These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Acetic acid bacteria in oenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria have always been considered the bad mi- croorganisms of oenology; responsible for wine spoiling (vine- gary taint). The taxonomy and our knowledge of the metabo- lism of acetic acid bacteria are rapidly evolving, especially as new molecular biology techniques are applied to this fastidious group of microorganisms, which are still rather difficult to work with. The dramatic

A. Mas; M. J. Torija; A. González; M. Poblet; J. M. Guillamón

2

New process for producing cellulose acetate from wood in concentrated acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore further potential applications of acetic acid pulp, an investigation was conducted to develop a direct method for producing cellulose acetate from wood in combination with atmospheric acetic acid pulping. The process consists of delignification, totally chlorine-free bleaching, and esterification, with the concentrated acetic acid aqueous solution being used as only solvent throughout the process. The acetic acid pulp

Hironori Sato; Yasumitsu Uraki; Takao Kishimoto; Yoshihiro Sano

2003-01-01

3

Extractive fermentation of acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1991-12-31

4

21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2 H4 O2 , CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant...fermentation of carbohydrates or by organic synthesis. The principal...

2011-04-01

5

Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid. PMID:25416587

Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

2014-11-22

6

Acetic acid bacteria as enantioselective biocatalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria (five strains of Acetobacter and five strains of Gluconobacter) were used for the biotransformation of different primary alcohols (2-chloropropanol and 2-phenylpropanol) and diols (1,3-butandiol, 1,4-nonandiol and 2,3-butandiol). Most of the tested strains efficiently oxidized the substrates. 2-Chloropropanol and 1,3-butandiol were oxidized with good rates and low enantioselectivity (enantiomeric excess=18–46% of the S-acid), while microbial oxidation of 2-phenylpropanol

A Romano; R Gandolfi; P Nitti; M Rollini; F Molinari

2002-01-01

7

Polypyrrole based strong acid catalyst for acetalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polypyrrole based acid catalyst has been synthesized through the neutralization reaction of polypyrrole and sulfuric acid. The polypyrrole based acid owned the acidity as high as 6.0 mmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the novel solid acid were investigated through the acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid held high activities for the reactions. Furthermore, the recycled activities of the catalyst indicated that the solid acid owned high stability during the catalytic process and little acid sites dropped from polypyrrole. The high acidity and stability made the novel polypyrrole based acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

Liang, Xuezheng; Cheng, Yuxiao; Qi, Chenze

2011-09-01

8

Formation of acetic acid from cellulosic substrates by Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of Fusarium oxysporum and a strain of Monilia brunnae were screened for their ability to convert cellulosic substrates into ethanol\\/acetic acid. These strains were found to utilize cellulose and produce extracellular cellulases. However, only F. oxysporum 841 was found to convert glucose, xylose, and cellulose into ethanol and acetic acid as major end-products under microaerobic conditions. Acetic acid

P. K. R. Kumar; Ajay Singh; K. Schiigerl

1991-01-01

9

Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

2015-02-01

10

Atmospheric formic and acetic acids in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas, phase and rain concentrations of HCOOH and CH 3COOH have been measured at various sites in the savannah climatic region, a cloud forest site and a coastal site in Venezuela. Gas phase and rain water were sampled using the aqueous scrubber technique and a wet only collector, respectively. Analyses were made by ion chromatography. The results indicate that formic and acetic acids are important components of the Venezuelan atmosphere. They are homogeneously distributed, suggesting a widespread source. Boundary layer concentrations during the dry season (HCOOH, 1.8 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 1.25 ppbv) are higher than in the wet season (HCOOH, 1.0 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 0.7 ppbv), mainly due to a longer lifetime of the acid during the dry season (˜6 days) compared with the wet season (˜2 days). The overall concentrations in rain are 7.0 and 4.0 ?M for formic and acetic acids, respectively. The estimated annual total depositions are: HCOOH, 17 mmol m -2 yr -1 and CH 3COOH,10 mmol m -2 yr -1; around half of the acids are removed by dry deposition. It is established that a larger source (˜1.8 times) of both acids is present during the wet season. We speculate that atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons should be the main source of HCOOH and CH 3COOH in the Venezuelan atmosphere; soil emissions could make a significant contribution during the dry season.

Sanhueza, Eugenio; Figueroa, Luis; Santana, Magaly

11

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

12

Oxidation of Indole-3-Acetic Acid to Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid by an Enzyme Preparation from Zea mays1  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants. PMID:11538238

Reinecke, Dennis M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1988-01-01

13

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

14

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw was made of the chemical com- position, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and fractionated into pulp

Xue-Jun PanYoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

15

Effect of ethyl acetate on carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of pulp produced in aqueous acetic acid pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in carbohydrate components and the crystalline structure in hemp bast\\u000a fibers by adding ethyl acetate to acetic acid\\/water pulping processes. It was found that ethyl acetate added to acetic acid\\/water\\u000a process had a positive effect on yield, viscosity and carbohydrate components in pulp. It was assumed that the delignification\\u000a ratio

Esat Gümü?kaya; Mustafa Usta; Mualla Balaban Uçar

2009-01-01

16

Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

Todd, Zoe; House, C.

2014-01-01

17

Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions. PMID:24630616

Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

2014-08-01

18

Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Oxindole-3-acetic Acid to 2,3-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H Indole-3-acetic Acid-7?-O-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Zea mays Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7?-O-?-d-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid ? Oxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. PMID:11540902

Nonhebel, Heather M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1984-01-01

19

Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

2008-03-01

20

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

21

Origin and fate of acetate in an acidic fen.  

PubMed

Acetate is a central intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter, and the resolution of its metabolism necessitates integrated strategies. This study aims to (1) estimate the contribution of acetogenesis to acetate formation in an acidic fen (pH ~ 4.9), (2) assess the genetic potential for acetogenesis targeting the fhs gene encoding formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) and (3) unravel the in situ turnover of acetate using stable carbon isotope pore-water analysis. H(2)/CO(2)-supplemented peat microcosms yielded (13)C-depleted acetate (-37.2‰ vs. VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite standard) compared with -14.2‰ vs. VPDB in an unamended control), indicating the potential for H(2)-dependent acetogenesis. Molecular analysis revealed a high diversity and depth-dependent distribution of fhs phylotypes with the highest number of operational taxonomic units in 0-20 cm depth, but only few and distant relationships to known acetogens. In pore waters, acetate concentrations (0-170 ?M) and ?(13)C-values varied widely (-17.4‰ to -3.4‰ vs. VPDB) and did not indicate acetogenesis, but pointed to a predominance of sinks, which preferentially consumed (12)C-acetate, like acetoclastic methanogenesis. However, depth profiles of methane and ?(13)C(CH4) revealed a temporarily and spatially restricted role of this acetate sink and suggest other processes like sulfate and iron reduction played an important role in acetate turnover. PMID:22404042

Hädrich, Anke; Heuer, Verena B; Herrmann, Martina; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

2012-08-01

22

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were\\u000a investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw\\u000a was made of the chemical composition, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and\\u000a fractionated into pulp (cellulose),

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

23

Proteome analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus during acetic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative, strictly aerobic microorganisms that show a unique resistance to ethanol (EtOH) and acetic acid (AcH). Members of the Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter genera are capable of transforming EtOH into AcH via the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes and are used for the industrial production of vinegar. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how AAB resist high concentrations of AcH, such as the assimilation of acetate through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the export of acetate by various transporters and modifications of the outer membrane. However, except for a few acetate-specific proteins, little is known about the global proteome responses to AcH. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE to compare the proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus LMG 1262(T) when growing in glucose or ethanol and in the presence of acetic acid. Interesting protein spots were selected using the ANOVA p-value of 0.05 as threshold and 1.5-fold as the minimal level of differential expression, and a total of 53 proteins were successfully identified. Additionally, the size of AAB was reduced by approximately 30% in length as a consequence of the acidity. A modification in the membrane polysaccharides was also revealed by PATAg specific staining. PMID:22155126

Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Chappuis, Marie-Louise; Boffa, Mauro; Perret, Xavier; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Barja, François

2012-03-16

24

Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization  

SciTech Connect

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup ?1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup ?1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup ?1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup ?1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup ?1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico) [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

2014-02-14

25

Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the

Wenjing Li; Daron G. Ferris; Rich W. Lieberman

2008-01-01

26

Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

27

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-01-01

28

Electrochemical behavior of graphite in electrolyte of sulfuric and acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical formation of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) has been studied in the electrolyte with mixed sulfuric acid and acetic acid. The results show that, with addition of acetic acid, GICs can be synthesized in the electrolyte with sulfuric acid concentration as low as 3.6M, even though no GIC is formed in pure acetic acid. The stage structure of the synthesized

F. Kang; T.-Y. Zhang; Y. Leng

1997-01-01

29

21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates or by organic synthesis. The principal synthetic methods currently employed are oxidation of acetaldehyde derived...

2010-04-01

30

Preservation of Vinegar Acetic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A starter culture is defined as a collection of microbial cells that are capable of initiating and completing a rapid fermentation\\u000a process. The microorganisms used as starter cultures in industrial applications, such as lactic acid bacteria and yeasts,\\u000a are usually conserved either in a frozen or a powdered form via the freeze-drying, spray-drying or fluidization processes\\u000a (To and Etzel, 1997).

Bassirou Ndoye; Ilse Cleenwerck; Jacqueline Destain; Amadou Tidiane Guiro; Philippe Thonart

31

Reactivity of some sugars and sugar phosphates towards gold(III) in sodium acetate–acetic acid buffer medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the oxidation of some aldoses and aldose phosphates have been studied spectrophotometrically in sodium acetate–acetic acid buffer medium at different temperatures. The reactions are first order with respect to [Au(III)] and [substrate]. Both H+ and Cl? ions retard the reaction. The reactions appear to involve different gold(III) species, viz. AuCl4?, AuCl3(OH2) and AuCl3(OH)?. The results are interpreted

Kalyan Kali Sen Gupta; Biswajit Pal; Bilkis Ara Begum

2001-01-01

32

Advantages of Zr 705 in the acetic acid industry  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium 705 (Zr + 2--3% niobium) is finding its way into more acetic acid plants as a replacement for Zirconium 702 (unalloyed Zr). The alloy was first proposed for the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) use in the early 1970s, but has not found wide spread use because of a few problems early in its history. Research revealed that the problems encountered were related to delayed hydride cracking (DHC). However, proper processing of the alloy after welding produces components free of DHC. The main advantage of Zirconium 705 (Zr 705) as compared to Zirconium 702 (Zr 702) is higher tensile and yield strengths. This allows pressure containing components to be rated at higher pressures which can increase plant efficiencies or they can be fabricated with thinner wall sections, thus reducing equipment cost. These advantages of Zr 705 will be reviewed as well as actual plant history of the alloy in acetic acid services.

Bird, K.W. [Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States); Breig, P.G.; Spence, T.C. [Duriron Company, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

33

Separation of acetic acid-water mixtures by pervaporation through silicalite membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline silicalite membranes were prepared on two kinds of porous supports by hydrothermal synthesis. The pervaporation performance of the silicalite membrane obtained was investigated using an acetic acid-water mixture as a feed. The silicalite membrane on the sintered stainless steel support selectively permeates acetic acid in the concentration of the feed acetic acid in the region of 5 to 40

Tsuneji Sano; Shigeyuki Ejiri; Kiyoshi Yamada; Yusuke Kawakami; Hiroshi Yanagishita

1997-01-01

34

Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

1986-01-01

35

4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) is a potent auxin in various auxin bioassays. Researchers have used 4-Cl-IAA as well as other halogenated auxins in biological assays to understand the structural features of auxins required to induce auxin mediated growth in plants. 4-Cl-IAA is a naturally occurring auxin in plants from the Vicieae tribe of the Fabaceae family; and 4-Cl-IAA has also been

Dennis M. Reinecke

1999-01-01

36

Dehydration of acetic acid by pervaporation with charged membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified Nafion membranes were prepared by charging Nafion 117 membrane with different long-chained counter ions and used for pervaporation of acetic acid–water mixture. It was observed, that the selectivity of Nafion membrane was enhanced by charging with long-chained counter ions. However, it led to a decrease in permeate flux because of decreasing solubility and diffusivity of the membranes. The results

Samuel P. Kusumocahyo; Masao Sudoh

1999-01-01

37

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v\\/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H2SO4 (w\\/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L\\/S) 10 (v\\/w), pulping temperature 105°C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15%

Xuejun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

2005-01-01

38

Inhibition of C4 photosynthesis by (benzamidooxy)acetic acid.  

PubMed

(Benzamidooxy)acetic acid (common name benzadox) which has herbicidal properties was evaluated as a potential inhibitor of photosynthesis in C4 plants. Among enzymes of the C4 pathway, it was a relatively strong inhibitor of alanine aminotransferase in in vitro experiments at concentrations of 5mM. In benzadox treated leaves of Panicum miliaceum, a NAD-malic enzyme type C4 species, there was strong inhibition of both alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and of photosynthetic O2 evolution within one hour. Consistent with the inhibition of these enzymes of the C4 cycle, the pool sizes of metabolites of the cycle was altered: the aspartate level was increased two fold, while the levels of other metabolites such as pyruvate, alanine, oxalacetate and malate were decreased. Kinetic studies with partially purified alanine aminotransferase showed that benzadox is a competitive inhibitor with respect to alanine and a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to 2-oxoglutarate. Comparisons between the structures and inhibitory actions of benzadox and (aminooxy)acetic acid, the latter a potent inhibitor of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, suggest that in vivo, benzadox may exert its effect through metabolism to (aminooxy)acetic acid. PMID:24458342

Nakamoto, H; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

1982-12-01

39

Direct Determination of Citric Acid in Milk with an Improved Pyridine-Acetic Anhydride Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The determination of citric acid with pyridine and acetic anhydride has been in- vestigated at reaction temperatures from 17 to 60 ° C. The optimum proportions of pyridine, acetic anhydride, water, and acetic acid for maximum color intensity and stability are given for each temperature. The procedure has been modified to eliminate the violent nature of the reaction, even

J. R. Marier; M. Boulet

1958-01-01

40

Indole-3-acetic acid in plant-microbe interactions.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetonitrile pathways. This chapter reviews the factors that effect the production of this phytohormone, the role of IAA in bacterial physiology and in plant-microbe interactions including phytostimulation and phytopathogenesis. PMID:24445491

Duca, Daiana; Lorv, Janet; Patten, Cheryl L; Rose, David; Glick, Bernard R

2014-07-01

41

Gas Cluster Ion Beam Etching under Acetic Acid Vapor for Etch-Resistant Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) etching of etch-resistant materials under acetic acid vapor was studied for development of new manufacturing process of future nonvolatile memory. Etching depths of various etch-resistant materials (Pt, Ru, Ta, CoFe) with acetic acid vapor during O2-GCIB irradiations were 1.8-10.7 times higher than those without acetic acid. Also, etching depths of Ru, Ta, CoFe by Ar-GCIB with acetic acid vapor were 2.2-16.1 times higher than those without acetic acid. Even after etching of Pt, smoothing of Pt was realized using O2-GCIB under acetic acid. From XPS and angular distribution of sputtered Pt, it was shown that PtOx layer was formed on Pt after O2-GCIB irradiation. PtOx reacted with acetic acid by GCIB bombardments; as a result, increase of etching depth was observed.

Yamaguchi, Akira; Hinoura, Ryo; Toyoda, Noriaki; Hara, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Isao

2013-05-01

42

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic biomass to acetic acid.  

PubMed

A strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum (ATCC 49707) was evaluated for its homoacetate potential. This thermophilic anaerobe best produces acetate from glucose at pH 6.0 and 59 degrees C with a yield of 83% of theoretical. Enzyme hydrolysis of two substrates, a-cellulose and a pulp mill sludge, yielded 68% and 70% digestion, respectively. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were substrate dependent: 55 degrees C, pH 6.0 for alpha-cellulose, and 55 degrees C, pH 5.5 for the pulp mill sludge. In the SSF with alpha-cellulose, the overall yield of acetate was strongly influenced by the enzyme loading. In a fed-batch operation of SSF with alpha-cellulose, an overall acetic acid yield of 60 wt% was obtained. Among the factors limiting the yields were incomplete digestion by the enzyme and the end-product inhibition. In the SSF of pulp mill sludge, inhibitors present in the sludge severely limited bacterial action. A large accumulation of glucose developed over the entire process, changing the intended SSF operation into a separate hydrolysis and fermentation operation. Despite a long lag phase of microbial growth, a terminal yield of 85% was obtained with this substrate. PMID:10849850

Borden, J R; Lee, Y Y; Yoon, H H

2000-01-01

43

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

44

Electrooxidation of tigogenin acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrooxidation of tigogenin acetate afforded two products: 3?-acetoxy-16?-hydroxy-23,24-dinor-5?-cholanoic acid lactone (2) and 20-epitigogenin acetate (3). The structure of the latter compound was confirmed by an X-ray analysis. The tentative mechanism of reaction is proposed.

Jacek W. Morzycki; Yliana López; Jolanta P?oszy?ska; Rosa Santillan; Leszek Siergiejczyk; Andrzej Sobkowiak

2007-01-01

45

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw II: Behavior of Ash and Silica in Rice Straw during Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping and Bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A detailed examination was made of the behavior and distribution of ash and silica during atmospheric acetic acid pulping and subsequent bleaching of rice straw. Ash-rich pulps (in unbleached pulp, about 18 %; and in bleached pulp, 16 %) with matchable strength properties for conventional alkaline pulps were obtained from rice straw by acetic acid pulping. More than 50

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano; Toshiaki Ito

1999-01-01

46

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailiram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mukherjee, Rudra Palash [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Bantraj, Kandi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Orissa (India)

2010-10-26

47

13C6-[Benzene Ring]-Indole-3-Acetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) labeled with 13C in the six carbons of the benzene ring is described for use as an internal standard for quantitative mass spectral analysis of IAA by gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring. [13C6]IAA was compared to the available deuterium labeled compounds and shown to offer the advantages of nonexchangeability of the isotope label, high isotopic enrichment, and chromatographic properties identical to that of the unlabeled compound. The utility of [13C6]IAA for measurement of endogenous IAA levels was demonstrated by analysis of IAA in Lemna gibba G-3. PMID:16664570

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Slovin, Janet Pernise

1986-01-01

48

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi; Maity, Sunil K.

2010-10-01

49

The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

2014-01-01

50

Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photolysis of S2O82- was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H2O2\\/UV system. The SO4- radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S2O82- ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO4- radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results

Justine Criquet; Nathalie Karpel Vel Leitner

2009-01-01

51

Brønsted Acid/Lewis Acid Cooperatively Catalyzed Addition of Diazoester to 2H-chromene Acetals.  

PubMed

A novel Brønsted acid/Lewis acid dual catalyst system has been developed to promote an efficient C-C bond formation between a range of oxocarbenium precursors derived from chromene acetals and ethyl diazoacetate. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions and is tolerant of common functionalized 2H-chromene and isochromene acetals. In addition, an asymmetric variant of diazoacetate addition towards 2H-chromene acetal is described. Continued investigations include the further optimization of asymmetric induction towards the formation of diazo ester substituted 2H-chromene. PMID:25411552

Luan, Yi; Qi, Yue; Gao, Hongyi; Ma, Qianqian; Schaus, Scott E

2014-11-01

52

Acetate/acetyl-CoA metabolism associated with cancer fatty acid synthesis: overview and application.  

PubMed

Understanding cancer-specific metabolism is important for identifying novel targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Induced acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism is a notable feature that is related to fatty acid synthesis supporting tumor growth. In this review, we focused on the recent findings related to cancer acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism. We also introduce [1-¹¹C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET), which is a useful tool to visualize up-regulation of acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism in cancer, and discuss the utility of [1-¹¹C]acetate PET in cancer diagnosis and its application to personalized medicine. PMID:24569091

Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

2015-01-28

53

Simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid using glassy carbon electrodes in acetate buffer solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reports the simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.2M, pH 4.0, acetate buffer solution using glassy carbon (GC) electrode by square wave voltammetry. Selective detection of UA in the presence of 200-fold excess of AA is achieved at the GC electrode in acetate buffer solution. The GC electrode separates the voltammetric signal

S. Abraham John

2005-01-01

54

Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China  

SciTech Connect

The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

Alperowicz, N.

1993-01-27

55

Effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid on preservation and aerobic deterioration of grass silage  

E-print Network

Effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid on preservation and aerobic deterioration of grass deterioration of low dry matter (DM) grass silage. For comparison untreated high DM grass silage was also grass was chopped and treated with equimolar amounts of formic acid (FA ; 3.3 g/kg), acetic acid (AA ; 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Inflammatory cells’ role in acetic acid-induced colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1), ex vivo (group 3), and enema after immune suppression (group 5). Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H2O2, we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful. PMID:25337523

Sanei, Mohammad H.; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh; Adibi, Peyman; Alavi, Sayyed Ali

2014-01-01

57

Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process  

SciTech Connect

It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

2009-06-30

58

Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications. PMID:25328203

Subari?, Drago; A?kar, Dur?ica; Babi?, Jurislav; Saka?, Nikola; Jozinovi?, Antun

2014-10-01

59

Reactivity of some sugars and sugar phosphates towards gold(III) in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer medium.  

PubMed

The kinetics of the oxidation of some aldoses and aldose phosphates have been studied spectrophotometrically in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer medium at different temperatures. The reactions are first order with respect to [Au(III)] and [substrate]. Both H+ and Cl- ions retard the reaction. The reactions appear to involve different gold(III) species, viz. AuCl4-, AuCl3(OH2) and AuCl3(OH)- . The results are interpreted in terms of the probable intermediate formation of free radicals and Au(II). Aldoses react with gold(III) in the order: triose > tetrose > pentose > hexose. The sugar phosphates react with gold(III) at a faster rate than the parent sugars except glucose-1-phosphate, which reacts at slower rates than glucose. A tentative reaction mechanism leading to the formation of products has been suggested. PMID:11217954

Sen Gupta, K K; Pal, B; Begum, B A

2001-01-15

60

Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a mid-latitude temperate site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas, the aerosol, and the rainwater phases were determined in samples collected 1-2 m above ground level at an open field site in eastern Virginia. These acids were found to occur principally (98 percent or above) in the gas phase, with a marked annual seasonality, averaging 1890 ppt for formate and 1310 ppt for acetate during the growing season, as compared to 695 ppt and 700 ppt, respectively, over the nongrowing season. The data support the hypothesis that biogenic emissions from vegatation are important sources of atmospheric formic and acetic acid during the local growing season. The same time trends were observed for precipitation, although with less defined seasonality. The relative increase of the acetic acid/formic acid ratio during the nongrowing season points to the dominance of anthropogenic inputs of acetic acid from motor vehicles and biomass combustion in the wintertime.

Talbot, R. W.; Beecher, K. M.; Harriss, R. C.; Cofer, R. W., III

1988-01-01

61

A novel fermentation pathway in an Escherichia coli mutant producing succinic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol.  

SciTech Connect

Escherichia coli strain NZN111, which is unable to grow fermentatively because of insertional inactivation of the genes encoding pyruvate: formate lyase and the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase, gave rise spontaneously to a chromosomal mutation that restored its ability to ferment glucose. The mutant strain, named AFP111, fermented glucose more slowly than did its wild-type ancestor, strain W1485, and generated a very different spectrum of products. AFP111 produced succinic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol in proportions of approx 2:1:1. Calculations of carbon and electron balances accounted fully for the observed products; 1 mol of glucose was converted to 1 mol of succinic acid and 0.5 mol each of acetic acid and ethanol. The data support the emergence in E.coli of a novel succinic acid:acetic acid:ethanol fermentation pathway.

Donnelly, M. I.; Millard, C. S.; Clark, D. P.; Chen, M. J.; Rathke, J. W.; Southern Illinois Univ.

1998-04-01

62

Measurements of acetone, acetic acid, and formic acid in the northern midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured acetone, acetic acid, and formic acid concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Germany. The measurements were performed by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry using new kinetic data on ion molecule reactions of formic and acetic acids with negative ions obtained at our laboratory. Mean volume mixing ratios between 384 and 832 parts per trillion (pptv) for acetone, 110 and 357 pptv for acetic acid, and 59 and 215 pptv for formic acid were obtained. The correlation between formic acid and acetic acid was very poor (r2 = 0.14). A better correlation could be observed for acetone and acetic acid, with a correlation coefficient r2 = 0.46 and a slope (acetic acid/acetone) of 0.31. For acetic acid a maximum around 9 km was observed. A significant fraction of the acetic acid observed in the lower stratosphere may be due to in situ photochemical production by reactions of HO2 and CH3O2 with peroxy acetyl radicals produced by the photolysis of acetone. In the upper troposphere, vertical transport is much more efficient, and significant acetic acid production is only possible if HOx concentrations are elevated, making the production of acetic acid fast enough to compete with vertical transport.

Reiner, Thomas; MöHler, Ottmar; Arnold, Frank

1999-06-01

63

Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.  

PubMed

Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:25060731

Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

2015-02-01

64

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

65

Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

66

Inactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases Belonging  

E-print Network

-acetic acid (IAA), also known as auxin, is a plant hormone involved in many aspects of plant growth on the growth of wild-type roots when applied exogenously. However, the roots of Arabidopsis plants carrying TInactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases

Pichersky, Eran

67

CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF 6,6´-DIMETHOXY-GOSSYPOL:ACETIC ACID (1:1)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

By crystallization from dilute solutions of acetic acid (2-4%) in diethyl ether, acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, 6,6´-dimethoxy-gossypol forms an inclusion complex with acetic acid in a one-to-one molar ratio. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic P1bar1¯space group and has unit cell dimensio...

68

Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5). Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are novel candidate genes for genetic engineering to obtain more robust yeast strains against acetic acid toxicity. Among these genes there are number of transcription factors that are documented regulators of a large percentage of the genes found to exert protection against acetic acid thus being considered interesting targets for subsequent genetic engineering. The increase of potassium concentration in the growth medium was found to improve the expression of maximal tolerance to acetic acid, consistent with the idea that the adequate manipulation of nutrient concentration of industrial growth medium can be an interesting strategy to surpass the deleterious effects of this weak acid in yeast cells. PMID:20973990

2010-01-01

69

Indole-3-acetic acid improves Escherichia coli's defences to stress.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a ubiquitous molecule playing regulatory roles in many living organisms. To elucidate the physiological changes induced by IAA treatment, we used Escherichia coli K-12 as a model system. By microarray analysis we found that 16 genes showed an altered expression level in IAA-treated cells. One-third of these genes encode cell envelope components, or proteins involved in bacterial adaptation to unfavourable environmental conditions. We thus investigated the effect of IAA treatment on some of the structural components of the envelope that may be involved in cellular response to stresses. This showed that IAA-treated cells had increased the production of trehalose, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and biofilm. We demonstrated further that IAA triggers an increased tolerance to several stress conditions (heat and cold shock, UV-irradiation, osmotic and acid shock and oxidative stress) and different toxic compounds (antibiotics, detergents and dyes) and this correlates with higher levels of the heat shock protein DnaK. We suggest that IAA triggers an increased level of alert and protection against external adverse conditions by coordinately enhancing different cellular defence systems. PMID:16555073

Bianco, C; Imperlini, E; Calogero, R; Senatore, B; Amoresano, A; Carpentieri, A; Pucci, P; Defez, R

2006-06-01

70

Acetic acid bacteria isolated from grapes of South Australian vineyards.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) diversity from healthy, mould-infected and rot-affected grapes collected from three vineyards of Adelaide Hills (South Australia) was analyzed by molecular typing and identification methods. Nine different AAB species were identified from the 624 isolates recovered: Four species from Gluconobacter genus, two from Asaia and one from Acetobacter were identified by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer. However, the identification of other isolates that were assigned as Asaia sp. and Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis required more analysis for a correct species classification. The species of Gluconobacter cerinus was the main one identified; while one genotype of Asaia siamensis presented the highest number of isolates. The number of colonies recovered and genotypes identified was strongly affected by the infection status of the grapes; the rot-affected with the highest number. However, the species diversity was similar in all the cases. High AAB diversity was detected with a specific genotype distribution for each vineyard. PMID:24681711

Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Bartowsky, E J

2014-05-16

71

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08

72

Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.  

PubMed

In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production. PMID:24891733

Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

2014-09-01

73

Chiral phosphoric acid directed regioselective acetalization of carbohydrate-derived 1,2-diols.  

PubMed

In control: A chiral phosphoric acid catalyst significantly enhances or completely overrides the inherent regioselective acetalization profiles exhibited by monosaccharide-derived 1,2-diol substrates. This study represents the first example of chiral-catalyst-directed regio- and enantioselective intermolecular acetalizations, which are complementary to existing methods for substrate-controlled functionalization of polyols. PMID:24123751

Mensah, Enoch; Camasso, Nicole; Kaplan, Will; Nagorny, Pavel

2013-12-01

74

The feeding value of water and acetic acid reconstituted sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows  

E-print Network

. Lane Sorghum grain, reconstituted to 30? moisture using water or an acetic acid solution to result in 2l acetic acid in the reconsti- tuted grain, was ensiled and compared to air-dry grain in digestion, production, and volatile fatty acid studies... production were not affected by the rations. An 1n vivo volatile fatty acid study was conducted w1th a f1stulated steer fed rat1ons containing dry grain, water reconsti- tuted gra1n, and grain reconstituted with 0. 5, 1. 0, 1. 5, 2. 0 and 2. 5K acetic...

Bade, David Heinie

1972-01-01

75

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic biomass to acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrain of Clostridium thermoaceticum (ATCC 49707) was evaluated for its homoacetate potential. This thermophilic anaerobe best produces acetate from glucose at\\u000a pH 6.0 and 59°C with a yield of 83% of theoretical. Enzyme hydrolysis of two substrates, a-cellulose and a pulp mill sludge,\\u000a yielded 68% and 70% digestion, respectively. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation\\u000a (SSF) were

Jacob R. Borden; Youn Y. Lee; Hyon-Hee Yoon

2000-01-01

76

Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System  

PubMed Central

In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth and higher productivity over an extended period; the productivity exceeded that from non-pH-controlled fermentation. During electrodialysis fermentation in our system, 97.6 g of acetic acid was produced from 86.0 g of ethanol; the amount of acetic acid was about 2.4 times greater than that produced by non-pH-controlled fermentation (40.1 g of acetic acid produced from 33.8 g of ethanol). Maximum productivity of electrodialysis fermentation in our system was 2.13 g/h, a rate which was 1.35 times higher than that of non-pH-controlled fermentation (1.58 g/h). PMID:16347520

Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

1988-01-01

77

Complexation of chitosan with acetic acid according to Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the interaction between the protonated chitosan (CHI) macromolecule and the acetate ion in dilute acetic acid solutions were studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical modeling. The complexation of CHI with the acetate ion showed itself as the 934 cm-1 band in the Raman spectrum, which suggests the formation of [CHI+ · CH3COO-] type ion pairs. It was concluded that a comparative analysis of the integrated intensities of the Raman bands in the range 880-940 cm-1 makes it possible to judge about the relative content of hydrated acetate ions, CHI macromolecules of the [CHI+ · CH3COO-] complex, and acetic acid molecules not involved in CHI protonation.

Mikhailov, G. P.; Tuchkov, S. V.; Lazarev, V. V.; Kulish, E. I.

2014-06-01

78

Improving fermentation performance of recombinant Zymomonas in acetic acid-containing media.  

PubMed

In the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, the hydrolysis of the acetylated pentosans in hemicellulose during pretreatment produces acetic acid in the prehydrolysate. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently investigating a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) process that uses a proprietary metabolically engineered strain of Zymomonas mobilis that can coferment glucose and xylose. Acetic acid toxicity represents a major limitation to bioconversion, and cost-effective means of reducing the inhibitory effects of acetic acid represent an opportunity for significant increased productivity and reduced cost of producing fermentation fuel ethanol from biomass. In this study, the fermentation performance of recombinant Z. mobilis 39676:pZB4L, using a synthetic hardwood prehydrolysate containing 1% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.2% KH2PO4, 4% (w/v) xylose, and 0.8% (w/v) glucose, with varying amounts of acetic acid was examine. To minimize the concentration of the inhibitory undissociated form of acetic acid, the pH was controlled at 6.0. The final cell mass concentration decreased linearly with increasing level of acetic acid over the range 0-0.75% (w/v), with a 50% reduction at about 0.5% (w/v) acetic acid. The conversion efficiency was relatively unaffected, decreasing from 98 to 92%. In the absence of acetic acid, batch fermentations were complete at 24 h. In a batch fermentation with 0.75% (w/v) acetic acid, about two-thirds of the xylose was not metabolized after 48 h. In batch fermentations with 0.75% (w/v) acetic acid, increasing the initial glucose concentration did not have an enhancing effect on the rate of xylose fermentation. However, nearly complete xylose fermentation was achieved in 48h when the bioreactor was fed glucose. In the fed-batch system, the rate of glucose feeding (0.5 g/h) was designed to simulate the rate of cellulolytic digestion that had been observed in a modeled SSCF process with recombinant Zymomonas. In the absence of acetic acid, this rate of glucose feeding did not inhibit xylose utilization. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on xylose utilization in the SSCF biomass-to-ethanol process will be partially ameliorated because of the simultaneous saccharification of the cellulose. PMID:9627380

Lawford, H G; Rousseau, J D

1998-01-01

79

Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene  

PubMed Central

We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

1998-01-01

80

Corrosion inhibition of indole-3-acetic acid on mild steel in 0.5 M HCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion inhibition of indole-3-acetic acid on mild steel in acidic medium (0.5M HCl) containing the desired amount of inhibitor has been investigated at different temperatures by using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and polarization resistance measurements. The experimental results showed that corrosion potential shifted toward a more negative potential region in the presence of indole-3-acetic acid than that of blank

Gül?en Avci

2008-01-01

81

Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene  

PubMed

We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

Robinson; Riov; Sharon

1998-12-01

82

Effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalene acetic acid on regeneration of damask rose cuttings in three growing media.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of various levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) treatments i.e., 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L(-1) on the regeneration of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cuttings in different growing media at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan during 2004. The data revealed significant effect of different levels of growth regulators and growing media on the rose establishment parameters viz., plant height, plant spread, number of primary shoots, secondary shoots and survival percentage. Maximum plant height (134.2 cm), plant spread (46.3 cm), primary shoots (6.3), secondary shoots (25) and survival percentage (94.72%) were recorded when the rose cuttings were applied with NAA at the rate of 50 mg L(-1). Among the plant growth regulators, Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found to be superior to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for its stronger effect regarding all parameters. The optimum level of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found in the range of 50 and 75 mg L(-1), while no such conclusion could be drawn for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as all growth parameters were linearly increased up to the highest concentrations of IAA i.e., 100 mg L(-1). Regarding growing media, the leaf mould appeared the best in terms of its positive effect on establishment of rose cuttings by giving the maximum plant height (125.1 cm), plant spread (37 cm), primary shoots (5.2), secondary shoots (19.48) and survival percentage (85.67%), followed by soil + leaf mould, while soil media was least effective. PMID:19093472

Khan, Rahmat Ullah; Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Rashid, Abdur; Farooq, Arshad

2007-10-15

83

Biosynthesis of the Halogenated Auxin, 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

Tivendale, Nathan D.; Davidson, Sandra E.; Davies, Noel W.; Smith, Jason A.; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I.; Quittenden, Laura J.; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K.; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B.; Ross, John J.

2012-01-01

84

75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...activity in all cells that utilize oxygen as part of their respiration process. The krebs cycle is carried out in the mitochondria...believes that because acetic acid biodegrades rapidly under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the environment, residues...

2010-07-14

85

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2010-04-01

86

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2012-04-01

87

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2011-04-01

88

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2013-04-01

89

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

...and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2014-04-01

90

Phase I and Clinical Pharmacology Study of Intravenous Flavone Acetic Acid (NSC347512)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a Phase I and pharmacological study of flavone acetic acid, one of a series of novel flavonoids. The drug was administered i.v. weekly for 4 weeks, with a 2-week rest and then repeated. Flavone acetic acid was given initially in a l-li infusion, but at the 3900-mg\\/m2 dose level, the infusion time was lengthened to 3 h.

Raymond B. Weiss; Raymond F. Greene; Robert D. Knight; Jerry M. Collins; John J. Pelosi; Aaron Sulkes; Gregory A. Curt

91

Responses of Pisum sativum L. to Exogenous Indole Acetic Acid Application Under Manganese Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings to manganese (50, 100 and 250 ?M) and indole acetic acid (10 and 100 ?M) treatments were investigated. Single\\u000a and combined exposure of pea to manganese and 100 ?M indole acetic acid decreased root and shoot fresh mass, chlorophyll,\\u000a carotenoids, protein and nitrogen while ammonium content increased compared to the control. Combined treatment of pea with

Savita Gangwar; Vijay Pratap Singh; Jagat Narayan Maurya

2011-01-01

92

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both

M. O. Andreae; R. W. Talbot; T. W. Andreae; R. C. Harriss

1988-01-01

93

Dissimilation of Carbon Monoxide to Acetic Acid by Glucose-Limited Cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum  

PubMed Central

Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. We found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating 9.1 mmol of CO consumed/h per liter of culture. In contrast, resting cells were found not to dissimilate CO to acetic acid. 14CO was incorporated, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons of acetic acid when the initial cultivation gas phase was 100% CO, whereas 14CO2 preferentially entered the carboxyl carbon when the initial gas phase was 100% CO2. Significantly, in the presence of saturating levels of CO, 14CO2 preferentially entered the methyl carbon, whereas saturating levels of CO2 yielded 14CO-derived labeling predominantly in the carboxyl carbon. These findings are discussed in relation to the path of carbon flow to acetic acid. PMID:16346807

Martin, Douglas R.; Misra, Arun; Drake, Harold L.

