 in non-AAW), the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.18). AAW category; however, had significantly fewer LSIL interpretations (P = 0.02). The percentage of UNS cases remained higher in the AAW group with statistical significance (P < 0.01). Conclusions: While AAW had a significantly higher percent of UNS interpretations, the protocol was effective in rescuing 94.2% of specimens which otherwise may have been reported unsatisfactory. This improved patient care by avoiding a repeat test. The prevalence of ASCUS and HSIL interpretations between AAW and non-AAW groups were comparable. Though not statistically significant, HSIL interpretations were relatively higher in the AAW group. LSIL interpretations showed lower prevalence in AAW group. PMID:26604976

  12. Synthesis of aldehyde building blocks protected as acid labile N-Boc N,O-acetals: toward combinatorial solid phase synthesis of novel peptide isosteres.

    PubMed

    Groth, T; Meldal, M

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of (RS)-3'-tert-butoxycarbonyl-perhydro-1', 3'-oxazine-2'-yl acetic acid and the syntheses of the simple and C-2 substituted 3'-tert-butoxycarbonyl-perhydro-1',3'-oxazine-2'(RS)-yl propionic acids from simple starting materials are presented. The simple compounds were prepared from 1,3-propanediol and 1, 4-butanediol, respectively, via a short series of facile steps, in 70% overall yield in both cases. For the syntheses of the C-2 substituted compounds of the longer homologue, (RS)-3'-tert-butoxycarbonyl-perhydro-1',3'-oxazine-2'-yl propionic acid, a malonic ester route was selected, thus allowing easy incorporation of various side chains. The stability of the novel aldehyde protection group, the N-Boc N,O-acetal moiety, under various acidic conditions was investigated, and it was found to cleanly and rapidly yield the aldehyde under strong acidic conditions or, if desired, slower under less harsh conditions. As a demonstration of the use of the building blocks, one building block was coupled to a solid support and, after unmasking of the aldehyde, submitted to three different types of nucleophilic reactions (Pictet-Spengler condensation, reductive amination, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination) followed by further chemical modification, and the identity of the structures were verified after cleavage from the resin. PMID:11148062

  13. [Identification of new conserved and variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene of acetic acid bacteria and acetobacteraceae family].

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, S; Sarkar, S; Gachhui, R

    2015-01-01

    The Acetobacteraceae family of the class Alpha Proteobacteria is comprised of high sugar and acid tolerant bacteria. The Acetic Acid Bacteria are the economically most significant group of this family because of its association with food products like vinegar, wine etc. Acetobacteraceae are often hard to culture in laboratory conditions and they also maintain very low abundances in their natural habitats. Thus identification of the organisms in such environments is greatly dependent on modern tools of molecular biology which require a thorough knowledge of specific conserved gene sequences that may act as primers and or probes. Moreover unconserved domains in genes also become markers for differentiating closely related genera. In bacteria, the 16S rRNA gene is an ideal candidate for such conserved and variable domains. In order to study the conserved and variable domains of the 16S rRNA gene of Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Acetobacteraceae family, sequences from publicly available databases were aligned and compared. Near complete sequences of the gene were also obtained from Kombucha tea biofilm, a known Acetobacteraceae family habitat, in order to corroborate the domains obtained from the alignment studies. The study indicated that the degree of conservation in the gene is significantly higher among the Acetic Acid Bacteria than the whole Acetobacteraceae family. Moreover it was also observed that the previously described hypervariable regions V1, V3, V5, V6 and V7 were more or less conserved in the family and the spans of the variable regions are quite distinct as well. PMID:26510592

  14. Redox-Neutral ?-Sulfenylation of Secondary Amines: Ring-Fused N,S-Acetals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Secondary amines react with thiosalicylaldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of acetic acid to generate ring-fused N,S-acetals in redox-neutral fashion. A broad range of amines undergo ?-sulfenylation, including challenging substrates such morpholine, thiomorpholine, and piperazines. Computational studies employing density functional theory indicate that acetic acid reduces the energy barriers of two separate steps, both of which involve proton transfer. PMID:24927364

  15. Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.