1985-01-01

94

Enantioselective protonation of ?-hetero carboxylic acid-derived ketene disilyl acetals under chiral ionic Brønsted acid catalysis.  

PubMed

Highly enantioselective protonation of ?-halo and alkoxy carboxylic acid-derived ketene disilyl acetals is achieved by using P-spiro chiral diaminodioxaphosphonium barfate as a Brønsted acid catalyst, where the enantiofacial discrimination by the catalyst mainly stems from the recognition of the electronic difference between two substituents on the ketene disilyl acetal. PMID:25234847

Uraguchi, Daisuke; Kizu, Tomohito; Ohira, Yuki; Ooi, Takashi

2014-11-14

95

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw IV: PhysicoChemical Characterization of Acetic Acid Lignins from Rice Straw and Woods. Part 1. Physical Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lignins obtained by atmospheric acetic acid delignification of rice straw, birch and fir were characterized by molecular weight, solubility and thermomechanical analysis, and by ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. Rice straw lignins (rice lignins) were very different from birch and fir lignins. The former was difficult to dissolve in most tested solvents and infusible

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

96

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw IV: PhysicoChemical Characterization of Acetic Acid Lignins from Rice Straw and Woods. Part 2. Chemical Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acetic acid lignins from rice straw (RLs), birch (BL) and fir (FL) were chemically characterized by means of elementary analysis, functional groups analysis, alkaline nitrobenzene and permanganate oxi- dation, Mannich reactivity and other techniques. The results showed that RLs had higher contents of residual polysaccharide and protein, and remarkably fewer acetyl groups than BL and FL. Results of nitrobenzene

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

97

Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

1983-01-01

98

Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Amino Alcohols through Intermolecular Acetalization Catalyzed by a Chiral Brønsted Acid.  

PubMed

The kinetic resolution of racemic secondary alcohols is a fundamental method for obtaining enantiomerically enriched alcohols. Compared to esterification, which is a well-established method for this purpose, kinetic resolution through enantioselective intermolecular acetalization has not been reported to date despite the fact that the formation of acetals is widely adopted to protect hydroxy groups. By taking advantage of the thermodynamics of acetalization by the addition of alcohols to enol ethers, a highly efficient kinetic resolution of racemic amino alcohols was achieved for the first time and in a practical manner using a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. PMID:25581575

Yamanaka, Takuto; Kondoh, Azusa; Terada, Masahiro

2015-01-28

99

IR plus vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of neutral and ionic organic acid molecules and clusters: acetic acid.  

PubMed

Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy of acetic acid (A) neutral and ionic monomers and clusters, employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), 10.5 eV single photon ionization of supersonically expanded and cooled acetic acid samples, is presented and discussed. Molecular and cluster species are identified by time of flight mass spectroscopy: the major mass features observed are A(n)H(+) (n=1-9), ACOOH(+) (VUV ionization) without IR radiation present, and A(+) with both IR and VUV radiation present. The intense feature ACOOH(+) arises from the cleavage of (A)(2) at the beta-CC bond to generate ACOOH(+)+CH(3) following ionization. The vibrational spectrum of monomeric acetic acid (2500-7500 cm(-1)) is measured by nonresonant ionization detected infrared (NRID-IR) spectroscopy. The fundamentals and overtones of the CH and OH stretches and some combination bands are identified in the spectrum. Mass selected IR spectra of neutral and cationic acetic acid clusters are measured in the 2500-3800 cm(-1) range employing nonresonant ionization dip-IR and IR photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopies, respectively. Characteristic bands observed at approximately 2500-2900 cm(-1) for the cyclic ring dimer are identified and tentatively assigned. For large neutral acetic acid clusters A(n)(n>2), spectra display only hydrogen bonded OH stretch features, while the CH modes (2500-2900 cm(-1)) do not change with cluster size n. The IRPD spectra of protonated (cationic) acetic acid clusters A(n)H(+) (n=1-7) exhibit a blueshift of the free OH stretch with increasing n. These bands finally disappear for n> or =6, and one broad and weak band due to hydrogen bonded OH stretch vibrations at approximately 3350 cm(-1) is detected. These results indicate that at least one OH group is not involved in the hydrogen bonding network for the smaller (n< or =5) A(n)H(+) species. The disappearance of the free OH stretch feature at n> or =6 suggests that closed cyclic structures form for A(n)H(+) for the larger clusters (n> or =6). PMID:17115753

Hu, Y J; Fu, H B; Bernstein, E R

2006-11-14

100

IR plus vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of neutral and ionic organic acid molecules and clusters: Acetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy of acetic acid (A) neutral and ionic monomers and clusters, employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), 10.5eV single photon ionization of supersonically expanded and cooled acetic acid samples, is presented and discussed. Molecular and cluster species are identified by time of flight mass spectroscopy: the major mass features observed are AnH+(n=1-9), ACOOH+ (VUV ionization) without IR radiation present, and A+ with both IR and VUV radiation present. The intense feature ACOOH+ arises from the cleavage of (A)2 at the ?-CC bond to generate ACOOH++CH3 following ionization. The vibrational spectrum of monomeric acetic acid (2500-7500cm-1) is measured by nonresonant ionization detected infrared (NRID-IR) spectroscopy. The fundamentals and overtones of the CH and OH stretches and some combination bands are identified in the spectrum. Mass selected IR spectra of neutral and cationic acetic acid clusters are measured in the 2500-3800cm-1 range employing nonresonant ionization dip-IR and IR photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopies, respectively. Characteristic bands observed at approximately 2500-2900cm-1 for the cyclic ring dimer are identified and tentatively assigned. For large neutral acetic acid clusters An(n>2), spectra display only hydrogen bonded OH stretch features, while the CH modes (2500-2900cm-1) do not change with cluster size n. The IRPD spectra of protonated (cationic) acetic acid clusters AnH+ (n=1-7) exhibit a blueshift of the free OH stretch with increasing n. These bands finally disappear for n ?6, and one broad and weak band due to hydrogen bonded OH stretch vibrations at approximately 3350cm-1 is detected. These results indicate that at least one OH group is not involved in the hydrogen bonding network for the smaller (n?5) AnH+ species. The disappearance of the free OH stretch feature at n ?6 suggests that closed cyclic structures form for AnH+ for the larger clusters (n?6).

Hu, Y. J.; Fu, H. B.; Bernstein, E. R.

2006-11-01

101

Binding behavior of amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid to immobilized human serum albumin.  

PubMed

The affinity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and 24 of their amino acid conjugates to immobilized human serum albumin, as expressed by the retention factor k (determined by HPLC), was dependent on (1) lipophilicity, (2) chirality and (3) functional groups in the amino acid moiety; in some cases conformation plays an additional role. Two lipophilicity-related parameters afforded quantitative correlations with k: retention on a C18 reversed-phase column (experimental approach) and the distance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic poles of the molecules (in silico approach). Most compounds examined are possible metabolic precursors of IAA, an experimental tumor therapeutic. PMID:17459401

Tomasi?, Ana; Bertosa, Branimir; Tomi?, Sanja; Soski?, Milan; Magnus, Volker

2007-06-22

102

Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance, and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 {+-} 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 {+-} 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 {+-} 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion.

Lubienski, Andreas [Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)], E-mail: lubienski@radiologie.uni-luebeck.de; Duex, Markus [Hospital Northwest Frankfurt, Department of Radiology (Germany); Lubienski, Katrin; Grenacher, Lars; Kauffmann, Guenter [Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2005-12-15

103

Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

2004-11-10

104

Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen-oxy-acetic acid, (4-fluoro-phen-oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl-phen-oxy)acetic acid.  

PubMed

The structures of the ammonium salts of phen-oxy-acetic acid, NH4 (+)·C8H6O3 (-), (I), (4-fluoro-phen-oxy)acetic acid, NH4 (+)·C8H5FO3 (-), (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl-phen-oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 (+)·C9H8ClO3 (-)·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N-H?O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomorphous with the core comprising R 1 (2)(5), R 1 (2)(4) and centrosymmetric R 4 (2)(8) ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). In (III), the water mol-ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R 4 (4)(12) hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R 4 (3)(10) rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R 4 (2)(8) ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). No ?-? ring associations are present in any of the structures. PMID:25552984

Smith, Graham

2014-12-01

105

Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid  

PubMed Central

The structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H6O3 ?, (I), (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H5FO3 ?, (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 +·C9H8ClO3 ?·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H?O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomorphous with the core comprising R 1 2(5), R 1 2(4) and centrosymmetric R 4 2(8) ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). In (III), the water mol­ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R 4 4(12) hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R 4 3(10) rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R 4 2(8) ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). No ?–? ring associations are present in any of the structures. PMID:25552984

Smith, Graham

2014-01-01

106

The Fate of Acetic Acid during Glucose Co-Metabolism by the Spoilage Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii  

PubMed Central

Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most widely represented spoilage yeast species, being able to metabolise acetic acid in the presence of glucose. To clarify whether simultaneous utilisation of the two substrates affects growth efficiency, we examined growth in single- and mixed-substrate cultures with glucose and acetic acid. Our findings indicate that the biomass yield in the first phase of growth is the result of the weighted sum of the respective biomass yields on single-substrate medium, supporting the conclusion that biomass yield on each substrate is not affected by the presence of the other at pH 3.0 and 5.0, at least for the substrate concentrations examined. In vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the gluconeogenic pathway is not operational and that [2?13C]acetate is metabolised via the Krebs cycle leading to the production of glutamate labelled on C2, C3 and C4. The incorporation of [U-14C]acetate in the cellular constituents resulted mainly in the labelling of the protein and lipid pools 51.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall, our data establish that glucose is metabolised primarily through the glycolytic pathway, and acetic acid is used as an additional source of acetyl-CoA both for lipid synthesis and the Krebs cycle. This study provides useful clues for the design of new strategies aimed at overcoming yeast spoilage in acidic, sugar-containing food environments. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the resistance phenotype of Z. bailii to acetic acid will have a potential impact on the improvement of the performance of S. cerevisiae industrial strains often exposed to acetic acid stress conditions, such as in wine and bioethanol production. PMID:23285028

Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Ludovico, Paula; Santos, Helena; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

2012-01-01

107

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.  

PubMed

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative. PMID:19241560

Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

2008-08-01

108

Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

2013-01-01

109

Acetic acid detection threshold in synthetic wine samples of a portable electronic nose.  

PubMed

Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

2013-01-01

110

Purification and Partial Characterization of a Glucan Containing Indole-3-acetic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The “bound auxin” of Zea mays, first described by Berger and Avery (Amer. J. Bot. 1944; 31: 199-203) has been purified and partially characterized. It is an indole-3-acetic acid-containing, high molecular weight, lipophilic cellulosicglucan. The indole-3-acetic acid is in ester linkage as evidenced by indoleacetamide formation upon ammonolysis. The glucan is of variable chain length and comprises, in general, 35 to 50 per cent of the dry weight of the compound. The glucosidic residues are ? 1 ? 4 linked and are hydrolyzed by cellulase. Mild acid hydrolysis produces cellobiose and cellotriose. Other components, as yet unidentified, of the compound are described. PMID:16658117

Piskornik, Zdzislaw; Bandurski, Robert S.

1972-01-01

111

Production of Acetic Acid from Carbohydrate Biomass by Two-Step Reaction with Alkaline Hydrothermal Reaction and Wet Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out to improve the production of acetic acid by an alkaline two-step process, in which the first step is to accelerate the formation of lactic acid in a hydrothermal reaction with the addition of alkali, and the second step is further convert the lactic acid produced in the first step to acetic acid by oxidation with

X. Yan; F. Jin; K. Tohji; H. Enomoto

2007-01-01

112

Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The native auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is a major regulator of plant growth and development. Its nonuniform distribution between cells and tissues underlies the spatiotemporal coordination of many developmental events and responses to environmental stimuli. The regulation of auxin gradients and the formation of auxin maxima/minima most likely involve the regulation of both metabolic and transport processes. In this article, we have demonstrated that 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) is a major primary IAA catabolite formed in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissues. OxIAA had little biological activity and was formed rapidly and irreversibly in response to increases in auxin levels. We further showed that there is cell type–specific regulation of oxIAA levels in the Arabidopsis root apex. We propose that oxIAA is an important element in the regulation of output from auxin gradients and, therefore, in the regulation of auxin homeostasis and response mechanisms. PMID:24163311

P?n?ík, Aleš; Simonovik, Biljana; Petersson, Sara V.; Henyková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Estelle, Mark; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ond?ej; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin

2013-01-01

113

Measuring acetic acid dimer modes by ultrafast time-domain Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Acetic acid is capable of forming strong multiple hydrogen bonds and therefore different dimeric H-bonded structures in neat liquid phase and in solutions. The low frequency Raman spectra of acetic acid (neat, in aqueous solution and as a function of temperature) were obtained by ultrafast time and polarization resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE) measurements. Isotropic OKE measurements clearly reveal a specific totally symmetric mode related to the dimeric structure H-bond stretching mode. The effects of isotope substitution, water dilution and temperature on this mode were investigated. These results together with anisotropic OKE measurements and density functional theory calculations for a number of possible dimers provide strong evidence for the cyclic dimer structure being the main structure in liquid phase persisting down to acetic acid concentrations of 10 M. Some information about the dimer structure and concentration dependence was inferred. PMID:21625711

Heisler, Ismael A; Mazur, Kamila; Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Tominaga, Keisuke; Meech, Stephen R

2011-09-14

114

Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the molecular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid. We shall elaborate on the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cross-talk of pro-survival and pro-death pathways underlying the importance of understanding fundamental aspects of yeast cell homeostasis to improve the performance of a given yeast strain in biotechnological applications. PMID:23430312

Giannattasio, Sergio; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Ždralevi?, Maša; Marra, Ersilia

2013-01-01

115

Acetic acid induced ulceration in rats is not affected by infection with Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

Analysis of rodent models of inflammatory bowel disease, airways hyper-reactivity, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis has shown that infection with helminth parasites can significantly reduce the severity of the disease. Here, we assessed whether rats infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta were protected from gastric ulceration induced by the serosal application of acetic acid. All rats gavaged with infective cysticercoids harbored adult worms when assessed 6 wk later, and acetic acid evoked the expected gastric ulceration. However, infection with H. diminuta did not affect the degree of gastric ulceration at either 3 or 7 days post-acetic acid application, as gauged by ulcer area or histopathology. While the data do not dismiss the possibility that infection with other helminths could be anti-ulcerogenic, they illustrate that 'helminth therapy' for inflammatory disease is likely to be both disease- and helminth-specific. PMID:18767911

McKay, Derek M; Wallace, John L

2009-04-01

116

Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

1987-01-01

117

Acetic acid bacteria and the production and quality of wine vinegar.  

PubMed

The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either "fast" or "traditional"), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties. PMID:24574887

Mas, Albert; Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

2014-01-01

118

Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar  

PubMed Central

The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties. PMID:24574887

Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

2014-01-01

119

Inhibition of enterobacteria and Listeria growth by lactic, acetic and formic acids.  

PubMed

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of undissociated lactic, acetic and formic acids were evaluated for 23 strains of enterobacteria and two of Listeria monocytogenes. The evaluation was performed aerobically and anaerobically in a liquid test system at pH intervals of between 4.2 and 5.4. Growth of the enterobacteria was inhibited at 2-11 mmol l-1, 0.5-14 mmol l-1 and 0.1-1.5 mmol l-1 of undissociated lactic, acetic and formic acids, respectively. The MIC value was slightly lower with anaerobic conditions compared with aerobic conditions. The influence of protons on the inhibition was observed for acetic acid at the low pH values. Undissociated lactic acid was 2 to 5 times more efficient in inhibiting L. monocytogenes than enterobacteria. Acetic acid had a similar inhibitory action on L. monocytogenes compared with enterobacteria. Inorganic acid (HCl) inhibited most enterobacteria at pH 4.0; some strains, however, were able to initiate growth to pH 3.8. The results indicate that the values of undissociated acid which occur in a silage of pH 4.1-4.5 are about 10-100 times higher than required in order to protect the forage from the growth of enterobacteria and L. monocytogenes. PMID:8365950

Ostling, C E; Lindgren, S E

1993-07-01

120

Methane production from rice straw pretreated by a mixture of acetic–propionic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw was treated with a mixed solution of acetic acid and propionic acid to enhance its biodegradability. The effect of acid concentration, pretreatment time, and the ratio of solid to liquid on the delignification performance of rice straw were investigated. It was found that the optimal conditions for hydrolysis were 0.75mol\\/L acid concentration, 2h pretreatment time and 1:20 solid

Rui Zhao; Zhenya Zhang; Ruiqin Zhang; Miao Li; Zhongfang Lei; Motoo Utsumi; Norio Sugiura

2010-01-01

121

Uncatalyzed reaction of silyl ketene acetals with oxalyl chloride: a straightforward preparation of symmetrical pulvinic acids.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] Several natural pulvinic acids were synthesized. Silyl ketene acetals derived from methyl arylacetates (4 equiv) reacted with oxalyl chloride at -78 degrees C, without the need of adding a catalyst. After treatment of the crude diketones with DBU and acidification with hydrochloric acid, symmetrical pulvinic acids methyl esters were obtained. Saponification of the methyl esters afforded the corresponding pulvinic acids in 60-70% overall yields from oxalyl chloride. PMID:15704989

Heurtaux, Benoît; Lion, Claude; Le Gall, Thierry; Mioskowski, Charles

2005-02-18

122

Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress  

PubMed Central

When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L?1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L?1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large rearrangements in its lipid profile. PMID:24023914

Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

2013-01-01

123

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.

Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.

1988-02-20

124

Acetic acid treatment for wrinkle-free oral mucosal epithelia in paraffin section preparation.  

PubMed

For histopathological assessment of oral borderline malignancies, it is important to carefully detect subtle epithelial changes on fully stretched tissue sections. However, it is not generally easy to obtain wrinkle-free sections when using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oral mucosal samples. Since acetic acid treatment is already utilized for large brain tissue sections, we examined whether that treatment was also effective for oral mucosal tissues containing normal to malignant epithelial lesions. Paraffin sections were floated in various concentrations of acetic acid for 10 min after stretching in water for 1 min, then wrinkle formations were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining, as well as for staining intensity with keratin immunohistochemistry. Wrinkles were formed in both epithelial and connective tissue zones of sections treated with less than a 40-mM (0.25%) concentration of acetic acid. In contrast, treatments with concentrations at 80 mM (0.5%) and higher resulted in cracking between the epithelial layer and lamina propria, as well as poor immunohistochemical results for keratins 13 and 17, even though the wrinkles completely disappeared. These results indicate that 40 mM is the optimal concentration of acetic acid solution to prevent wrinkles in the epithelial layer while maintaining the immunohistochemical qualities of oral mucosa tissue sections, especially those containing borderline malignant epithelial lesions. PMID:20623754

Ahsan, Md Shahidul; Maruyama, Satoshi; Cheng, Jun; Al-Eryani, Kamal; Yamazaki, Manabu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Tsuneki, Masayuki; Saku, Takashi

2011-03-01

125

EXTRACTION AND ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN EXTRACTED FROM CORN GLUTEN MEAL USING ACETIC ACID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been demonstrated that zein fibers can be produced using the electrospinning technique. Fibers electrospun from acetic acid solution under suitable conditions provide fibers with a more consistent morphology (round 0.5-2.0 micro fibers) compared to fibers produced from aqueous ethanol soluti...

126

GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III* ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

127

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Progress report, May 15, 1989--May 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH{sub 4}. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-06-01

128

Calibration and intercomparison of acetic acid measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acetic acid is one of the most abundant organic acids in the ambient atmosphere, with maximum mixing ratios reaching into the tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv) range. The identities and associated magnitudes of the major sources and sinks for acetic acid are poorly characterized, due in part to the limitation in available measurement techniques. This paper demonstrates that Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) can reliably quantify acetic acid vapor in ambient air. Three different PTR-MS configurations were calibrated at low ppbv mixing ratios using permeation tubes, which yielded calibration factors between 7.0 and 10.9 normalized counts per second per ppbv (ncps ppbv?1) at a drift tube field strength of 132 townsend (Td). Detection limits ranged from 0.06 to 0.32 ppbv with dwell times of 5 s. These calibration factors showed negligible humidity dependence. Using the experimentally determined calibration factors, PTR-MS measurements of acetic acid during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign were validated against results obtained using Mist Chambers coupled with Ion Chromatography (MC/IC). An orthogonal least squares linear regression of paired data yielded a slope of 1.14 ± 0.06 (2?), an intercept of 0.049 ± 20 (2?) ppbv, and an R2 of 0.78. The median mixing ratio of acetic acid on Appledore Island, ME during the ICARTT campaign was 0.530 ± 0.025 ppbv with a minimum of 0.075 ± 0.004 ppbv, and a maximum of 3.555 ± 0.171 ppbv.

Haase, K.B.; Keene, W.C.; Pszenny, A.A.P.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.W.; Sive, B.C.

2012-01-01

129

Effects of Exogenously Applied Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) to Cotton  

E-print Network

for organizing and finding missing samples, and to Julie for financial encouragement. Finally, I thank B, for giving me the support I needed to finish strong. . vi NOMENCLATURE Abscisic Acid ABA Gibberellins GA3 IAA Indole-3-Acetic Acid Phytogen... for plant growth and development. They play a critical role in numerous physiological and biochemical processes. Cytokinins, and abscisic acid (ABA) are major hormones that inhibit cotton fiber development. Auxins, gibberellins, brassinosteriods...

Clement, Jenny D.

2011-08-08

130

Protective Effect of Comaruman, a Pectin of Cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of comaruman CP, a pectin of marsh cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., was investigated using a model of acetic acid-induced colitis in mice. Mice were administered comaruman CP orally 2 days prior to rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 hr later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury, higher levels of myeloperoxidase activity, enhanced

Sergey V. Popov; Raisa G. Ovodova; Pavel A. Markov; Ida R. Nikitina; Yury S. Ovodov

2006-01-01

131

Late Imaging with [1-11C]Acetate Improves Detection of Tumor Fatty Acid Synthesis with PET.  

PubMed

Tumors are often characterized by high levels of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The kinetics of acetate incorporation into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and into lipids suggest that detection of tumors with [1-(11)C]acetate PET could be improved by imaging at later time points. PMID:24777291

Lewis, David Y; Boren, Joan; Shaw, Greg L; Bielik, Robert; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Larkin, Timothy J; Martins, Carla P; Neal, David E; Soloviev, Dmitry; Brindle, Kevin M

2014-04-28

132

The Acetate Switch  

PubMed Central

To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the “acetate switch,” occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the “switch” (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl?P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl?P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl?P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl?P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to “flip the switch,” the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the “acetate switch” as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described. PMID:15755952

Wolfe, Alan J.

2005-01-01

133

Successive adsorption of methanol, butylamine, and acetic acid on titanium dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The sequence of modification of TiO/sub 2/ by amines and alcohols or by acids and alcohols affects the value of the adsorption of the individual substances and the nature of the mixed adsorption layers formed in this case. The adsorption layer formed in the modification of rutile first with methanol and then with n-butylamine is denser with respect to the adsorption of benzene and more resistant to the action of water vapors in comparison with the adsorption layer formed when these modifiers were applied in the reverse order. The modification of TiO/sub 2/ by acid and alcohol in any sequence leads to an interaction of them with one another in the adsorption layer; methanol displaces only part of the preadsorbed molecules of acetic acid from the surface, while the acid displaces virtually all of the alcohol. Under moist conditions the adsorption layer obtained by applying acetic acid on rutile with preadsorbed methanol is more stable.

Isirikyan, A.A.; Mikhailova, S.S.; Polunina, I.A.; Tolstaya, S.N.

1985-09-01

134

Anaerobic Conversion of Lactic Acid to Acetic Acid and 1,2-Propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri  

PubMed Central

The degradation of lactic acid under anoxic conditions was studied in several strains of Lactobacillus buchneri and in close relatives such as Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus kefir, and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Of these lactobacilli, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri were able to degrade lactic acid under anoxic conditions, without requiring an external electron acceptor. Each mole of lactic acid was converted into approximately 0.5 mol of acetic acid, 0.5 mol of 1,2-propanediol, and traces of ethanol. Based on stoichiometry studies and the high levels of NAD-linked 1,2-propanediol-dependent oxidoreductase (530 to 790 nmol min?1 mg of protein?1), a novel pathway for anaerobic lactic acid degradation is proposed. The anaerobic degradation of lactic acid by L. buchneri does not support cell growth and is pH dependent. Acidic conditions are needed to induce the lactic-acid-degrading capacity of the cells and to maintain the lactic-acid-degrading activity. At a pH above 5.8 hardly any lactic acid degradation was observed. The exact function of anaerobic lactic acid degradation by L. buchneri is not certain, but some results indicate that it plays a role in maintaining cell viability. PMID:11133436

Oude Elferink, Stefanie J. W. H.; Krooneman, Janneke; Gottschal, Jan C.; Spoelstra, Sierk F.; Faber, Folkert; Driehuis, Frank

2001-01-01

135

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1990-01-01

136

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice.  

PubMed

Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of ?-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM. PMID:24717228

Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

2014-01-01

137

Regulation of Acetate Kinase Isozymes and Its Importance for Mixed-Acid Fermentation in Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

Acetate kinase (ACK) converts acetyl phosphate to acetate along with the generation of ATP in the pathway for mixed-acid fermentation in Lactococcus lactis. The reverse reaction yields acetyl phosphate for assimilation purposes. Remarkably, L. lactis has two ACK isozymes, and the corresponding genes are present in an operon. We purified both enzymes (AckA1 and AckA2) from L. lactis MG1363 and determined their oligomeric state, specific activities, and allosteric regulation. Both proteins form homodimeric complexes, as shown by size exclusion chromatography and static light-scattering measurements. The turnover number of AckA1 is about an order of magnitude higher than that of AckA2 for the reaction in either direction. The Km values for acetyl phosphate, ATP, and ADP are similar for both enzymes. However, AckA2 has a higher affinity for acetate than does AckA1, suggesting an important role under acetate-limiting conditions despite the lower activity. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and phospho-enol-pyruvate inhibit the activities of AckA1 and AckA2 to different extents. The allosteric regulation of AckA1 and AckA2 and the pool sizes of the glycolytic intermediates are consistent with a switch from homolactic to mixed-acid fermentation upon slowing of the growth rate. PMID:24464460

Puri, Pranav; Goel, Anisha; Bochynska, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

138

Effects of ?-lipoic acid on deoxycorticosterone acetate–salt-induced hypertension in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential of natural occurring antioxidant ?-lipoic acid to prevent hypertension and hypertensive tissue injury induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and salt in rats. Two weeks after the start of DOCA–salt treatment, the rats were given ?-lipoic acid (10 or 100 mg\\/kg\\/day, s.c.) or its vehicle for 2 weeks. Uninephrectomized rats without DOCA–salt treatment served as sham-operated controls.

Masanori Takaoka; Yutaka Kobayashi; Mikihiro Yuba; Mamoru Ohkita; Yasuo Matsumura

2001-01-01

139

Genomic Expression Program Involving the Haa1p-Regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Response to Acetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Abstract The alterations occurring in yeast genomic expression during early response to acetic acid and the involvement of the transcription factor Haa1p in this transcriptional reprogramming are described in this study. Haa1p was found to regulate, directly or indirectly, the transcription of approximately 80% of the acetic acid-activated genes, suggesting that Haa1p is the main player in the control of yeast response to this weak acid. The genes identified in this work as being activated in response to acetic acid in a Haa1p-dependent manner include protein kinases, multidrug resistance transporters, proteins involved in lipid metabolism, in nucleic acid processing, and proteins of unknown function. Among these genes, the expression of SAP30 and HRK1 provided the strongest protective effect toward acetic acid. SAP30 encode a subunit of a histone deacetylase complex and HRK1 encode a protein kinase belonging to a family of protein kinases dedicated to the regulation of plasma membrane transporters activity. The deletion of the HRK1 gene was found to lead to the increase of the accumulation of labeled acetic acid into acid-stressed yeast cells, suggesting that the role of both HAA1 and HRK1 in providing protection against acetic acid is, at least partially, related with their involvement in the reduction of intracellular acetate concentration. PMID:20955010

Becker, Jorg D.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

2010-01-01

140

PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers electrospun using diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate solvent system for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Composite nanofibrous scaffolds with various poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 wt.%) were successfully electrospun using diluted acetic and ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of this solvent system on the solution properties of the composites and its electrospinning properties were investigated. Viscosity and conductivity of the solutions, with the addition of gelatin, allowed for the electrospinning of uniform nanofibers with increasing hydrophilicity and degradation. Composite nanofibers containing 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin showed an optimum combination of hydrophilicity and degradability and also maintained the structural integrity of the scaffold. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) showed favorable interaction with and proliferation on, the composite scaffolds. hMSC proliferation was highest in the 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin containing composites. Our experimental data suggested that PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers containing 30-40 wt.% of gelatin and electrospun in diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate mixture produced nanofiber scaffolds with optimum hydrophilicity, degradability, and bio-functionality for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering. PMID:24274102

Binulal, N S; Natarajan, Amrita; Menon, Deepthy; Bhaskaran, V K; Mony, Ullas; Nair, Shantikumar V

2014-01-01

141

An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.  

PubMed

An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method. PMID:12207255

van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

2002-09-01

142

STABILITY OF MFI ZEOLITE-FILLED PDMS MEMBRANES DURING PERVAPORATIVE ETHANOL RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS MIXTURES CONTAINING ACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Pervaporation is a potential process for recovering bioethanol produced from biomass fermentation. Fermentation broths contain ethanol, water, and a variety of other compounds, often including carboxylic acids. The effects of acetic acid on long-term pervaporation of aqueous et...

143

Influence of Dilute Acetic Acid Treatments on American Pondweed Winter Buds in the Nevada Irrigation District, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

American pondweed ( Potamogeton nodosus Poir.) is com- monly found in northern California irrigation canals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure of American pondweed winter buds to dilute acetic acid un- der field conditions would result in reduced subsequent bio- mass. The treatment consisted of adding either 1703 or 3406 L of 2.3% acetic

D. F. SPENCER; C. L. ELMORE; G. G. KSANDER; J. A. RONCORONI

144

Deciphering the origin of cooperative catalysis by dirhodium acetate and chiral spiro phosphoric acid in an asymmetric amination reaction.  

PubMed

The mechanism of asymmetric amination of diazo-acetate by tert-butyl carbamate catalyzed by dirhodium tetra(trifluoro)acetate and chiral SPINOL-phosphoric acid is examined using DFT (M06 and B3LYP) computations. A cooperative participation of both catalysts is noticed in the stereo-controlling transition state of the reaction. PMID:25313895

Kisan, Hemanta K; Sunoj, Raghavan B

2014-12-01

145

Optimizing high strength acetic acid bioprocess by cognitive methods in an unsteady state cultivation.  

PubMed

Methods of adapting micro-organisms to an inhibiting factor in an active industrial bioprocess were examined with an acetic acid fermentation as model. With the aim of automatic control, a fuzzy-logic system was developed on the basis of the collected knowledge of skilled vinegar brewers. In a first step, this fuzzy system was to assess the actual adaptation degree of the bacteria on the basis of data from robust and reasonably priced sensors. From this information an appropriate setpoint value for the inhibiting factor 'final acid concentration' was derived for each batch cycle. As a result a further acid tolerance was found after several batch cycles. This adaptation effect should be used to increase the product concentration to more than 20 g per 100 ml acetic acid with a high productivity. The stepwise adapted culture was productive over the aimed acetic acid concentration, a 10% improvement of the product formation rate could be found compared with the status before conditioning. High product concentration and increased productivity finally result in shorter cycle times, less transport and storage volumes, an improved utilization of energy and material resources, and, last but not least, they are an essential steps towards the fulfillment of economical and ecological demands. PMID:12067520

Arnold, S; Becker, T; Delgado, A; Emde, F; Enenkel, A

2002-08-01

146

Fed-batch fermentation with and without on-line extraction for propionic and acetic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch propionic and acetic acid fermentations were performed in semi-defined laboratory medium and in corn steep liquor withPropionibacterium acidipropionici strain P9. On average, over four experiments, 34.5 g\\/l propionic acid and 12.8 g\\/l acetic acid were obtained in about 146 h in laboratory medium with 79 g\\/l glucose added over five feeding periods. The highest concentration of propionic acid, 45

F. Ozadali; B. A. Glatz; C. E. Glatz

1996-01-01

147

Methane from acetate.  

PubMed Central

The general features are known for the pathway by which most methane is produced in nature. All acetate-utilizing methanogenic microorganisms contain CODH which catalyzes the cleavage of acetyl-CoA; however, the pathway differs from all other acetate-utilizing anaerobes in that the methyl group is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA to CO2. The current understanding of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate provides impressions of nature's novel solutions to problems of methyl transfer, electron transport, and energy conservation. The pathway is now at a level of understanding that will permit productive investigations of these and other interesting questions in the near future. PMID:1512186

Ferry, J G

1992-01-01

148

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy of Chronically Infected Wounds Using 1% Acetic Acid Irrigation  

PubMed Central

Background Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) induces angiogenesis and collagen synthesis to promote tissue healing. Although acetic acid soaks normalize alkali wound conditions to raise tissue oxygen saturation and deconstruct the biofilms of chronic wounds, frequent dressing changes are required. Methods Combined use of NPWT and acetic acid irrigation was assessed in the treatment of chronic wounds, instilling acetic acid solution (1%) beneath polyurethane membranes twice daily for three weeks under continuous pressure (125 mm Hg). Clinical photographs, pH levels, cultures, and debrided fragments of wounds were obtained pre- and posttreatment. Tissue immunostaining (CD31, Ki-67, and CD45) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], vascular endothelial growth factor receptor [VEGFR]; procollagen; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha [HIF-1-alpha]; matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1,-3,-9; and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase [TIMP]) were also performed. Results Wound sizes tended to diminish with the combined therapy, accompanied by drops in wound pH (weakly acidic or neutral) and less evidence of infection. CD31 and Ki-67 immunostaining increased (P<0.05) post-treatment, as did the levels of VEGFR, procollagen, and MMP-1 (P<0.05), whereas the VEGF, HIF-1-alpha, and MMP-9/TIMP levels declined (P<0.05). Conclusions By combining acetic acid irrigation with negative-pressure dressings, both the pH and the size of chronic wounds can be reduced and infections be controlled. This approach may enhance angiogenesis and collagen synthesis in wounds, restoring the extracellular matrix. PMID:25606491

Lee, Byeong Ho; Lee, Hye Kyung; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Moon, Min Seon; Suh, In Suck

2015-01-01

149

Novel wine yeast with mutations in YAP1 that produce less acetic acid during fermentation.  

PubMed

Acetic acid, a byproduct formed during yeast alcoholic fermentation, is the main component of volatile acidity (VA). When present in high concentrations in wine, acetic acid imparts an undesirable 'vinegary' character that results in a significant reduction in quality and sales. Previously, it has been shown that saké yeast strains resistant to the antifungal cerulenin produce significantly lower levels of VA. In this study, we used a classical mutagenesis method to isolate a series of cerulenin-resistant strains, derived from a commercial diploid wine yeast. Four of the selected strains showed a consistent low-VA production phenotype after small-scale fermentation of different white and red grape musts. Specific mutations in YAP1, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for oxidative stress tolerance, were found in three of the four low-VA strains. When integrated into the genome of a haploid wine strain, the mutated YAP1 alleles partially reproduced the low-VA production phenotype of the diploid cerulenin-resistant strains, suggesting that YAP1 might play a role in (regulating) acetic acid production during fermentation. This study offers prospects for the development of low-VA wine yeast starter strains that could assist winemakers in their effort to consistently produce wine to definable quality specifications. PMID:23146134

Cordente, Antonio G; Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Pretorius, Isak S; Curtin, Christopher D

2013-02-01

150

Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (?5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at ?600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ?5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ?6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at ?765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at ?800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying ?800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate (?=?4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.

2014-01-01

151

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01

152

A combined experimental and computational study of the esterification reaction of glycerol with acetic acid.  

PubMed

This work describes theoretical and experimental studies on glycerol esterification to obtain acetins focusing on the obtained isomers. The reaction of glycerol with acetic acid was carried out on Amberlyst 36 wet. Density functional theory calculations on the level of M06-2X functional and 6-311+G(d,p) basis set are carried out and the most stable structures of the reactants and products are located by considering a large number of conformers. The thermodynamics is discussed in terms of the calculated reaction Gibbs free energy. The AIM theory was used to characterize reactants and products. The glycerol esterification with acetic acid is found to be thermodynamically favored, with exothermal property. These agree well with experiments and allow us to explain the relative selectivity of products. PMID:24633772

Bedogni, Gabriel Alejandro; Padró, Cristina Liliana; Okulik, Nora Beatriz

2014-04-01

153

DFT computation and experimental analysis of vibrational and electronic spectra of phenoxy acetic acid herbicides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An absolute vibrational analysis has been attempted on the basis of experimental FTIR and NIR-FT Raman spectra with calculated vibrational wavenumbers and intensities of phenoxy acetic acids. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated with the help of B3LYP method with Dunning correlation consistent basis set aug-cc-pVTZ. The electronic structures of molecular fragments were described in terms of natural bond orbital analysis, which shows intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O and intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The electronic absorption spectra with different solvents have been investigated in combination with time-dependent density functional theory calculation. The pKa values of phenoxy acetic acids were compared.

Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

2013-05-01

154

Enhancement of tumor radiation response by the antivascular agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) selectively damages tumor vasculature and is currently in clinical trial as an antitumor agent. Its ability to induce synthesis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and its apparent selectivity for poorly-perfused regions in tumors, suggests it possible use in combination with radiotherapy. This investigation examines activity of DMXAA as a radiation modifier using two murine tumors.Methods and

WilliamR Wilson; AlanE Li; David S. M Cowan; BronwynG Siim

1998-01-01

155

Differential responses of pea seedlings to indole acetic acid under manganese toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study showed the responses of pea seedlings to exogenous indole acetic acid (IAA; 10 and 100 ?M) application under\\u000a manganese (Mn; 50, 100 and 250 ?M) toxicity. Manganese and 100 ?M IAA alone as well as in combination decreased growth of\\u000a pea seedlings compared to control. Moreover, some parameters of oxidative stress—hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also increased by single

Savita Gangwar; Vijay Pratap Singh; Sheo Mohan Prasad; Jagat Narayan Maurya

2011-01-01

156

Trifluoroacetic anhydride promoted tandem conjugate addition of boronic acids/acetal ring opening.  

PubMed

A new stereoselective tandem reaction consisting of the metal-free conjugate addition of boronic acids followed by an intramolecular ring opening of a cyclic acetal has been disclosed. Optically pure polysubstituted tetrahydropyrans have been synthesized diastereoselectively by this new reaction. Two new C-C bonds and up to three stereocenters are formed in a single step, allowing the generation of quaternary stereocenters. PMID:22339156

Roscales, Silvia; Csáky, Aurelio G

2012-03-01

157

Sequential induction of the ethylene biosynthetic enzymes by indole-3-acetic acid in etiolated peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene induced an increase in the accumulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase transcript level and enzyme activity in the first internode of 5- to 6-day-old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which stimulates ethylene production by enhancing ACC synthase activity, also caused an increase in ACC oxidase transcript and activity levels. The IAA-induced increase in ACC oxidase mRNA

Scott C. Peck; Hans Kende

1995-01-01

158

Comparative evaluation of arachidonic acid (AA)- and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced dermal inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of topical application of arachidonic acid (AA) or phorbol ester, tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), on edema response, vascular permeability, MPO, NAG, and generation of eicosanoids were studied in two murine models of cutaneous inflammation. AA produced a short-lived edema response with a rapid onset that was associated with marked increases in levels of prostaglandins (PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1a, PGF2a), thromboxane B2

Tadimeti S. Rao; Jerry L. Currie; Alexander F. Shaffer; Peter C. Isakson

1993-01-01

159

Production of formic and acetic acids from phenol by hydrothermal oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal technology is a core environmental-protection technique which can be used for waste water treatment and biomass\\u000a conversion. In this paper a novel idea, alkaline hydrothermal oxidation, is proposed for producing formic and acetic acids\\u000a from wastewater containing phenolic compounds. The effects of the most important conditions—reaction temperature, reaction\\u000a time, oxygen supply, and type of alkaline catalyst—on yields of formic

Man Lu; Xu Zeng; Jiang-Lin Cao; Zhi-Bao Huo; Fang-Ming Jin

2011-01-01

160

Indole3-acetic acid concentration and ethylene evolution during early fruit development in peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene evolution was measured from greenhouse-grown ‘Jerseyglo’ peach fruits beginning 29 days after anthesis. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were measured in the pericarp and seed tissues of individual fruits on a single shoot when variable ethylene evolution was noted. Despite hand-pollinating all flowers on the same day, variability within the shoot existed in fruit fresh weight, IAA levels, and ethylene

Anita Nina Miller; Christopher S. Walsh

1990-01-01

161

Production of acetic acid by immobilized whole cells of Clostridium thermoaceticum.  

PubMed

Immobilized cells of Clostridium thermoaceticum for acetic acid production has been investigated. Using kappa-carrageenan gel as the immobilization-matrix, high cell concentration within the gel could be achieved and thus lead to high volumetric acetic acid productivity. Batch experiments using 3% gel showed that cell concentration up to 65 g (dry cell weight)/L gel could be achieved. These dry weight cell concentrations in the gel through immobilization are typically 10-15 times greater than what can be obtained in free-cell fermentations. The specific growth rate and acetic acid formation rate were similar to those observed for the free cells. Continuous culture experiments using a feed medium containing 20 g/L of glucose were performed where the reactor contained 50% by volume of the carrageenan gel and the pH was controlled at 6.9. Different steady states were acheived at dilution rates ranging from 0.061 to 0.399 h-1. Cells grew mainly near the surface of the gel and reached maximum concentration within the matrix of approximately 35 g/L. Dilution rates much greater than the maximum specific growth rate were obtained, which resulted in volumetric productivity up to 4.9 g/L-h. This value was significantly greater than that for the conventional continuous culture with free cells. Using a 40 g/L feed glucose concentration, steady states could be achieved between dilution rates of 0.12-0.4 h-1. The maximum productivity further increased to 6.9 g/L-h at a dilution rate of 0.37 h-1 and at an acetic acid concentration of 19 g/L. The cell concentration was 60 g (dry weight)/L gel at steady state. PMID:6679712

Wang, G; Wang, D I

1983-12-01

162

Effects of Azospirillum brasilense indole-3-acetic acid production on inoculated wheat plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of phytohormones by plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria is considered to be an important mechanism by which\\u000a these bacteria promote plant growth. In this study the importance of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) produced by Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 in the observed plant growth stimulation was investigated by using Sp245 strains genetically modified in IAA production.\\u000a Firstly wild-type A. brasilense Sp245 and an

Stijn Spaepen; Sofie Dobbelaere; Anja Croonenborghs; Jos Vanderleyden

2008-01-01

163

Improving the environmental profile of wood panels via co-production of ethanol and acetic acid.  

PubMed

The oriented strand board (OSB) biorefinery is an emerging technology that could improve the building, transportation, and chemical sectors' environmental profiles. By adding a hot water extraction stage to conventional OSB panel manufacturing, hemicellulose polysaccharides can be extracted from wood strands and converted to renewably sourced ethanol and acetic acid. Replacing fossil-based gasoline and acetic acid has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, among other possible impacts. At the same time, hemicellulose extraction could improve the environmental profile of OSB panels by reducing the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during manufacturing. In this study, the life cycle significance of such GHG, VOC, and other emission reductions was investigated. A process model was developed based on a mix of laboratory and industrial-level mass and energy flow data. Using these data a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built. Sensitive process parameters were identified and used to develop a target production scenario for the OSB biorefinery. The findings suggest that the OSB biorefinery's deployment could substantially improve human and ecosystem health via reduction of select VOCs compared to conventionally produced OSB, gasoline, and acetic acid. Technological advancements are needed, however, to achieve desirable GHG reductions. PMID:21967719

Earles, J Mason; Halog, Anthony; Shaler, Stephen

2011-11-15

164

Dual Antiplatelet Regime Versus Acetyl-acetic Acid for Carotid Artery Stenting  

SciTech Connect

Carotid artery stenting has been proposed as an option treatment of carotid artery stenosis. The aim of this single-institution study is to compare the dual-antiplatelet treatment and heparin combined with acetyl-acetic acid, in patients who underwent carotid artery stenting. We compared 2 groups of 50 patents each who underwent carotid artery stenting for primary atherosclerotic disease. Group A received heparin for 24 h combined with 325 mg acetyl-acetic acid and group B received 250 mg ticlopidine twice a day combined with 325 mg acetyl-acetic acid. Outcome measurements included 30-day bleeding and neurological complications and 30-day thrombosis/occlusion rates. The neurological complications were 16% in group A and 2% in group B (p < 0.05). Bleeding complications occurred in 4% in group A and 2% in group B (p > 0.05). The 30-day thrombosis/occlusion rate was 2% in group A and 0% in group B (p > 0.05). Dual antiplatelet treatment is recommended in all patients undergoing carotid artery stenting.

Dalainas, Ilias, E-mail: hdlns@freemail.gr; Nano, Giovanni; Bianchi, Paolo; Stegher, Silvia; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G. [University of Milan, Istituto Policlinico San Donato, 1st Unit of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

2006-08-15

165

Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.  

PubMed

Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically. PMID:19944597

Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

2010-03-01

166

Growth of faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. in physicochemical sludge treated with acetic acid.  

PubMed

The use of advanced primary treatment (APT) to remove helminth ova from wastewater has raised the issue of treating the generated sludge to allow its reuse or disposal. Several studies have been performed in Mexico in order to treat the sludge with the main goal of destroying helminth ova and bacteria, one of them analysing the acid treatment. Previous research has demonstrated the feasibility of applying such a process using acetic acid to disinfect the sludge, but the potential for bacterial growth was still to be proved. The results of a growth study of faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sludge treated with acetic acid are presented in this paper. Physicochemical sludge generated in a semi-rural area of Mexico City was treated using acetic acid in 6 different doses ranging from 3,700 to 22,000 ppm (w/w) and the concentrations of faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and total and volatile solids, were monitored after 30 minutes, and 8, 21 and 35 days. Average initial concentrations in sludge were 1.1 x 10(8) MPN/g TS and 1.5 x 10(5) MPN/g TS for faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp., while pH, total and volatile solids were 5.4, 5.0% and 73% respectively. Apparently, some acidified samples presented anaerobic activity, observed as a change in sludge coloration, as well as bacterial growth. pH of the treated samples with less than 18,400 ppm raised from the initial value of approximately 4.0 up to 5.9 units, while samples with 18,400 and 22,000 ppm maintained the pH close to 4. Total and volatile solids did not present important changes except in the untreated sample where they were reduced by 0.3 and 3.4% respectively. Samples treated with more than 14,700 ppm of acetic acid did not present any increase in bacterial density. Additionally, concentrations of faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. in untreated sludge were reduced throughout the time, in contrast to samples treated with doses lower than 14,700 ppm that showed some growth, which suggests that the use of acetic acid in doses lower than 15,000 ppm stimulates in some way the growth of these bacteria. PMID:11794686

Barrios, J A; Jiménez, B; Salgado, G; Garibay, A; Castrejon, A

2001-01-01

167

Acetate fuels the cancer engine.  

PubMed

Cancer cells have distinctive nutrient demands to fuel growth and proliferation, including the disproportionate use of glucose, glutamine, and fatty acids. Comerford et al. and Mashimo et al. now demonstrate that several types of cancer are avid consumers of acetate, which facilitates macromolecular biosynthesis and histone modification. PMID:25525870

Lyssiotis, Costas A; Cantley, Lewis C

2014-12-18

168

Specific modulation of complement-dependent human granulocyte function by imidazole acetic acid.  

PubMed

Because imidazole acetic acid (IAA), a product of histamine catabolism was shown to inhibit histaminase release from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the effect of this compound on other neutrophil functions was investigated. IAA at concentrations of 10(-10) or more inhibited histaminase release induced by particle-bound C3b, the larger fragment of the activated form of the third component of complement. Release of histaminase induced by aggregated IgG, phorbal myristate acetate (PMA), formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and calcium ionophore was not affected by IAA. In addition IAA had no effect on release of beta-glucuronidase, myeloperoxidase, and lysozyme or on phagocytosis and superoxide generation. IAA did modestly inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. These findings suggest a highly specific modulating effect of the histamine catabolite IAA on complement-mediated PMN function. PMID:6252258

Herman, J J; Colten, H R

1980-10-01

169

Adaptive response to acetic acid in the highly resistant yeast species Zygosaccharomyces bailii revealed by quantitative proteomics.  

PubMed

Zygosaccharomyces bailii is the most tolerant yeast species to acetic acid-induced toxicity, being able to grow in the presence of concentrations of this food preservative close to the legal limits. For this reason, Z. bailii is the most important microbial contaminant of acidic food products but the mechanisms behind this intrinsic resistance to acetic acid are very poorly characterized. To gain insights into the adaptive response and tolerance to acetic acid in Z. bailii, we explored an expression proteomics approach, based on quantitative 2DE, to identify alterations occurring in the protein content in response to sudden exposure or balanced growth in the presence of an inhibitory but nonlethal concentration of this weak acid. A coordinate increase in the content of proteins involved in cellular metabolism, in particular, in carbohydrate metabolism (Mdh1p, Aco1p, Cit1p, Idh2p, and Lpd1p) and energy generation (Atp1p and Atp2p), as well as in general and oxidative stress response (Sod2p, Dak2p, Omp2p) was registered. Results reinforce the concept that glucose and acetic acid are coconsumed in Z. bailii, with acetate being channeled into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When acetic acid is the sole carbon source, results suggest the activation of gluconeogenic and pentose phosphate pathways, based on the increased content of several proteins of these pathways after glucose exhaustion. PMID:22685079

Guerreiro, Joana F; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel

2012-08-01

170

Effect of indole-3-acetic acid on aluminum-induced efflux of malic acid from wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been found to be involved in plant resistance to various types of environmental stress. Aluminum\\u000a (Al) toxicity, as one of the most important environmental stress in acid soils, is coped by most plants through the efflux\\u000a of organic acids via anion channel. This study aims to evaluate the effect of IAA on efflux of malic acid

Ye Yang; Qiao Lan Wang; Ming Jian Geng; Zai Hua Guo; Zhuqing Zhao

171

CTAB and acetic acid effect in the nanocrystallite growth of spray deposited CdO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdO thin films were deposited on glass substrates from cadmium acetate dihydrate along with precursor additives, acetic acid and CTAB using home built splay pyrolysis unit. XRD studies imply that the CdO thin films to be preferably oriented in the (1 1 1) plane. The Williamson-Hall plot indicates the presence of microstrain, especially high with acetic acid additive. Surface morphology was found to be closely packed spherical crystallite with precursor additives. Optical studies reveal a considerable change in the transmittance and band gap. Peak position is shifted in the Raman spectra, due to precursor additives.

Pavithra, S.; Balamurugan, D.; Pandeeswari, R.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

2014-11-01

172

Thermoelectric method of determining the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids. Investigation of the thermal conductivity of acetic acid vapors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermoelectric method of determining the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids is described based on using the Peltier effect. Data are presented on the thermal conductivity of neon, PMFS-4, and acetic acid vapors.

D. L. Timrot; V. V. Makhrov

1976-01-01

173

Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ? 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

2014-01-01

174

Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Acetic acid is an important intermediate in aqueous methylglyoxal oxidation and a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. Altieri et al. (2008) proposed that acetic acid was the precursor of oligoesters observed in methylglyoxal oxidation. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid at concentrations relevant to atmospheric waters (20 ?M-10 mM) was oxidized by OH radical. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. The formation of glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids were observed. In contrast to methylglyoxal oxidation, succinic acid and oligomers were not detected. Using results from these and methylglyoxal + OH radical experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

Tan, Y.; Lim, Y. B.; Altieri, K. E.; Seitzinger, S. P.; Turpin, B. J.

2011-06-01

175

Leuconostoc gelidum and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum strains dominated the lactic acid bacterium population associated with strong slime formation in an acetic-acid herring preserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoilage characterised by strong slime and gas formation affected some manufacture lots of an acetic-acid Baltic herring (Culpea haerengus membras) preserve after few weeks of storage at 0–6 °C. The product consisted of herring filets in acetic acid marinade containing sugar, salt, allspice and carrot slices. Microbiological analyses of the spoiled product showed high lactic acid bacterium (LAB) levels ranging

Ulrike Lyhs; Joanna M. K. Koort; Hanna-Saara Lundström; K. Johanna Björkroth

2004-01-01

176

Mutants of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus tolerant to hardwood spent sulfite liquor and acetic acid.  

PubMed

A strain development program was initiated to improve the tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Several rounds of UV mutagenesis followed by screening were used to select for mutants of P. tannophilus NRRL Y2460 with improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HW SSL) and acetic acid in separate selection lines. The wild type (WT) strain grew in 50 % (v/v) HW SSL while third round HW SSL mutants (designated UHW301, UHW302 and UHW303) grew in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL, with two of these isolates (UHW302 and UHW303) being viable and growing, respectively, in 70 % (v/v) HW SSL. In defined liquid media containing acetic acid, the WT strain grew in 0.70 % (w/v) acetic acid, while third round acetic acid mutants (designated UAA301, UAA302 and UAA303) grew in 0.80 % (w/v) acetic acid, with one isolate (UAA302) growing in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid. Cross-tolerance of HW SSL-tolerant mutants to acetic acid and vice versa was observed with UHW303 able to grow in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid and UAA302 growing in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL. The UV-induced mutants retained the ability to ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol in defined media. These mutants of P. tannophilus are of considerable interest for bioconversion of the sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol. PMID:24122119

Harner, Nicole K; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Habash, Marc B; Trevors, Jack T; Austin, Glen D; Lee, Hung

2014-01-01

177

Oxidation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid by MoVNbO catalysts M. Roussel1  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The influence of niobium on the physicochemical properties of the Mo-V-O system and on its that the most efficient formula was Mo0.73V0.18Nb0.9Oy. Acetic acid was formed at high pressure only. Analysis catalytic properties in the oxidation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid is examined. Solids based on Mo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

Modeling and optimization in anaerobic bioconversion of complex substrates to acetic and butyric acids.  

PubMed

Cheese-processing wastewater was biologically treated to produce short-chain organic acids in laboratory scale continuously stirred tank reactors. A constant inoculum system was used to mimimize the experimental error due to the use of inconsistent inoculum. The inoculum system was operated with dilute cheese-processing wastewater with 5000 mg soluble chemical oxygen demand/L at pH 6.5 and 35 degrees C at 0.5 days hydraulic retention time. Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum physiological conditions where the maximum rates of acetic and butyric acid production occurred. These were pH 7.01 at 36.2 degrees C and pH 7.26 at 36.2 degrees C, respectively. The lack of overall predictability for butyric acid production meant that the response surface was much more complicated than that of acetic acid; therefore, a small change in pH or temperature could cause large variations in the response of butyric acid production. PMID:18634137

Hwang, S; Hansen, C L

1997-06-01

179

The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

2014-01-01

180

A mutation affecting the synthesis of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, schemes depicting auxin biosynthesis in plants have been notoriously complex. They have involved up to four possible pathways by which the amino acid tryptophan might be converted to the main active auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), while another pathway was suggested to bypass tryptophan altogether. It was also postulated that different plants use different pathways, further adding to the complexity. In 2011, however, it was suggested that one of the four tryptophan-dependent pathways, via indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), is the main pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana,1 although concurrent operation of one or more other pathways has not been excluded. We recently showed that, for seeds of Pisum sativum (pea), it is possible to go one step further.2 Our new evidence indicates that the IPyA pathway is the only tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis pathway operating in pea seeds. We also demonstrated that the main auxin in developing pea seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), which accumulates to levels far exceeding those of IAA, is synthesized via a chlorinated version of the IPyA pathway. PMID:23073010

Ross, John J.; Tivendale, Nathan D.; Davidson, Sandra E.; Reid, James B.; Davies, Noel W.; Quittenden, Laura J.; Smith, Jason A.

2012-01-01

181

Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  

PubMed

Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

2012-07-01

182

Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs  

PubMed Central

Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

1990-01-01

183

Graft Loss Due to Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of a Lymphocele Using Acetic Acid After Renal Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Development of lymphoceles after renal transplantation is a well-described complication that occurs in up to 40% of recipients. The gold standard approach for the treatment of symptomatic cases is not well defined yet. Management options include simple aspiration, marsupialization by a laparotomy or laparoscopy, and percutaneous sclerotherapy using different chemical agents. Those approaches can be associated, and they depend on type, dimension, and localization of the lymphocele. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is considered to be less invasive than the surgical approach; it can be used safely and effectively, with low morbidity, in huge, rapidly accumulating lymphoceles. Moreover, this approach is highly successful, and the complication rate is acceptable; the major drawback is a recurrence rate close to 20%. We herewith report a renal transplant case in which the patient developed a symptomatic lymphocele that was initially treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and thereafter using acetic acid for early recurrence. A few hours after injection of acetic acid in the lymphatic cavity, the patient started to complain of acute pain localized to the renal graft and fever. An ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thrombosis of the renal vein and artery. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room, where the diagnosis of vascular thrombosis was confirmed and the graft was urgently explanted. In conclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding the use of acetic acid as a slerosating agent for the percutaneous treatment of post-renal transplant lymphocele because, based on our experience, it could be complicated by vascular thrombosis of the kidney, ending in graft loss.

Adani, Gian Luigi, E-mail: adanigl@hotmail.com; Baccarani, Umberto; Bresadola, Vittorio; Lorenzin, Dario [University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy); Montanaro, Domenico [AOSMM, Sauta Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Division of Nephrology (Italy); Risaliti, Andrea; Terrosu, Giovanni [University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy); Sponza, Massimo [AOSMM, Sauta Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Department of Radiology (Italy); Bresadola, Fabrizio [University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy)

2005-12-15

184

Glycolaldehyde, methyl formate and acetic acid adsorption and thermal desorption from interstellar ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have undertaken a detailed investigation of the adsorption, desorption and thermal processing of the astrobiologically significant isomers glycolaldehyde, acetic acid and methyl formate. Here, we present the results of laboratory infrared and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies of the three isomers from model interstellar ices adsorbed on a carbonaceous dust grain analogue surface. Laboratory infrared data show that the isomers can be clearly distinguished on the basis of their infrared spectra, which has implications for observations of interstellar ice spectra. Laboratory TPD data also show that the three isomers can be distinguished on the basis of their thermal desorption behaviour. In particular, TPD data show that the isomers cannot be treated the same way in astrophysical models of desorption. The desorption of glycolaldehyde and acetic acid from water-dominated ices is very similar, with desorption being mainly dictated by water ice. However, methyl formate also desorbs from the surface of the ice, as a pure desorption feature, and therefore desorbs at a lower temperature than the other two isomers. This is more clearly indicated by models of the desorption on astrophysical time-scales corresponding to the heating rate of 25 and 5 M? stars. For a 25 M? star, our model shows that a proportion of the methyl formate can be found in the gas phase at earlier times compared to glycolaldehyde and acetic acid. This has implications for the observation and detection of these molecules, and potentially explains why methyl formate has been observed in a wider range of astrophysical environments than the other two isomers.

Burke, Daren J.; Puletti, Fabrizio; Brown, Wendy A.; Woods, Paul M.; Viti, Serena; Slater, Ben

2015-02-01

185

Direct oxidation of methane to acetic acid catalyzed by Pd2+ and Cu2+ in the presence of molecular oxygen  

E-print Network

to acetic acid in concentrated sulfuric acid using a combination of Pd2+ and Cu2+ in the presence of oxygen from methane without the addition of COx.3 The reaction is carried out in concentrated sulfuric acid be regenerated by sulfuric acid oxidation of Pd(0); however, this process is slow. We recently showed

Bell, Alexis T.

186

Diastereoselectivity in the Lewis acid mediated aldol reaction of chiral ?, ?-epoxyaldehydes with a ketene silyl acetal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lewis acid mediated aldol reaction of chiral a, ß-cis andtrans epoxyaldehydes1 and2 withtert-butyl ketene silyl acetal proceeds mainly withanti diastereofacial preference. The best results were obtained forcis epoxyaldehyde1 in the presence of catalytic amounts of BiCl3·1.5 eq. ZnI2 (anti:syn ~ 13:1), whereas the poorest stereoselectivity was observed when an excess of LiClO4 was used (anti:syn ~ 1:1). The more

E. Fontaine; M. Baltas; J.-M. Escudier; L. Gorrichon

1996-01-01

187

In planta production of indole-3-acetic acid by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene.  

PubMed

The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (IAM). We studied the effects of tryptophan, IAA, and IAM on IAA biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta IAA production by the fungus. IAA biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and IAM. The fungus produced IAM and IAA in planta during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The amounts of IAA produced per fungal biomass were highest during the biotrophic phase. IAA production by this plant pathogen might be important during early stages of plant colonization. PMID:15006816

Maor, Rudy; Haskin, Sefi; Levi-Kedmi, Hagit; Sharon, Amir

2004-03-01

188

Carriers for abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in primary roots: their regional localisation and thermodynamic driving forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carrier for the uptake of abscisic acid (ABA) is present in the tips and elongating zones of primary roots of both leguminous (runner bean, French bean, pea) and non-leguminous (sunflower, maize) seedlings. No ABA carrier was present in more mature root regions. For indole-3-acetic acid both carrier-mediated uptake and a 2,3,5-triiodobenzoate-sensitive efflux component are present in growing and in

M. C. Astle; P. H. Rubery

1983-01-01

189

Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

1990-01-01

190

Activity, distribution and function of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in bacteria.  

PubMed

The capacity to produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among bacteria that inhabit diverse environments such as soils, fresh and marine waters, and plant and animal hosts. Three major pathways for bacterial IAA synthesis have been characterized that remove the amino and carboxyl groups from the ?-carbon of tryptophan via the intermediates indolepyruvate, indoleacetamide, or indoleacetonitrile; the oxidized end product IAA is typically secreted. The enzymes in these pathways often catabolize a broad range of substrates including aromatic amino acids and in some cases the branched chain amino acids. Moreover, expression of some of the genes encoding key IAA biosynthetic enzymes is induced by all three aromatic amino acids. The broad distribution and substrate specificity of the enzymes suggests a role for these pathways beyond plant-microbe interactions in which bacterial IAA has been best studied. PMID:22978761

Patten, Cheryl L; Blakney, Andrew J C; Coulson, Thomas J D

2013-11-01

191

Intravenous Acetate Elicits a Greater Free Fatty Acid Rebound in Normal than Hyperinsulinaemic Humans  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber may improve insulin sensitivity via the metabolic effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in reducing free fatty acids (FFA). The main objectives of this study were to compare peripheral uptake of acetate (AC) in participants with normal (< 40pmol/L, NI) and high (? 40pmol/L, HI) plasma-insulin and the ability of AC to reduce FFA in both groups. Subject/Methods Overnight fasted NI (n = 9) and HI (n = 9) participants were given an intravenous (IV) infusion of 140 mmol/L sodium acetate at 3 different rates over 90 minutes. The total amount of AC infused was 51.85 mmols. Results Acetate clearance in NI participants was not significantly different than that in HI participants (2.11 ± 0.23 vs 2.09 ± 0.24 ml/min). FFA fell in both groups, but rebounded to a greater extent in NI than HI participants (time × group interaction, P = 0.001). Significant correlations between insulin resistance (IR) indices (HOMA-IR, Matsuda and Insulinogenic Index) vs FFA rebound during IV AC infusion were also observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that AC uptake is similar in both groups. Participants with lower plasma insulin and lower IR indices had a greater FFA rebound. These results support the hypothesis that increasing AC concentrations in the systemic circulation may reduce lipolysis and plasma FFA concentrations and thus improve insulin sensitivity. More in-depth studies are needed to look at the effects of SCFA on FFA metabolism in insulin resistant participants. PMID:22828730

Fernandes, Judlyn; Vogt, Janet; Wolever, Thomas MS

2014-01-01

192

Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

2009-04-01

193

Fed-batch fermentation with and without on-line extraction for propionic and acetic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch propionic and acetic acid fermentations were performed in semi-defined laboratory medium and in corn steep liquor with Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain P9. On average, over four experiments, 34.5rg\\/l propionic acid and 12.8rg\\/l acetic acid were obtained in about 146rh in laboratory medium with 79rg\\/l glucose added over five feeding periods. The highest concentration of propionic acid, 45rg\\/l, was obtained when

F. Ozadali; B. A. Glatz; C. E. Glatz

1996-01-01

194

Acid and base catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-benzoylthiocarbamoyl-acetals.  

PubMed

Acid and base catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-benzoylthioureidoacetal, containing four functional groups adjacent to thiourea such as benzocarbamoyl, acetal, thioure and amide, were investigated. The condensation reaction of N-benzoyl thiocarbamoylglycine amide in the presence of 10% aqueous NaOH provided 1-(2,2-dimethoxy)ethyl-imidazolidine-2-thione exclusively. In the presence of pyridine, it was transformed to 2-thiohydantoin. N-Benzoyl thiocarbamoyl glycine amide was completely transformed to an iminothiazolidine exclusively in the presence of Lewis acid such as borontrifluoride etherate or trimethylsilyl iodide. 1-(2,2-Dimethoxy)ethyl-imidazolidine-2-thione was transformed to imidazole[2,1-b]thiazole and pyrazino[5,1-a]imidazole in the presence of BF3.Et2O and formic acid, respectively. PMID:10836733

Lee, B; Kim, C; Lee, J W

2000-04-01

195

Preclinical in vitro and in vivo activity of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid.  

PubMed Central

5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (5,6-MeXAA) is a fused tricyclic analogue of flavone acetic acid (FAA) which was developed in an attempt to improve on the activity of FAA. Previous studies have shown 5,6-MeXAA to be curative in 80% of mice bearing colon 38 tumours and 12 times more dose potent than FAA. This investigation has demonstrated that a murine colon tumour cell line (MAC15A) is approximately 60 times more sensitive to 5,6-MeXAA than to FAA, although these differences were not seen in three human cell lines tested. 5,6-MeXAA caused significant blood flow shutdown and haemorrhagic necrosis in subcutaneous MAC15A tumours in syngeneic and nude hosts, but measurable changes in tumour volume were seen only in syngeneic hosts. 5,6-MeXAA was inactive against intraperitoneal MAC15A but produced significant anti-tumour effects against the same cell line inoculated via an intravenous route. FAA has been shown previously to be inactive in this model. Interestingly, the effects against lung colonies were not accompanied by obvious necrotic changes, suggesting that they may be the result of increased direct cytotoxicity rather than an indirect host mechanism. Further studies to investigate the effects against systemic tumour deposits are under way. Images Figure 3 PMID:7779712

Laws, A. L.; Matthew, A. M.; Double, J. A.; Bibby, M. C.

1995-01-01

196

Dissociative electron-ion recombination of the interstellar species protonated glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and methyl formate.  

PubMed

Recently, methyl formate, glycolaldehyde, and acetic acid have been detected in the Interstellar Medium, ISM. The rate constants, ?(e), for dissociative electron-ion recombination of protonated gycolaldehyde, (HOCH(2)CHO)H(+), and protonated methyl formate, (HCOOCH(3))H(+), have been determined at 300 K in a variable temperature flowing afterglow using a Langmuir probe to obtain the electron density. The recombination rate constants at 300 K are 3.2 × 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) for protonated methyl formate and 7.5 × 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) for protonated glycolaldehyde. The recombination rate constant of protonated acetic acid could not be directly measured, but it appears to have a rate constant, ?(e), on the 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) scale. Several high- and low-temperature measurements for protonated methyl formate were made. In addition, an ?(e) measurement at 220 K for protonated glycolaldehyde was performed. The astrochemical implications of the rates of recombination, ?(e), and protonation routes are discussed. PMID:22335483

Lawson, Patrick A; Osborne, David S; Adams, Nigel G

2012-03-22

197

Transgenically enhanced expression of indole-3-acetic Acid confers hypervirulence to plant pathogens.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum and F. arthrosporioides, pathogenic on Orobanche aegyptiaca, were transformed with two genes of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway leading to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to attempt to enhance virulence. Transgenic F. oxysporum lines containing both the tryptophan-2-monooxyngenase (iaaM) and indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH) genes produced significantly more IAA than the wild type. IAM accumulated in culture extracts of F. oxysporum containing iaaM alone. F. arthrosporioides containing only iaaM accumulated IAM and an unidentified indole. Some transformants of F. oxysporum expressing only the iaaM gene also produced more IAA than the wild type. Sub-threshold levels (that barely infect Orobanche) of transgenic F. oxysporum expressing both genes and of F. arthrosporioides expressing iaaM were more effective in suppressing the number and size of Orobanche shoots than the wild type on tomato plants grown in soil mixed with Orobanche seed. Stimulating an auxin imbalance enhanced pathogen virulence by affecting the host in a manner similar to low doses of auxin herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. PMID:18944254

Cohen, Barry A; Amsellem, Ziva; Maor, Rudy; Sharon, Amir; Gressel, Jonathan

2002-06-01

198

Synthesis and anticancer activities of 3-arylflavone-8-acetic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

This paper describes the synthesis and the antiproliferative activities of compounds 9a-r, 3-aryl analogs of flavone-8-acetic acid that bear diverse substituents on the benzene rings at the 2- and 3-positions of the flavone nucleus. Their direct and indirect cytotoxicities were evaluated against HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (HPBMCs). The results indicate that most of the compounds bearing electron-withdrawing substituents (9b-m) exhibited moderate direct cytotoxicities. And compounds 9e and 9i showed comparable indirect cytotoxicities with 5, 6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), and low direct cytotoxicities toward HPBMCs. Interestingly, the compounds 9n-r bearing methoxy groups at the 2- or 3-position of the flavone nucleus exhibited higher indirect cytotoxicities against A549 cell lines than DMXAA, and lower cytotoxicities against HPBMCs. In addition, compounds 9p-r were found to be able to induce tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) production in HPBMCs. PMID:25461325

Yan, Guang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Fang; Ge, Bing-Chen; Shi, Xiu-Dong; Chen, Yu-Fang; Yang, Xue-Mei; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Liu, Shu-Wen; Zhao, Pei-Liang; Zhou, Zhong-Zhen; Zhou, Chun-Qiong; Chen, Wen-Hua

2015-01-27

199

Cross ketonization of Cuphea sp. oil with acetic acid over a composite oxide of Fe, Ce, and Al  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this work was to demonstrate the viability of the cross ketonization reaction with the triacylglycerol from Cuphea sp. and acetic acid in a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor. The seed oil from Cuphea sp. contains up to 71% decanoic acid and the reaction of this fatty acid residue with ac...

200

Production of indole-3-acetic acid and related indole derivatives from L-tryptophan by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.  

PubMed

Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 produces indoles with simultaneous utilization of L-tryptophan. Fifteen chromatographically distinct indole derivatives were detected from the L-tryptophan-supplemented cultures of R. benzoatilyticus JA2. Nine of these were identified as, indole 3-acetamide, Methoxyindole-3-aldehyde, indole 3-aldehyde, methoxyindole-3-acetic acid, indole 3-acetic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetonitrile, indole, and trisindoline. Tryptophan stable isotope feeding confirmed the indoles produced are from the supplemented L-tryptophan. Indole 3-acetic acid is one of the major products of L-tryptophan catabolism by R. benzoatilyticus JA2 and its production was influenced by growth conditions. Identification of indole 3-acetamide and tryptophan monooxygenase activity suggests indole 3-acetamide routed IAA biosynthesis in R. benzoatilyticus JA2. The study also indicated the possible multiple pathways of IAA biosynthesis in R. benzoatilyticus JA2. PMID:20972782

Mujahid, Md; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2011-02-01

201

Synthesis and antiradical/antioxidant activities of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and its related propionic, acetic, and benzoic acid analogues.  

PubMed

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive component isolated from propolis. A series of CAPE analogues was synthesized and their antiradical/antioxidant effects analyzed. The effect of the presence of the double bond and of the conjugated system on the antioxidant effect is evaluated with the analogues obtained from 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid. Those obtained from 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid allow the evaluation of the effect of the presence of two carbons between the carbonyl and aromatic system. PMID:23222926

LeBlanc, Luc M; Paré, Aurélie F; Jean-François, Jacques; Hébert, Martin J G; Surette, Marc E; Touaibia, Mohamed

2012-01-01

202

Production of indole-3-acetic acid and related indole derivatives from L-tryptophan by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 produces indoles with simultaneous utilization of L-tryptophan. Fifteen chromatographically distinct indole derivatives\\u000a were detected from the L-tryptophan-supplemented cultures of R. benzoatilyticus JA2. Nine of these were identified as, indole 3-acetamide, Methoxyindole-3-aldehyde, indole 3-aldehyde, methoxyindole-3-acetic\\u000a acid, indole 3-acetic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetonitrile, indole, and trisindoline. Tryptophan stable isotope\\u000a feeding confirmed the indoles produced are from the supplemented L-tryptophan.

Ch. Sasikala; Ch. V. Ramana

2011-01-01

203

Regulation of acetic acid production by homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs.  

PubMed

The efficiency of sour-dough as a possible preservative agent of microbial spoilage of bread depends on its acetic acid content. As a secondary metabolite of sugar fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid may be promoted in the presence of O2 or H+ acceptors. This paper studies the influence of O2 and high fructose content products (pure sugar, invert sugar, fructose syrup) addition on acetic acid production by hetero- (Lactobacillus brevis 25a, B-21, L-62; L. sanfrancisco L-99) and homofermentative (L. plantarum B-39) lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs [280 and 250 dough yield (DY)]. The pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) of sour-doughs after 44 h fermentation varied with DY and strain. As expected, the addition of O2 promoted greater increases in TTA with heterofermentative lactobacilli (15-42%) than with L. plantarum (15%). Fructose addition was only effective for heterofermentative strains, but the overall effects were smaller than those observed for oxygenation. The ability of lactobacilli to produce acetic acid in sour-doughs without treatment varied from 0.16 g/100 g flour at 44 h (B-39, 280, 350 DY) to 0.47-0.65% (L-62, 280, 350 DY). The production of acetic acid was positively promoted by all treatments. Oxygenation was again the most effective way of inducing acetic acid production; increases ranged from 54% (B-21) to 269% (L-99, 350 DY). The addition of H+ acceptors had variable effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7975904

Martínez-Anaya, M A; Llin, M L; Pilar Macías, M; Collar, C

1994-09-01

204

A novel kinetic model for polysaccharide dissolution during atmospheric acetic acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Acetic acid (AcH) pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with the catalysis of sulfuric acid (SA) could greatly enhance the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. However, polysaccharide dissolution happened inevitably during the pretreatment. It was found that the simplest model, which assumes that the total polysaccharides were reactive to be dissolved, could not well describe the kinetic behavior of polysaccharide dissolution. A novel pseudo-homogenous kinetic model was thus developed by introducing a parameter termed as "potential dissolution degree" (?(d)) based on the multilayered structure of cell wall. It was found that solid xylan and glucan dissolutions were a first-order reaction with respect to the dissolvable fraction. Due to the delignification action of AcH, polysaccharide dissolutions were enhanced in AcH media compared with those in aqueous system. Acetylizations of cellulose and sugars were also observed, and AcH concentration showed a significant influence on the degree of acetylization. PMID:24215769

Zhao, Xuebing; Morikawa, Yuichi; Qi, Feng; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Dehua

2014-01-01

205

Kozakia baliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-proteobacteria.  

PubMed

Four bacterial strains were isolated from palm brown sugar and ragi collected in Bali and Yogyakarta, Indonesia, by an enrichment culture approach for acetic acid bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the four isolates constituted a cluster separate from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter and Asaia with a high bootstrap value in a phylogenetic tree. The isolates had high values of DNA-DNA similarity (78-100%) between one another and low values of the similarity (7-25%) to the type strains of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Asaia bogorensis. The DNA base composition of the isolates ranged from 56.8 to 57.2 mol% G+C with a range of 0-4 mol%. The major quinone was Q-10. The isolates oxidized acetate and lactate to carbon dioxide and water, but the activity was weak, as with strains of Asaia bogorensis. The isolates differed from Asaia bogorensis strains in phenotypic characteristics. The name Kozakia baliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for the four isolates. Strain Yo-3T (= NRIC 0488T = JCM 11301T = IFO 16664T = DSM 14400T) was isolated from palm brown sugar collected in Bali, Indonesia, and was designated as the type strain. PMID:12054243

Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Widyastuti, Yantyati; Saono, Susono; Seki, Tatsuji; Yamada, Yuzo; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

2002-05-01

206

Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry.  

PubMed

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway. PMID:10092839

Zakharova, E A; Shcherbakov, A A; Brudnik, V V; Skripko, N G; Bulkhin, N Sh; Ignatov, V V

1999-02-01

207

Disruption of the acetate kinase (ack) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum results in delayed acetate production.  

PubMed

In microorganisms, the enzyme acetate kinase (AK) catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP by de-phosphorylation of acetyl phosphate into acetic acid. A mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum lacking acetate kinase activity is expected to have reduced acetate and acetone production compared to the wild type. In this work, a C. acetobutylicum mutant strain with a selectively disrupted ack gene, encoding AK, was constructed and genetically and physiologically characterized. The ack (-) strain showed a reduction in acetate kinase activity of more than 97% compared to the wild type. The fermentation profiles of the ack (-) and wild-type strain were compared using two different fermentation media, CGM and CM1. The latter contains acetate and has a higher iron and magnesium content than CGM. In general, fermentations by the mutant strain showed a clear shift in the timing of peak acetate production relative to butyrate and had increased acid uptake after the onset of solvent formation. Specifically, in acetate containing CM1 medium, acetate production was reduced by more than 80% compared to the wild type under the same conditions, but both strains produced similar final amounts of solvents. Fermentations in CGM showed similar peak acetate and butyrate levels, but increased acetoin (60%), ethanol (63%) and butanol (16%) production and reduced lactate (-50%) formation by the mutant compared to the wild type. These findings are in agreement with the proposed regulatory function of butyryl phosphate as opposed to acetyl phosphate in the metabolic switch of solventogenic clostridia. PMID:22249720

Kuit, Wouter; Minton, Nigel P; López-Contreras, Ana M; Eggink, Gerrit

2012-05-01

208

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of acetic acid over Cu-Zn supported calcium aluminate.  

PubMed

Hydrogen can be produced by catalytic steam reforming (CSR) of biomass-derived oil. Typically bio oil contains 12-14% acetic acid; therefore, this acid was chosen as model compound for reforming of biooil with the help of a Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst for high yield of H(2) with low CH(4) and CO content. Calcium aluminate support was prepared by solid-solid reaction at 1350°C. X-ray diffraction indicates 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) as major, CaA(l4)O(7) and Ca(5)A(l6)O(14) as minor phases. Cu and Zn were loaded onto the support by wet-impregnation at 10 and 1wt.%, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM and the surface area for both support and Cu-Zn were 10.5 and 5.8m(2)/g, respectively. CSR was carried out in a tubular fixed bed reactor (I.D.=19mm) at temperatures between 600 and 800°C with 3-g loadings and (H(2)O/acetic acid) wt. ratio of 9:1. Significantly high (80%) yield of hydrogen was obtained over Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst, as incorporation of Zn enhanced the H(2) yield by reducing deactivation of the catalyst. The coke formation on the support (Ca-12/Al-7) surface was negligible due to the presence of excess oxygen in the 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) phase. PMID:22944490

Mohanty, Pravakar; Patel, Madhumita; Pant, Kamal K

2012-11-01

209

Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

1991-01-01

210

Study of polydimethylsiloxane/aromatic polyamide laminated membranes for separation of acetic acid/water mixtures by pervaporation process  

SciTech Connect

Separation of acetic acid/water mixtures by pervaporation was attempted over a range of compositions using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), aromatic polyamide (PA), and laminated polydimethylsiloxane-aromatic polyamide membranes. PDMS membranes are hydrophobic and acetic acid selective, whereas PA membranes are hydrophilic and water selective. When PDMS and PA membranes were laminated, with PDMS on the top side and in contact with the feed, water selectivity of the bottom PA membrane was intensified. On the other hand, when the PA membrane was on the top side and in contact with the feed, the selectivity was lowered. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Deng, S.; Sourirajan, S.; Matsuura, T. (Univ. of Ottawa (Canada))

1994-06-01

211

Effect of pH and lactic or acetic acid on ethanol productivity by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in corn mash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lactic and acetic acids on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in corn mash, as influenced by pH and dissolved solids concentration, were examined. The lactic and acetic acid concentrations utilized were 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0% w\\/v, and 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% w\\/v, respectively. Corn mashes (20, 25 and 30% dry solids)

Tara Graves; Neelakantam V. Narendranath; Karl Dawson; Ronan Power

2006-01-01

212

Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

2010-06-01

213

A comparative study on the chitosan membranes prepared from glycine hydrochloride and acetic acid.  

PubMed

In this study, glycine hydrochloride (Gly·HCl) is confirmed to be a promising solvent for dissolving native chitosan and preparing regenerated chitosan membrane. As compared with the chitosan membrane prepared from traditional acetic acid, the membrane prepared from Gly·HCl by dry technique shows excellent tensile strength and initial modulus, i.e. 103.8MPa and 3.2GPa, respectively, which is superior to any chitosan membrane and most chitosan blend membranes reported in literatures. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to visualize the difference between the two kind of regenerated chitosan membranes. The SEM results show that the membrane prepared from Gly·HCl by dry technique presents a novel structure, which ensures its high tenacity. Furthermore, the chitosan microporous membranes were also prepared using PEG as porogen. PMID:23121935

Ma, Bomou; Li, Xiang; Qin, Aiwen; He, Chunju

2013-01-16

214

A molecular molybdenum electrocatalyst for generating hydrogen from acetic acid or water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of 2-pyridylamino-N,N-bis(2-methylene-4,6-difluorophenol) (H2L?) and MoCl5 affords a molybdenum(VI) complex [MoL?(O)2] 1, a new molecular electrocatalyst, which has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies show that a molybdenum(IV) intermediate is responsible for the reductive proton to generate H2, and 1 can catalyze hydrogen evolution from acetic acid or aqueous buffer. Turnover frequency (TOF) reaches a maximum of 50.6 (in DMF) and 756 (in buffer, pH 6.0) moles of hydrogen per mole of catalyst per hour, respectively. Sustained proton reduction catalysis occurs at glassy carbon (GC) electrode to give H2 over a 72 h electrolysis period and no observable decomposition of the catalyst.

Cao, Jie-Ping; Zhou, Ling-Ling; Fu, Ling-Zhi; Zhan, Shuzhong

2014-12-01

215

Acetic acid bacteria genomes reveal functional traits for adaptation to life in insect guts.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) live in sugar rich environments, including food matrices, plant tissues, and the gut of sugar-feeding insects. By comparing the newly sequenced genomes of Asaia platycodi and Saccharibacter sp., symbionts of Anopheles stephensi and Apis mellifera, respectively, with those of 14 other AAB, we provide a genomic view of the evolutionary pattern of this bacterial group and clues on traits that explain the success of AAB as insect symbionts. A specific pre-adaptive trait, cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase, appears ancestral in AAB and shows a phylogeny that is congruent with that of the genomes. The functional properties of this terminal oxidase might have allowed AAB to adapt to the diverse oxygen levels of arthropod guts. PMID:24682158

Chouaia, Bessem; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Crotti, Elena; Comandatore, Francesco; Degli Esposti, Mauro; Ricci, Irene; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

2014-04-01

216

Treatment of Myositis Ossificans with acetic acid phonophoresis: a case series  

PubMed Central

Objective To create awareness of myositis ossificans (MO) as a potential complication of muscle contusion by presenting its clinical presentation and diagnostic features. An effective method of treatment is offered for those patients who develop traumatic MO. Management: Patients in this case series developed traumatic MO, confirmed on diagnostic ultrasound. Patients participated in a treatment regimen consisting of phonophoresis of acetic acid with ultrasound. Outcome: In all cases, a trial of phonophoresis therapy significantly decreased patient signs, symptoms and the size of the calcification on diagnostic ultrasound in most at a 4-week post diagnosis mark. Discussion: Due to the potential damage to the muscle and its function, that surgical excision carries; safe effective methods of conservative treatment for MO are crucial. MO deserves more attention in the literature due to its common presentation in athletes.

Bagnulo, Angela; Gringmuth, Robert

2014-01-01

217

Characterization of three endophytic, indole-3-acetic acid-producing yeasts occurring in Populus trees.  

PubMed

Three endophytic yeast, one isolated from stems of wild cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), two from stems of hybrid poplar (P. trichocarpaxPopulus deltoides), were characterized by analyzing three ribosomal genes, the small subunit (18S), internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and D1/D2 region of the large subunit (26S). Phenotypic characteristics of the yeast isolates were also obtained using a commercial yeast identification kit and used for assisting the species identification. The isolate from wild cottonwood was identified to be closest to species Rhodotorula graminis. The two isolates from hybrid poplar were identified to be species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. In addition, the three yeast isolates were observed to be able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a phytohormone which can promote plant growth, when incubated with l-tryptophan. To our knowledge, the yeast strains presented in this study were the first endophytic yeast strains isolated from species of Populus. PMID:19539760

Xin, Gang; Glawe, Dean; Doty, Sharon L

2009-09-01

218

Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by Citrobacter sp. TKF04 from acetic and propionic acids.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain, TKF04, capable of producing a bioflocculant from acetic and/or propionic acids was isolated from a biofilm formed in inside a kitchen drain. It was identified as a Citrobacter based on its morphological and physiological characteristics and the partial sequences of its 16S rRNA. TKF04 produced the bioflocculant during the logarithmic phase of growth, and the optimum temperature and pH for the bioflocculant production were 30 degrees C and 7.2-10.0, respectively. It could utilize some organic acids and sugars for its growth as the sole carbon sources when yeast extract was supplemented; however, only acetate and propionate were found to be good substrates for the bioflocculant production. The crude bioflocculant could be recovered from the supernatant of the culture broth by ethanol precipitation and dialysis against deionized water. It was found to be effective for flocculation of a kaolin suspension, when added at a final concentration of 1-10 mg/l, over a wide range of pHs (2-8) and temperatures (approximately 3-95 degrees C), while the co-presence of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Al3+ or Fe3+) did not enhance the flocculating activity. It could efficiently flocculate a variety of inorganic and organic suspended particles, including kaolin, diatomite, bentonite, activated carbon, soil and activated sludge. It contained glucosamine as the major component, and the molecular weight was estimated to be between 232 and 440 kDa by gel filtration. The observation that the flocculating activity was completely lost following chitinase treatment and its analysis with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer suggested that the bioflocculant is a biopolymer structurally-similar to chitin or chitosan. PMID:16232696

Fujita, M; Ike, M; Tachibana, S; Kitada, G; Kim, S M; Inoue, Z

2000-01-01

219

Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.  

PubMed

U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs. PMID:24780334

Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

2014-05-01

220

Effects of intramuscular injection of alpha-tocopheryl acetate on fatty acid profile in lamb liver.  

PubMed

The effects of intramuscularly administrated vitamin E on total lipids, fatty acid profile, and lipid stability to oxidation was investigated in lamb liver. Twenty-four 5-day-old lambs were allotted to 4 groups of 6 each and given respectively 0 (control), 125, 200, 300 mg dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate weekly from day 5 to 33. alpha-Tocopherol stored in lamb liver at the end of experiment showed linear correlation with the level of injected vitamin E. No effect on total lipids was found. A decrease in the level of liver thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances (TBARS), significantly correlated with liver alpha-tocopherol content, was found in vitamin E groups. The amount of linoleic and linolenic acids significantly increased in the vitamin E groups as compared to control group, and were correlated with the liver alpha-tocopherol content. TBARS were negatively correlated with the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Finally, in the liver of the treated groups, vitamin E concentrations in the range 30-50 micrograms/g showed adequate for an efficient protection from peroxidation of membrane lipids, and determined an increase in the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:10642895

Oriani, G; Salvatori, G; Maiorano, G; Manchisi, A; Brienza, A; Pantaleo, L; Di Caterina, R; Rotunno, T

1999-11-01

221

Crystal structure of an indole-3-acetic acid amido synthetase from grapevine involved in auxin homeostasis.  

PubMed

Auxins are important for plant growth and development, including the control of fruit ripening. Conjugation to amino acids by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases is an important part of auxin homeostasis. The structure of the auxin-conjugating Gretchen Hagen3-1 (GH3-1) enzyme from grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in complex with an inhibitor (adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]phosphate), is presented. Comparison with a previously published benzoate-conjugating enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that grapevine GH3-1 has a highly similar domain structure and also undergoes a large conformational change during catalysis. Mutational analyses and structural comparisons with other proteins have identified residues likely to be involved in acyl group, amino acid, and ATP substrate binding. Vv GH3-1 is a monomer in solution and requires magnesium ions solely for the adenlyation reaction. Modeling of IAA and two synthetic auxins, benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), into the active site indicates that NAA and BTOA are likely to be poor substrates for this enzyme, confirming previous enzyme kinetic studies. This suggests a reason for the increased effectiveness of NAA and BTOA as auxins in planta and provides a tool for designing new and effective auxins. PMID:23136372

Peat, Thomas S; Böttcher, Christine; Newman, Janet; Lucent, Del; Cowieson, Nathan; Davies, Christopher

2012-11-01

222

Investigations of the pore formation in the lead selenide films using glacial acetic acid- and nitric acid-based electrolyte  

PubMed Central

We report a novel synthesis of porous PbSe layers on Si substrates by anodic electrochemical treatment of PbSe/CaF2/Si(111) epitaxial structures in an electrolyte solution based on glacial acetic acid and nitric acid. Electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and local chemical microanalysis investigation results for the porous layers are presented. Average size of the synthesized mesopores with approximately 1010 cm?2 surface density was determined to be 22 nm. The observed phenomenon of the active selenium redeposition on the mesopore walls during anodic treatment is discussed. PMID:22726822

2012-01-01

223

Bombella intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from bumble bee crop.  

PubMed

In the frame of a bumble bee gut microbiota study, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated using a combination of direct isolation methods and enrichment procedures. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of the isolates and a comparison of these profiles with profiles of established AAB species identified most isolates as Asaia astilbis or as 'Commensalibacter intestini', except for two isolates (R-52486 and LMG 28161(T)) that showed an identical profile. A nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 28161(T) was determined and showed the highest pairwise similarity to Saccharibacter floricola S-877(T) (96.5?%), which corresponded with genus level divergence in the family Acetobacteraceae. Isolate LMG 28161(T) was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing; a 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence as well as partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB were extracted for phylogenetic analyses. The obtained data confirmed that this isolate is best classified into a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae. The DNA G+C content of strain LMG 28161(T) was 54.9 mol%. The fatty acid compositions of isolates R-52486 and LMG 28161(T) were similar to those of established AAB species [with C18?:?1?7c (43.1?%) as the major component], but the amounts of fatty acids such as C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c, C14?:?0 and C14?:?0 2-OH enabled to differentiate them. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. Both isolates could also be differentiated from the known genera of AAB by means of biochemical characteristics, such as their inability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, negligible acid production from melibiose, and notable acid production from d-fructose, sucrose and d-mannitol. In addition, they produced 2-keto-d-gluconate, but not 5-keto-d-gluconate from d-glucose. Therefore, the name Bombella intestini gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this new taxon, with LMG 28161(T) (?=?DSM 28636(T)?=?R-52487(T)) as the type strain of the type species. PMID:25336723

Li, Leilei; Praet, Jessy; Borremans, Wim; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

2015-01-01

224

Biogas Production through the Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Pathway  

E-print Network

retention time OLR Organic loading rate PCR Polymerase chain reaction qPCR Quantitative polymerase chain reaction RNA Ribonucleic acid SAO Syntrophic acetate oxidation SAOB Syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria

225

Estimation of the entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point for azeotropic mixtures containing water, alcohol or acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point has been estimated for binary and ternary azotropic mixtures containing water, alcohol or acetic acid. For this purpose, the Lee–Kesler correlation, developed originally for pure substances, is used with the appropriate mixing rules to estimate the heat of vaporization of the mixtures. Estimations for the entropy of vaporization of the 97

Ya?ar Demirel

1999-01-01

226

Liquid phase esterification of acetic acid over WO3 promoted ?-SiC in a solvent free system.  

PubMed

A series of tungstate promoted ?-SiC catalysts was synthesized by a wetness impregnation method. The as synthesized catalysts were unambiguously characterized by XRD, Raman, FTIR, XPS, UV-Vis DRS, TEM, BET surface areas and FE-SEM, and simultaneously the total amount of the acidity of the catalysts was estimated by NH(3)-TPD. The catalytic activities of the synthesized materials were tested in the liquid phase esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol in a solvent free medium. The reaction parameters were optimized to a temperature of 120 °C, molar ratio of butanol and acetic acid of 1:2 and a reaction time of 6 h after performing a number of experiments. Under the optimum conditions, the catalytic esterification revealed a significant effect of 88% conversion with 100% selectivity to butyl acetate in 20 wt% WO(3)/?-SiC. This is the first report on the effective utilization of ?-SiC as a catalyst support for liquid phase esterification of acetic acid. PMID:23042240

Mishra, Gopa; Behera, Gobinda C; Singh, S K; Parida, K M

2012-12-21

227

Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties  

SciTech Connect

Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co(L{sup 1}){sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [CuL{sup 1}N{sub 3}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(L{sup 2}){sub 2}.0.5C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH.H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (3) and [Co(L{sup 2}){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) (here, HL{sup 1}=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, HL{sup 2}=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4{sup 4}-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6})-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear mu{sub 1,1}-bridging azido Cu{sup II} entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied. - Graphical Abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups are reported.

Hu Bowen; Zhao Jiongpeng; Yang Qian; Hu Tongliang; Du Wenping [Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Bu Xianhe, E-mail: buxh@nankai.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2009-10-15

228

ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

229

Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of a Bile Leak from an Isolated Bile Duct After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy  

SciTech Connect

Bile leak after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not uncommon, and it mainly occurs from the cystic duct stump and can be easily treated by endoscopic techniques. However, treatment for leakage from an isolated bile duct can be troublesome. We report a successful case of acetic acid sclerotherapy for bile leak from an isolated bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Choi, Gibok, E-mail: choigibok@yahoo.co.kr; Eun, Choong Ki, E-mail: ilovegod@chollian.net [Inje University, Department of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Choi, HyunWook, E-mail: gdkid92@daum.net [Maryknoll Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15

230

Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH3COOH)n.H+, the feature related to the fragment ions (CH3COOH)H+.COO (105 amu) via ?-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH3COOH).H+ and (CH3COOH)H+.COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH3COOH)H+.COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 ± 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH3COOH)+ becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH3COOH).CH3CO+. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV.

Guan, Jiwen; Hu, Yongjun; Zou, Hao; Cao, Lanlan; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi

2012-09-01

231

2-Aryl(pyrrolidin-4-yl)acetic acids are potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors.  

PubMed

A series of 2-aryl(pyrrolidin-4-yl)acetic acids were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated as agonists of S1P receptors. These analogs were able to induce lowering of lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of mice and were found to have good overall pharmacokinetic properties in rat. PMID:16621543

Yan, Lin; Budhu, Richard; Huo, Pei; Lynch, Christopher L; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Mandala, Suzanne M

2006-07-01

232

Improved Monitoring of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Pear Ester Plus Acetic Acid in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in clear delta traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA) in separate lures (PE+AA) was compared with catch in orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing PE and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadie...

233

Mitochondrial degradation in acetic acid-induced yeast apoptosis: the role of Pep4 and the ADP/ATP carrier.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that acetic acid activates a mitochondria-dependent death process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) is required for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release. Mitochondrial fragmentation and degradation have also been shown in response to this death stimulus. Herein, we show that autophagy is not active in cells undergoing acetic acid-induced apoptosis and is therefore not responsible for mitochondrial degradation. Furthermore, we found that the vacuolar protease Pep4p and the AAC proteins have a role in mitochondrial degradation using yeast genetic approaches. Depletion and overexpression of Pep4p, an orthologue of human cathepsin D, delays and enhances mitochondrial degradation respectively. Moreover, Pep4p is released from the vacuole into the cytosol in response to acetic acid treatment. AAC-deleted cells also show a decrease in mitochondrial degradation in response to acetic acid and are not defective in Pep4p release. Therefore, AAC proteins seem to affect mitochondrial degradation at a step subsequent to Pep4p release, possibly triggering degradation through their involvement in mitochondrial permeabilization. The finding that both mitochondrial AAC proteins and the vacuolar Pep4p interfere with mitochondrial degradation suggests a complex regulation and interplay between mitochondria and the vacuole in yeast programmed cell death. PMID:20345665

Pereira, Clara; Chaves, Susana; Alves, Sara; Salin, Bénédict; Camougrand, Nadine; Manon, Stéphen; Sousa, Maria João; Côrte-Real, Manuela

2010-06-01

234

5-MERCAPTOTETRAZOLE-1-ACETIC Acid as a Novel Capping Ligand for Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel stabilizing ligand, 5-mercaptotetrazole-1-acetic acid, has been applied for synthesis of silver and palladium nanoparticles in aqueous media. The morphology of the synthesized particles and some properties were determined by TEM, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and quantum-chemical calculations.

Nichick, M. N.; Voitekhovich, S. V.; Matulis, V. E.; Komsa, D. N.; Lesnikovich, A. I.; Ivashkevich, O. A.

2013-05-01

235

The Potential of 11C-acetate PET for Monitoring the Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Tumors  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a molecular imaging modality that provides the opportunity to rapidly and non-invasively visualize tumors derived from multiple organs. In order to do so, PET utilizes radiotracers, such as 18F-FDG and 11C-acetate, whose uptake coincides with altered metabolic pathways within tumors. Increased expression and activity of enzymes in the fatty acid synthesis pathway is a frequent hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, this pathway has become a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Although multiple drugs have been developed that both directly and indirectly interfere with fatty acid synthesis, an optimal means to assess their efficacy is lacking. Given that 11C-acetate is directly linked to the fatty acid synthesis pathway, this probe provides a unique opportunity to monitor lipogenic tumors by PET. Herein, we review the relevance of the fatty acid synthesis pathway in cancer. Furthermore, we address the potential utility of 11C-acetate PET in imaging tumors, especially those that are not FDG-avid. Last, we discuss several therapeutic interventions that could benefit from 11C-acetate PET to monitor therapeutic response in patients with certain types of cancers. PMID:23597406

DeFord-Watts, Laura M.; Mintz, Akiva; Kridel, Steven J.

2013-01-01

236

Use of Optical Density Detection Times To Assess the Effect of Acetic Acid on Single-Cell Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Listeria innocua at different acetic acid concentrations (0 to 2,000 ppm) was monitored by optical density measurements in a Bioscreen (Labsystems, Vantaa, Finland). The generated populations came from low inocula that were obtained by serial dilution. A new method to estimate both the growth rate and the lag time of single cells from the detection times (time

A. Metris; S. M. George; J. Baranyi

2006-01-01

237

Acetic acid promoted metal-free aerobic carbon-carbon bond forming reactions at ?-position of tertiary amines.  

PubMed

The oxidative functionalization of the benzylic C-H bonds in tetrahydroisoquinolines and tetrahydro-?-carboline derivatives was investigated. C-C bond forming reactions proceeded with a range of nucleophiles (nitroalkane, enol silyl ether, indole, allylstannane, and tetrabutylammonium cyanide) under metal-free conditions and an oxygen atmosphere. Acetic acid caused a significant acceleration effect. PMID:25062493

Ueda, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Kei; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi

2014-08-15

238

GC-MS QUANTIFICATION OF THE METHANOL AND ACETIC ACID CONTENT OF PECTIN USING HEADSPACE SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple, fast, and direct procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of the methanol and acetic acid present as esters in the plant cell wall polysaccharide pectin. After base-hydrolysis of esters and acidification of pectin samples, headspace solid-phase microextraction was perfor...

239

Enantioselective synthesis of piperidines through the formation of chiral mixed phosphoric acid acetals: experimental and theoretical studies.  

PubMed

An enantioselective intramolecular chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed cyclization of unsaturated acetals has been utilized for the synthesis of functionalized chiral piperidines. The chiral enol ether products of these cyclizations undergo subsequent in?situ enantioenrichment through acetalization of the minor enantiomer. A new computational reaction exploration method was utilized to elucidate the mechanism and stereoselectivity of this transformation. Rather than confirming the originally postulated cyclization proceeding directly through a vinyl oxocarbenium ion, simulations identified an alternative two-step mechanism involving the formation of a mixed chiral phosphate acetal, which undergoes a concerted, asynchronous S(N)2'-like displacement to yield the product with stereoselectivity in agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25196818

Sun, Zhankui; Winschel, Grace A; Zimmerman, Paul M; Nagorny, Pavel

2014-10-13

240

Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov., cellulose- and non-cellulose-producing acetic acid bacteria isolated from vinegar.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic position of a cellulose-producing acetic acid bacterium, strain ID13488, isolated from commercially available Colombian homemade fruit vinegar, was investigated. Analyses using nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, nearly complete 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, as well as concatenated partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB, allocated the micro-organism to the genus Gluconacetobacter, and more precisely to the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. Moreover, the data suggested that the micro-organism belongs to a novel species in this genus, together with LMG 1693(T), a non-cellulose-producing strain isolated from vinegar by Kondo and previously classified as a strain of Gluconacetobacter xylinus. DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed this finding, revealing a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 81?% between strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T), and values <70?% between strain LMG 1693(T) and the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours. Additionally, the classification of strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) into a single novel species was supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and (GTG)5-PCR DNA fingerprinting data, as well as by phenotypic data. Strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) could be differentiated from closely related species of the genus Gluconacetobacter by their ability to produce 2- and 5-keto-d-gluconic acid from d-glucose, their ability to produce acid from sucrose, but not from 1-propanol, and their ability to grow on 3?% ethanol in the absence of acetic acid and on ethanol, d-ribose, d-xylose, sucrose, sorbitol, d-mannitol and d-gluconate as carbon sources. The DNA G+C content of strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) was 58.0 and 60.7 mol%, respectively. The major ubiquinone of LMG 1693(T) was Q-10. Taken together these data indicate that strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) represent a novel species of the genus Gluconacetobacter for which the name Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 1693(T) (?=?NBRC 3288(T)?=?Kondo 51(T)). PMID:22729025

Castro, Cristina; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Trcek, Janja; Zuluaga, Robin; De Vos, Paul; Caro, Gloria; Aguirre, Ricardo; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Gañán, Piedad

2013-03-01

241

Identification of indole-3-acetic acid producing freshwater wetland rhizosphere bacteria associated with Juncus effusus L.  

PubMed

Production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a key physiological feature of culturable, O2-tolerant bacteria associated with the freshwater macrophyte Juncus effusus L., was examined over a period of 2 years. Up to 74% of rhizobacteria identified and tested produced IAA. The number of indoleacetic acid producers decreased in winter. IAA was produced even when L-tryptophan, a precursor of IAA, was not added to the medium. Most of the IAA-producing strains were dominated by strains that were not identifiable to species level on the basis of API testing. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid analysis, it was found that IAA-producing rhizosphere bacteria associated with the freshwater wetland plant Juncus effusus L. are representatives of several families, including the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Bacillaceae. This study identifies numerous potentially important bacterial physiological groups of freshwater wetlands. Additionally, the study provides a baseline for monitoring and assessing the mutualistic relationships of wetland plants with rhizosphere bacteria in freshwater wetlands. PMID:15162203

Halda-Alija, Lidija

2003-12-01

242

Effect of acetic acid and pH on the cofermentation of glucose and xylose to ethanol by a genetically engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

A current challenge of the cellulosic ethanol industry is the effect of inhibitors present in biomass hydrolysates. Acetic acid is an example of one such inhibitor that is released during the pretreatment of hemicellulose. This study examined the effect of acetic acid on the cofermentation of glucose and xylose under controlled pH conditions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST), a genetically engineered industrial yeast strain. Acetic acid concentrations of 7.5 and 15 g L(-1), representing the range of concentrations expected in actual biomass hydrolysates, were tested under controlled pH conditions of 5, 5.5, and 6. The presence of acetic acid in the fermentation media led to a significant decrease in the observed maximum cell biomass concentration. Glucose- and xylose-specific consumption rates decreased as the acetic acid concentration increased, with the inhibitory effect being more severe for xylose consumption. The ethanol production rates also decreased when acetic acid was present, but ethanol metabolic yields increased under the same conditions. The results also revealed that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid could be reduced by increasing media pH, thus confirming that the undissociated form of acetic acid is the inhibitory form of the molecule. PMID:20402796

Casey, Elizabeth; Sedlak, Miroslav; Ho, Nancy W Y; Mosier, Nathan S

2010-06-01

243

Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid by first derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method for simultaneously determining 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) in mixtures has been developed using derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy based on their synchronous fluorescence. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were obtained with ?? = 100 nm in a pH 8.5 NaH2PO4-NaOH buffer solution, and the detected wavelengths of quantitative analysis were set at 239 nm for BNOA and 293 nm for IAA respectively. The over lapped fluorescence spectra were well separated by the synchronous derivative method. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.003 ?g/mL for BNOA and 0.012 ?g/mL for IAA. This method is simple and expeditious, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in fruit juice samples with satisfactory results. The samples were only filtrated through a 0.45 ?m membrane filter, which was free from the tedious separation procedures. The obtaining recoveries were in the range of 83.88-87.43% for BNOA and 80.76-86.68% for IAA, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 5.0%. Statistical comparison of the results with high performance liquid chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between these two methods.

Liu, Xiangxiang; Wan, Yiqun

2013-07-01

244

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

245

Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 ?g/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ? 80 ?g/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 ?g/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ? 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ? Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ? Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ? LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ? Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ? Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head.

Strecker, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Strecker@cos.uni-heidelberg.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weigt, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weigt@merckgroup.com [Institute of Toxicology, Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Braunbeck, Thomas, E-mail: braunbeck@uni-hd.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-04-15

246

Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Healing and Relapse of Acetic Acid Ulcers in Mongolian Gerbils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Helicobacter pylori and NSAIDs play important roles in the healing and relapse of peptic ulcers in man. We examined how H. pylori infection, indomethacin, and their combination affects the healing of gastric ulcers and whether or not such factors provoke a relapse of healed gastric ulcers in Mongolian gerbils. Gastric ulcers were induced by serosal application of an acetic

Yoshihiro Keto; Misako Ebata; Kazuyoshi Tomita; Susumu Okabe

2002-01-01

247

Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on the Transcriptional Activities and Stress Tolerance of Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

PubMed Central

A genome-wide transcriptional profile of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of the soybean plant, revealed differential expression of approximately 15% of the genome after a 1 mM treatment with the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). A total of 1,323 genes were differentially expressed (619 up-regulated and 704 down-regulated) at a two-fold cut off with q value ? 0.05. General stress response genes were induced, such as those involved in response to heat, cold, oxidative, osmotic, and desiccation stresses and in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis. This suggests that IAA is effective in activating a generalized stress response in B. japonicum. The transcriptional data were corroborated by the finding that stress tolerance of B. japonicum in cell viability assays was enhanced when pre-treated with 1 mM IAA compared to controls. The IAA treatment also stimulated biofilm formation and EPS production by B. japonicum, especially acidic sugar components in the total EPS. The IAA pre-treatment did not influence the nodulation ability of B. japonicum. The data provide a comprehensive overview of the potential transcriptional responses of the symbiotic bacterium when exposed to the ubiquitous hormone of its plant host. PMID:24098533

Donati, Andrew J.; Lee, Hae-In; Leveau, Johan H. J.; Chang, Woo-Suk

2013-01-01

248

Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on the transcriptional activities and stress tolerance of Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed

A genome-wide transcriptional profile of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of the soybean plant, revealed differential expression of approximately 15% of the genome after a 1 mM treatment with the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). A total of 1,323 genes were differentially expressed (619 up-regulated and 704 down-regulated) at a two-fold cut off with q value ? 0.05. General stress response genes were induced, such as those involved in response to heat, cold, oxidative, osmotic, and desiccation stresses and in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis. This suggests that IAA is effective in activating a generalized stress response in B. japonicum. The transcriptional data were corroborated by the finding that stress tolerance of B. japonicum in cell viability assays was enhanced when pre-treated with 1 mM IAA compared to controls. The IAA treatment also stimulated biofilm formation and EPS production by B. japonicum, especially acidic sugar components in the total EPS. The IAA pre-treatment did not influence the nodulation ability of B. japonicum. The data provide a comprehensive overview of the potential transcriptional responses of the symbiotic bacterium when exposed to the ubiquitous hormone of its plant host. PMID:24098533

Donati, Andrew J; Lee, Hae-In; Leveau, Johan H J; Chang, Woo-Suk

2013-01-01

249

Immunohistochemical observation of indole-3-acetic acid at the IAA synthetic maize coleoptile tips.  