    PubMed Central

    Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

    1990-01-01

    Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively. PMID:2285314

  16. A rapid hydrolysis method and DABS-Cl derivatization for complete amino acid analysis of octreotide acetate by reversed phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Yousef; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Attar, Hossein; Alamir Hoor, Amir

    2015-11-01

    Octreotide as a synthetic cyclic octapeptide is a somatostatin analog with longer half-life and more selectivity for inhibition of the growth hormone. The acetate salt of octreotide is currently used for medical treatment of somatostatin-related disorders such as endocrine and carcinoid tumors, acromegaly, and gigantism. Octreotide contains both cysteine and tryptophan residues which make the hydrolysis part of its amino acid analysis procedure very challenging. The current paper introduces a fast and additive-free method which preserves tryptophan and cysteine residues during the hydrolysis. Using only 6 M HCl, this hydrolysis process is completed in 30 min at 150 °C. This fast hydrolysis method followed by pre-column derivatization of the released amino acids with 4-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-sulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) which takes only 20 min, makes it possible to do the complete amino acid analysis of an octreotide sample in a few hours. The highly stable-colored DABS-Cl derivatives can be detected in 436 nm in a reversed phase chromatographic system, which eliminates spectral interferences to a great extent. The amino acid analysis of octreotide acetate including hydrolysis, derivatization, and reversed phase HPLC determination was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. PMID:26002809

  17. Effect of Endosperm Removal on 7 Normal NaOH-Labile Indole-3-acetic Acid Conjugates in Shoots and Roots of Zea mays Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Momonoki, Yoshie S.; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    The pool of amide-linked indole-3-acetic acid (amide IAA) in the shoot of growing etiolated seedlings of Zea mays increases between the 3rd and 5th day of germination to equal the amount of free IAA and two-thirds the amount of ester IAA. Deseeding the germinant changes the pool size of free and amide IAA in a manner suggestive of conversion of endogenous free IAA to amide IAA. Deseeding also caused an almost total disappearance of amide IAA from the root, demonstrating that the pool of amide IAA is not inert and can be actively metabolized in young Z. mays seedlings. PMID:16663602

  18. Acetic acid-confined synthesis of uniform three-dimensional (3D) bismuth telluride nanocrystals consisting of few-quintuple-layer nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiang; Radar, Kelly; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-11-28

    High-selectivity, uniform three-dimensional (3D) flower-like bismuth telluride (Bi(2)Te(3)) nanocrystals consisting of few-quintuple-layer nanoplatelets with a thickness down to 4.5 nm were synthesized for the first time by a facile, one-pot polyol method with acetic acid as the structure-director. Micrometre-sized 2D films and honeycomb-like spheres can be obtained using the uniform 3D Bi(2)Te(3) nanocrystals as building blocks. PMID:21994919

  19. Tetraethylene glycol promoted two-step, one-pot rapid synthesis of indole-3-[1-11C]acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sojeong; Qu, Wenchao; Alexoff, David L.; Shea, Colleen; Kim, Dohyun; Schueller, Michael; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-12-12

    An operationally friendly, two-step, one-pot process has been developed for the rapid synthesis of carbon-11 labeled indole-3-acetic acid ([11]IAA or [11]auxin). By replacing an aprotic polar solvent with tetraethylene glycol, nucleophilic [11]cyanation and alkaline hydrolysis reactions were performed consecutively in a single pot without a time-consuming intermediate purification step. The entire production time for this updated procedure is 55 min, which dramatically simplifies the entire synthesis and reduces the starting radioactivity required for a whole plant imaging study.

  20. Tetraethylene glycol promoted two-step, one-pot rapid synthesis of indole-3-[1-11C]acetic acid

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Sojeong; Qu, Wenchao; Alexoff, David L.; Shea, Colleen; Kim, Dohyun; Schueller, Michael; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-12-12

    An operationally friendly, two-step, one-pot process has been developed for the rapid synthesis of carbon-11 labeled indole-3-acetic acid ([11]IAA or [11]auxin). By replacing an aprotic polar solvent with tetraethylene glycol, nucleophilic [11]cyanation and alkaline hydrolysis reactions were performed consecutively in a single pot without a time-consuming intermediate purification step. The entire production time for this updated procedure is 55 min, which dramatically simplifies the entire synthesis and reduces the starting radioactivity required for a whole plant imaging study.