PubMed

To investigate the distribution of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and the IAA synthetic cells in maize coleoptiles, we established immunohistochemistry of IAA using an anti-IAA-C-monoclonal antibody. We first confirmed the specificity of the antibody by comparing the amounts of endogenous free and conjugated IAA to the IAA signal obtained from the IAA antibody. Depletion of endogenous IAA showed a corresponding decrease in immuno-signal intensity and negligible cross-reactivity against IAA-related compounds, including tryptophan, indole-3-acetamide, and conjugated-IAA was observed. Immunolocalization showed that the IAA signal was intense in the approximately 1 mm region and the outer epidermis at the approximately 0.5 mm region from the top of coleoptiles treated with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid. By contrast, the IAA immuno-signal in the outer epidermis almost disappeared after 5-methyl-tryptophan treatment. Immunogold labeling of IAA with an anti-IAA-N-polyclonal antibody in the outer-epidermal cells showed cytoplasmic localization of free-IAA, but none in cell walls or vacuoles. These findings indicated that IAA is synthesized in the 0–2.0 mm region of maize coleoptile tips from Trp, in which the outer-epidermal cells of the 0.5 mm tip are the most active IAA synthetic cells. PMID:22112455

Nishimura, Takeshi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Lucas, M Mercedes; Strnad, Miroslav; Baluska, Frantisek; Koshiba, Tomokazu

2011-12-01

250

Immunohistochemical observation of indole-3-acetic acid at the IAA synthetic maize coleoptile tips  

PubMed Central

To investigate the distribution of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and the IAA synthetic cells in maize coleoptiles, we established immunohistochemistry of IAA using an anti-IAA-C-monoclonal antibody. We first confirmed the specificity of the antibody by comparing the amounts of endogenous free and conjugated IAA to the IAA signal obtained from the IAA antibody. Depletion of endogenous IAA showed a corresponding decrease in immuno-signal intensity and negligible cross-reactivity against IAA-related compounds, including tryptophan, indole-3-acetamide, and conjugated-IAA was observed. Immunolocalization showed that the IAA signal was intense in the approximately 1 mm region and the outer epidermis at the approximately 0.5 mm region from the top of coleoptiles treated with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid. By contrast, the IAA immuno-signal in the outer epidermis almost disappeared after 5-methyl-tryptophan treatment. Immunogold labeling of IAA with an anti-IAA-N-polyclonal antibody in the outer-epidermal cells showed cytoplasmic localization of free-IAA, but none in cell walls or vacuoles. These findings indicated that IAA is synthesized in the 0–2.0 mm region of maize coleoptile tips from Trp, in which the outer-epidermal cells of the 0.5 mm tip are the most active IAA synthetic cells. PMID:22112455

Nishimura, Takeshi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Lucas, M. Mercedes; Strnad, Miroslav; Baluška, František; Koshiba, Tomokazu

2011-01-01

251

Flavone acetic acid induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest in mammary carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a synthetic flavonoid that demonstrated extraordinary anti-tumour properties in murine models but was not effective in clinical trials. In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms by which FAA asserts its tumouricidal activities, we have examined the effect of FAA on the cell cycle. We observed FAA-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest in mammary carcinoma cells at a concentration previously demonstrated to have anti-tumour effects in rodent models. The cell cycle arrest was accompanied by an increase in the P34cdc2 (cdc2) cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Morphological cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a colcemid-like effect of FAA on cytokinesis by causing accumulation of condensed C-metaphases of a sustained mitotic block. The cell cycle effect was blocked by the antioxidants ADPC and ascorbate, the superoxide scavenger Tiron, and the sphingosine kinase inhibitor L-cycloserine, but not by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. Based on these data, we propose that FAA may induce cell cycle arrest by stimulating the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471038

Panaro, N J; Popescu, N C; Harris, S R; Thorgeirsson, U P

1999-01-01

252

Influence of ammonia solution on gastric mucosa and acetic acid induced ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

Aqueous ammonia in concentrations of 0.02 or 0.1% was continuously administered to rats to study its effect on the gastric mucosa histologically and cell kinetically. Furthermore, acetic acid ulcer, which is a model of chronic gastric ulcer, was experimentally induced in the stomachs of rats to assess the influence of 0.02% ammonia on the course of this ulcer. Male Donryu rats were divided into three groups given 0.02% ammonia, 0.1% ammonia or tap water. On several occasions (1, 3 and 5 days and 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks from the beginning of the experiment), the gastric mucosa in the fundic gland region and the antrum was examined histologically, and from the viewpoint of cell kinetics. The assessment in the 8th and 24th weeks employed the double labeling technique with bromodeoxyuridine and 3H-thymidine. The assessment on the other occasions used the flash labeling technique with bromodeoxyuridine. Both the 0.02% and 0.1% ammonia treatment groups showed a decrease in PAS-positive mucus and an enhanced cell cycling in the early stage of the experiment. After long periods of treatment, these groups showed a reduction in the gland height, a recovery in PAS-positive mucus and a suppression of cell cycle, suggesting direct toxicity of ammonia on the gastric mucosa. Although glandular atrophy was observed in these animals, infiltration of inflammatory cells was not observed. Thus, the relationship between ammonia and gastritis remained obscure. No ulcer developed in any group. Subsequently, we experimentally induced Ul-IV or Ul-V acetic acid ulcers in the stomachs of rats, according to the method of Okabe et al. (1971, 1972). These rats were divided into two groups given 0.02% ammonia or tap water. In the 4th and 8th weeks of the experiment, the stomachs of these rats were examined histologically and from the viewpoint of cell kinetics. The 0.02% ammonia treatment group showed a significant increase in the ulcer index (long diameter x short diameter; mm2) in the 4th and 8th weeks. This group also showed suppressed cell cycling of the regenerative epithelium and fibroblasts in the ulcer margin, suggesting direct toxicity of ammonia. Thus, healing of peptic ulcer was delayed by continuous administration of 0.02% ammonia. PMID:7517730

Hata, M; Yamazaki, Y; Ueda, T; Kato, T; Kohli, Y; Fujiki, N

1994-01-01

253

Preclinical safety of anecortave acetate.  

PubMed

A number of preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicity studies have been performed on the angiostatic cortisene anecortave acetate in various species and using different routes of administration (oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, topical ocular, intraocular injection, posterior juxtascleral) and a wide range of doses (0-1,000 mg/kg). Anecortave acetate did not interact with a broad panel of pharmacological receptors and had no apparent pharmacological effects on major organ systems including the central nervous, gastrointestinal, renal, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. Oral, topical ocular, and posterior juxtascleral administration of anecortave acetate had no significant ocular or systemic side effects or toxicity. In addition, there was no significant carcinogenic or reproductive/developmental toxicity associated with anecortave acetate in genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity studies. PMID:17240255

Heaton, Jim; Kastner, Philip; Hackett, Robert

2007-01-01

254

Synthesis and evaluation of mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid linked to 2-phenylbenzoxazole-2-yl-5-acetic acid in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

In this study, the syntheses of 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid, (an analogue of a known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]) and 5-[4-(benzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid)phenylazo]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (a novel mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA]) are reported. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using infrared (IR), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS) spectroscopy. Incubation of the azo compound with rat cecal contents demonstrated the susceptibility of the prepared azo prodrug to bacterial azoreductase enzyme. The azo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were evaluated for inflammatory bowel diseases, in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNB)-induced colitis in rats. The synthesized diazo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were found to be as effective as 5-aminosalicylic acid for ulcerative colitis. The results of this work suggest that the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid may represent a new lead for treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:23983456

Jilani, Jamal A; Shomaf, Maha; Alzoubi, Karem H

2013-01-01

255

Influence of indole-3-acetic acid on adventitious root primordia of brittle willow.  

PubMed

Removal of the stem apex and certain leaves and axillary buds of brittle willows (Salix fragilis) was employed to limit the supply of endogenous auxin to adventitious root primordia during their formation, which occurs at predetermined sites. Limiting endogenous auxin by this surgical treatment resulted in reduced primordium initiation and, to a lesser degree, primordium growth in cell number. Root primordium cells in surgically treated plants differentiated into mature parenchyma after losing their meristematic character. Application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to surgically treated plants partially overcame the effects of the surgical tretament, increasing root primordium initiation and growth by cell division. When IAA-2-(14)C was applied to surgically treated plants, label was detected in root primordium cells by means of autoradiography. Root primordium cells took up more label during the earliest stage of initiation than during a later stage of growth. The data indicate that the initiation of these primordia is more dependent on a supply of auxin than is their subsequent development. Further, the auxin apparently acts directly in the cells which initiate primordia. PMID:24497018

Haissig, B E

1970-03-01

256

Branching Mutant rms-2 in Pisum sativum (Grafting Studies and Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels).  

PubMed Central

Isogenic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were used to determine the physiological site of action of the Rms-2 gene, which maintains apical dominance, and its effect on endogenous free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. In mutant rms-2 scions, which normally produce lateral branches below node 3 and above node 7, apical dominance was almost fully restored by grafting to Rms-2 (wild-type) stocks. In the reciprocal grafts, rms-2 stocks did not promote branching in wild-type shoots. Together, these results suggest that the Rms-2 gene inhibits branching in the shoot of pea by controlling the synthesis of a translocatable (hormone-like) substance that is produced in the roots and/or cotyledons and in the shoot. At all stages, including the stage at which aerial lateral buds commence outgrowth, the level of IAA in rms-2 shoots was elevated (up to 5-fold) in comparison with that in wild-type shoots. The internode length of rms-2 plants was 40% less than in wild-type plants, and the mutant plants allocated significantly more dry weight to the shoot than to the root in comparison with wild-type plants. Grafting to wild-type stocks did not normalize IAA levels or internode length in rms-2 scions, even though it inhibited branching, suggesting that the involvement of Rms-2 in the control of IAA level and internode length may be confined to processes in the shoot. PMID:12232140

Beveridge, C. A.; Ross, J. J.; Murfet, I. C.

1994-01-01

257

Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.  

PubMed

Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth. PMID:20832673

Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

2010-12-01

258

Diversity of acetic acid bacteria present in healthy grapes from the Canary Islands.  

PubMed

The identification of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) from sound grapes from the Canary Islands is reported in the present study. No direct recovery of bacteria was possible in the most commonly used medium, so microvinifications were performed on grapes from Tenerife, La Palma and Lanzarote islands. Up to 396 AAB were isolated from those microvinifications and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. With this method, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter tropicalis, Gluconobacter japonicus and Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans were identified. However, no discrimination between the closely related species Acetobacter malorum and Acetobacter cerevisiae was possible. As previously described, 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region phylogenetic analysis was required to classify isolates as one of those species. These two species were the most frequently occurring, accounting for more than 60% of the isolates. For typing the AAB isolates, both the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR and (GTG)5-PCR techniques gave similar resolution. A total of 60 profiles were identified. Thirteen of these profiles were found in more than one vineyard, and only one profile was found on two different islands (Tenerife and La Palma). PMID:21903289

Valera, Maria José; Laich, Federico; González, Sara S; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mateo, Estibaliz; Mas, Albert

2011-11-15

259

Cellulose production and cellulose synthase gene detection in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) to produce cellulose has gained much industrial interest due to the physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cellulose. The production of cellulose occurs in the presence of oxygen and in a glucose-containing medium, but it can also occur during vinegar elaboration by the traditional method. The vinegar biofilm produced by AAB on the air-liquid interface is primarily composed of cellulose and maintains the cells in close contact with oxygen. In this study, we screened for the ability of AAB to produce cellulose using different carbon sources in the presence or absence of ethanol. The presence of cellulose in biofilms was confirmed using the fluorochrome Calcofluor by microscopy. Moreover, the process of biofilm formation was monitored under epifluorescence microscopy using the Live/Dead BacLight Kit. A total of 77 AAB strains belonging to 35 species of Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter were analysed, and 30 strains were able to produce a cellulose biofilm in at least one condition. This cellulose production was correlated with the PCR amplification of the bcsA gene that encodes cellulose synthase. A total of eight degenerated primers were designed, resulting in one primer pair that was able to detect the presence of this gene in 27 AAB strains, 26 of which formed cellulose. PMID:25381910

Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

2014-11-11

260

Effects of sorption on biological degradation rates of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid in soils.  

PubMed Central

Three mathematical models were proposed to describe the effects of sorption of both bacteria and the herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) on the biological degradation rates of 2,4-D in soils. Model 1 assumed that sorbed 2,4-D is not degraded, that only bacteria in solution are capable of degrading 2,4-D in solution, and that sorbed bacteria are not capable of degrading either sorbed or solution 2,4-D. Model 2 stated that only bacteria in the solution phase degrade 2,4-D in solution and that only sorbed bacteria degrade sorbed 2,4-D. Model 3 proposed that sorbed 2,4-D is completely protected from degradation and that both sorbed and solution bacteria are capable of degrading 2,4-D in solution. These models were tested by a series of controlled laboratory experiments. Models 1 and 2 did not describe the data satisfactorily and were rejected. Model 3 described the experimental results quite well, indicating that sorbed 2,4-D was completely protected from biological degradation and that sorbed- and solution-phase bacteria degraded solution-phase 2,4-D with almost equal efficiencies. PMID:3994366

Ogram, A V; Jessup, R E; Ou, L T; Rao, P S

1985-01-01

261

Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. PMID:25518064

Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

2014-01-01

262

Photo-activated 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid induces apoptosis of prostate and bladder cancer cells.  

PubMed

5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), an indole derivative, is the main metabolite of serotonin in the human body. We determined whether or not ultraviolet B (UVB)-activated 5-HIAA (5-HIAA(UVB)) affects the viability of human prostate (LnCaP and PC-3) and bladder cancer cells (TCCSUP). While 5-HIAA alone had no cytotoxic effect at <1mM, 5-HIAA(UVB) induced LnCaP, PC-3, and TCCSUP cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis showed that 5-HIAA(UVB) markedly increased the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase and resulted in cell cycle disruption. To elucidate the death mechanism by 5-HIAA(UVB), we examined the signal transduction pathways related to apoptosis using Western blot analysis. 5-HIAA(UVB) led to phosphorylation of stress-activated signaling proteins, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and/or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, 5-HIAA(UVB) activated caspase-8, -9, and -3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which are indicators of apoptosis. From these findings, the present study demonstrated that 5-HIAA(UVB) induces apoptotic cell death of prostate and bladder cancer cells via stress-mediated signaling and apoptotic pathways. Therefore, we suggest that 5-HIAA might be used as a new photosensitizer for photodynamic cancer therapy. PMID:21310627

Jeong, Yun-Mi; Li, Hailan; Kim, Su Yeon; Park, Woo-Jae; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Dong-Seok

2011-04-01

263

Diagnosis of early gastric cancer using narrow band imaging and acetic acid  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether the endoscopic findings of depressed-type early gastric cancers (EGCs) could precisely predict the histological type. METHODS: Ninety depressed-type EGCs in 72 patients were macroscopically and histologically identified. We evaluated the microvascular (MV) and mucosal surface (MS) patterns of depressed-type EGCs using magnifying endoscopy (ME) with narrow-band imaging (NBI) (NBI-ME) and ME enhanced by 1.5% acetic acid, respectively. First, depressed-type EGCs were classified according to MV pattern by NBI-ME. Subsequently, EGCs unclassified by MV pattern were classified according to MS pattern by enhanced ME (EME) images obtained from the same angle. RESULTS: We classified the depressed-type EGCs into the following 2 MV patterns using NBI-ME: a fine-network pattern that indicated differentiated adenocarcinoma (25/25, 100%) and a corkscrew pattern that likely indicated undifferentiated adenocarcinoma (18/23, 78.3%). However, 42 of the 90 (46.7%) lesions could not be classified into MV patterns by NBI-ME. These unclassified lesions were then evaluated for MS patterns using EME, which classified 33 (81.0%) lesions as MS patterns, diagnosed as differentiated adenocarcinoma. As a result, 76 of the 90 (84.4%) lesions were matched with histological diagnoses using a combination of NBI-ME and EME. CONCLUSION: A combination of NBI-ME and EME was useful in predicting the histological type of depressed-type EGC.

Matsuo, Ken; Takedatsu, Hidetoshi; Mukasa, Michita; Sumie, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Hikaru; Watanabe, Yasutomo; Akiba, Jun; Nakahara, Keita; Tsuruta, Osamu; Torimura, Takuji

2015-01-01

264

Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  

PubMed

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2013-01-01

265

Indole-3-acetic acid production by endophytic Streptomyces sp. En-1 isolated from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Plant-associated actinobacteria are rich sources of bioactive compounds including indole-derived molecules such as phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In view of few investigations concerning the biosynthesis of IAA by endophytic actinobacteria, this study evaluated the potential of IAA production in endophytic streptomycete isolates sourced from medicinal plant species Taxus chinensis and Artemisia annua. By HPLC analysis of IAA combined with molecular screening approach of iaaM, a genetic determinant of streptomycete IAA synthesis via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), our data showed the putative operation of IAM-mediated IAA biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. En-1 endophytic to Taxus chinensis. Furthermore, using the co-cultivation system of model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and streptomycete, En-1 was found to be colonized intercellularly in the tissues of Arabidopsis, an alternative host, and the effects of endophytic En-1 inoculation on the model plant were also assayed. The phytostimulatory effects of En-1 inoculation suggest that IAA-producing Streptomyces sp. En-1 of endophytic origin could be a promising candidate for utilization in growth improvement of plants of economic and agricultural value. PMID:23512121

Lin, Lan; Xu, Xudong

2013-08-01

266

Production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid by estuarine species of the genus Vibrio.  

PubMed

Strains of Vibrio spp. isolated from roots of the estuarine grasses Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The colorimetric Salkowski assay was used for initial screening of IAA production. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was then employed to confirm and quantify IAA production. The accuracy of IAA quantification by the Salkowski assay was examined by comparison to GC-MS assay values. Indole-3-acetamide, an intermediate in IAA biosynthesis by the indole-3-acetamide pathway, was also identified by GC-MS. Multilocus sequence typing of concatenated 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA genes was used for phylogenetic analysis of environmental isolates within the genus Vibrio. Eight Vibrio type strains and five additional species-level clades containing a total of 16 environmental isolates and representing five presumptive new species were identified as IAA-producing Vibrio species. Six additional environmental isolates similar to four of the Vibrio type strains were also IAA producers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IAA production by species of the genus Vibrio or by bacteria isolated from an estuarine environment. PMID:19218411

Gutierrez, Casandra K; Matsui, George Y; Lincoln, David E; Lovell, Charles R

2009-04-01

267

Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m(3) d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m(3) d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO(2) contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO(2) content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted. PMID:21168957

Vaiopoulou, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

2011-02-28

268

Indole acetic acid distribution coincides with vascular differentiation pattern during Arabidopsis leaf ontogeny.  

PubMed

We used an anti-indole acetic acid (IAA or auxin) monoclonal antibody-based immunocytochemical procedure to monitor IAA level in Arabidopsis tissues. Using immunocytochemistry and the IAA-driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity of Aux/IAA promoter::GUS constructs to detect IAA distribution, we investigated the role of polar auxin transport in vascular differentiation during leaf development in Arabidopsis. We found that shoot apical cells contain high levels of IAA and that IAA decreases as leaf primordia expand. However, seedlings grown in the presence of IAA transport inhibitors showed very low IAA signal in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the youngest pair of leaf primordia. Older leaf primordia accumulate IAA in the leaf tip in the presence or absence of IAA transport inhibition. We propose that the IAA in the SAM and the youngest pair of leaf primordia is transported from outside sources, perhaps the cotyledons, which accumulate more IAA in the presence than in the absence of transport inhibition. The temporal and spatial pattern of IAA localization in the shoot apex indicates a change in IAA source during leaf ontogeny that would influence flow direction and, consequently, the direction of vascular differentiation. The IAA production and transport pattern suggested by our results could explain the venation pattern, and the vascular hypertrophy caused by IAA transport inhibition. An outside IAA source for the SAM supports the notion that IAA transport and procambium differentiation dictate phyllotaxy and organogenesis. PMID:12226500

Avsian-Kretchmer, Orna; Cheng, Jin-Chen; Chen, Lingjing; Moctezuma, Edgar; Sung, Z Renee

2002-09-01

269

Temperature-Sensitive Plant Cells with Shunted Indole-3-Acetic Acid Conjugation.  

PubMed Central

Cells of henbane (Hyoscyamus muticus L.) grow indefinitely in culture without exogenous auxin. Cells of its temperature-sensitive variant XIIB2 grow like the wild type at 26[deg]C but die rapidly at 33[deg]C unless auxin is added to the medium. Despite this temperature-sensitive auxin auxotrophy, XIIB2 produces wild-type amounts of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IAA is the predominant auxin and is important for plant growth and development. Since the IAA production of the variant is functional, we investigated whether the synthesis or degradation of IAA metabolites, possibly active auxins themselves, is altered. The IAA metabolites were IAA-aspartate (IAAsp) and IAA-glucose. The wild type converted IAA mainly to IAAsp, whereas the variant produced mainly IAA-glucose. Exogenous auxin corrected the shunted IAA metabolism of the variant. The half-life of labeled IAAsp in the variant was reduced 21-fold, but in the presence of exogenous auxin it was not different from the wild type. The temperature sensitivity of XIIB2 was also corrected by supplying IAAsp. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that henbane rapidly metabolizes IAAsp to compounds not identical to IAA. The data show that the variant XIIB2 is a useful tool to study the function of IAA conjugates to challenge the popular hypothesis that IAA conjugates are merely slow-release storage forms of IAA. PMID:12223777

Oetiker, J. H.; Aeschbacher, G.

1997-01-01

270

Selective optimization in thermophilic acidogenesis of cheese-whey wastewater to acetic and butyric acids: partial acidification and methanation.  

PubMed

For partial acidogenesis of cheese-whey wastewater, a set of experiments were carried out to produce short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) in laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The maximum rate of acetic and butyric acid production associated with simultaneous changes in hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, and temperature was investigated, in which the degree of acidification of the whey to the short-chain VFAs was less than 20% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration. Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum physiological conditions where the maximum rates of acetic and butyric acid production occurred. These were 0.40-day HRT, pH 6.0 at 54.1 degrees C and 0.22-day HRT, pH 6.5 at 51.9 degrees C, respectively. The optimum conditions for acetic acid production were selected for partial acidification of cheese-whey wastewater because of a higher rate in combined productions of acetic and butyric acids than that at optimum conditions for butyric acid production. A thermophilic two-phase process with the partial acidification followed by a methanation step was operated. Performance of the two-phase process was compared to the single-phase anaerobic system. The two-phase process clearly showed a better performance in management of cheese-whey wastewater over the single-phase system. Maximum rate of COD removal and the rate of methane production in the two-phase process were, respectively, 116% and 43% higher than those of the single-phase system. PMID:12727259

Yang, Keunyoung; Yu, Youngseob; Hwang, Seokhwan

2003-05-01

271

The Acid Hydrolysis Mechanism of Acetals Catalyzed by a Supramolecular Assembly in Basic Solution  

SciTech Connect

A self-assembled supramolecular host catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetals in basic aqueous solution. The mechanism of hydrolysis is consistent with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. Further investigation of the rate limiting step of the reaction revealed a negative entropy of activation ({Delta}S{double_dagger} = -9 cal mol{sup -1}K{sup -1}) and an inverse solvent isotope effect (k(H{sub 2}O)/k(D{sub 2}O) = 0.62). These data suggest that the mechanism of hydrolysis that takes place inside the assembly proceeds through an A-2 mechanism, in contrast to the A-1 mechanism operating in the uncatalyzed reaction. Comparison of the rates of acetal hydrolysis in the assembly with the rate of the reaction of unencapsulated substrates reveals rate accelerations of up to 980 over the background reaction for the substrate diethoxymethane.

Pluth, Michael D.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2008-09-24

272

Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin, Chlorogenic Acid, Caffeic Acid, and Ferulic Acid on Tumor Promotion in Mouse Skin by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of topically applied curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, epidermal DNA syn thesis, and the promotion of skin tumors were evaluated in female CD-I mice. Topical application of 0.5, 1, 3, or 10 iano\\\\ of curcumin inhibited by 31, 46, 84, or 98%, respectively, the induction of epidermal

Mou-Tuan Huang; Robert C. Smart; Ching-Quo Wong; Allan H. Conney

273

Hydrolyzed Vinyl Acetate–Divinylbenzene Copolymer Microspheres Containing L Proline for Chiral Separation of Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new packing material for ligand-exchange chromatography, L -proline-modified hydrolyzed vinyl acetate-divinylbenzene copolymer microspheres, has been prepared and evaluated. The microspheres, prepared by a one-step swelling and polymerization method, have a narrow bead size (as determined by scanning electron microscopy, SEM), a broad pore-size distribution (by nitrogen adsorption) and, especially, inhomogeneous structural composition (by differential scanning calorimetry). The support, which

Zhikuan Chai; Shuguang Xu; Xiaoping Hou

2004-01-01

274

PHOTOLYSIS RATES OF (2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXY)ACETIC ACID AND 4-AMINO-3,5,6-TRICHLOROPICOLINIC ACID IN NATURAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Photoreactions of (2,45-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) were studied in distilled water, natural water samples, fulvic acid solutions, and solutions containing iron (III) and/or hydrogen peroxide to determine the effect...

275

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the convulsant interaction between norfloxacin and biphenyl acetic acid in rats  

PubMed Central

Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are associated with a low incidence of central nervous system (CNS) side effects, possibly leading to convulsions, especially when co-administered with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Although the in vivo pro-convulsant activity of NSAIDS is essentially unknown, the convulsant potential of FQs is traditionally evaluated by in vitro ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding experiments in the presence of 4-biphenyl acetic acid (BPAA), the active metabolite of fenbufen.The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the BPAA-norfloxacin convulsant interaction in vivo.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=27) were given BPAA orally, at various doses 1?h before norfloxacin infusion, which was maintained until the onset of maximal seizures, when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were collected for analysis.An inhibitory Emax effect model with a baseline effect parameter was fitted to the norfloxacin versus BPAA concentrations in the CSF, previously shown to be part of the biophase. This model includes three parameters: the concentrations of norfloxacin in the absence of BPAA (CCSF0, Nor), and when BPAA concentration tends toward infinity (CCSFbase, Nor), and the BPAA concentration for which half of the maximal effect is observed (CCSF50, BPAA). The maximal proconvulsant effect of BPAA is given by the CCSF0, Nor / CCSFbase, Nor ratio, estimated to approximately 6 in this study.Derived models were developed in plasma to account for the non-linear CSF diffusion of norfloxacin and protein binding of BPAA.In conclusion this study has shown that the convulsant interaction between norfloxacin and BPAA in rats, can be adequately characterized by modelling of the CSF concentrations of the two drugs at the onset of activity, following their administration in various proportions. PMID:10780965

Marchand, Sandrine; Pariat, Claudine; Bouquet, Serge; Courtois, Philippe; Couet, William

2000-01-01

276

Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.  

PubMed

This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA. PMID:24412985

Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

2014-01-15

277

Combined application of origanum vulgare l. essential oil and acetic acid for controlling the growth of staphylococcus aureus in foods  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and acetic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index and kill-time assay in nutrient broth, meat broth and in a food model (meat pieces). Acetic acid showed MIC and MFC of 0.6 and 1.25 ?L.mL-1, respectively. For O. vulgare essential oil MIC and MBC were 1.25 and 2.5 ?L.mL-1, respectively. FIC indexes of the mixture of essential oil and acetic acid at MIC x ½ were ? 1.0, showing an additive effect. No synergy was found at kill-time study. Anti-staphylococcal effect of the antimicrobials alone or in mixture (MIC x ½) was lower in meat than in nutrient and meat broths. The effective combination of essential oils and organic acids could appear as an attractive alternative for the food industry, as the doses to inhibit the microbial growth in foods can be lowered. PMID:24031377

de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Barros, Jefferson Carneiro; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Neto, Nelson Justino Gomes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira

2009-01-01

278

Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics calculation of the ?O-H IR spectra for acetic acid cyclic dimers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach calculations and a quantum theoretical model are used in order to study the IR spectrum of the acetic acid dimer in the gas phase. The theoretical model is taking into account the strong anharmonic coupling, Davydov coupling, multiple Fermi resonances between the first harmonics of some bending modes and the first excited state of the symmetric combination of the two vO-H modes and the quantum direct and indirect relaxation. The IR spectra obtained from DFT-based molecular dynamics is compared with our theoretical lineshape and with experiment. Note that in a previous work we have shown that our approach reproduces satisfactorily the main futures of the IR experimental lineshapes of the acetic acid dimer [Mohamed el Amine Benmalti, Paul Blaise, H. T. Flakus, Olivier Henri-Rousseau, Chem Phys, 320(2006) 267-274.].

El Amine Benmalti, Mohamed; Krallafa, Abdelghani; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

2015-01-01

279

Lactate and acetate production in Listeria innocua.  

PubMed

Listeria innocua NCTC 11289 was grown aerobically in continuous culture in defined media at 30 degrees C. Both acetate and lactate were produced, the proportion of acetate decreased with increasing dilution rate. Enzymatic analysis showed lactate dehydrogenase was activated 10-fold by fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate. The presence of phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase but not pyruvate oxidase was detected, suggesting the sequential action of phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase to produce acetate from acetyl CoA via acetylphosphate. PMID:8987454

Kelly, A F; Patchett, R A

1996-08-01

280

5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a novel antivascular agent: phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this phase I, dose-escalation study was to determine the toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic end points of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone acetic acid (DMXAA). In all, 46 patients received a total of 247 infusions of DMXAA over 15 dose levels ranging from 6 to 4900 mg m?2. The maximum tolerated dose was established at 3700 mg m?2; dose-limiting

G J S Rustin; C Bradley; S Galbraith; M Stratford; P Loadman; S Waller; K Bellenger; L Gumbrell; L Folkes; G Halbert; GJS Rustin

2003-01-01

281

Clinical aspects of a phase I trial of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a novel antivascular agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antitumour action of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) is mediated through tumour-selective antivascular effects and cytokine induction. This clinical phase I trial was conducted to examine its toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). A secondary objective was to assess its antitumour efficacy. DMXAA was administered every 3 weeks as a 20-min i.v. infusion. Dose escalation initially followed a

M B Jameson; P I Thompson; B C Baguley; B D Evans; V J Harvey; D J Porter; M R McCrystal; M Small; K Bellenger; L Gumbrell; G W Halbert; P Kestell

2003-01-01

282

Stability of the Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Irritation Model in Alpha Chloralose-Anesthetized Female Cats  

PubMed Central

Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in ?-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min “quiet period” (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

Kullmann, F. Aura; Wells, Grace I.; Langdale, Christopher L.; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B.

2013-01-01

283

Preparation of core-shell PAN nanofibers encapsulated ?-tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate for photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (MAAP) and ?-tocopherol acetate (?-TAc), as the stable vitamin C and vitamin E derivative, respectively, are often applied to skin care products for reducing UV damage. The encapsulation of MAAP (0.5%, g\\/mL) and ?-TAc (5%, g\\/mL) together within the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers was demonstrated using a coaxial electrospinning technique. The structure and morphology characterizations of the

Xiao-Mei Wu; Christopher J. Branford-White; Deng-Guang Yu; Nicholas P. Chatterton; Li-Min Zhu

2011-01-01

284

Synthesis and characterization of poly(3-thiophenyl acetic acid) (P3TAA)–BaFe 12O 19 nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have presented a method for the fabrication of poly(3-thiophenyl acetic acid) (P3TAA)–BaFe12O19 nanocomposites by the in situ polymerization of P3TAA in the presence of synthesized BaFe12O19 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles and the nanocomposite were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, TGA, TEM, VSM and conductivity techniques for structural and physicochemical characteristics. Crystallographic analysis revealed the phase as hexaferrite and X-ray line profile

Z. Durmus; B. Unal; M. S. Toprak; H. Sozeri; A. Baykal

2011-01-01

285

Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations  

SciTech Connect

In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH{sub 3}COOH){sub n}{center_dot}H{sup +}, the feature related to the fragment ions (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO (105 amu) via {beta}-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH{sub 3}COOH){center_dot}H{sup +} and (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 {+-} 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH{sub 3}COOH){sup +} becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH{sub 3}COOH){center_dot}CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV.

Guan Jiwen; Hu Yongjun; Zou Hao [MOE Key laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Cao Lanlan; Liu Fuyi; Shan Xiaobin; Sheng Liusi [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

2012-09-28

286

High-performance ion-pair chromatographic behaviour of conjugated bile acids with di- n-butylamine acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper dealt with a simple and efficient method for separating a mixture of different series of ionic, high polar, and hydrophilic conjugates of bile acids by high-performance ion-pair chromatography (HPIPC) with a new volatile ion-pair chromatographic reagent, di-n-butylamine acetate (DBAA), as a mobile phase additive. The substrates examined included eleven different classes of C-24 glycine- or taurine-amidated, 3-sulfated, 3-glucosylated,

Tomoaki Sasaki; Takashi Iida; Toshio Nambara

2000-01-01

287

The urinary ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in surgical patients with chronic alcohol misuse.  

PubMed

The urinary ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid was reported to be elevated for a period of up to 22 h following acute alcohol ingestion. Therefore, the ratio could detect continuous alcohol consumption, in what was considered to be a high-risk surgical group, on the evening prior to surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the preoperative ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in patients with continuous preoperative alcohol misuse. Forty-two patients participated in this institutionally approved study, once their written informed consent had been obtained. Chronic alcoholics were defined by meeting the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria and an ethanol consumption > or =60 g/day. The urine samples were taken preoperatively and determined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. The urinary ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid was significantly increased in chronic alcoholics. The ICU stay of these patients was significantly prolonged due to an increased incidence of pneumonia and sepsis. Five chronic alcoholics died, whereas no deaths occurred in the nonalcoholic group (p = 0.05). As the measurement of the urinary ratio of 5-hydroxy-tryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid could detect alcohol consumption immediately prior to operation, this marker could assist the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in screening for patients with high-level dependency; these patients were considered to be at a high risk of developing intercurrent complications. PMID:9895033

Spies, C D; Herpell, J; Beck, O; Müller, C; Pragst, F; Borg, S; Helander, A

1999-01-01

288

Screening and Optimization of Indole3Acetic Acid Production and Phosphate Solubilization from Rhizobacteria Aimed at Improving Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 216 bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soils in Northern Thailand. The bacterial strains were\\u000a initially tested for solubilization of inorganic phosphate, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, selected strains were then\\u000a tested for optimized conditions for IAA production and whether these caused stimulatory effects on bean and maize seedling\\u000a growth. It was found that all strains

Mathurot Chaiharn; Saisamorn Lumyong

2011-01-01

289

Pervaporation separation of water-acetic acid mixtures through poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes crosslinked with glutaraldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) were prepared by a solution method for the pervaporation separation of acetic acid-water mixtures. In the solution method, dry PVA films were crosslinked by immersion for 2 days at 40°C in reaction solutions which contained different contents of GA, acetone and a catalyst, HCl. In order to fabricate the crosslinked PVA membranes

Choong-Kyun Yeom; Kew-Ho Lee

1996-01-01

290

Protective effect of comaruman, a pectin of cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

The efficacy of comaruman CP, a pectin of marsh cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., was investigated using a model of acetic acid-induced colitis in mice. Mice were administered comaruman CP orally 2 days prior to rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 hr later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury, higher levels of myeloperoxidase activity, enhanced vascular permeability, and diminution of colonic mucus. Oral administration of comaruman CP was found to prevent progression of colitis. Colonic macroscopic scores and the total square of damage were significantly reduced in mice treated with CP compared with the vehicle-treated colitis group. Peroral pretreatment of mice with comaruman CP was shown to decrease tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons compared with the colitis group. Comaruman CP was found to stimulate production of mucus by colons of normal and colitis mice. Comaruman CP decreased the inflammatory status of normal mice as elicited by reduction of vascular permeability and adhesion of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages. Thus, a preventive effect of comaruman on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice was detected. Reduction of neutrophil infiltration and enhancement of colon-bound mucus may be implicated in the protective effect of comaruman. PMID:16927150

Popov, Sergey V; Ovodova, Raisa G; Markov, Pavel A; Nikitina, Ida R; Ovodov, Yury S

2006-09-01

291

Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface.  

PubMed

The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our computations. In those molecules, where dispersion forces contribute significantly to the binding mechanism, the water layer has a stronger screening effect. Additionally, this effect can be enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups in the molecule. Thus, with the introduction of a water layer, the adsorption energy of isooctane and ethanol is reduced but it is increased in the case of the acetic acid. The adsorption configuration of ethanol is changed, while the one of acetic acid is moderately, and for isooctane only very slightly altered. Therefore, the effect of a water layer in the adsorption of organic molecules on an Fe(100) surface strongly depends on the type of bond and consequently, so do the tribological properties. PMID:25243045

Bedolla, Pedro O; Feldbauer, Gregor; Wolloch, Michael; Gruber, Christoph; Eder, Stefan J; Dörr, Nicole; Mohn, Peter; Redinger, Josef; Vernes, András

2014-09-18

292

Nematocyst discharge in Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) oral arms can be affected by lidocaine, ethanol, ammonia and acetic acid.  

PubMed

Nematocyst discharge and concomitant delivery of toxins is triggered to perform both defence and predation strategies in Cnidarians, and may lead to serious local and systemic reactions in humans. Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) is a jellyfish particularly abundant in the Strait of Messina (Italy). After accidental contact with this jellyfish, not discharged nematocysts or even fragments of tentacles or oral arms may tightly adhere to the human skin and, following discharge, severely increase pain and the other adverse consequences of the sting. The aim of the present study is to verify if the local anesthetic lidocaine and other compounds, like alcohols, acetic acid and ammonia, known to provide pain relief after jellyfish stings, may also affect in situ discharge of nematocysts. Discharge was induced by a combined physico-chemical stimulation of oral arms by chemosensitizers (such as N-acetylated sugars, aminoacids, proteins and nucleotides), in the presence or absence of 1% lidocaine, 70% ethanol, 5% acetic acid or 20% ammonia, followed by mechanical stimulation by a non-vibrating test probe. The above mentioned compounds failed to induce discharge per se, and dramatically impaired the chemosensitizer-induced discharge response. We therefore suggest that prompt local treatment of the stung epidermis with lidocaine, acetic acid, ethanol and ammonia may provide substantial pain relief and help in reducing possible harmful local and systemic adverse reaction following accidental contact with P. noctiluca specimens. PMID:24637105

Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Dossena, Silvia; La Spada, Giuseppa

2014-06-01

293

Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface  

PubMed Central

The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our computations. In those molecules, where dispersion forces contribute significantly to the binding mechanism, the water layer has a stronger screening effect. Additionally, this effect can be enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups in the molecule. Thus, with the introduction of a water layer, the adsorption energy of isooctane and ethanol is reduced but it is increased in the case of the acetic acid. The adsorption configuration of ethanol is changed, while the one of acetic acid is moderately, and for isooctane only very slightly altered. Therefore, the effect of a water layer in the adsorption of organic molecules on an Fe(100) surface strongly depends on the type of bond and consequently, so do the tribological properties. PMID:25243045

2014-01-01

294

Global Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis on Multiple Virulence Factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937?  

PubMed Central

Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O.; Glick, Bernard R.; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Cooksey, Donald A.; Yang, Ching-Hong

2007-01-01

295

Visual inspection with acetic acid as a cervical cancer test: accuracy validated using latent class analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of an alternative cervical cancer test – visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) – by addressing possible imperfections in the gold standard through latent class analysis (LCA). The data were originally collected at peri-urban health clinics in Zimbabwe. Methods Conventional accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) estimates for VIA and two other screening tests using colposcopy/biopsy as the reference standard were compared to LCA estimates based on results from all four tests. For conventional analysis, negative colposcopy was accepted as a negative outcome when biopsy was not available as the reference standard. With LCA, local dependencies between tests were handled through adding direct effect parameters or additional latent classes to the model. Results Two models yielded good fit to the data, a 2-class model with two adjustments and a 3-class model with one adjustment. The definition of latent disease associated with the latter was more stringent, backed by three of the four tests. Under that model, sensitivity for VIA (abnormal+) was 0.74 compared to 0.78 with conventional analyses. Specificity was 0.639 versus 0.568, respectively. By contrast, the LCA-derived sensitivity for colposcopy/biopsy was 0.63. Conclusion VIA sensitivity and specificity with the 3-class LCA model were within the range of published data and relatively consistent with conventional analyses, thus validating the original assessment of test accuracy. LCA probably yielded more likely estimates of the true accuracy than did conventional analysis with in-country colposcopy/biopsy as the reference standard. Colpscopy with biopsy can be problematic as a study reference standard and LCA offers the possibility of obtaining estimates adjusted for referent imperfections. PMID:17663796

Gaffikin, Lynne; McGrath, John A; Arbyn, Marc; Blumenthal, Paul D

2007-01-01

296

The Cardiovascular Effect of the Uremic Solute Indole-3 Acetic Acid.  

PubMed

In CKD, uremic solutes may induce endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether the uremic solute indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) predicts clinical outcomes in patients with CKD and has prooxidant and proinflammatory effects. We studied 120 patients with CKD. During the median study period of 966 days, 29 patients died and 35 experienced a major cardiovascular event. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that mortality and cardiovascular events were significantly higher in the higher IAA group (IAA>3.73 µM) than in the lower IAA group (IAA<3.73 µM). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that serum IAA was a significant predictor of mortality and cardiovascular events after adjustments for age and sex; cholesterol, systolic BP, and smoking; C-reactive protein, phosphate, body mass index, and albumin; diastolic BP and history of cardiovascular disease; and uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate. Notably, IAA level remained predictive of mortality when adjusted for CKD stage. IAA levels were positively correlated with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: C-reactive protein and malondialdehyde, respectively. In cultured human endothelial cells, IAA activated an inflammatory nongenomic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/p38MAPK/NF-?B pathway that induced the proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2. Additionally, IAA increased production of endothelial reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, serum IAA may be an independent predictor of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with CKD. In vitro, IAA induces endothelial inflammation and oxidative stress and activates an inflammatory AhR/p38MAPK/NF-?B pathway. PMID:25145928

Dou, Laetitia; Sallée, Marion; Cerini, Claire; Poitevin, Stéphane; Gondouin, Bertrand; Jourde-Chiche, Noemie; Fallague, Karim; Brunet, Philippe; Calaf, Raymond; Dussol, Bertrand; Mallet, Bernard; Dignat-George, Françoise; Burtey, Stephane

2014-08-21

297

Contribution of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production to the Epiphytic Fitness of Erwinia herbicola  

PubMed Central

Erwinia herbicola 299R produces large quantities of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in culture media supplemented with l-tryptophan. To assess the contribution of IAA production to epiphytic fitness, the population dynamics of the wild-type strain and an IAA-deficient mutant of this strain on leaves were studied. Strain 299XYLE, an isogenic IAA-deficient mutant of strain 299R, was constructed by insertional interruption of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase gene of strain 299R with the xylE gene, which encodes a 2,3-catechol dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The xylE gene provided a useful marker for monitoring populations of the IAA-deficient mutant strain in mixed populations with the parental strain in ecological studies. A root bioassay for IAA, in which strain 299XYLE inhibited significantly less root elongation than strain 299R, provided evidence that E. herbicola produces IAA on plant surfaces in amounts sufficient to affect the physiology of its host and that IAA production in strain 299R is not solely an in vitro phenomenon. The epiphytic fitness of strains 299R and 299XYLE was evaluated in greenhouse and field studies by analysis of changes in the ratio of the population sizes of these two strains after inoculation as mixtures onto plants. Populations of the parental strain increased to approximately twice those of the IAA-deficient mutant strain after coinoculation in a proportion of 1:1 onto bean plants in the greenhouse and onto pear flowers in field studies. In all experiments, the ratio of the population sizes of strain 299R and 299XYLE increased during periods of active growth on plant tissue but not when population sizes were not increasing with time. PMID:9726868

Brandl, M. T.; Lindow, S. E.

1998-01-01

298

Dietary supplementation with tributyrin alleviates intestinal injury in piglets challenged with intrarectal administration of acetic acid.  

PubMed

Tributyrin (TBU) is a good dietary source of butyrate and has beneficial effects on the maintenance of normal intestinal morphology. The present study tested the hypothesis that dietary TBU supplementation could alleviate intestinal injury in the acetic acid (ACA)-induced porcine model of colitis. A total of eighteen piglets (25 d old) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups (control, ACA and TBU). The control and ACA groups were fed a basal diet and the TBU group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·1 % TBU. On day 15 of the trial, under anaesthesia, a soft catheter was inserted into the rectum of piglets (20-25 cm from the anus), followed by administration of either saline (control group) or ACA (10 ml of 10 % ACA solution for ACA and TBU groups). On day 22 of the trial, after venous blood samples were collected, piglets were killed to obtain mid-ileum and mid-colon mucosae. Compared with the control group, the ACA group exhibited an increase (P< 0·05) in lymphocyte counts, creatinine, PGE2, and malondialdehyde concentrations and diamine oxidase and inducible NO synthase activities in the plasma and lymphocyte density in the colon and a decrease in insulin concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity, ileal villus height:crypt depth ratios and goblet cell numbers in the colon. These adverse effects of ACA were attenuated by TBU supplementation. Moreover, TBU prevented the ACA-induced increase in caspase-3 levels while enhancing claudin-1 protein and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0·1 % TBU alleviates ACA-induced intestinal injury possibly by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tight-junction formation and activating EGFR signalling. PMID:24506942

Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Chen, Xing; Wang, Qingjing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Guoyao

2014-05-28

299

Exchange of atmospheric formic and acetic acids with trees and crop plants under controlled chamber and purified air conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the exchange of formic and acetic acids between the atmosphere and various tree species such as beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.), ash ( Fraxinus excelsior L.), spruce ( Picea abies L.) Karst, holm oak ( Quercus ilex L.), and birch ( Betula pendula L.). and some crop-plant species such as corn ( Zea mays, var. Banjo), pea ( Pisum sativum, var. Solara), barley ( Hordeum vulgare, var. Igri) and oat (Avena sativa, var. Wiesel). All experiments were done with dynamic enclosures flushed with purified oxidant-free air, containing only low or controlled amounts of the two acids. Significant and light-triggered emission of both acids from all tree species was observed. For one tree species (ash) a seasonal large increase in fall due to early leaf decomposition was found. The standard emission factors (30°C and PAR=1000 ?mol m 2 s -1) given as (nmol m -2 min -1) for acetic and formic acids, respectively, were 8.1 and 29.7 (ash, autumn), 1.0 and 3.3 (ash, summer), 0.9 and 1.4 (beech), 0.7 and 1.45 (spruce), 1.9 and 2.4 (Holm oak) and 1.7 and 6.7 (birch). Rough estimation of global annual emissions range between 20 and 130 Gmol formic acid and 10 and 33 Gmol acetic acid. These numbers reflect a 15-30% contribution by forest emissions to the continental organic acid budget. As compared to the global total NMHC emissions low molecular weight organic acids are of minor importance. In contrast to the trees, none of the crop-plant species investigated showed an emission, but always a clear deposition of both acids. Both emission from trees as well as uptake by the agricultural plants could be related to transpiration rates and leaf conductances.

Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Gerlach, C.; Jork, E.-M.

300

Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from potted plants.  

PubMed

We study the growth of different isolates of Botrytis cinerea collected from potted plants which were affected by Botrytis blight in southern Spain during recent years. These isolates, which show widely phenotypic differences when grown in vitro, are differentially affected by growth temperature, gibberellic acid applications and paclobutrazol, an efficient plant growth retardant and fungicide at the same time. In this work, we have evaluated the effect of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) dose (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/plate) on the growth of the collection of B. cinerea isolates obtained from the following potted plants: Cyclamen persicum, Hydrangea macrophylla, Lantona camara, and Lonicera japonica. B. cinerea produces indolacetic acid, but so far the precise biosynthetic pathway and some effects on this fungal species are still unclear, although recent studies have revealed an antifungal activity of IAA on several fungi, including B. cinerea isolated from harvested fruits. Mycelial growth curves and growth rates assessed from difference in colony areas during the both linear and deceleration phase, conidiation (measured as time of appearance), conidia length (microm), and sclerotia production (number/plate) were evaluated in the isolates, which were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar for up to 35 days. Mycelial growth curves fitted a typical kinetic equation of fungi grown on solid media. B. cinerea isolates showed a high degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate and auxin dose. This plant growth substance delayed mycelial growth during the linear phase in an isolate-dependent manner, thus isolates from C. persicum, H. macrophylla and L. camara were more affected by IAA than L. japonica. On the other hand, 100 mg of IAA was the critical dose to significantly reduce the growth rate in all isolates and to promote brown-striped hyphae development, especially in isolate from C. persicum. 10 and 100 mg IAA delayed conidiation in isolates from H. macrophylla but scarcely effects were found in the conidia length. The sclerotia production process was blocked at IAA doses of 100 mg in isolates from L. camara and L. japonica, and was reduced in isolate from H. macrophylla. However, dose of 100 mg IAA had no effect on sclerotia production in isolate from C. persicum. It was concluded that the effect of IAA on B. cinerea growth depends on the isolate, thus isolates from H. macrophylla and L. camara were the most affected by IAA. B. cinerea reduced its development under IAA applications, depending on the isolate and dose. These results confirm those recently published on the inhibitory effect of IAA on Botrytris species growth. PMID:22702183

Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

2011-01-01

301

Pretreatment of Gymnema sylvestre revealed the protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Overproduction of free radicals and decreased antioxidant capacity are well-known risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves extract is distinguished for its anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Present study is designed to evaluate the preventative activities of GS against acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in Wistar rats. Methods Experimentally ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by AA in animals pretreated with three different doses of GS leaves extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day) and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg/day) for seven days. Twenty four hours later, animals were sacrificed and the colonic tissues were collected. Colonic mucus content was determined using Alcian blue dye binding technique. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione sulfhydryl group (T-GSH) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NPSH) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in colon tissues. Colonic nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein (TP) concentrations were also determined. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in colonic tissues. The histopathological changes of the colonic tissues were also observed. Results In AA administered group TBARS levels were increased, while colonic mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH, SOD and CAT were reduced in colon. Pretreatment with GS inhibited TBARS elevation as well as mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH reduction. Enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were brought back to their normal levels in GS pretreated group. A significant reduction in DNA, RNA and TP levels was seen following AA administration and this inhibition was significantly eliminated by GS treatment. GS pretreatment also inhibited AA-induced elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PGE2 and NO levels in colon. The apparent UC protection was further confirmed by the histopathological screening. Conclusion The GS leaves extract showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24507431

2014-01-01

302

ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

303

Formic, acetic, oxalic, malonic and succinic acid concentrations and their contribution to organic carbon in cloud water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon content of cloud water at a continental background site in Austria was studied during two intensive field campaigns in spring 1999 and 2000. Six carboxylic acids, total (TC) and black (BC) carbon as well as major inorganic ions were determined. Organic carbon (OC) was calculated as the difference between TC and BC. The most abundant carboxylic acids were acetic (average: 0.93 ?g ml -1) and formic (0.61) followed by oxalic (0.38), succinic (0.15) and malonic (0.20) acids. Pyruvic acid was below the detection limit (<0.08) in all samples. The BC concentration was 1.15 and OC 4.81 ?g ml -1 on average. Relating carboxylic acid concentrations to OC, the monocarboxylic acids alone represent 9.3% of OC. Adding the dicarboxylic acids, this average value increases to 11%. Although they are major components, no general trend could be seen between carboxylic acid and OC concentrations.

Löflund, M.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Schuster, B.; Giebl, H.; Hitzenberger, R.; Puxbaum, H.

304

In situ decarboxylation of acetic and formic acids in aqueous inclusions as a possible way to produce excess CH4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate reconstruction of diagenetic P-T conditions in petroleum reservoirs from fluid inclusion data relies on valid measurements of methane concentration in aqueous inclusions. Techniques have been developed (Raman spectrometry) to provide sufficiently accurate data, assuming measured methane concentration has not been modified after aqueous inclusion entrapment. In petroleum reservoirs, acetic (CH3COOH) and formic (HCOOH) acids are the most commonly reported organic acids, and the concentration of the total organic acids can be as high as 10,000 ppm at temperature below 120°C. This study investigates the likelihood that organic acids derived from petroleum fluids and dissolved in formation water might suffer decarboxylation upon post-entrapment heating within the fluid inclusion chamber upon post-entrapment heating, thereby generating excess CH4 in the inclusions. Four different experiments were conducted in Fused Silica Capillary Capsules (FSCCs), mimicking fluid inclusions. The capsules were loaded with acetic (CH3COOH) or formic (HCOOH) acid solution and were heated to 250°C for short durations (< 72hrs) in closed system conditions, with or without applying a fixed PH2. Reaction products were characterized by Raman and FT-IR spectrometry. The beginning of the decarboxylation of acetic acid is reached in 32 h at 250°C, with production of CH4 and CO2. Complete decarboxylation of formic acid is reached in 5 h at 250°C, with production of CO2, CO and H2. The lack of CH4 production in experiments with formic acid may be attributed to the relatively short duration of the experiments and/or the loss of H2 through the FSCC by diffusion during the experiment. Further experiments with a longer heating duration should be performed to assess the possibility of reducing the CO2 into CH4 from the formic acid. 2) The injection of H2 in the FSCC as a way to promote CO2 reduction did not promote decarboxylation in the duration of our experiment. These results suggest that methane may be produced from dissolved acetic acid in natural aqueous inclusions in specific situations, possibly inducing errors in the thermodynamic interpretation.

Ong, Anthony; Pironon, Jacques; Robert, Pascal; Dubessy, Jean; Caumon, Marie-Camille; Randi, Aurélien; Chailan, Olivier; Girard, Jean-Pierre

2013-04-01

305

Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study  

PubMed Central

Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

2015-01-01

306

Acetic Acid can catalyze succinimide formation from aspartic Acid residues by a concerted bond reorganization mechanism: a computational study.  

PubMed

Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

2014-01-01

307

Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

308

Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model  

SciTech Connect

Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-?/IFN-?-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-?B and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

Choi, Jin Kyeong [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-15

309

Visual Inspection after Acetic Acid (VIA) Is Highly Heterogeneous in Primary Cervical Screening in Amazonian Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional cytology (Pap) and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA) are currently used in primary screening in Peru. Studies suggest that the quality of VIA is highly variable. Over 36 000 women were screened with Pap and VIA in the TATI (Tamizaje y Tratamiento Inmediato de Lesiones Cervico-uterinas) project conducted in Amazonian Peru. Within a nested study to compare several screening techniques (C-TATI), a total of 5435 women were additionally screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC) and high-risk human papillomavirus testing (HR-HPV). We investigate the variation of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV in C-TATI and of VIA in the full TATI intervention. Methods At the screening visit, midwives collected three cervical samples for Pap, LBC and HC2 before performing VIA. The dispersion factor “D” (D = Pearson chi-square value/degrees-of-freedom) was used to measure the variability of tests results. Within C-TATI, the variability of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV was also graphically assessed with box- and scatter plots by midwife and month of screening. Funnel plots and smoothed scatter plots were used to correlate the variation of VIA by the number of examinations performed by each midwife over the full TATI intervention. Results Consistently over TATI, VIA results were highly variable, independently of the examiner, the time when the test was performed and the number of tests the examiner performed (D>6, p-values<0.001). In C-TATI, VIA results varied the most while those of HR-HPV varied the least (Ds>25, p-values<0.001 for VIA, Ds<1.6, p-values>0.05 for HR-HPV). No evidence for correlation between the number of VIAs done per midwife and the variability of VIA results was observed. Conclusion The lack of over-dispersion for HR-HPV detection suggests that the variable VIA results do not reflect true variation in underlying disease, but a lack of consistency in human judgement. PMID:25635965

Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Luciani, Silvana; Gonzales, Miguel; Delgado, Jose M.; Santos, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter

2015-01-01

310

Influence of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7 membrane lipid composition, verotoxin secretion, and acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid.  

PubMed

The effect of organic acid (acetic, citric, and lactic acids) adaptation at equivalent initial pH values (6.4 and 5.4) on changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin concentration, and acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5, 37 degrees C) was determined for Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 (HEC) and an rpoS mutant of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 (RM, FRIK 816-3). For HEC, lactic acid-adapted (pH 5.4) cells had the greatest D-value (32.2 min) and acetic acid-adapted (pH 5.4) cells had the smallest D-value (16.6 min) in simulated gastric fluid. For RM, D-values of citric and acetic acid-adapted cells were similar to those for nonadapted cells grown at pH 7.3, but D-values increased from 13.1 to 27.9 min in lactic acid-adapted cells (from pH 7.3 to pH 5.4). For both strains, the ratio of cis-vaccenic to palmitic acids decreased for citric and lactic acid-adapted cells, but the ratio increased for acetic acid-adapted cells at pH 5.4. Organic acid-adapted cells produced less total verotoxin than did nonadapted cells at approximately 10(8) CFU/ml. Extracellular verotoxin concentration proportionally decreased with decreasing pH for both HEC and RM. Changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin concentration, and acid resistance in HEC and RM were dependent on both pH and organic acid. Deletion of the rpoS gene did not affect these changes but did decrease acid resistance in citric acid-adapted cells. Results indicate that decreased membrane fluidity may have caused increased acid resistance and decreased verotoxin secretion. PMID:15830655

Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Marshall, Douglas L

2005-04-01

311

Effect of royal jelly on experimental colitis induced by acetic acid and alteration of mast cell distribution in the colon of rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Twenty adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into four treatment groups of 5 animals each, including a control group (Group I); Group II was treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg?1 body weight); Group III had acetic acid-induced colitis; and Group IV had acetic acid-induced colitis treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg?1 body weight) for 4 weeks. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid; the control group received physiological saline (10 mL kg?1). Colon samples were obtained under deep anaesthesia from animals in all groups. Tissues were fixed in 10% formalin neutral buffer solution for 24 h and embedded in paraffin. Six-micrometre-thick sections were stained with Mallory’s triple stain and toluidine blue in 1% aqueous solution at pH 1.0 for 5 min (for Mast Cells). RJ was shown to protect the colonic mucosa against the injurious effect of acetic acid. Colitis (colonic damage) was confirmed histomorphometrically as significant increases in the number of mast cells (MC) and colonic erosions in rats with acetic acid-induced colitis. The RJ treatment significantly decreased the number of MC and reduced the area of colonic erosion in the colon of RJ-treated rats compared with rats with untreated colitis. The results suggest that oral treatment with RJ could be used to treat colitis. PMID:21263740

Karaca, T.; Bayiroglu, F.; Yoruk, M.; Kaya, M.S.; Uslu, S.; Comba, B.; Mis, L.

2010-01-01

312

Effect of royal jelly on experimental colitis Induced by acetic acid and alteration of mast cell distribution in the colon of rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Twenty adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into four treatment groups of 5 animals each, including a control group (Group I); Group II was treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg(-1) body weight); Group III had acetic acid-induced colitis; and Group IV had acetic acid-induced colitis treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 4 weeks. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid; the control group received physiological saline (10 mL kg(-1)). Colon samples were obtained under deep anaesthesia from animals in all groups. Tissues were fixed in 10% formalin neutral buffer solution for 24 h and embedded in paraffin. Six-micrometre-thick sections were stained with Mallory’s triple stain and toluidine blue in 1% aqueous solution at pH 1.0 for 5 min (for Mast Cells). RJ was shown to protect the colonic mucosa against the injurious effect of acetic acid. Colitis (colonic damage) was confirmed histomorphometrically as significant increases in the number of mast cells (MC) and colonic erosions in rats with acetic acid-induced colitis. The RJ treatment significantly decreased the number of MC and reduced the area of colonic erosion in the colon of RJ-treated rats compared with rats with untreated colitis. The results suggest that oral treatment with RJ could be used to treat colitis. PMID:21263740

Karaca, T; Bayiroglu, F; Yoruk, M; Kaya, M S; Uslu, S; Comba, B; Mis, L

2010-01-01

313

Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.  

PubMed

The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 ?g/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene. PMID:24994472

Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

2014-12-01

314

Protective Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid against Lead Acetate-Induced Toxicity in Liver and Kidney of Female Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against lead acetate-induced toxicity in liver and kidney of female rats. Animals were divided into four equal groups; group 1 served as control while groups 2 and 3 were treated orally with Omega-3 fatty acids at doses of 125 and 260?mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 10 days. These groups were also injected with lead acetate (25?mg/kg body weight) during the last 5 days. Group 4 was treated only with lead acetate for 5 days and served as positive control group. Lead acetate increased oxidative stress through an elevation in MDA associated with depletion in antioxidant enzymes activities in the tissues. Moreover, the elevation of serum enzymes activities (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and the levels of urea and creatinine were estimated but total proteins were decreased. Also, lead acetate-treatment induced hyperlipidemia via increasing of lipid profiles associated with decline in HDL-c level. Significant changes of Hb, PCV, RBCs, PLT, and WBCs in group 4 were recorded. The biochemical alterations of lead acetate were confirmed by histopathological changes and DNA damage. The administration of Omega-3 provided significant protection against lead acetate toxicity. PMID:25045676

Abdou, Heba M.; Hassan, Mohamed A.

2014-01-01

315

A high-throughput method for the quantitative analysis of indole-3-acetic acid and other auxins from plant tissue.  

PubMed

To investigate novel pathways involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, and response, we have developed a high-throughput screen for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. Historically, the quantitative analysis of IAA has been a cumbersome and time-consuming process that does not lend itself to the screening of large numbers of samples. The method described here can be performed with or without an automated liquid handler and involves purification solely by solid-phase extraction in a 96-well format, allowing the analysis of up to 96 samples per day. In preparation for quantitative analysis by selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the carboxylic acid moiety of IAA is derivatized by methylation. The derivatization of the IAA described here was also done in a 96-well format in which up to 96 samples can be methylated at once, minimizing the handling of the toxic reagent, diazomethane. To this end, we have designed a custom diazomethane generator that can safely withstand high flow and accommodate larger volumes. The method for IAA analysis is robust and accurate over a range of plant tissue weights and can be used to screen for and quantify other indolic auxins and compounds including indole-3-butyric acid, 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid, and indole-3-propionic acid. PMID:17889819

Barkawi, Lana S; Tam, Yuen-Yee; Tillman, Julie A; Pederson, Ben; Calio, Jessica; Al-Amier, Hussein; Emerick, Michael; Normanly, Jennifer; Cohen, Jerry D

2008-01-15

316

2-(5-Bromo-3-isopropyl­sulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetic acid  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C13H13BrO3S, was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 2-(5-bromo-3-isopropyl­sulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetate. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups are involved in inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds, which link the mol­ecules into dimers. These dimers are further packed into stacks along the c axis by inter­molecular C—H?? inter­actions, and by slipped ?–? inter­actions between the furan rings of adjacent mol­ecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.472?(2)?Å, inter­planar distance = 3.398?(2)?Å and slippage = 0.713?(2)?Å]. PMID:22259558

Seo, Pil Ja; Choi, Hong Dae; Son, Byeng Wha; Lee, Uk

2012-01-01

317

Effects of pod removal on the transport and accumulation of abscisic Acid and indole-3-acetic Acid in soybean leaves.  

PubMed

Concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the second most recently expanded trifoliolate leaf were determined during reproductive development of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr cv ;Chippewa 64'). The concentration of ABA in leaves was constant during most of the seed filling period until the seeds began to dry. The concentration of IAA in the leaves decreased throughout development. Removal of pods 36 hours prior to sampling resulted in increased concentrations of ABA in leaves during the period of rapid pod filling but had little effect on the concentration of IAA in leaves. ABA appears to accumulate in leaves after fruit removal only when fruits represent the major sink for photosynthate.ABA and IAA moving acropetally and basipetally in petioles of soybean were estimated using a phloem exudation technique. ABA was found to move mostly in the basipetal direction in petioles (away from laminae). IAA, primarily in the form of ester conjugate(s), was found to be moving acropetally (toward laminae) in petioles. The highest amount of IAA ester(s) was found in petiole exudate during the mid and late stages of seed filling. Removal of fruits 36 hours prior to exudation reduced the amount of IAA ester recovered in exudate, suggesting that fruits were a source of the IAA conjugate in petiole exudate. PMID:16663979

Hein, M B; Brenner, M L; Brun, W A

1984-12-01

318

Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation  

SciTech Connect

Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y{sub ATP} (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 14}C)benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation.

Russell, J.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

319

The Healing Effect of Teucrium polium in Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in the Dog as an Animal Model  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), are debilitating and chronic disorders with unpredictable courses and complicated treatment measures. Therefore, an efficient treatment protocol seems necessary as therapeutic prophylaxis for these disorders. This study aims to determine the healing effect of Teucrium polium (T. polium) in acetic acid-induced UC in an experimental dog model. METHODS From September to December 2010, eight male (20-25 kg) crossbred dogs were used for induction of UC by 6% acetic acid, transrectally. After one week, three biopsies (10, 20 and 30 cm proximal to the anal verge) were taken from the colon of each animal for histological studies. In the presence of UC, 400 mg/kg/day of T. polium extract was administered orally and transrectally (via enema) for 30 days in six of the dogs. The remaining two dogs were used as controls and did not receive T. polium. Multiple biopsies were taken 7, 14, and 30 days after discontinuation of T. polium in the same manner as before treatment. RESULTS After administration of acetic acid, we noted the presence of multiple ulcers, diffuse inflammation, PMN infiltration in the lamina propria, glandular destruction and goblet cell depletion. Treatment with T. polium restored the colonic architecture with an increased number of healthy cells and a reduction in inflammatory cells. Damage of the surface epithelial cells and mucosal layer of the lumen were reversed, which lead to faster ulcer healing. CONCLUSION T. polium may be a treatment choice for UC and can broaden the current therapy options for UC. PMID:24829634

Mehrabani, Davood; Bahrami, Faranak; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Tanideh, Nader; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Amini, Masoud; Amini, Afshin

2012-01-01

320

Citrate- vs. acetate-based dialysate in bicarbonate haemodialysis: consequences on haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, and electrolytes  

PubMed Central

Background A concentrate for bicarbonate haemodialysis acidified with citrate instead of acetate has been marketed in recent years. The small amount of citrate used (one-fifth of the concentration adopted in regional anticoagulation) protects against intradialyser clotting while minimally affecting the calcium concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of citrate- and acetate-based dialysates on systemic haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, calcium balance and dialysis efficiency. Methods In 25 patients who underwent a total of 375 dialysis sessions, an acetate dialysate (A) was compared with a citrate dialysate with (C+) or without (C) calcium supplementation (0.25 mmol/L) in a randomised single-blind cross-over study. Systemic haemodynamics were evaluated using pulse-wave analysis. Coagulation, acid-base status, calcium balance and dialysis efficiency were assessed using standard biochemical markers. Results Patients receiving the citrate dialysate had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (BP) (-4.3 mmHg, p < 0.01) and peripheral resistances (PR) (-51 dyne.sec.cm-5, p < 0.001) while stroke volume was not increased. In hypertensive patients there was a substantial reduction in BP (-7.8 mmHg, p < 0.01). With the C+ dialysate the BP gap was less pronounced but the reduction in PR was even greater (-226 dyne.sec.cm-5, p < 0.001). Analyses of the fluctuations in PR and of subjective tolerance suggested improved haemodynamic stability with the citrate dialysate. Furthermore, an increase in pre-dialysis bicarbonate and a decrease in pre-dialysis BUN, post-dialysis phosphate and ionised calcium were noted. Systemic coagulation activation was not influenced by citrate. Conclusion The positive impact on dialysis efficiency, acid-base status and haemodynamics, as well as the subjective tolerance, together indicate that citrate dialysate can significantly contribute to improving haemodialysis in selected patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00718289 PMID:19265544

2009-01-01

321

Ethanol and Acetic Acid Production from Carbon Monoxide in a Clostridium Strain in Batch and Continuous Gas-Fed Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied. In a first set of assays, under batch conditions, either NH4Cl, trypticase soy broth or yeast extract (YE) were used as sources of nitrogen. The use of YE was found statistically significant (p < 0.05) on the product spectrum in such batch assays. In another set of experiments, three bioreactors were operated with continuous CO supply, in order to estimate the effect of running conditions on products and biomass formation. The bioreactors were operated under different conditions, i.e., EXP1 (pH = 5.75, YE 1g/L), EXP2 (pH = 4.75, YE 1 g/L) and EXP3 (pH = 5.75, YE 0.2 g/L). When compared to EXP2 and EXP3, it was found that EXP1 yielded the maximum biomass accumulation (302.4 mg/L) and products concentrations, i.e., acetic acid (2147.1 mg/L) and ethanol (352.6 mg/L). This can be attributed to the fact that the higher pH and higher YE concentration used in EXP1 stimulated cell growth and did, consequently, also enhance metabolite production. However, when ethanol is the desired end-product, as a biofuel, the lower pH used in EXP2 was more favourable for solventogenesis and yielded the highest ethanol/acetic acid ratio, reaching a value of 0.54. PMID:25608591

Nalakath Abubackar, Haris; Veiga, María C.; Kennes, Christian

2015-01-01

322

Efficacy of rapid, economical, acetic acid, Papanicolaou stain in cervical smears as an alternative to conventional Papanicolaou stain  

PubMed Central

Background: Papanicolaou (Pap) stain has been used over the years for cervical cytology screening. However; it utilizes a considerable amount of alcohol which is expensive and difficult to procure. In one of the modifications, ethyl alcohol is replaced by 1% acetic acid and is termed as rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou (REAP) stain. It is cost effective, easily available and provides a suitable and rapid staining alternative. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of REAP stain as an alternative method to conventional Pap stain. Materials and Methods: This study was done over a period of 18 months in a tertiary care hospital. Two sets of cervical smears were prepared of which one was stained with conventional Pap stain, and other was stained with REAP stain. The smears were examined for cytomorphological parameters and were evaluated using a modification of parameters given by Ng et al. Results: A total of 737 smears were examined in duplicate. Most of the conventional Pap smears showed excellent preservation (91.6%) with very few showing optimal (7.6%) and sub-optimal staining (0.8%). In contrast to this excellent preservation was seen in just 33.6% of the REAP stained smears with majority showing optimal and sub-optimal preservation (46.5% and 20% respectively). The P value was statistically significant (<0.0001) depicting inferior staining quality of REAP stain. Conclusion: Rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain undoubtly is a simple, fast and cost effective stain which can be adopted mainly in resource limited settings, but cannot be utilized for research purpose in a tertiary care setup due to poor preservation of the staining quality.

Izhar, Shabnam; Kaur, Rupinder; Masih, Kanwal

2014-01-01

323

Ethanol and acetic Acid production from carbon monoxide in a clostridium strain in batch and continuous gas-fed bioreactors.  

PubMed

The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied. In a first set of assays, under batch conditions, either NH4Cl, trypticase soy broth or yeast extract (YE) were used as sources of nitrogen. The use of YE was found statistically significant (p < 0.05) on the product spectrum in such batch assays. In another set of experiments, three bioreactors were operated with continuous CO supply, in order to estimate the effect of running conditions on products and biomass formation. The bioreactors were operated under different conditions, i.e., EXP1 (pH = 5.75, YE 1g/L), EXP2 (pH = 4.75, YE 1 g/L) and EXP3 (pH = 5.75, YE 0.2 g/L). When compared to EXP2 and EXP3, it was found that EXP1 yielded the maximum biomass accumulation (302.4 mg/L) and products concentrations, i.e., acetic acid (2147.1 mg/L) and ethanol (352.6 mg/L). This can be attributed to the fact that the higher pH and higher YE concentration used in EXP1 stimulated cell growth and did, consequently, also enhance metabolite production. However, when ethanol is the desired end-product, as a biofuel, the lower pH used in EXP2 was more favourable for solventogenesis and yielded the highest ethanol/acetic acid ratio, reaching a value of 0.54. PMID:25608591

Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

2015-01-01

324

40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

2012-07-01

325

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2012-04-01

326

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2014-04-01

327

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2013-04-01

328

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2011-04-01

329

21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

2010-04-01

330

Ru (III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Aliphatic Ketones by N-Bromosuccinimide in Aqueous Acetic Acid: A Kinetic Study  

PubMed Central

Kinetics of Ru (III) catalyzed oxidation of aliphatic ketones such as acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, diethyl ketone, iso-butylmethyl ketone by N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of Hg(II) acetate have been studied in aqueous acid medium. The order of [N-bromosuccinimide] was found to be zero both in catalyzed as well as uncatalyzed reactions. However, the order of [ketone] changed from unity to a fractional one in the presence of Ru (III). On the basis of kinetic features, the probable mechanisms are discussed and individual rate parameters evaluated. PMID:22654610

Giridhar Reddy, P.; Ramesh, K.; Shylaja, S.; Rajanna, K. C.; Kandlikar, S.

2012-01-01

331

INDOLE3ACETIC ACID PRODUCTION BY GEL-ENTRAPPED BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS IN THE PRESENCE OF ROCK PHOSPHATE ORE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis in entrapped in k-carrageenan was capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of rock phosphate ore (RPO). After five repeated batch fermentation experiments, an average of 6.9 mg\\/L IAA was recorded in the presence of 1.5 g\\/L RPO and 4.7 mg\\/L IAA in the RPO-free control. The bacterium simultaneously solubilized phosphates with a maximum soluble P of 115 mg\\/L and

Nikolay Vassilev; Iana Nikolaeva; Maria Vassileva

2007-01-01

332

Crystal growth, structure analysis and characterisation of 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid single crystal  

SciTech Connect

Single crystal of dielectric material 2 - (1, 3 - dioxoisoindolin - 2 - yl) acetic acid has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. The grown crystal was harvested in 25 days. The crystal structure was analyzed by Single crystal X - ray diffraction. UV-vis-NIR analysis was performed to examine the optical property of the grown crystal. The thermal property of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The dielectric measurements were carried out and the dielectric constant was calculated and plotted at all frequencies.

Sankari, R. Siva, E-mail: sivasankari.sh@act.edu.in [Department of Physics, Agni College of Technology, Thalambur, Chennai-603103 (India); Perumal, Rajesh Narayana [Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai-603110 (India)

2014-04-24

333

Acetate kinase activity in mycoplasmas.  