  1. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  2. Fermentative biohydrogen production from lactate and acetate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao-Wei; Whang, Liang-Ming; Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Chan, Kan-Chi

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with lactate and acetate was operated to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. By varying the influent substrate concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRT), the volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 55.64 kg-COD/m(3)/day seemed to be optimum for this enriched culture for fermentative hydrogen production from lactate and acetate. The results of batch experiments confirmed that the enriched culture tended to fulfill the e(-) equiv requirement for cell growth at a lower VLR condition (21.77 kg-COD/m(3)/day), while it could largely distribute the e(-) equiv for hydrogen production at a higher VLR condition. However, a maximum lactate/acetate concentration allowed for enriching this culture existed, especially at a lower HRT condition in which wash-out can be an issue for this enriched culture. Finally, the results of cloning and sequencing indicated that Clostridium tyrobutyricum was considered the major hydrogen-producing bacteria in the CSTR fed with lactate and acetate. PMID:22318084

  3. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  4. (6-methyl-2-methylsulfanyl-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-3-pyrimidinyl)acetic acid and related compounds exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Jakubkiene, V; Burbuliene, M M; Udrenaite, E; Garaliene, V; Vainilavicius, P

    2002-09-01

    Base-promoted hydrolysis of methyl or ethyl esters 1a-c gave the (6-methyl-2-methylsulfanyl-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-3-pyrimidinyl)- and (5-ethyl-6-methyl-2-methylsulfanyl-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-3-pyrimidinyl)acetic acids 2a, b. Under the reaction of ester 1a or acid 2a with nucleophilic reagents a series of derivatives 3-7 of acid 2a were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. Most of them were found to be more active than acetylsalicylic acid, and compounds 2a, 6a, b, 7a, f were significantly more active than ibuprofen. The compounds exhibiting the best anti-inflammatory activity showed negative inotropic effect. PMID:12369447

  5. Unifying bacteria from decaying wood with various ubiquitous Gibbsiella species as G. acetica sp. nov. based on nucleotide sequence similarities and their acetic acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Geider, Klaus; Gernold, Marina; Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate; Gross, Jürgen; Spiteller, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from necrotic apple and pear tree tissue and from dead wood in Germany and Austria as well as from pear tree exudate in China. They were selected for growth at 37°C, screened for levan production and then characterized as Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. Nucleotide sequences from 16S rRNA genes, the housekeeping genes dnaJ, gyrB, recA and rpoB alignments, BLAST searches and phenotypic data confirmed by MALDI-TOF analysis showed that these bacteria belong to the genus Gibbsiella and resembled strains isolated from diseased oaks in Britain and Spain. Gibbsiella-specific PCR primers were designed from the proline isomerase and the levansucrase genes. Acid secretion was investigated by screening for halo formation on calcium carbonate agar and the compound identified by NMR as acetic acid. Its production by Gibbsiella spp. strains was also determined in culture supernatants by GC/MS analysis after derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide. Some strains were differentiated by the PFGE patterns of SpeI digests and by sequence analyses of the lsc and the ppiD genes, and the Chinese Gibbsiella strain was most divergent. The newly investigated bacteria as well as Gibbsiella querinecans, Gibbsiella dentisursi and Gibbsiella papilionis, isolated in Britain, Spain, Korea and Japan, are taxonomically related Enterobacteriaceae, tolerate and secrete acetic acid. We therefore propose to unify them in the species Gibbsiella acetica sp. nov. PMID:26071988

  6. Corrosion resistance of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunst, S. R.; Cardoso, H. R. P.; Oliveira, C. T.; Santana, J. A.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Muller, I. L.; Malfatti, C. F.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol-gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane-PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase and irregular surface coverage.

  7. Growth/no growth models describing the influence of pH, lactic and acetic acid on lactic acid bacteria developed to determine the stability of acidified sauces.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, A; Devlieghere, F; Bernaerts, K; Van Impe, J; Debevere, J

    2007-11-01

    Growth/no growth models were developed for two spoilage bacteria typical for acidified sauces, L. plantarum and L. fructivorans. Influencing factors embedded in the model are also those typically encountered in these acidified sauces. The pH was varied between 3.0 and 5.0 (5 levels), and the acetic and lactic acid concentration ranged from 0 to 3% (6 levels). Modified MRS broth was inoculated at a high inoculation level (10(6) CFU/ml), incubated at 30 degrees C and growth was assessed by optical density measurements. All combinations of environmental conditions were tested in twelvefold yielding precise values for the probability of growth. Data were modelled by means of ordinary logistic regression. A comparison was made between a model containing the total acid concentrations as explanatory variables, on the one hand, and a model differentiating between the dissociated and undissociated concentrations, on the other hand. Results showed that (i) L. plantarum and L. fructivorans behave differently, resulting in a clearly distinct growth/no growth interface, (ii) there was no great difference between the established models with different explanatory variables, (iii) in some cases, growth/no growth boundaries at very low probabilities (which are more practical in industry) show illogical behaviour. The results of this study were also compared with the CIMSCEE code, which is often used by food producers to determine the stability of their acidified food products. PMID:17868939

  8. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. )

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  9. Acetic Acid (H3COOH): GaAs; Pb; Ti Hydrochloric Acid (HCl): Al; Cr; Cu; Fe2O3; Ga; GaAs; GaN; In; Fe; Pb; Ni; NiO, Ni2O3; Sn;

    E-print Network

    Garmestani, Hamid

    ; Fe; Pb; Ni; NiO, Ni2O3; Sn; SnO2; Ti; Zn Hydrofluoric Acid (HF): GaAs; Ni; SiO2; Ti Nitric Acid (HNO3 : hydrofluoric acid (49%, aq) HNO3 : nitric acid (70%, aq) H2SO4 : sulfuric acid (96%, aq) H3PO4 : phosphoricAcetic Acid (H3COOH): GaAs; Pb; Ti Hydrochloric Acid (HCl): Al; Cr; Cu; Fe2O3; Ga; GaAs; GaN; In

  10. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a -Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a -Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions...

  14. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  15. Expression of Acetate Permease-like (apl) Genes in Subsurface Communities of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Mouser, Paula; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Risso, Carla; Holmes, Dawn; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2010-09-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that suf?cient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Ri?e, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater ?ush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater ?ush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2–10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under ?eld conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  16. Cation profiling of passive films on stainless steel formed in sulphuric and acetic acid by deconvolution of angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högström, Jonas; Fredriksson, Wendy; Edstrom, Kristina; Björefors, Fredrik; Nyholm, Leif; Olsson, Claes-Olof A.

    2013-11-01

    An approach for determining depth gradients of metal-ion concentrations in passive films on stainless steel using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) is described. The iterative method, which is based on analyses of the oxidised metal peaks, provides increased precision and hence allows faster ARXPS measurements to be carried out. The method was used to determine the concentration depth profiles for molybdenum, iron and chromium in passive films on 316L/EN 1.4432 stainless steel samples oxidised in 0.5 M H2SO4 and acetic acid diluted with 0.02 M Na2B4O7 · 10H2O and 1 M H2O, respectively. The molybdenum concentration in the film is pin-pointed to the oxide/metal interface and the films also contained an iron-ion-enriched surface layer and a chromium-ion-dominated middle layer. Although films of similar composition and thickness (i.e., about 2 nm) were formed in the two electrolytes, the corrosion currents were found to be three orders of magnitude larger in the acetic acid solution. The differences in the layer composition, found for the two electrolytes as well as different oxidation conditions, can be explained based on the oxidation potentials of the metals and the dissolution rates of the different metal ions.

  17. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

  18. Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

  19. Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

  20. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983