PubMed

Acetate kinase activity was assayed in 13 mycoplasmas. Nine species exhibited the enzymic activity in the direction of either synthesis of acetylphosphate or adenosine triphosphate. On the other hand Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma arthritidis, Ureaplasma urealyticum (10 serotypes), and two strains of Anaeroplasma species exhibited only minimal levels of the enzymic activity. In these four species, the enzyme does not seem to play a key role in adenosine triphosphate formation. PMID:6263869

Muhlrad, A; Peleg, I; Robertson, J A; Robinson, I M; Kahane, I

1981-07-01

334

Mesophilic syntrophic acetate oxidation during methane formation in biogas reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction pathway for the formation of methane from acetate was investigated in sludge from 13 different biogas reactors. By following the conversion of [2-14C]acetate and [14C]bicarbonate it was shown that methane formation by syntrophic acetate oxidation was the dominating mechanism for acetotrophic methanogenesis in sludge containing high levels of salts, mainly ammonium, and volatile fatty acids. In one biogas

Anna Schnürer; Gerhard Zellner; Bo H. Svensson

1999-01-01

335

Protective effect of naringenin on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of naringenin (NG) during ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. METHODS: Rats were treated with three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day) of NG and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg per day) for seven days prior to ulcerative colitis induction by 4% acetic acid (AA). Twenty four hours after AA rectal administration, animals were scarified and the colonic tissues were dissected. Colonic mucus content was estimated using Alcian blue dye binding technique. In colon tissues, levels of total glutathione sulphadryls (T-GSH), non-protein sulphadryls (NP-SH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Concentrations of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein were also estimated in colon tissues. Colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated. In cross section of colitis tissue the histopathological changes were observed. RESULTS: Colonic mucus content was decreased in AA compared to controls (587.09 ± 65.59 mg/kg vs 941.78 ± 68.41 mg/kg, P < 0.001). AA administration markedly reduced T-GSH (5.25 ± 0.37 nmol/L vs 3.04 ± 0.24 nmol/L, P < 0.01), NP-SH (3.16 ± 0.04 nmol/L vs 2.16 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.01), CAT (6.77 ± 0.40 U/mg vs 3.04 ± 0.2 U/mg, P < 0.01) and SOD (3.10 ± 0.11 U/mg vs 1.77 ± 0.18 U/mg, P < 0.01) while TBARS, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, PGE2 and NO levels (15.09 ± 3.84 nmol/L vs 59.90 ± 16.34 nmol/L, P < 0.01; 113.56 ± 1.91 pg/mg vs 134.24 ± 4.77 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 209.20 ± 36.38 pg/mg vs 422.19 ± 31.47 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 250.83 ± 25.09 pg/mg vs 638.58 ± 115.9 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 248.19 ± 36.98 pg/mg vs 541.74 ± 58.34 pg/mg, P < 0.01 and 81.26 ± 2.98 mmol/g vs 101.90 ± 10.73 mmol/g, P < 0.001) were increased in colon of rats with UC compared controls respectively.Naringenin supplementation, significantly and dose dependently increased the colonic mucus content. The elevated TBARS levels were significantly decreased (39.35 ± 5.86 nmol/L, P < 0.05; 26.74 ± 3.17 nmol/L, P < 0.01 nmol/L and 17.74 ± 2.69 nmol/L, P < 0.01) compared to AA (59.90 ± 16.34 nmol/L) group while the decreased levels of T-GSH and NP-SH and activities of CAT and SOD found increased by NG treatments in dose dependent manner. The decreased values of nucleic acids and total protein in AA group were also significantly (P < 0.01) increased in all three NG supplemented groups respectively. NG pretreatment inhibited the TNF-? levels (123.76 ± 3.76 pg/mg, 122.62 ± 3.41 pg/mg and 121.51 ± 2.61 pg/mg vs 134.24 ± 4.78 pg/mg, P < 0.05) compared to AA group, respectively. Interleukins, IL-1? and IL-6 levels were also decreased in NG50 + AA (314.37 ± 16.31 pg/mg and 292.58 ± 23.68 pg/mg, P < 0.05) and NG100 + AA (416.72 ± 49.62 pg/mg and 407.96 ± 43.87 pg/mg, P < 0.05) when compared to AA (352.46 ± 8.58 pg/mg and 638.58 ± 115.98 pg/mg) group. Similar decrease (P < 0.05) was seen in PGE2 and NO values when compared to AA group. The group pretreated with MES, as a reference drug, showed significant (P < 0.01) protection against the changes induced in colon tissue by AA administration respectively. CONCLUSION: In present study, NG produced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects demonstrating protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24039355

Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Al-Enazi, Maher M; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H; Parmar, Mihir Y; Ahmed, Mohammed M

2013-01-01

336

Effects of propionate and methylmalonate on conversions of acetate, butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate to fatty acids and carbon dioxide by mammary tissue slices of goats  

SciTech Connect

Incorporations of (1-carbon-14) acetate, (1-carbon-14) propionate, n-(1-carbon-14) butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxy(3-carbon-14) butyrate into individual milk fatty acids and their conversion to carbon dioxide were studied in vitro with caprine mammary tissue slices in the presence and absence of propionate and methylmalonate. Neither propionate nor methylmalonate affected incorporation of these substances into fatty acids. In a decreasing order butyrate, acetate, propionate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate were converted to carbon dioxide. Acetate had the highest incorporation rate into fatty acids followed by D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, butyrate, and propionate. Labeled propionate was incorporated mainly into odd-numbered fatty acids. Results do not support the theory that either propionate or its metabolite, methylmalonate, inhibit de novo synthesis of fatty acids in the mammary gland in relation to the etiology of low milk fat syndrome.

Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

1985-03-01

337

Origin of Epilachnapaenulata defensive alkaloids: incorporation of [1-13C]-sodium acetate and [methyl-2H3]-stearic acid.  

PubMed

Ladybird beetles produce a large number of defensive alkaloids. Previous studies suggest that the structural diversity of these endogenous alkaloids can be traced to a common biosynthetic route based on the condensation of several acetate units. In this study, adults of Epilachna paenulata, a phytophagous neotropical species, were fed on diet enriched with potential precursors (sodium acetate, fatty acids and the amino acids lysine and ornithine) labeled with stable isotopes ((13)C, (2)H and (15)N). Labeled acetate was incorporated into the structurally related homotropane and piperidine alkaloids. The later also showed incorporation of [methyl-(2)H3] stearic acid. Our results hence support a fatty acid pathway for the biosynthesis of E. paenulata alkaloids. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the incorporation of a labeled fatty acid into a defensive piperidine alkaloid in insects. PMID:22062684

Camarano, S; González, A; Rossini, C

2012-01-01

338

Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in Fusarium delphinoides strain GPK, a causal agent of Wilt in Chickpea.  

PubMed

Fusarium delphinoides (Ascomycota; Nectriaceae) is an indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing plant pathogen and a causal agent of wilt in chickpea. The IAA biosynthetic pathway in F. delphinoides strain GPK (FDG) was examined by analyzing metabolic intermediates and by feeding experiments. Gas chromatograph (GC) analysis of FDG culture filtrates showed the presence of metabolic intermediates of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), indole-3-acetamide (IAM), and tryptamine (TRA) pathways. The different IAA biosynthetic pathways were further confirmed by identifying the presence of different enzymes of these pathways. Substrate specificity study of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase revealed that the enzyme is highly specific for tryptophan (Trp) and ?-ketoglutarate (?-kg) as amino group donor and acceptor, respectively. Furthermore, the concentration-dependent effect of exogenous IAA on fungal growth was established. Low concentration of exogenous IAA increases the fungal growth and at high concentration it decreases the growth of FDG. PMID:23306880

Kulkarni, Guruprasad B; Sanjeevkumar, S; Kirankumar, B; Santoshkumar, M; Karegoudar, T B

2013-02-01

339

Heterologous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) using antibodies against ring-linked IAA.  

PubMed

A solid phase indirect enzyme immunoassay method for the plant growth substance indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) using polyclonal antibodies raised to IAA linked to rabbit serum albumin (RSA) is described. The sensitivity for IAA increased by more than three orders of magnitude as the number of IAA ligands on the coating antigen decreased. Further improvements in assay sensitivity were limited by the high affinity of the antibodies for the bridge group in the IAA conjugate. Substitution of the IAA in the coating antigen by either indole-3-propionic acid or indole-3-lactic acid reduced antibody recognition of the bridge group. The resulting heterologous assay compares favourably with existing homologous immunoassays for IAA in terms of sensitivity and specificity. PMID:1995713

Manning, K

1991-01-24

340

Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement-A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag+. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag+ release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Sedira, Sofiane; Ayachi, Ahmed Abdelhakim; Lakehal, Sihem; Fateh, Merouane; Achour, Slimane

2014-08-01

341

Ultrafast photodissociation studies of acetyl cyanide and acetic acid and unimolecular decomposition rates of the acetyl radical products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unimolecular decomposition rates for acetyl radical following the photodissociation of acetyl cyanide and acetic acid near 193 nm have been studied using ultrafast mass-resolved photoionization spectroscopy. In both cases, the parent decays with an instrumentally limited lifetime, while the acetyl radical behaves in a manner consistent with an RRKM mechanism, in contrast to our previous results on acetone. It is necessary to convolute the population distribution with the microcanonical RRKM rates in order to achieve this agreement. We have also undertaken an ab initio study of the excited states of acetyl cyanide to clarify the assignments of these states. The state excited at 193 nm arises from a ???* transition with a calculated transition velocity dipole moment oriented at an angle of 57° with respect to the C-C?N bond, resulting in an anisotropy parameter of -0.22. This is in reasonable agreement with the previous data of North et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 9224 (1997)]. The apparent RRKM behavior of the acetyl radical formed by the photodissociation of acetic acid and acetyl cyanide indicates that acetyl radical produced by the photodissociation of acetone at 193 nm may exhibit "extrinsic non-RRKM" effects, i.e., dynamic bottlenecks or mode specific effects.

Owrutsky, J. C.; Baronavski, A. P.

1999-10-01

342

Dietary glutamine supplementation prevents mucosal injury and modulates intestinal epithelial restitution following acetic acid induced intestinal injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Beneficial effects of glutamine (GLN) have been described in many gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventative effect of oral GLN supplementation against acetic acid (AA) induced intestinal injury in a rat. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (CONTR) rats underwent laparotomy, control-glutamine (CONTR-GLN) rats were treated with enteral glutamine given in drinking water (2%) 48 hours before and five days following laparotomy, AA rats underwent laparotomy and injection of AA into an isolated jejunal loop, and acetic acid-glutamine (AA-GLN) rats underwent AA-induced injury and were treated with enteral GLN 48 hours before and 5 days following laparotomy. Intestinal mucosal damage (Park’s injury score), mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined five days following intestinal injury. Western blotting was used to determine p-ERK and bax protein levels. AA-induced intestinal injury resulted in a significantly increased intestinal injury score with concomitant inhibition of cell turnover (reduced proliferation and enhanced apoptosis). Treatment with dietary GLN supplementation resulted in a decreased intestinal injury score with concomitant stimulation of cell turnover (enhanced proliferation and reduced apoptosis). In conclusion, pre-treatment with oral GLN prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following AA-induced intestinal injury in rats. PMID:23919638

2013-01-01

343

Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput. PMID:21896164

2011-01-01

344

Enantioselective interaction of acid ?-naphthyl acetate esterase with chiral organophosphorus insecticides.  

PubMed

Many previous works have demonstrated that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was enantioselectively inhibited by chiral organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) and that a significant difference in reactivation existed for AChE inactivated by (1R)- versus (1S,3S)-stereoisomers of isomalathion. It had been known that ?-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), an enzyme which might play an essential role in the growth of plants and the defense of plants against environmental stress by regulating the concentration of hormones in plants, can be inhibited by OPs. However, it was unknown whether interaction of ANAE with chiral OPs was enantioselective. The present work investigated the inhibition kinetics and spontaneous reactivation of ANAE inactivated by enantiomers of malaoxon, isomalathion, and methamidophos. The order of inhibition potency is (R) > (S) for malaoxon, (1R,3R) > (1R,3S) > (1S,3R) > (1S,3S) for isomalathion, and (S) > (R) for methamidophos according to bimolecular rate constants of inhibition (ki), which is consistent with the order observed in the enantioselective inhibition of AChE by malaoxon, isomalathion, and methamidophos. The difference in spontaneous reactivation of AChE inactivated between (1R)- and (1S,3S)-isomers of isomalathion is conserved for ANAE. The observations indicated ANAE and AChE have similar selective inhibition kinetics and postinhibitory reactions in reaction with chiral OPs. PMID:24475784

Zhang, Anping; Sun, Jianqiang; Lin, Chunmian; Hu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Weiping

2014-02-19

345

GAS-PHASE SYNTHESIS OF PRECURSORS OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ACETIC ACID WITH HYDROXYLAMINE AND ITS IONIZED AND PROTONATED DERIVATIVES  

SciTech Connect

A computational study of the reactions of hydroxylamine and its ionized and protonated derivatives with acetic acid is provided. The reaction of neutral hydroxylamine with acetic acid, despite being clearly exothermic, involves a very large energy barrier. The reaction of ionized hydroxylamine with acetic acid is also clearly exothermic, but again a significant energy barrier is found (around 24 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). The reaction of the most stable protonated isomer of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, with acetic acid also involves a high barrier (more than 27 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Only the higher energy isomer, NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}{sub 2}, leads to a sensibly lower energy barrier (about 2.3 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Nevertheless, an estimate of the reaction coefficient at low temperatures such as those reigning in the interstellar medium gives very low values. Therefore, it seems that precursors of interstellar glycine could not be efficiently produced from the reactions of hydroxylamine-derived ions with acetic acid.

Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Laura; Rayon, Victor M.; Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

2012-04-01

346

Functional Properties of Extruded Starch Acetate Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starch acetate, with degree of substitution of 2, was blended with 0, 7.5 and 15% polylactic acid (PLA), Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) or Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) and 10%, 13%, or 16% (d.b.) ethanol and twin-screw extruded at 160°C barrel temperature. Physical characteristics of the extrudates, such as radial expansion ratio, unit and bulk densities, and of the mechanical properties,

J. Guan; Q. Fang; M. A. Hanna

2004-01-01

347

Molecular Structure of Ethyl acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ethyl acetate is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild and fragrant odor. It is used as solvent in chemistry laboratories but can also be found in many household products such as paints, coatings, and adhesives. The compound is also used in some extraction processes such as decaffeination or purification of antibiotics. It is present in both nail polish and removers. Some synthetic fruit essences may contain this and other esters. Etymologists like to use this solvent for insect collecting as the vapor kill the insect quickly and keep it soft for mounting.

2006-03-08

348

Adsorption of acetic acid on ice studied by ambient-pressure XPS and partial-electron-yield NEXAFS spectroscopy at 230-240 K.  

PubMed

Ice plays a key role in the environment, and the ice-air interface influences heterogeneous chemical reactions between snowpack or cirrus clouds and the surrounding air. Soluble gases have been suspected to affect the topmost, disordered layer on ice (often referred to as a quasiliquid layer, QLL). Changes are especially expected in the hydrogen-bonding structure of water in the presence of solutes at the ice surface. Here, we used ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to detect acetic acid at the ice surface at 230-240 K under atmospheric conditions for the first time. Electron-kinetic-energy-dependent C 1s spectra indicate that acetic acid remains confined to the topmost ice surface layers. Spectral analysis provides information about the protonation state of acetate at the ice surface. Surface-sensitive Auger-electron-yield C-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra were recorded to probe the molecular state of the adsorbed species. The O-edge NEXAFS spectra show only minor differences between clean ice and ice with adsorbed acetic acid and thus indicate that acetic acid does not lead to an extended disordered layer on the ice surface between 230 and 240 K. PMID:23252403

K?epelová, Adéla; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Brown, Matthew A; Bluhm, Hendrik; Ammann, Markus

2013-01-17

349

Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally or rectally prior to ulcer induction. BEC (10 mg/Kg), prednisolone (5 mg/Kg), hydrocortisone acetate enema (20 mg/Kg) and normal saline (5 mL/Kg) were considered as respective controls. The tissue was assessed macroscopically for damage scores, area, index and weight/length ratio. They were also examined histopathologically for inflammation extent and severity, crypt damage, invasion involvement and total colitis index. Results indicated that greater doses of oral BFE (750, 1500 mg/Kg) as well as BEC (10 mg/Kg) were effective to protect against colonic damage. By rectal pretreatment, the extract was only effective to diminish the ulcer index and the efficacy was not significant for mucosal inflammation parameters. In conclusion BFE, which is nearly devoid of berberine, was effective to protect against colitis and this might be attributed to its anthocyanin constituents. PMID:24363687

Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham

2011-01-01

350

In situ reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate for biodiesel production using magnetic solid acid catalysts.  

PubMed

A magnetic solid acid catalyst S2O8(2)(-)/ZrO2-TiO2-Fe3O4 was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation methods and its catalytic activity was investigated for the reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate to produce biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The influences of Zr/Ti molar ratio and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were investigated. Moreover, optimization of the reactive extraction process was performed using response surface methodology coupled with central composite design. The catalyst with a Zr/Ti molar ratio of 3/1 calcined at 550°C showed the best activity. An optimum biodiesel yield of 98.5% was obtained under the reaction temperature of 50°C, catalyst amount of 21.3wt.%, methyl acetate/seed ratio of 13.8ml/g and 10.8h of reaction time. Reuse of this catalyst indicated that it had steady catalytic activity and high recovery rate which could be a promising catalyst for biodiesel production from oilseeds. PMID:25463798

Wu, Haitang; Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Junhua; Li, Guanglu

2014-12-01

351

Metabolizable energy values and amino acid availability of vetch (Vicia sativa) and ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water and acetic acid.  

PubMed

In two experiments we evaluated the effect of water and acetic acid soaking on ME, apparent amino acid (AA) availability, and true AA availability of vetch (V) and ervil (E) seeds. In Experiment 1, the feedstuffs were untreated (U) V or coarsely ground V soaked in water (1:10, wt/vol) at 40 C for 72 h with a water change every 12 h (40WV), vetch soaked in 1% acetic acid for 24 h at 40 C (40AAV) or at room temperature (RTAAV), or dehulled soybean meal (SBM). In Experiment 2, E seeds were subjected to the same soaking methods, and the ingredients were UE, 40WE, 40AAE, RTAAE, and SBM. Each feedstuff was precision-fed to five individually caged mature ISA Brown roosters. A group of five roosters was used to correct for metabolic and endogenous energy and amino acid losses. The AME, AMEn, TME, and TMEn of UV and UE (in parentheses) were 2,558 (2,663), 2,840 (3,098), 3,026 (3,154), and 2,934 (3,176) kcal/kg DM, respectively, and were, in general, higher than those of SBM. The TMEn of V increased as a result of soaking in water or acetic acid, whereas that of E decreased in 40WE and RTAAE by 492 and 920 kcal/kg DM, respectively (P < 0.05). The apparent availability of most essential amino acids in UV and UE was lower (P < 0.05) than that of SBM. Acetic acid soaking of V, irrespective of temperature, and E at 40 C resulted in apparent AA availability similar to that of SBM except for Met. The true AA availability of V treated or not, and that of E soaked at 40 C, were similar to that of SBM. Results indicated that UV and UE are energy rich ingredients but detrimental to amino acid availability. Soaking the seeds in acetic acid at room temperature and at 40 C improved the nutritional value of V and E, respectively. PMID:11469657

Farran, M T; Barbour, G W; Uwayjan, M G; Ashkarian, V M

2001-07-01

352

Conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid by TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASES OF ARABIDOPSIS and YUCCAs in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Auxin is an essential hormone, but its biosynthetic routes in plants have not been fully defined. In this paper, we show that the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of amino transferases converts tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) and that the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases participates in converting IPA to indole-3-acetic acid, the main auxin in plants. Both the YUCs and the TAAs have been shown to play essential roles in auxin biosynthesis, but it has been suggested that they participate in two independent pathways. Here, we show that all of the taa mutant phenotypes, including defects in shade avoidance, root resistance to ethylene and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), are phenocopied by inactivating YUC genes. On the other hand, we show that the taa mutants in several known auxin mutant backgrounds, including pid and npy1, mimic all of the well-characterized developmental defects caused by combining yuc mutants with the auxin mutants. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of YUC1 partially suppresses the shade avoidance defects of taa1 and the sterile phenotypes of the weak but not the strong taa mutants. In addition, we discovered that the auxin overproduction phenotypes of YUC overexpression lines are dependent on active TAA genes. Our genetic data show that YUC and TAA work in the same pathway and that YUC is downstream of TAA. The yuc mutants accumulate IPA, and the taa mutants are partially IPA-deficient, indicating that TAAs are responsible for converting tryptophan to IPA, whereas YUCs play an important role in converting IPA to indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:22025721

Won, Christina; Shen, Xiangling; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Zheng, Zuyu; Dai, Xinhua; Cheng, Youfa; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Chory, Joanne; Zhao, Yunde

2011-01-01

353

Plant regeneration from callus of Cuscuta reflexa  – an angiospermic parasite – and modulation of catalase and peroxidase activity by salicylic acid and naphthalene acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus induction and plant regeneration system for an obligate parasite, Cuscuta reflexa (family Cuscutaceae), has been established. Callusing was induced from explants of basal portion of seedlings as well as from shoots (vines) in a modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS) media supplemented with 1 mg·L–1 benzyl adenine (BA) and 3 mg·L–1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (MMS-1). The MMS media containing 1 mg·L–1 BA

Seema Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

2001-01-01

354

Effects of Intrathecally Administered Aminoglycoside Antibiotics, Calcium-Channel Blockers, Nickel and Calcium on Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Test in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered aminoglycoside antibiotics, calcium-channel blockers, nickel and calcium ions on the acetic acid–induced writhing test in mice were examined.2.Neomycin (0.5–20.0 ?g\\/mouse) gentamicin (5–40 ?g\\/mouse), nicardipine, diltiazem and verapamil (0.5–80.0 ?g\\/mouse) and calcium ions (0.02–1.0 ?mol\\/mouse) exerted a dose-dependent antinociceptive activity on the acetic acid–induced writhing test. Nickel ions ( 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ?mol\\/mouse) were found

Ahmet Do?rul; Özgür Ye?ilyurt

1998-01-01

355

Determination of indole-3-acetic acid, tryptophan and other indoles in must and wine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

The development of a robust method to analyse the content of tryptophan and of indole-3-acetic acid at the microgram per litre level in must and wine is necessary in order to study the formation of 2-aminoacetophenone and of other indole compounds causing the 'untypical ageing off-flavour'. The present paper discusses the development and validation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for the analysis of indole-3-acetic acid, tryptophan, tryptophol, indole and skatole in must and white wine. The required selectivity and sensitivity was gained through the solid-phase extraction on a polystyrene-based polymer column. PMID:10514987

Mattivi, F; Vrhovsek, U; Versini, G

1999-09-01

356

Diagnosing Cervical Dysplasia Using Visual Inspection of the Cervix with Acetic Acid in a Woman in Rural Haiti  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for women in developing countries, despite the fact that inexpensive, simple and effective screening methods are available. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) can be used as part of a “screen and treat” program to identify precancerous lesions for cryotherapy treatment. This case report details how the VIA screening test was incorporated into the care of a patient presenting to a maternal health clinic in Thomonde, Haiti which was staffed by doctors and medical students from Emory University School of Medicine in collaboration with Haiti Medishare. As demonstrated here, the VIA test requires minimal materials, can be efficiently incorporated into a physical exams, provides immediate results, and is easily demonstrated to and performed by local healthcare providers. The straightforward and sensitive VIA technique is an ideal cervical cancer screening method for resource poor areas. PMID:25464128

Roger, Elizabeth; Nwosu, Oguchi

2014-01-01

357

Diagnosing cervical dysplasia using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid in a woman in rural Haiti.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for women in developing countries, despite the fact that inexpensive, simple and effective screening methods are available. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) can be used as part of a "screen and treat" program to identify precancerous lesions for cryotherapy treatment. This case report details how the VIA screening test was incorporated into the care of a patient presenting to a maternal health clinic in Thomonde, Haiti which was staffed by doctors and medical students from Emory University School of Medicine in collaboration with Haiti Medishare. As demonstrated here, the VIA test requires minimal materials, can be efficiently incorporated into a physical exams, provides immediate results, and is easily demonstrated to and performed by local healthcare providers. The straightforward and sensitive VIA technique is an ideal cervical cancer screening method for resource poor areas. PMID:25464128

Roger, Elizabeth; Nwosu, Oguchi

2014-12-01

358

Studies on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of amino-(4-nitro-phenyl)-acetic acid enantiomers: modeling and optimization.  

PubMed

BINAP-metal complexes were prepared as extractant for enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) of amino-(4-nitro-phenyl)-acetic acid (NPA) enantiomers. The influence of process variables, including types of organic solvents and metal precursor, concentration of ligand, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of the extraction, were investigated experimentally. An interfacial reaction model was established for insightful understanding of the chiral extraction process. Important parameters required for the model were determined. The experimental data were compared with model predictions to verify the model prediction, It was found that the interfacial reaction model predicted the experimental results accurately. By modeling and experiment, an optimal extraction condition with pH of 7 and host (extractant) concentration of 1?mmol/L was obtained and high enantioselectivity (?op ) of 3.86 and performance factor (pf) of 0.1949 were achieved. PMID:24327392

Zhang, Panliang; Liu, Chang; Tang, Kewen; Liu, Jiajia; Zhou, Congshan; Yang, Changan

2014-02-01

359

Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with flavone acetic acid (FAA) in advanced malignant melanoma: immunological studies.  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell cytotoxicity were measured in patients receiving recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and flavone acetic acid (FAA) for treatment of progressing metastatic melanoma. NK activity was increased in 23 of 26 patients and LAK activity induced in 13 of 26 patients. However, levels of cytotoxicity in the present study were not significantly greater than a previous study using rIL-2 alone. LAK cell precursors demonstrated by in vitro incubation of pretreatment lymphocytes with IL-2 and subsequent cytotoxicity were no different in the patients compared to normal controls. Analysis of cell surface phenotypes failed to reveal any significant changes in the cell populations examined, including IL-2R and Leu 19. Although five patients had tumour response, one being complete, there was no correlation with the immunological parameters examined. PMID:2328217

Ghosh, A. K.; Mellor, M.; Prendiville, J.; Thatcher, N.

1990-01-01

360

Aberrant Synthesis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Triggers Morphogenic Transition, a Virulence Trait of Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Many plant-associated microbes synthesize the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and several IAA biosynthetic pathways have been identified in microbes and plants. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously been shown to respond to IAA by inducing pseudohyphal growth. We observed that IAA also induced hyphal growth in the human pathogen Candida albicans and thus may function as a secondary metabolite signal that regulates virulence traits such as hyphal transition in pathogenic fungi. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald) is required for IAA synthesis from a tryptophan (Trp) precursor in Ustilago maydis. Mutant S. cerevisiae with deletions in two ALD genes are unable to convert radiolabeled Trp to IAA, yet produce IAA in the absence of exogenous Trp and at levels higher than wild type. These data suggest that yeast may have multiple pathways for IAA synthesis, one of which is not dependent on Trp. PMID:20233857

Rao, Reeta Prusty; Hunter, Ally; Kashpur, Olga; Normanly, Jennifer

2010-01-01

361

Levels of Endogenous Indole-3-acetic Acid in Achenes of Rosa rugosa during Dormancy Release and Germination 1  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in highly purified extracts of rose achenes (Rosa rugosa var rubra) was quantified by means of ion-pair reversephase high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorimetric detection. Changes in IAA content were determined during a 14-week 4°C stratification, which leads to dormancy breakage, and during subsequent germination at 17°C. IAA was also determined in achenes stratified in parallel at 17°C, which does not induce release from dormancy. IAA decreased during the first 2 weeks of stratification both at 4°C and at 17°C. IAA remained low during the remaining 12 weeks of stratification at 4°C, whereas it continued to decrease in achenes kept at 17°C. An immediate increase in IAA during germination was followed by transients in the IAA level. The results suggest that IAA is without a regulating role in dormancy release although it seems to be involved in the germination process. PMID:16663829

Tillberg, Elisabeth

1984-01-01

362

Comparing the results of Pap smear and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical cancer is the most second common cancer among Iranian women. This study was carried out to compare the results of Pap smear method and Direct Visual Inspection (DVI) with 5% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in Tabriz, Iran. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Alzahra Therapeutic-Educational Centre, Tabriz, Iran in 2013 on 1000 women. First, Pap smear was done for all women, and then the cervix exposed with 5% acetic acid by cotton swab for 30 seconds and observed under adequate light. At the end, women with abnormal results in Pap smear or DVI method were referred to colposcopy and biopsy. Test's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), LR+, LR- and confidence interval (CI) were determined (P < 0.05). Results: Nine-hundred and seventy-four (94.7%) cases were normal and had no abnormal findings and 26 (2.6%) participants had positive results in Pap smear or DVI test. Twelve women had abnormal Pap smear (nine women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, ASCUS, three women with dysplasia, atypical endocervical, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, LSIL results) and 14 women had positive DVI (four women with human papillomavirus, HPV or koilocyte,) and one women with abnormality in both method had carcinoma in biopsy that referred to oncologist. In this study the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for DVI were 71.4%, 50%, 35.7%, and 81.8% respectively in comparison with 14.3%, 50%, 10%, and 60% for Pap smear. Conclusion: As the DVI method has higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than Pap smear, it could be used as a useful method beside the Pap smear.

Pourasad-Shahrak, Shakiba; Salehi-Pourmehr, Hanieh; Mostafa-Garebaghi, Parvin; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Malakouti, Jamileh; Haghsay, Monireh

2015-01-01

363

Naringin ameliorates acetic acid induced colitis through modulation of endogenous oxido-nitrosative balance and DNA damage in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of naringin on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days to Wistar rats before induction of colitis by intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution. The degree of colonic mucosal damage was analyzed by examining mucosal damage, ulcer area, ulcer index and stool consistency. Intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid resulted in significant modulation of serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) content along with colonic nitric oxide (NO), xanthine oxidase (XO) level and protein carbonyl content in the colonic tissue as well as in blood. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) exerted a dose dependent (P < 0.05) ameliorative effect, as it significantly increased hematological parameter as well as colonic SOD and GSH. There was a significant (P < 0.05) and dose dependant inhibition of macroscopical score, ulcer area along with colonic MDA, MPO activity by the 7 days of pretreatment of naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg). Biochemical studies revealed a significant (P < 0.05) dose dependant inhibition in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels by pretreatment of naringin. Increased levels of colonic NO, XO, protein carbonyl content and DNA damage were also significantly decreased by naringin pretreatment. The findings of the present investigation propose that naringin has an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic potential effect at colorectal sites as it modulates the production and expression of oxidative mediators such as MDA, MPO, NO and XO, thus reducing DNA damage. PMID:24683411

Kumar, Venkatashivam Shiva; Rajmane, Anuchandra Ramchandra; Adil, Mohammad; Kandhare, Amit Dattatraya; Ghosh, Pinaki; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxman

2014-03-01

364

Naringin ameliorates acetic acid induced colitis through modulation of endogenous oxido-nitrosative balance and DNA damage in rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of naringin on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days to Wistar rats before induction of colitis by intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution. The degree of colonic mucosal damage was analyzed by examining mucosal damage, ulcer area, ulcer index and stool consistency. Intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid resulted in significant modulation of serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) content along with colonic nitric oxide (NO), xanthine oxidase (XO) level and protein carbonyl content in the colonic tissue as well as in blood. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) exerted a dose dependent (P < 0.05) ameliorative effect, as it significantly increased hematological parameter as well as colonic SOD and GSH. There was a significant (P < 0.05) and dose dependant inhibition of macroscopical score, ulcer area along with colonic MDA, MPO activity by the 7 days of pretreatment of naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg). Biochemical studies revealed a significant (P < 0.05) dose dependant inhibition in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels by pretreatment of naringin. Increased levels of colonic NO, XO, protein carbonyl content and DNA damage were also significantly decreased by naringin pretreatment. The findings of the present investigation propose that naringin has an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic potential effect at colorectal sites as it modulates the production and expression of oxidative mediators such as MDA, MPO, NO and XO, thus reducing DNA damage. PMID:24683411

Kumar, Venkatashivam Shiva; Rajmane, Anuchandra Ramchandra; Adil, Mohammad; Kandhare, Amit Dattatraya; Ghosh, Pinaki; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxman

2014-01-01

365

The source of inoculum plays a defining role in the development of MEC microbial consortia fed with acetic and propionic acid mixtures.  

PubMed

Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used as a downstream process to dark fermentation to further capture electron in volatile fatty acids that remain after fermentation, improving this way the viability of the overall process. Acetic and propionic acid are common products of dark fermentation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of different initial concentrations of a mixture of acetic and propionic acids on MECs microbial ecology and hydrogen production performance. To link microbial structure and function, we characterized the anode respiring biofilm communities using pyrosequencing and quantitative-PCR. The best hydrogen production rates (265mL/d/Lreactor) were obtained in the first block of experiments by MEC fed with 1500mg/L acetic acid and 250mg/L propionic acid. This reactor presents in the anode biofilm an even distribution of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and Arcobacter was the dominant genera. The above fact also correlated to the highest electron load among all the reactors. It was evidenced that although defined acetic and propionic acid concentrations fed affected the structure of the microbial consortia that developed at the anode, the initial inoculum played a major role in the development of MEC microbial consortia. PMID:24798298

Ruiz, Vianey; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Kang, Dae-Wook; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Buitrón, Germán

2014-07-20

366

Positron scattering from vinyl acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

2014-09-01

367

Analysis of Dns-amino acids by liquid chromatography. I. Selection of optimum mobile phase composition for separation of Dns-amino acids on polyvinyl acetate gel.  

PubMed

The separation of a mixture of ten Dns-amino acids (Gns-Gly, -Ala, -Val, -Leu, -Pro, -Hypro, -Met, -Ser, -Asn and -Gln) was carried out by liquid chromatography by using macroreticular polyvinyl acetate gel as a packing material. Different mobile phase systems were investigated, based mainly on mixtures of n-hexane with ethanol, methanol, chloroform, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate, dioxane and tetrahydrofuran. The solvent composition was fixed so as to elute all of the components of the sample mixture in a practical period of 2 h. Satisfactory separation of the ten components was obtained with the n-hexane-ethanol (90:10) system. The presence of methanol as a modifier in the n-hexane was effective in reducing the elution time, but the separation was not as satisfactory. Chloroform or dioxane was useful only for the separation of Ser, Asn and Gln. Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate and tetrahydrofuran were not suitable for practical separations of Dns-amino acids. PMID:1150766

Yamabe, T; Takai, N; Nakamura, H

1975-02-12

368

Glycerol acetals as anti-freezing additives for biodiesel.  

PubMed

Glycerol acetals from butanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal and decanal were prepared with the use of Amberlyst-15 acid resin as catalyst. The glycerol conversion decreases with the size of the hydrocarbon chain. This fact has been associated with formation of micelles and aggregates of the aldehyde to minimize the interaction between the polar glycerol molecule with the hydrocarbon chain. The Z+E mixture of the acetals with five and six-member rings were produced in all cases. The distribution of the acetal isomers varied with the reaction time, especially for the long chain aldehydes. Addition of 5 vol.% of the butanal-glycerol acetal reduced the pour point of animal fat biodiesel (methyl ester) from 18 to 13 degrees C. The decrease in the pour point of the glycerol acetals-biodiesel mixtures were dependent on the size of the hydrocarbon chain and the percent blended. PMID:20304633

Silva, Paulo H R; Gonçalves, Valter L C; Mota, Claudio J A

2010-08-01

369

Viscosity Behavior of ?-Amino Acids in Acetate Salt Solutions at Temperatures (303.15 to 323.15) K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosities of l-lysine monohydrochloride, l-histidine, and l-arginine in 1 m (mol · kg-1) aqueous solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and calcium acetate salts has been determined at (303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K. The Falkenhagen coefficient, A, and Jones-Dole coefficient, B, relative viscosity, and specific viscosity of the solutions have also been determined using the measured viscosities. The results are interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring in the system under investigation and also discussed in terms of the structure-making/breaking ability of the solute in these salt solutions. The structure making/breaking abilities of the solutes in the studied systems are strongly influenced by temperature.

Siddique, Jamal Akhter; Naqvi, Saeeda

2012-01-01

370

Cloning and characterization of a locus encoding an indolepyruvate decarboxylase involved in indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Erwinia herbicola.  

PubMed Central

Erwinia herbicola 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily by the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. A gene involved in the biosynthesis of IAA was cloned from strain 299R. This gene (ipdC) conferred the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol upon Escherichia coli DH5 alpha in cultures supplemented with L-tryptophan. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product has high similarity to that of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase of Enterobacter cloacae. Regions within pyruvate decarboxylases of various fungal and plant species also exhibited considerable homology to portions of this gene. This gene therefore presumably encodes an indolepyruvate decarboxylase (IpdC) which catalyzes the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetaldehyde. Insertions of Tn3-spice within ipdC abolished the ability of strain 299R to synthesize indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol and reduced its IAA production in tryptophan-supplemented minimal medium by approximately 10-fold, thus providing genetic evidence for the role of the indolepyruvate pathway in IAA synthesis in this strain. An ipdC probe hybridized strongly with the genomic DNA of all E. herbicola strains tested in Southern hybridization studies, suggesting that the indolepyruvate pathway is common in this species. Maximum parsimony analysis revealed that the ipdC gene is highly conserved within this group and that strains of diverse geographic origin were very similar with respect to ipdC. PMID:8900003

Brandl, M T; Lindow, S E

1996-01-01

371

Cloning and characterization of a locus encoding an indolepyruvate decarboxylase involved in indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Erwinia herbicola.  

PubMed

Erwinia herbicola 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily by the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. A gene involved in the biosynthesis of IAA was cloned from strain 299R. This gene (ipdC) conferred the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol upon Escherichia coli DH5 alpha in cultures supplemented with L-tryptophan. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product has high similarity to that of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase of Enterobacter cloacae. Regions within pyruvate decarboxylases of various fungal and plant species also exhibited considerable homology to portions of this gene. This gene therefore presumably encodes an indolepyruvate decarboxylase (IpdC) which catalyzes the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid to indole-3-acetaldehyde. Insertions of Tn3-spice within ipdC abolished the ability of strain 299R to synthesize indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol and reduced its IAA production in tryptophan-supplemented minimal medium by approximately 10-fold, thus providing genetic evidence for the role of the indolepyruvate pathway in IAA synthesis in this strain. An ipdC probe hybridized strongly with the genomic DNA of all E. herbicola strains tested in Southern hybridization studies, suggesting that the indolepyruvate pathway is common in this species. Maximum parsimony analysis revealed that the ipdC gene is highly conserved within this group and that strains of diverse geographic origin were very similar with respect to ipdC. PMID:8900003

Brandl, M T; Lindow, S E

1996-11-01

372

Preventive effect of a pectic polysaccharide of the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To study isolation and chemical characterization of pectin derived from the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (oxycoccusan OP) and the testing of its preventive effect on experimental colitis. METHODS: Mice were administrated orally with OP two days prior to a rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 h later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by

Sergey V Popov; Pavel A Markov; Ida R Nikitina; Sergey Petrishev; Vasily Smirnov; Yury S Ovodov

373

Analysis of several methods for the extraction of high quality DNA from acetic acid bacteria in wine and vinegar for characterization by PCR-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are fastidious microorganisms with poor recovery in culture. Culture-independent methods are currently under examination. Good DNA extraction is a strict requirement of these methods. We compared five methods for extracting the DNA of AAB directly from wine and vinegar samples. Four matrices (white wine, red wine, superficial vinegar and submerged vinegar) contaminated with two AAB strains

C. Jara; E. Mateo; J. M. Guillamón; M. J. Torija; A. Mas

2008-01-01

374

Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

375

Preliminary evaluation of effects of invasive tunicate management with acetic acid and calcium hydroxide on non-target marine organisms in Prince Edward Island, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of invasive tunicates in Prince Edward Island (PEI) estuaries has necessitated the development of approaches for managing tunicates that foul aquaculture structures, especially Styela clava and Ciona intestinalis. Spraying or immersion with a saturated solution of hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) or 5% acetic acid are effective against these tunicates, but are also biocidal to a variety of non-target

Andrea Locke; Kenneth G. Doe; Wayne L. Fairchild; Paula M. Jackman; Erica J. Reese

2009-01-01

376

A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR INTRAVENOUS AND INHALATION-ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS OF BUTYL ACETATE AND METABOLITES N-BUTANOL AND N-BUTYRIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Risk assessment for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) can be accomplished with limited toxicity data and pharmacokinetic data for each compound through application of the "family approach" (Barton et al., 2000). The necessary quantita...

377

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 143 (2001) 1116 Two photon dissociation of acetone, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid at 243  

E-print Network

of acetone, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid at 243 nm: translational energy releases in the H atom channel 2001; accepted 10 May 2001 Abstract The hydrogen atom channels from photodissociation of acetone; Translational energy; Acetone 1. Introduction Studies on photodissociation of carbonyl compounds such as acetone

Kim, Sang Kyu

378

Histological and ultrastructural features of caprine preantral follicles after in vitro culture in the presence or absence of indole-3-acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on survival, activation, and growth of caprine preantral follicles using histological and ultrastructural criteria. Pieces of caprine ovarian cortex were cultured for 1 or 5 days in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM - control medium) supplemented with different concentrations of IAA (10, 20, 40, or 100

M. H. T. Matos; F. S. Martins; R. R. Santos; M. C. A. Luque; J. J. H. Celestino; S. N. Báo; J. R. Figueiredo

379

A Simple Purification of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Abscisic Acid for GC-SIM-MS Analysis by Microfiltration of Aqueous Samples through Nylon  

PubMed Central

A simple procedure was developed for the partial purification of plant tissue samples to be analyzed simultaneously for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA). The procedure relies on removal of contaminants by filtration through nylon and partitioning into dichloromethane. This procedure successfully purified both IAA and ABA from muskmelon, cotton, and broccoli tissue. Twenty individual samples can be purified and methylated in 8 h for analysis of free IAA and ABA with gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry. The use of microfiltration of aqueous samples through nylon offers new opportunities for improving the efficiency of existing sample purification procedures. PMID:16666735

Dunlap, James R.; Guinn, Gene

1989-01-01

380

Value-added lipid production from brown seaweed biomass by two-stage fermentation using acetic acid bacterium and thraustochytrid.  

PubMed

Thraustochytrid production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls have been generally sourced from crop-derived substrates, making the exploration of alternative feedstocks attractive since they promise increased sustainability and lower production costs. In this study, a distinct two-stage fermentation system was conceptualized for the first time, using the brown seaweed sugar mannitol as substrate for the intermediary biocatalyst Gluconobacter oxydans, an acetic acid bacterium, along with the marine thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. to produce the value-added lipids and xanthophylls. Jar fermenter culture resulted in seaweed mannitol conversion to fructose with an efficiency of 83 % by G. oxydans and, after bacteriostasis with sea salts, production of astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. Astaxanthin productivity was high at 3.60 mg/L/day. This new system, therefore, widens possibilities of obtaining more varieties of industrially valuable products including foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuel precursor lipids from seaweed fermentation upon the use of suitable thraustochytrid strains. PMID:25086614

Arafiles, Kim Hazel V; Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Eramoto, Yuri; Okamura, Yoshiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Aki, Tsunehiro

2014-11-01

381

Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana?  

PubMed Central

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and “Acetobacter ghanaensis” (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

2007-01-01

382

Contribution of dialysate acetate to energy metabolism: Metabolic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contribution of dialysate acetate to energy metabolism: Metabolic implications. During hemodialysis large amounts of acetate enter the bloodstream. Generally, it is assumed that this exogenous acetate load is oxidized immediately to carbon dioxide and water; however, the rate of plasma acetate oxidation and the effect of acetate oxidation on energy metabolism during hemodialysis has not been determined previously. The rates

Charles L Skutches; Miles H Sigler; Brendan P Teehan; Joseph H Cooper; George A Reichard

1983-01-01

383

The use of the SPASIBA spectroscopic potential for reproducing the structures and vibrational frequencies of a sries of acids: acetic acid, pivalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid and ?-glutamic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal coordinate analyses have been performed on acetic, pivalic, succinic and adipic acid dimers (including their deutero analogues) and the L-glutamic acid dimer. It is shown that the calculated potential energy surfaces and harmonic vibrational frequencies are in very good accordance with the experimental results. For all the observed vibrational modes below 1750 cm -1, the standard deviation between the 381 calculated and observed frequencies is approximately 12 cm -1. Comparison with previous assignments underlines a quasi-agreement for the four former molecules. In contrast, new assignments are given for some vibrational bands of L-glutamic acid.

Chhiba, M.; Derreumaux, P.; Vergoten, G.

1994-01-01

384

The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid in relation to assimilation and transpiration was investigated with 2 3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography). Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited measurable emissions of any of the compounds, but rather low deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was observed instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid were only observed from the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning suggest that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted, though we can not totally exclude other production pathways. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (25 1700 nmol m-2 min-1 for ethanol and 5 500 nmol m-2 min-1 for acetaldehyde). Acetic acid emissions reached 12 nmol m-2 min-1. The observed differences in emission rates between the tree species are discussed with respect to their root adaptive strategies to tolerate long term flooding, providing an indirect line of evidence that the root ethanol production is a major factor determining the foliar emissions. Species which develop morphological root structures allowing for enhanced root aeration produced less ethanol and showed much lower emissions compared to species which lack gas transporting systems, and respond to flooding with substantially enhanced fermentation rates and a non-trivial loss of carbon to the atmosphere. The pronounced differences in the relative emissions of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid between the tree species indicate that not only the ethanol production in the roots but also the metabolic conversion in the leaf is an important factor determining the release of these compounds to the atmosphere.

Rottenberger, S.; Kleiss, B.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W.; Kesselmeier, J.

2008-08-01

385

The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid was investigated with 2-3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography). Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited significant emissions of any of the compounds. A slight deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was mainly observed, instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid occurred only by the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning confirmed that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (3-200 nmol m-2 min-1 for ethanol and 5-500 nmol m-2 min-1 for acetaldehyde). Acetic acid emissions reached 12 nmol m-2 min-1. The observed differences in emission rates between the tree species are discussed with respect to their root adaptive strategies to tolerate long term flooding, providing an indirect line of evidence that the root ethanol production is a major factor determining the foliar emissions. Species which develop morphological root structures allowing for enhanced root aeration produced less ethanol and showed much lower emissions compared to species which lack gas transporting systems, and respond to flooding with substantially enhanced fermentation rates. The pronounced differences in the relative emissions of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid between the tree species indicate that not only the ethanol production in the roots but also the metabolic conversion in the leaf is an important factor determining the release of these compounds to the atmosphere.

Rottenberger, S.; Kleiss, B.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W.; Kesselmeier, J.

2008-02-01

386

Lewis Acid-Promoted Mukaiyama Aldol–Prins (MAP) Cyclizations of Acetals, Ketals, ?-Acetoxy Ethers, and Orthoformates  

PubMed Central

The Mukaiyama aldol–Prins (MAP) cyclization of acetals stereoselectively provided substituted tetrahydropyrans. The scope of the reaction has been expanded to include other electrophiles, including ketals and ?-acetoxy ethers. Finally, a double MAP cyclization with orthoformates is described. PMID:20936058

Gesinski, Michael R.; Van Orden, Lori J.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.

2009-01-01

387

Desvenlafaxinium chloranilate ethyl acetate solvate  

PubMed Central

In the cation of the title compound, C16H26NO2 +·C6HCl2O4 ?·C4H8O2, the 1-hy­droxy-cyclo­hexyl ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1-hy­droxy­cyclo­hexyl and 4-hy­droxy­phenyl rings is 84.0?(8)°. In the anion, the hydroxyl H atom is twisted slightly out of the ring plane with a C—C—O—H torsion angle of ?171.9°. Disorder was modeled for the methyl group of the acetate group in the solvate with an occupancy ratio of 0.583?(15): 0.417?(15). In the crystal, O—H?O hydrogen bonds are observed between cations and between cations and anions, while bifuricated N—H?(O,O) cation–anion hydrogen bonds are also present, forming chains along [010] and [100]. In addition weak cation–anion and cation–solvate C—H?O inter­actions occur. PMID:24098238

Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Butcher, Ray J.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Byrappa, K.

2013-01-01

388

Selective Cross-Coupling of Organic Halides with Allylic Acetates  

PubMed Central

A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L.; Prinsell, Michael R.

2012-01-01

389

Selective cross-coupling of organic halides with allylic acetates.  

PubMed

A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L; Prinsell, Michael R; Weix, Daniel J

2012-11-16

390

Removal of aqueous Hg(II) and Cr(VI) using phytic acid doped polyaniline/cellulose acetate composite membrane.  

PubMed

Conductive composite membrane-phytic acid (PA) doped polyaniline (PANI)/cellulose acetate (CA) (PANI-PA/CA) was prepared in a simple and environmental-friendly method, in which aniline was blended with CA/PA solution and polymerized before the phase conversion. The resultant composite membranes were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR-ATR, BET and electrical resistance measurements. When used as adsorbent for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) ions, the prepared composite membrane exhibits excellent adsorption capability. The adsorption of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and best fits the Langmuir isotherm model, with the maximum adsorption capacity reaching 280.11 and 94.34 mg g(-1), respectively. The heavy metal loaded composite membrane can be regenerated and reused after treatment with acid or alkali solution, making it a promising and practical adsorbent for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) removal. Tests with river water were also carried out, indicating good performance and application. PMID:25127386

Li, Renjie; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

2014-09-15

391

Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on Sinorhizobium meliloti survival and on symbiotic nitrogen fixation and stem dry weight production.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of the main auxin phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), on the central metabolism of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. We either treated S. meliloti 1021 wild-type cells with 0.5 mM IAA, 1021+, or use a derivative, RD64, of the same strain harboring an additional pathway for IAA biosynthesis (converting tryptophan into IAA via indoleacetamide). We assayed the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) key enzymes and found that activity of citrate synthase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were increased in both 1021+ and RD64 as compared to the wild-type strain. We also showed that the intracellular acetyl-CoA content was enhanced in both RD64 and 1021+ strains when compared to the control strain. The activity of key enzymes, utilizing acetyl-CoA for poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis, was also induced. The PHB level measured in these cells were significantly higher than that found in control cells. Moreover, 4-week-long survival experiments showed that 80% of 1021 cells died, whereas 50% of RD64 cells were viable. Medicago truncatula plants nodulated by RD64 (Mt-RD64) showed an induction of both acetylene reduction activity and stem dry weight production. PMID:19343341

Imperlini, Esther; Bianco, Carmelina; Lonardo, Enza; Camerini, Serena; Cermola, Michele; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Defez, Roberto

2009-06-01

392

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

393

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

PubMed Central

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

394

40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine... § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...as specified in § 721.80(s) (10,000 kilograms)....

2013-07-01

395

40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.  

...2014-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine... § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...as specified in § 721.80(s) (10,000 kilograms)....

2014-07-01

396

40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine... § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...as specified in § 721.80(s) (10,000 kilograms)....

2012-07-01

397

40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine... § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine...substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with...as specified in § 721.80(s) (10,000 kilograms)....

2011-07-01

398

Influence of curing times on the effectiveness of treatments with acetic acid on the control of P. digitatum on lemons.  

PubMed

The restricted number of postharvest fungicides used in packing houses is leading to the selection of resistant strains of Penicillium digitatum (citrus green mould), one of the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing of lemons. Furthermore a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. Among the alternatives to synthetic postharvest fungicides, the use of acetic acid (classified as GRAS) together with a physical method such as curing, have led to encouraging results. In the present study is reported the combined use of curing, performed at reduced times compared to those reported to be effective, followed by acetic acid (AAC) treatments. Lemons of the variety "Limone di Massa" artificially inoculated with P. digitatum at a concentration of 10(4) spores/mL were cured for 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours and then treated with three different concentrations of AAC (25, 50 and 75 microL/L) for 15 min. Fruit was then stored at 20 degrees C and 80% relative humidity (RH) for 9 days, when the number of decayed fruits was monitored. The same combined treatments were also carried out on naturally infected lemons, stored for 6 or 8 weeks at 5 degrees C and 90% RH. After 9 days of storage the lowest percentage of infected wounds, in artificially inoculated fruit, was 0% after 6 hours of curing followed by AAC fumigation performed at 50 microL/L, while lemons untreated or cured for three hours showed the worst results with 71.4 and 61.9% of rotted fruit respectively. In naturally infected lemons the best results were achieved with curing performed for 24 hours followed by AAC fumigation at 50 microL/L. In these cases the combined treatment reduced decay by the 91.0 and 66.5% after 6 or 8 weeks of storage respectively, if compared to untreated fruit. The weight loss was not affected by any of the treatments. These results show that a good control of green mould during storage could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining a reduced curing time of 24 hours to the effect of AAC. The best results were obtained after 6 week of storage even if a satisfactory control was observed after 8 weeks of storage. PMID:22702194

Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Molinu, M G

2011-01-01

399

Sol-gel process for preparing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} precursors from Y, Ba, and Cu acidic acetates/ammonia/ascorbic acid systems  

SciTech Connect

Sols were prepared by addition of ammonia to acidic acetate solutions of Y{sup 3+}, Ba{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+}. Ascorbic acid was added to a part of the sol. The resultant sols were gelled to a shard, a film, or microspheres by evaporation at 60 C or by extraction of water from drops of emulsion suspended in 2-ethylhexanol-1. Addition of ethanol to the sols facilitated the formation of gel films, fabricated by a dipping technique, on glass or silver substrates. At 100 C, gels that were formed in the presence of ascorbic acid were perfectly amorphous, in contrast to the crystalline acetate gels. Conversion of the amorphous ascorbate gels to final products was easier than for the acetate gels. The quality of coatings prepared from ascorbate gels was superior to that of acetate gel coatings.

Deptula, A.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T. [Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Goretta, K.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Casadio, S. [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

1995-08-01

400

Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, carnitinepalmitoyl transferase-1, and acyl-CoA oxidase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Reversed-phase liquid chromatography in combination with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis revealed four potential compounds (punicalagin B, ellagic acid, and two unidentified compounds) responsible for altered gene expression in HepG2 cells treated with PV as compared with the others. Further investigations are warranted to determine if drinking PV beverages may help to maintain a healthy body weight in overweight subjects. PMID:23766874

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook; Kwon, Oran

2013-06-01

401

Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, carnitinepalmitoyl transferase-1, and acyl-CoA oxidase compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Reversed-phase liquid chromatography in combination with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis revealed four potential compounds (punicalagin B, ellagic acid, and two unidentified compounds) responsible for altered gene expression in HepG2 cells treated with PV as compared with the others. Further investigations are warranted to determine if drinking PV beverages may help to maintain a healthy body weight in overweight subjects. PMID:23766874

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook

2013-01-01

402

21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. 522.2478 Section 522.2478...2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications . Each implant...trenbolone acetate and 3.5 mg estradiol benzoate. (2) 4 pellets, each pellet...

2010-04-01

403

Influence of heated vegetable oils and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on alpha-tocopherol, fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in chicken muscle.  

PubMed

1. Chicks were fed on diets containing fresh, heated or alpha-tocopheryl acetate-supplemented heated vegetable oils. The effects on alpha-tocopherol status, and on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of thigh and breast muscle were determined. 2. Plasma alpha-tocopherol was significantly correlated with alpha-tocopherol concentrations in thigh and breast muscle. 3. The fatty acid profiles of muscle lipids reflected dietary fatty acid composition. 4. The consumption of heated sunflower and linseed oils reduced alpha-tocopherol status, altered fatty acid composition of muscle lipids and increased susceptibility of muscle to lipid oxidation. 5. Supplementation of diets containing heated oils with alpha-tocopheryl acetate resulted in some alleviation of these effects. 6. The results indicate that caution should be exercised in the use of thermally oxidised oils in poultry diets if undesirable changes in composition and oxidative stability of carcase lipids are to be avoided. PMID:8513411

Sheehy, P J; Morrissey, P A; Flynn, A

1993-05-01

404

Upgrading of bio-oil: Effect of light aldehydes on acetic acid removal via esterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since fast pyrolysis derived bio-oils are not a simple hydrocarbon mixture, but rather contain a variety of oxygenated compounds including acids and aldehydes, upgrading is required in order to use bio-oils as transportation fuels. Esterification is one of the attractive routes to convert acids contained in bio-oil to more desirable esters. Although organic acid esterification is a simple reaction, no

Nattaporn Lohitharn; Brent H. Shanks

2009-01-01

405

Large-Scale Distributions of Tropospheric Nitric, Formic, and Acetic acids Over the Westerm Pacific Basin During Wintertime  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report here measurements of the acidic gases nitric (HNO3), formic (HCOOH), and acetic (CH3COOH) over the western Pacific basin during the February-March 1994 Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B). These data were obtained aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft as it flew missions in the altitude range of 0.3 - 12.5 km over equatorial regions near Guam and then further westward encompassing the entire Pacific Rim arc. Aged marine air over the equatorial Pacific generally exhibited mixing ratios of acidic gases less than 100 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered below 6 km altitude contained up to 8 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) HNO3 and 10 ppbv HCOOH and CH3COOH. Overall there was a general correlation between mixing ratios of acidic gases with those of CO, C2H2, and C2Cl4, indicative of emissions from combustion and industrial sources. The latitudinal distributions of HNO3 and CO showed that the largest mixing ratios were centered around 15 deg N, while HCOOH, CH3COOH, and C2Cl4 peaked at 25 deg N. The mixing ratios of HCOOH and CH3COOH were highly correlated (r(sup 2) = 0.87) below 6 km altitude, with a slope (0.89) characteristic of the nongrowing season at midlatitudes in the northern hemisphere. Above 6 km altitude, HCOOH and CH3COOH were marginally correlated (r(sup 2) = 0.50), and plumes well defined by CO, C2H2, and C2Cl4 were depleted in acidic gases, most likely due to scavenging during vertical transport of air masses through convective cloud systems over the Asian continent. In stratospheric air masses, HNO, mixing ratios were several parts per billion by volume (ppbv), yielding relationships with 03 and N2O consistent with those previously reported for NO(y).

Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Lefer, B. L.; Scheuer, E. M.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Smyth, S.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E.; Gregory, G. L.

1997-01-01

406

Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by New Klebsiella oxytoca Free and Immobilized Cells on Inorganic Matrices  

PubMed Central

While many natural and synthetic compounds exhibit auxin-like activity in bioassays, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is recognized as the key auxin in most plants. IAA has been implicated in almost all aspects of plant growth and development and a large array of bacteria have been reported to enhance plant growth. Cells of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from the rhizosphere of Aspidosperma polyneuron and immobilized by adsorption on different inorganic matrices were used for IAA production. The matrices were prepared by the sol-gel method and the silica-titanium was the most suitable matrix for effective immobilization. In operational stability assays, IAA production was maintained after four cycles of production, obtaining 42.80 ± 2.03??g?mL?1 of IAA in the third cycle, which corresponds to a 54% increase in production in relation to the first cycle, whereas free cells began losing activity after the first cycle. After 90 days of storage at 4°C the immobilized cells showed the slight reduction of IAA production without significant loss of activity. PMID:22623901

Celloto, Valéria R.; Oliveira, Arildo J. B.; Gonçalves, José E.; Watanabe, Cecília S. F.; Matioli, Graciette; Gonçalves, Regina A. C.

2012-01-01

407

Inhibition of beta-amylase activity, starch degradation and sucrose formation by indole-3-acetic acid during banana ripening.  

PubMed

In order to observe the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on carbohydrate metabolism, unripe banana (Musa acuminata AAA, cv. Nanicão) slices were infiltrated with the hormone and left to ripen under controlled conditions. The climacteric respiration burst was reduced by the action of IAA, and starch degradation and sucrose formation were delayed. Sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activities and transcript levels were not affected, indicating that prevention of sucrose accumulation was not related to sucrose-metabolizing enzymes. Impairment of sucrose synthesis could be a consequence of lack of substrate, since starch degradation was inhibited. The increase in activity and transcript level of beta-amylase was delayed, indicating that this enzyme could be important in starch-to-sucrose metabolism in bananas and that it might be, at least partially, controlled at the transcriptional level. This is the first report showing that IAA can delay starch degradation, possibly affecting the activity of hydrolytic enzymes such as beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2). PMID:11346957

Purgatto, E; Lajolo, F M; do Nascimento, J R; Cordenunsi, B R

2001-04-01

408

Mechanosensitive neurons on the internal reproductive tract contribute to egg-laying-induced acetic acid attraction in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Selecting a suitable site to deposit their eggs is an important reproductive need of Drosophila females. Although their choosiness toward egg-laying sites is well documented, the specific neural mechanism that activates females' search for attractive egg-laying sites is not known. Here, we show that distention and contraction of females' internal reproductive tract triggered by egg delivery through the tract plays a critical role in activating such search. We found that females start to exhibit acetic acid (AA) attraction prior to depositing each egg but no attraction when they are not laying eggs. Artificially distending the reproductive tract triggers AA attraction in non-egg-laying females, whereas silencing the mechanosensitive neurons we identified that can sense the contractile status of the tract eliminates such attraction. Our work uncovers the circuit basis of an important reproductive need of Drosophila females and provides a simple model for dissecting the neural mechanism that underlies a reproductive need-induced behavioral modification. PMID:25373900

Gou, Bin; Liu, Ying; Guntur, Ananya R; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

2014-10-23

409

Physiological evidence for differently regulated tryptophan-dependent pathways for indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Azospirillum brasilense.  

PubMed

Disruption of ipdC, a gene involved in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production by the indole pyruvate pathway in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, resulted in a mutant strain that was not impaired in IAA production with lactate or pyruvate as the carbon source. A tryptophan auxotroph that is unable to convert indole to tryptophan produced IAA if tryptophan was present but did not synthesise IAA from indole. Similar results were obtained for a mutant strain with additional mutations in the genes ipdC and trpD. This suggests the existence of an alternative Trp-dependent route for IAA synthesis. On gluconate as a carbon source, IAA production by the ipdC mutant was inhibited, suggesting that the alternative route is regulated by catabolite repression. Using permeabilised cells we observed the enzymatic conversion of tryptamine and indole-3-acetonitrile to IAA, both in the wild-type and in the ipdC mutant. IAA production from tryptamine was strongly decreased when gluconate was the carbon source. PMID:11129057

Carreño-Lopez, R; Campos-Reales, N; Elmerich, C; Baca, B E

2000-11-01

410

Flavone acetic acid (FAA) with recombinant interleukin-2 (TIL-2) in advanced malignant melanoma. II: Induction of nitric oxide production.  

PubMed Central

Plasma samples were collected from 20 patients undergoing phase I clinical trial with flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA; 4.8 g m-2 per dose) in combination with recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2; 6-18 i.u. m-2 per day) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Samples were analysed for nitrate content as an indication of the oxidation of L-arginine to nitric oxide. Pretreatment plasma nitrate levels (53 +/- 4 microM) were significantly above those of healthy volunteers (19 +/- 4 microM). The maximum plasma nitrate concentration obtained after treatment, 190 +/- 29 microM (range 49 to 655 microM), was comparable to that of mice treated with FAA. Most of the increases occurred 3-5 days after initiation of a 5 day infusion of rhIL-2, but three of the increases occurred within 2 days of a 1 h infusion of FAA alone. The maximum plasma nitrate concentrations of the three patients which underwent remission (two complete, one partial) following treatment (368 +/- 143 microM) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of patients with progressive disease. Hypotension was the major dose-limiting side effect, and there was no relationship between the degree of hypotension and the rise in plasma nitrate. The results provide evidence that treatment of patients with FAA and rhIL-2 induce the synthesis of nitric oxide, a physiological mediator and potential cytotoxic agent. PMID:1419615

Thomsen, L. L.; Baguley, B. C.; Rustin, G. J.; O'Reilly, S. M.

1992-01-01

411

UGT74D1 Catalyzes the Glucosylation of 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid in the Auxin Metabolic Pathway in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

IAA is a naturally occurring auxin that plays a crucial role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The endogenous concentration of IAA is spatiotemporally regulated by biosynthesis, transport and its inactivation in plants. Previous studies have shown that the metabolism of IAA to 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA) and OxIAA-glucoside (OxIAA-Glc) may play an important role in IAA homeostasis, but the genes involved in this metabolic pathway are still unknown. In this study, we show that UGT74D1 catalyzes the glucosylation of OxIAA in Arabidopsis. By screening yeasts transformed with Arabidopsis UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, we found that OxIAA-Glc accumulates in the culture media of yeasts expressing UGT74D1 in the presence of OxIAA. Further, we showed that UGT74D1 expressed in Escherichia coli converts OxIAA to OxIAA-Glc. The endogenous concentration of OxIAA-Glc decreased by 85% while that of OxIAA increased 2.5-fold in ugt74d1-deficient mutants, indicating the major role of UGT74D1 in OxIAA metabolism. Moreover, the induction of UGT74D1 markedly increased the level of OxIAA-Glc and loss of root gravitropism. These results indicate that UGT74D1 catalyzes a committed step in the OxIAA-dependent IAA metabolic pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:24285754

Tanaka, Keita; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Natsume, Masahiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

412

Production of gibberellins and indole-3-acetic acid by Rhizobium phaseoli in relation to nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris roots.  

PubMed

Similar ranges of gibberellins (GAs) were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-immunoassay procedures in ten cultures of wild-type and mutant strains of Rhizobium phaseoli. The major GAs excreted into the culture medium were GA1 and GA4. These identifications were confirmed by combined gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The HPLC-immunoassays also detected smaller amounts of GA9- as well as GA20-like compounds, the latter being present in some but not all cultures. In addition to GAs, all strains excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) but there was no obvious relationship between the amounts of GA and IAA that accumulated. The Rhizobium strains studied included nod (-) and fix (-) mutants, making it unlikely that the IAA- and GA-biosynthesis genes are closely linked to the genes for nodulation and nitrogen fixation.The HPLC-immunoassay analyses showed also that nodules and non-nodulated roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L. contained similar spectra of GAs to R. phaseoli culture media. The GA pools in roots and nodules were of similar size, indicating that Rhizobium does not make a major contribution to the GA content of the infected tissue. PMID:24221937

Atzorn, R; Crozier, A; Wheeler, C T; Sandberg, G

1988-10-01

413

INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE 17 positively modulates natural leaf senescence through melatonin-mediated pathway in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) functions as a ubiquitous modulator in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. However, the involvement of melatonin in natural leaf senescence and the underlying molecular mechanism in Arabidopsis remain unclear. In this study, we found that the endogenous melatonin level was significantly induced in a developmental stage-dependent manner, and exogenous melatonin treatment delayed natural leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. The expression level of AUXIN RESISTANT 3 (AXR3)/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE 17 (IAA17) was significantly downregulated by exogenous melatonin treatment and decreased with developmental age in Arabidopsis. Further investigation indicated that AtIAA17-overexpressing plants showed early leaf senescence with lower chlorophyll content in rosette leaves compared with wild-type plants, while AtIAA17 knockout mutants displayed delayed leaf senescence with higher chlorophyll content. Notably, exogenous melatonin-delayed leaf senescence was largely alleviated in AtIAA17-overexpressing plants, and AtIAA17-activated senescence-related SENESCENCE 4 (SEN4) and SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE 12 (SAG12) transcripts might have contributed to the process of natural leaf senescence. Taken together, the results indicate that AtIAA17 is a positive modulator of natural leaf senescence and provides direct link between melatonin and AtIAA17 in the process of natural leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. PMID:25324183

Shi, Haitao; Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun-Xian; Chan, Zhulong

2015-01-01

414

Acetic Acid Induces Expression of the Staphylococcus aureus cidABC and lrgAB Murein Hydrolase Regulator Operons  

PubMed Central

The Staphylococcus aureus lrg and cid operons encode homologous proteins that regulate extracellular murein hydrolase activity and penicillin tolerance in a diametrically opposing manner. Although their specific regulatory functions remain unknown, it has been postulated that the functions of CidA and LrgA are analogous to those of bacteriophage holins and antiholins, respectively, and that these proteins serve as molecular control elements of bacterial programmed cell death. Although these studies demonstrated that cidBC transcription is abundant in ?B-proficient strains, cidABC transcription was only minimally expressed under standard growth conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that cidABC and lrgAB transcription in the clinical isolate UAMS-1 is induced by growth in the presence of 35 mM glucose and that this enhances murein hydrolase activity and decreases tolerance to vancomycin and rifampin. The effect of glucose on murein hydrolase activity was not observed in the cidA mutant, indicating that the induction of this activity was dependent on enhanced cidABC expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the effects of glucose on cidABC and lrgAB transcription are mediated by the generation of acetic acid produced by the metabolism of this and other carbon sources. These results shed new light on the control of the S. aureus cidABC and lrgAB genes and demonstrate that these operons, as well as murein hydrolase activity and antibiotic tolerance, are responsive to carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:15659658

Rice, Kelly C.; Nelson, Jeremy B.; Patton, Toni G.; Yang, Soo-Jin; Bayles, Kenneth W.

2005-01-01

415

Indole-3-acetamide-dependent auxin biosynthesis: a widely distributed way of indole-3-acetic acid production?  

PubMed

During the course of evolution plants have evolved a complex phytohormone-based network to regulate their growth and development. Herein auxins have a pivotal function, as they are involved in controlling virtually every aspect related to plant growth. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major endogenous auxin of higher plants that is already known for more than 80 years. In spite of the long-standing interest in this topic, IAA biosynthesis is still only partially uncovered. Several pathways for the formation of IAA have been proposed over the past years, but none of these pathways are yet completely defined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the indole-3-acetamide (IAM)-dependent pathway of IAA production in plants and to discuss the properties of the involved proteins and genes, respectively. Their evolutionary relationship to known bacterial IAM hydrolases and other amidases from bacteria, algae, moss, and higher plants is discussed on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, we report on the transcriptional regulation of the Arabidopsis AMI1 gene. PMID:20701997

Lehmann, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maik; Hentrich, Mathias; Pollmann, Stephan

2010-12-01

416

Tryptophan-dependent indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by 'IAA-synthase' proceeds via indole-3-acetamide.  

PubMed

Plants are suggested to produce their major growth promoting phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), via multiple redundantly operating pathways. Although great effort has been made and plenty of possible routes have been proposed based on experimental evidence, a complete pathway for IAA production has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, an in-vitro approach was taken to examine the conversion of l-tryptophan (l-trp) to IAA by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Especially the influence of putative reaction intermediates on the enzymatic conversion of l-trp to IAA was analyzed. Among the substances tested only indole-3-acetamide (IAM) showed a pronounced effect on the l-trp conversion. We additionally report that IAM is synthesized from l-trp and that it is further converted to IAA by the utilized cell free Arabidopsis extract. Together, our results underscore the functionality of an IAM-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:19268331

Pollmann, Stephan; Düchting, Petra; Weiler, Elmar W

2009-03-01

417

Identification of skatolyl hydroperoxide and its role in the peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of indol-3-yl acetic acid.  

PubMed Central

Indol-3-yl acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is a plant hormone whose degradation is a key determinant of plant growth and development. The first evidence for skatolyl hydroperoxide formation during the plant peroxidase-catalysed degradation of IAA has been obtained by electrospray MS. Skatolyl hydroperoxide degrades predominantly non-enzymically to oxindol-3-yl carbinol but in part enzymically into indol-3-yl methanol via a peroxidase cycle in which IAA acts as an electron donor. Skatolyl hydroperoxide is degradable by catalase. Horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRP-C) and anionic tobacco peroxidase (TOP) exhibit differences in their mechanisms of reaction. The insensitivity of the HRP-C-catalysed reaction to catalase is ascribed to the formation of HRP-C Compound III at the initiation step and its subsequent role in radical propagation. This is in contrast with the TOP-catalysed process in which skatolyl hydroperoxide has a key role. Indol-3-yl aldehyde is produced not via the peroxidase cycle but by catalysis involving ferrous peroxidase. Because indol-3-yl aldehyde is one of the main IAA-derived products identified in planta, we conclude that ferrous peroxidases participate in IAA catalytic transformations in vivo. A general scheme for peroxidase-catalysed IAA oxidation is presented. PMID:9639583

Gazarian, I G; Lagrimini, L M; Mellon, F A; Naldrett, M J; Ashby, G A; Thorneley, R N

1998-01-01

418

Replacement of a terminal cytochrome c oxidase by ubiquinol oxidase during the evolution of acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The bacterial aerobic respiratory chain has a terminal oxidase of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily, comprised of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and ubiquinol oxidase (UOX); UOX evolved from COX. Acetobacter pasteurianus, an ?-Proteobacterial acetic acid bacterium (AAB), produces UOX but not COX, although it has a partial COX gene cluster, ctaBD and ctaA, in addition to the UOX operon cyaBACD. We expressed ctaB and ctaA genes of A. pasteurianus in Escherichia coli and demonstrated their function as heme O and heme A synthases. We also found that the absence of ctaD function is likely due to accumulated mutations. These COX genes are closely related to other ?-Proteobacterial COX proteins. However, the UOX operons of AAB are closely related to those of the ?/?-Proteobacteria (?-type UOX), distinct from the ?/?-Proteobacterial proteins (?-type UOX), but different from the other ?-type UOX proteins by the absence of the cyoE heme O synthase. Thus, we suggest that A. pasteurianus has a functional ?-type UOX but has lost the COX genes, with the exception of ctaB and ctaA, which supply the heme O and A moieties for UOX. Our results suggest that, in AAB, COX was replaced by ?/?-Proteobacterial UOX via horizontal gene transfer, while the COX genes, except for the heme O/A synthase genes, were lost. PMID:24862920

Matsutani, Minenosuke; Fukushima, Kota; Kayama, Chiho; Arimitsu, Misato; Hirakawa, Hideki; Toyama, Hirohide; Adachi, Osao; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

2014-10-01

419

Influence of 5-Methyltryptophan-Resistant Bradyrhizobium japonicum on Soybean Root Nodule Indole-3-Acetic Acid Content †  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutants resistant to 5-methyltryptophan were isolated. Some of these mutants were found to accumulate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and tryptophan in culture. In greenhouse studies, nodules from control plants inoculated with wild-type bradyrhizobia contained 0.04, 0.10, and 0.58 ?g of free, ester-linked, and peptidyl IAA g (fresh weight) of nodules?1, respectively. Nodules from plants inoculated with 5-methyltryptophan-resistant bradyrhizobia contained 0.94, 1.30, and 10.6 ?g of free, ester-linked, and peptidyl IAA g (fresh weight) of nodules?1, respectively. This manyfold increase in nodule IAA content indicates that the Bradyrhizobium inoculum can have a considerable influence on the endogenous IAA level of the nodule. Further, these data imply that much of the IAA that accumulated in the high-IAA-containing nodules was of bacterial rather than plant origin. These high-IAA-producing 5-methyltryptophan-resistant bacteria were poor symbiotic nitrogen fixers. Plants inoculated with these bacteria had a lower nodule mass and fixed less nitrogen per gram of nodule than did plants inoculated with wild-type bacteria. PMID:16347335

Hunter, William J.

1987-01-01

420

Perfecting a method of micro-analysis of water and acetic acid in a cocoa bean in the course of drying: applying to determine transportation coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is about the study of the diffusion of water and acetic acid in a grain of cocoa in course of drying. The authors present a method of microanalysis which enables the analysis of each little slice of the grain : a precise measurement of each slice is realised in view of the analysis from the centre to the surface of the grain with the aid of a cutting apparatus, designed and realised to this effect. At each instant of the drying process, the profiles of water and acetic acid contents are then determined. A one dimensional diffusion model enables a shell by shell evaluation of the diffusion of water and acid in the cocoa grain. The results obtained show an augmentation of transport coefficients in course of drying. We however observe a decrease of the diffusion coefficient of water to the low moisture content : what makes us think of the appearance of crusting phenomenon.

Nganhou, J.; Njomo, D.; Bénet, J. C.; Augier, F.; Berthomieu, G.

2003-09-01

421

Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammat