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1

Acetic acid bacteria in oenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria have always been considered the bad mi- croorganisms of oenology; responsible for wine spoiling (vine- gary taint). The taxonomy and our knowledge of the metabo- lism of acetic acid bacteria are rapidly evolving, especially as new molecular biology techniques are applied to this fastidious group of microorganisms, which are still rather difficult to work with. The dramatic

A. Mas; M. J. Torija; A. González; M. Poblet; J. M. Guillamón

2

Acetic acid bacteria as enantioselective biocatalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria (five strains of Acetobacter and five strains of Gluconobacter) were used for the biotransformation of different primary alcohols (2-chloropropanol and 2-phenylpropanol) and diols (1,3-butandiol, 1,4-nonandiol and 2,3-butandiol). Most of the tested strains efficiently oxidized the substrates. 2-Chloropropanol and 1,3-butandiol were oxidized with good rates and low enantioselectivity (enantiomeric excess=18–46% of the S-acid), while microbial oxidation of 2-phenylpropanol

A Romano; R Gandolfi; P Nitti; M Rollini; F Molinari

2002-01-01

3

Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid. PMID:25416587

Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

2014-11-22

4

Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

2015-02-01

5

Preservation of Vinegar Acetic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A starter culture is defined as a collection of microbial cells that are capable of initiating and completing a rapid fermentation\\u000a process. The microorganisms used as starter cultures in industrial applications, such as lactic acid bacteria and yeasts,\\u000a are usually conserved either in a frozen or a powdered form via the freeze-drying, spray-drying or fluidization processes\\u000a (To and Etzel, 1997).

Bassirou Ndoye; Ilse Cleenwerck; Jacqueline Destain; Amadou Tidiane Guiro; Philippe Thonart

6

Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions. PMID:24630616

Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

2014-08-01

7

Acetic acid bacteria isolated from grapes of South Australian vineyards.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) diversity from healthy, mould-infected and rot-affected grapes collected from three vineyards of Adelaide Hills (South Australia) was analyzed by molecular typing and identification methods. Nine different AAB species were identified from the 624 isolates recovered: Four species from Gluconobacter genus, two from Asaia and one from Acetobacter were identified by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer. However, the identification of other isolates that were assigned as Asaia sp. and Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis required more analysis for a correct species classification. The species of Gluconobacter cerinus was the main one identified; while one genotype of Asaia siamensis presented the highest number of isolates. The number of colonies recovered and genotypes identified was strongly affected by the infection status of the grapes; the rot-affected with the highest number. However, the species diversity was similar in all the cases. High AAB diversity was detected with a specific genotype distribution for each vineyard. PMID:24681711

Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Bartowsky, E J

2014-05-16

8

The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions  

PubMed Central

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

2014-01-01

9

Acetic acid bacteria and the production and quality of wine vinegar.  

PubMed

The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either "fast" or "traditional"), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties. PMID:24574887

Mas, Albert; Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

2014-01-01

10

Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar  

PubMed Central

The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties. PMID:24574887

Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

2014-01-01

11

Activity, distribution and function of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in bacteria.  

PubMed

The capacity to produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among bacteria that inhabit diverse environments such as soils, fresh and marine waters, and plant and animal hosts. Three major pathways for bacterial IAA synthesis have been characterized that remove the amino and carboxyl groups from the ?-carbon of tryptophan via the intermediates indolepyruvate, indoleacetamide, or indoleacetonitrile; the oxidized end product IAA is typically secreted. The enzymes in these pathways often catabolize a broad range of substrates including aromatic amino acids and in some cases the branched chain amino acids. Moreover, expression of some of the genes encoding key IAA biosynthetic enzymes is induced by all three aromatic amino acids. The broad distribution and substrate specificity of the enzymes suggests a role for these pathways beyond plant-microbe interactions in which bacterial IAA has been best studied. PMID:22978761

Patten, Cheryl L; Blakney, Andrew J C; Coulson, Thomas J D

2013-11-01

12

Identification of indole-3-acetic acid producing freshwater wetland rhizosphere bacteria associated with Juncus effusus L.  

PubMed

Production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a key physiological feature of culturable, O2-tolerant bacteria associated with the freshwater macrophyte Juncus effusus L., was examined over a period of 2 years. Up to 74% of rhizobacteria identified and tested produced IAA. The number of indoleacetic acid producers decreased in winter. IAA was produced even when L-tryptophan, a precursor of IAA, was not added to the medium. Most of the IAA-producing strains were dominated by strains that were not identifiable to species level on the basis of API testing. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid analysis, it was found that IAA-producing rhizosphere bacteria associated with the freshwater wetland plant Juncus effusus L. are representatives of several families, including the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Bacillaceae. This study identifies numerous potentially important bacterial physiological groups of freshwater wetlands. Additionally, the study provides a baseline for monitoring and assessing the mutualistic relationships of wetland plants with rhizosphere bacteria in freshwater wetlands. PMID:15162203

Halda-Alija, Lidija

2003-12-01

13

Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

2010-06-01

14

Acetic acid bacteria genomes reveal functional traits for adaptation to life in insect guts.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) live in sugar rich environments, including food matrices, plant tissues, and the gut of sugar-feeding insects. By comparing the newly sequenced genomes of Asaia platycodi and Saccharibacter sp., symbionts of Anopheles stephensi and Apis mellifera, respectively, with those of 14 other AAB, we provide a genomic view of the evolutionary pattern of this bacterial group and clues on traits that explain the success of AAB as insect symbionts. A specific pre-adaptive trait, cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase, appears ancestral in AAB and shows a phylogeny that is congruent with that of the genomes. The functional properties of this terminal oxidase might have allowed AAB to adapt to the diverse oxygen levels of arthropod guts. PMID:24682158

Chouaia, Bessem; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Crotti, Elena; Comandatore, Francesco; Degli Esposti, Mauro; Ricci, Irene; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

2014-04-01

15

Diversity of acetic acid bacteria present in healthy grapes from the Canary Islands.  

PubMed

The identification of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) from sound grapes from the Canary Islands is reported in the present study. No direct recovery of bacteria was possible in the most commonly used medium, so microvinifications were performed on grapes from Tenerife, La Palma and Lanzarote islands. Up to 396 AAB were isolated from those microvinifications and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. With this method, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter tropicalis, Gluconobacter japonicus and Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans were identified. However, no discrimination between the closely related species Acetobacter malorum and Acetobacter cerevisiae was possible. As previously described, 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region phylogenetic analysis was required to classify isolates as one of those species. These two species were the most frequently occurring, accounting for more than 60% of the isolates. For typing the AAB isolates, both the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR and (GTG)5-PCR techniques gave similar resolution. A total of 60 profiles were identified. Thirteen of these profiles were found in more than one vineyard, and only one profile was found on two different islands (Tenerife and La Palma). PMID:21903289

Valera, Maria José; Laich, Federico; González, Sara S; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mateo, Estibaliz; Mas, Albert

2011-11-15

16

Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana?  

PubMed Central

The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and “Acetobacter ghanaensis” (A. syzygii-like). PMID:17277227

Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

2007-01-01

17

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

18

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

PubMed Central

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

19

Strain typing of acetic acid bacteria responsible for vinegar production by the submerged elaboration method.  

PubMed

Strain typing of 103 acetic acid bacteria isolates from vinegars elaborated by the submerged method from ciders, wines and spirit ethanol, was carried on in this study. Two different molecular methods were utilised: pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of total DNA digests with a number of restriction enzymes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) - PCR analysis. The comparative study of both methods showed that restriction fragment PFGE of SpeI digests of total DNA was a suitable method for strain typing and for determining which strains were present in vinegar fermentations. Results showed that strains of the species Gluconacetobacter europaeus were the most frequent leader strains of fermentations by the submerged method in the studied vinegars, and among them strain R1 was the predominant one. Results showed as well that mixed populations (at least two different strains) occurred in vinegars from cider and wine, whereas unique strains were found in spirit vinegars, which offered the most stressing conditions for bacterial growth. PMID:20832673

Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; Torres, Carmen; Sanz, Susana; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

2010-12-01

20

Cellulose production and cellulose synthase gene detection in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) to produce cellulose has gained much industrial interest due to the physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cellulose. The production of cellulose occurs in the presence of oxygen and in a glucose-containing medium, but it can also occur during vinegar elaboration by the traditional method. The vinegar biofilm produced by AAB on the air-liquid interface is primarily composed of cellulose and maintains the cells in close contact with oxygen. In this study, we screened for the ability of AAB to produce cellulose using different carbon sources in the presence or absence of ethanol. The presence of cellulose in biofilms was confirmed using the fluorochrome Calcofluor by microscopy. Moreover, the process of biofilm formation was monitored under epifluorescence microscopy using the Live/Dead BacLight Kit. A total of 77 AAB strains belonging to 35 species of Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter were analysed, and 30 strains were able to produce a cellulose biofilm in at least one condition. This cellulose production was correlated with the PCR amplification of the bcsA gene that encodes cellulose synthase. A total of eight degenerated primers were designed, resulting in one primer pair that was able to detect the presence of this gene in 27 AAB strains, 26 of which formed cellulose. PMID:25381910

Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

2014-11-11

21

Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.  

PubMed

To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. PMID:21356451

Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-05-01

22

Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov., cellulose- and non-cellulose-producing acetic acid bacteria isolated from vinegar.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic position of a cellulose-producing acetic acid bacterium, strain ID13488, isolated from commercially available Colombian homemade fruit vinegar, was investigated. Analyses using nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, nearly complete 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, as well as concatenated partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB, allocated the micro-organism to the genus Gluconacetobacter, and more precisely to the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. Moreover, the data suggested that the micro-organism belongs to a novel species in this genus, together with LMG 1693(T), a non-cellulose-producing strain isolated from vinegar by Kondo and previously classified as a strain of Gluconacetobacter xylinus. DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed this finding, revealing a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 81?% between strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T), and values <70?% between strain LMG 1693(T) and the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours. Additionally, the classification of strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) into a single novel species was supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and (GTG)5-PCR DNA fingerprinting data, as well as by phenotypic data. Strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) could be differentiated from closely related species of the genus Gluconacetobacter by their ability to produce 2- and 5-keto-d-gluconic acid from d-glucose, their ability to produce acid from sucrose, but not from 1-propanol, and their ability to grow on 3?% ethanol in the absence of acetic acid and on ethanol, d-ribose, d-xylose, sucrose, sorbitol, d-mannitol and d-gluconate as carbon sources. The DNA G+C content of strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) was 58.0 and 60.7 mol%, respectively. The major ubiquinone of LMG 1693(T) was Q-10. Taken together these data indicate that strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) represent a novel species of the genus Gluconacetobacter for which the name Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 1693(T) (?=?NBRC 3288(T)?=?Kondo 51(T)). PMID:22729025

Castro, Cristina; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Trcek, Janja; Zuluaga, Robin; De Vos, Paul; Caro, Gloria; Aguirre, Ricardo; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Gañán, Piedad

2013-03-01

23

Indole3Acetic Acid (IAA) Production in Symbiotic and Non-Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and its Optimization by Taguchi Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in 35 different symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains isolated\\u000a from soil and plant roots was studied and assayed by chromatography and colorimetric methods. These bacteria included Agrobacterium, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium, Klebsiella\\u000a oxytoca, and Azotobacter. The best general medium and synergism effects of isolates for IAA production were investigated. Effects of different variables\\u000a containing physical parameters

Dariush Shokri; Giti Emtiazi

2010-01-01

24

Analysis of several methods for the extraction of high quality DNA from acetic acid bacteria in wine and vinegar for characterization by PCR-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are fastidious microorganisms with poor recovery in culture. Culture-independent methods are currently under examination. Good DNA extraction is a strict requirement of these methods. We compared five methods for extracting the DNA of AAB directly from wine and vinegar samples. Four matrices (white wine, red wine, superficial vinegar and submerged vinegar) contaminated with two AAB strains

C. Jara; E. Mateo; J. M. Guillamón; M. J. Torija; A. Mas

2008-01-01

25

Aromatic amino acid aminotransferase activity and indole-3-acetic acid production by associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report the detection of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (AAT) activity from cell-free crude extracts of nine strains of N2-fixing bacteria from three genera. Using tyrosine as substrate, AAT activity ranged in specific activity from 0.084 to 0.404 ?molmin?1mg?1. When analyzed under non-denaturating PAGE conditions; and using tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine as substrates Pseudomonas stutzeri A15

Ma. Luisa Xiqui; Beatriz Eugenia Baca

2004-01-01

26

Occurrence of enzymes involved in biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetonitrile in plant-associated bacteria, Agrobacterium and Rhizobium.  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of a hitherto unknown pathway involving the action of two enzymes, a nitrile hydratase and an amidase for the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid was discovered in phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in leguminous bacteria Rhizobium. The nitrile hydratase acting on indole-3-acetonitrile was purified to homogeneity through only two steps from the cell-free extract of A. tumefaciens. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme estimated by HPLC was about 102 kDa, and the enzyme consisted of four subunits identical in molecular mass. The enzyme exhibited a broad absorption spectrum in the visible range with absorption maxima at 408 nm and 705 nm, and it contained cobalt and iron. The enzyme stoichiometrically catalyzed the hydration of indole-3-acetonitrile into indole-3-acetamide with a specific activity of 13.7 mol per min per mg and a Km of 7.9 microM. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607511

Kobayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Fujita, T; Masuda, M; Shimizu, S

1995-01-01

27

Occurrence of enzymes involved in biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetonitrile in plant-associated bacteria, Agrobacterium and Rhizobium.  

PubMed

The occurrence of a hitherto unknown pathway involving the action of two enzymes, a nitrile hydratase and an amidase for the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid was discovered in phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and in leguminous bacteria Rhizobium. The nitrile hydratase acting on indole-3-acetonitrile was purified to homogeneity through only two steps from the cell-free extract of A. tumefaciens. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme estimated by HPLC was about 102 kDa, and the enzyme consisted of four subunits identical in molecular mass. The enzyme exhibited a broad absorption spectrum in the visible range with absorption maxima at 408 nm and 705 nm, and it contained cobalt and iron. The enzyme stoichiometrically catalyzed the hydration of indole-3-acetonitrile into indole-3-acetamide with a specific activity of 13.7 mol per min per mg and a Km of 7.9 microM. PMID:11607511

Kobayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Fujita, T; Masuda, M; Shimizu, S

1995-01-31

28

Replacement of a terminal cytochrome c oxidase by ubiquinol oxidase during the evolution of acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The bacterial aerobic respiratory chain has a terminal oxidase of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily, comprised of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and ubiquinol oxidase (UOX); UOX evolved from COX. Acetobacter pasteurianus, an ?-Proteobacterial acetic acid bacterium (AAB), produces UOX but not COX, although it has a partial COX gene cluster, ctaBD and ctaA, in addition to the UOX operon cyaBACD. We expressed ctaB and ctaA genes of A. pasteurianus in Escherichia coli and demonstrated their function as heme O and heme A synthases. We also found that the absence of ctaD function is likely due to accumulated mutations. These COX genes are closely related to other ?-Proteobacterial COX proteins. However, the UOX operons of AAB are closely related to those of the ?/?-Proteobacteria (?-type UOX), distinct from the ?/?-Proteobacterial proteins (?-type UOX), but different from the other ?-type UOX proteins by the absence of the cyoE heme O synthase. Thus, we suggest that A. pasteurianus has a functional ?-type UOX but has lost the COX genes, with the exception of ctaB and ctaA, which supply the heme O and A moieties for UOX. Our results suggest that, in AAB, COX was replaced by ?/?-Proteobacterial UOX via horizontal gene transfer, while the COX genes, except for the heme O/A synthase genes, were lost. PMID:24862920

Matsutani, Minenosuke; Fukushima, Kota; Kayama, Chiho; Arimitsu, Misato; Hirakawa, Hideki; Toyama, Hirohide; Adachi, Osao; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu

2014-10-01

29

Effects of Growth Medium on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption–Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectra: a Case Study of Acetic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The effect of the growth medium used on the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra generated and its consequences for species and strain level differentiation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were determined by using a set of 25 strains. The strains were grown on five different culture media that yielded a total of more than 600 mass spectra, including technical and biological replicates. The results demonstrate that the culture medium can have a profound effect on the mass spectra of AAB as observed in the presence and varying signal intensities of peak classes, in particular when culture media do not sustain optimal growth. The observed growth medium effects do not disturb species level differentiation but strongly affect the potential for strain level differentiation. The data prove that a well-constructed and robust MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification database should comprise mass spectra of multiple reference strains per species grown on different culture media to facilitate species and strain level differentiation. PMID:24362425

Wieme, Anneleen D.; Spitaels, Freek; Aerts, Maarten; De Bruyne, Katrien; Van Landschoot, Anita

2014-01-01

30

Acetic acid bacteria from biofilm of strawberry vinegar visualized by microscopy and detected by complementing culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) usually develop biofilm on the air-liquid interface of the vinegar elaborated by traditional method. This is the first study in which the AAB microbiota present in a biofilm of vinegar obtained by traditional method was detected by pyrosequencing. Direct genomic DNA extraction from biofilm was set up to obtain suitable quality of DNA to apply in culture-independent molecular techniques. The set of primers and TaqMan - MGB probe designed in this study to enumerate the total AAB population by Real Time - PCR detected between 8 × 10(5) and 1.2 × 10(6) cells/g in the biofilm. Pyrosequencing approach reached up to 10 AAB genera identification. The combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular techniques provided a broader view of AAB microbiota from the strawberry biofilm, which was dominated by Ameyamaea, Gluconacetobacter, and Komagataeibacter genera. Culture-dependent techniques allowed isolating only one genotype, which was assigned into the Ameyamaea genus and which required more analysis for a correct species identification. Furthermore, biofilm visualization by laser confocal microscope and scanning electronic microscope showed different dispositions and cell morphologies in the strawberry vinegar biofilm compared with a grape vinegar biofilm. PMID:25475315

Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

2015-04-01

31

Extractive fermentation of acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1991-12-31

32

21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2 H4 O2 , CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant...fermentation of carbohydrates or by organic synthesis. The principal...

2011-04-01

33

Carbohydrate metabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “lactic acid bacteria” is discussed. An overview of the following topics is given: main pathways of homo- and heterofermentation of hexoses, i.e. glycolysis, bifidus pathway, 6-phosphogluconate pathway; uptake and dissimilation of lactose (tagatose pathway); fermentation of pentoses and pentitols; alternative fates of pyruvate, i.e. splitting to formate and acetate, CO2 and acetate or formation of acetoin and diacetyl;

Otto Kandler

1983-01-01

34

New process for producing cellulose acetate from wood in concentrated acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore further potential applications of acetic acid pulp, an investigation was conducted to develop a direct method for producing cellulose acetate from wood in combination with atmospheric acetic acid pulping. The process consists of delignification, totally chlorine-free bleaching, and esterification, with the concentrated acetic acid aqueous solution being used as only solvent throughout the process. The acetic acid pulp

Hironori Sato; Yasumitsu Uraki; Takao Kishimoto; Yoshihiro Sano

2003-01-01

35

Proteome analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus during acetic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative, strictly aerobic microorganisms that show a unique resistance to ethanol (EtOH) and acetic acid (AcH). Members of the Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter genera are capable of transforming EtOH into AcH via the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes and are used for the industrial production of vinegar. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how AAB resist high concentrations of AcH, such as the assimilation of acetate through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the export of acetate by various transporters and modifications of the outer membrane. However, except for a few acetate-specific proteins, little is known about the global proteome responses to AcH. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE to compare the proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus LMG 1262(T) when growing in glucose or ethanol and in the presence of acetic acid. Interesting protein spots were selected using the ANOVA p-value of 0.05 as threshold and 1.5-fold as the minimal level of differential expression, and a total of 53 proteins were successfully identified. Additionally, the size of AAB was reduced by approximately 30% in length as a consequence of the acidity. A modification in the membrane polysaccharides was also revealed by PATAg specific staining. PMID:22155126

Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Chappuis, Marie-Louise; Boffa, Mauro; Perret, Xavier; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Barja, François

2012-03-16

36

Orchid-associated bacteria produce indole-3-acetic acid, promote seed germination, and increase their microbial yield in response to exogenous auxin.  

PubMed

Germination of orchid seeds is a complex process. In this paper we focus on interactions between the host-plant and its bacterial partners via indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Originally isolated from the roots of the epiphytic orchid Dendrobium moschatum, the strains of Rhizobium, Microbacterium, Sphingomonas, and Mycobacterium genera were among the most active IAA producers. Addition of exogenous tryptophan significantly enhanced auxin formation both in mineral and complex media. The presence of IAA and indole-3-acetaldehyde was confirmed by HPLC. Indole-3-pyruvic and indole-3-lactic acids were also detected in supernatants of culture filtrates of Sphingomonas sp., Rhizobium sp., and Microbacterium sp., while indole-3-acetamide was identified only in Mycobacterium sp. Some concentration- and strain-dependent effects of exogenous IAA on bacterial development were also established. Treatment of the cultures with 10 and 100 microg/ml of auxin resulted in an increase in microbial yield. None of the investigated strains was able to utilize IAA as a source of carbon and energy. Furthermore, inoculation of D. moschatum seeds with Sphingomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp. resulted in considerable enhancement of orchid seeds germination. This growth-promoting activity was observed in the absence of any plant growth stimulators or mycorrhizal fungi, usually required for orchid germination. PMID:17687544

Tsavkelova, Elena A; Cherdyntseva, Tatiana A; Klimova, Svetlana Yu; Shestakov, Andrey I; Botina, Svetlana G; Netrusov, Alexander I

2007-12-01

37

Polypyrrole based strong acid catalyst for acetalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polypyrrole based acid catalyst has been synthesized through the neutralization reaction of polypyrrole and sulfuric acid. The polypyrrole based acid owned the acidity as high as 6.0 mmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the novel solid acid were investigated through the acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid held high activities for the reactions. Furthermore, the recycled activities of the catalyst indicated that the solid acid owned high stability during the catalytic process and little acid sites dropped from polypyrrole. The high acidity and stability made the novel polypyrrole based acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

Liang, Xuezheng; Cheng, Yuxiao; Qi, Chenze

2011-09-01

38

Indole-3-acetic acid in plant-microbe interactions.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetonitrile pathways. This chapter reviews the factors that effect the production of this phytohormone, the role of IAA in bacterial physiology and in plant-microbe interactions including phytostimulation and phytopathogenesis. PMID:24445491

Duca, Daiana; Lorv, Janet; Patten, Cheryl L; Rose, David; Glick, Bernard R

2014-07-01

39

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

40

Formation of acetic acid from cellulosic substrates by Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of Fusarium oxysporum and a strain of Monilia brunnae were screened for their ability to convert cellulosic substrates into ethanol\\/acetic acid. These strains were found to utilize cellulose and produce extracellular cellulases. However, only F. oxysporum 841 was found to convert glucose, xylose, and cellulose into ethanol and acetic acid as major end-products under microaerobic conditions. Acetic acid

P. K. R. Kumar; Ajay Singh; K. Schiigerl

1991-01-01

41

Atmospheric formic and acetic acids in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas, phase and rain concentrations of HCOOH and CH 3COOH have been measured at various sites in the savannah climatic region, a cloud forest site and a coastal site in Venezuela. Gas phase and rain water were sampled using the aqueous scrubber technique and a wet only collector, respectively. Analyses were made by ion chromatography. The results indicate that formic and acetic acids are important components of the Venezuelan atmosphere. They are homogeneously distributed, suggesting a widespread source. Boundary layer concentrations during the dry season (HCOOH, 1.8 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 1.25 ppbv) are higher than in the wet season (HCOOH, 1.0 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 0.7 ppbv), mainly due to a longer lifetime of the acid during the dry season (˜6 days) compared with the wet season (˜2 days). The overall concentrations in rain are 7.0 and 4.0 ?M for formic and acetic acids, respectively. The estimated annual total depositions are: HCOOH, 17 mmol m -2 yr -1 and CH 3COOH,10 mmol m -2 yr -1; around half of the acids are removed by dry deposition. It is established that a larger source (˜1.8 times) of both acids is present during the wet season. We speculate that atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons should be the main source of HCOOH and CH 3COOH in the Venezuelan atmosphere; soil emissions could make a significant contribution during the dry season.

Sanhueza, Eugenio; Figueroa, Luis; Santana, Magaly

42

Oxidation of Indole-3-Acetic Acid to Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid by an Enzyme Preparation from Zea mays1  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants. PMID:11538238

Reinecke, Dennis M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1988-01-01

43

Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

44

Humic Acid Reduction by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Other Fermenting Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Iron-reducing bacteria have been reported to reduce humic acids and low-molecular-weight quinones with electrons from acetate or hydrogen oxidation. Due to the rapid chemical reaction of amorphous ferric iron with the reduced reaction products, humic acids and low-molecular-weight redox mediators may play an important role in biological iron reduction. Since many anaerobic bacteria that are not able to reduce amorphous ferric iron directly are known to transfer electrons to other external acceptors, such as ferricyanide, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS), or molecular oxygen, we tested several physiologically different species of fermenting bacteria to determine their abilities to reduce humic acids. Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Lactococcus lactis, and Enterococcus cecorum all shifted their fermentation patterns towards more oxidized products when humic acids were present; P. freudenreichii even oxidized propionate to acetate under these conditions. When amorphous ferric iron was added to reoxidize the electron acceptor, humic acids were found to be equally effective when they were added in substoichiometric amounts. These findings indicate that in addition to iron-reducing bacteria, fermenting bacteria are also capable of channeling electrons from anaerobic oxidations via humic acids towards iron reduction. This information needs to be considered in future studies of electron flow in soils and sediments. PMID:9797315

Benz, Marcus; Schink, Bernhard; Brune, Andreas

1998-01-01

45

Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

Todd, Zoe; House, C.

2014-01-01

46

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw was made of the chemical com- position, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and fractionated into pulp

Xue-Jun PanYoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

47

Oxidation of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Oxindole-3-acetic Acid to 2,3-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H Indole-3-acetic Acid-7?-O-?-d-Glucopyranoside in Zea mays Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7?-O-?-d-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid ? Oxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid ? 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. PMID:11540902

Nonhebel, Heather M.; Bandurski, Robert S.

1984-01-01

48

Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

2008-03-01

49

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

50

Acetic acid pulping of wheat straw under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acetic acid pulping of wheat straw was carried out. Pulping conditions and their effects on pulp properties were\\u000a investigated in detail, and a comparison between acetic acid (AcOH) pulp and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulps of wheat straw\\u000a was made of the chemical composition, strength, and fiber morphology of the pulps. Wheat straw was successfully pulped and\\u000a fractionated into pulp (cellulose),

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

51

Effect of ethyl acetate on carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of pulp produced in aqueous acetic acid pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in carbohydrate components and the crystalline structure in hemp bast\\u000a fibers by adding ethyl acetate to acetic acid\\/water pulping processes. It was found that ethyl acetate added to acetic acid\\/water\\u000a process had a positive effect on yield, viscosity and carbohydrate components in pulp. It was assumed that the delignification\\u000a ratio

Esat Gümü?kaya; Mustafa Usta; Mualla Balaban Uçar

2009-01-01

52

Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization  

SciTech Connect

Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup ?1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (?330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup ?1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup ?1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup ?1}, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup ?1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.

Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico) [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

2014-02-14

53

Effects of Azospirillum brasilense indole-3-acetic acid production on inoculated wheat plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of phytohormones by plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria is considered to be an important mechanism by which\\u000a these bacteria promote plant growth. In this study the importance of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) produced by Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 in the observed plant growth stimulation was investigated by using Sp245 strains genetically modified in IAA production.\\u000a Firstly wild-type A. brasilense Sp245 and an

Stijn Spaepen; Sofie Dobbelaere; Anja Croonenborghs; Jos Vanderleyden

2008-01-01

54

Origin and fate of acetate in an acidic fen.  

PubMed

Acetate is a central intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter, and the resolution of its metabolism necessitates integrated strategies. This study aims to (1) estimate the contribution of acetogenesis to acetate formation in an acidic fen (pH ~ 4.9), (2) assess the genetic potential for acetogenesis targeting the fhs gene encoding formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) and (3) unravel the in situ turnover of acetate using stable carbon isotope pore-water analysis. H(2)/CO(2)-supplemented peat microcosms yielded (13)C-depleted acetate (-37.2‰ vs. VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite standard) compared with -14.2‰ vs. VPDB in an unamended control), indicating the potential for H(2)-dependent acetogenesis. Molecular analysis revealed a high diversity and depth-dependent distribution of fhs phylotypes with the highest number of operational taxonomic units in 0-20 cm depth, but only few and distant relationships to known acetogens. In pore waters, acetate concentrations (0-170 ?M) and ?(13)C-values varied widely (-17.4‰ to -3.4‰ vs. VPDB) and did not indicate acetogenesis, but pointed to a predominance of sinks, which preferentially consumed (12)C-acetate, like acetoclastic methanogenesis. However, depth profiles of methane and ?(13)C(CH4) revealed a temporarily and spatially restricted role of this acetate sink and suggest other processes like sulfate and iron reduction played an important role in acetate turnover. PMID:22404042

Hädrich, Anke; Heuer, Verena B; Herrmann, Martina; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

2012-08-01

55

Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacter...

56

Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

1986-01-01

57

21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates or by organic synthesis. The principal synthetic methods currently employed are oxidation of acetaldehyde derived...

2010-04-01

58

Electrochemical behavior of graphite in electrolyte of sulfuric and acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical formation of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) has been studied in the electrolyte with mixed sulfuric acid and acetic acid. The results show that, with addition of acetic acid, GICs can be synthesized in the electrolyte with sulfuric acid concentration as low as 3.6M, even though no GIC is formed in pure acetic acid. The stage structure of the synthesized

F. Kang; T.-Y. Zhang; Y. Leng

1997-01-01

59

Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the

Wenjing Li; Daron G. Ferris; Rich W. Lieberman

2008-01-01

60

Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

61

Potentials of Exopolysaccharides from Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in the area of importance of microbes has revealed the immense industrial potential of exopolysaccharides\\u000a and their derivative oligosaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. However, due to lack of adequate technological knowledge,\\u000a the exopolysaccharides have remained largely under exploited. In the present review, the enormous potentials of different\\u000a types of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria are described. This also

Seema Patel; Avishek Majumder; Arun Goyal

62

Optimizing high strength acetic acid bioprocess by cognitive methods in an unsteady state cultivation.  

PubMed

Methods of adapting micro-organisms to an inhibiting factor in an active industrial bioprocess were examined with an acetic acid fermentation as model. With the aim of automatic control, a fuzzy-logic system was developed on the basis of the collected knowledge of skilled vinegar brewers. In a first step, this fuzzy system was to assess the actual adaptation degree of the bacteria on the basis of data from robust and reasonably priced sensors. From this information an appropriate setpoint value for the inhibiting factor 'final acid concentration' was derived for each batch cycle. As a result a further acid tolerance was found after several batch cycles. This adaptation effect should be used to increase the product concentration to more than 20 g per 100 ml acetic acid with a high productivity. The stepwise adapted culture was productive over the aimed acetic acid concentration, a 10% improvement of the product formation rate could be found compared with the status before conditioning. High product concentration and increased productivity finally result in shorter cycle times, less transport and storage volumes, an improved utilization of energy and material resources, and, last but not least, they are an essential steps towards the fulfillment of economical and ecological demands. PMID:12067520

Arnold, S; Becker, T; Delgado, A; Emde, F; Enenkel, A

2002-08-01

63

Effects of sorption on biological degradation rates of (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid in soils.  

PubMed Central

Three mathematical models were proposed to describe the effects of sorption of both bacteria and the herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) on the biological degradation rates of 2,4-D in soils. Model 1 assumed that sorbed 2,4-D is not degraded, that only bacteria in solution are capable of degrading 2,4-D in solution, and that sorbed bacteria are not capable of degrading either sorbed or solution 2,4-D. Model 2 stated that only bacteria in the solution phase degrade 2,4-D in solution and that only sorbed bacteria degrade sorbed 2,4-D. Model 3 proposed that sorbed 2,4-D is completely protected from degradation and that both sorbed and solution bacteria are capable of degrading 2,4-D in solution. These models were tested by a series of controlled laboratory experiments. Models 1 and 2 did not describe the data satisfactorily and were rejected. Model 3 described the experimental results quite well, indicating that sorbed 2,4-D was completely protected from biological degradation and that sorbed- and solution-phase bacteria degraded solution-phase 2,4-D with almost equal efficiencies. PMID:3994366

Ogram, A V; Jessup, R E; Ou, L T; Rao, P S

1985-01-01

64

Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V,; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

2006-06-01

65

Acidophilic, Heterotrophic Bacteria of Acidic Mine Waters  

PubMed Central

Obligately acidophilic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated both from enrichment cultures developed with acidic mine water and from natural mine drainage. The bacteria were grouped by the ability to utilize a number of organic acids as sole carbon sources. None of the strains were capable of chemolithotrophic growth on inorganic reduced iron and sulfur compounds. All bacteria were rod shaped, gram negative, nonencapsulated, motile, capable of growth at pH 2.6 but not at pH 6.0, catalase and oxidase positive, strictly aerobic, and capable of growth on citric acid. The bacteria were cultivatable on solid nutrient media only if agarose was employed as the hardening agent. Bacterial densities in natural mine waters ranged from approximately 20 to 250 cells per ml, depending upon source and culture medium. Ferric hydrates and stream vegetation contained from 1,500 to over 7 × 106 cells per g. Images PMID:16345777

Wichlacz, Paul L.; Unz, Richard F.

1981-01-01

66

Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats. PMID:17030793

Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rohksar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Díaz-Muñiz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V.; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

2006-01-01

67

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-01-01

68

Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains (2ac9, 3ac10 and 4ac11) of oval to rodshaped, Gram negative, nonsporing sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from brackish water and marine mud samples with acetate as sole electron donor. All three strains grew in simple defined media supplemented with biotin and 4-aminobenzoic acid as growth factors. Acetate was the only electron donor utilized by strain 2ac9, while the other

Friedrich Widdel; Norbert Pfennig

1981-01-01

69

Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs  

PubMed Central

Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

1990-01-01

70

Advantages of Zr 705 in the acetic acid industry  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium 705 (Zr + 2--3% niobium) is finding its way into more acetic acid plants as a replacement for Zirconium 702 (unalloyed Zr). The alloy was first proposed for the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) use in the early 1970s, but has not found wide spread use because of a few problems early in its history. Research revealed that the problems encountered were related to delayed hydride cracking (DHC). However, proper processing of the alloy after welding produces components free of DHC. The main advantage of Zirconium 705 (Zr 705) as compared to Zirconium 702 (Zr 702) is higher tensile and yield strengths. This allows pressure containing components to be rated at higher pressures which can increase plant efficiencies or they can be fabricated with thinner wall sections, thus reducing equipment cost. These advantages of Zr 705 will be reviewed as well as actual plant history of the alloy in acetic acid services.

Bird, K.W. [Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States); Breig, P.G.; Spence, T.C. [Duriron Company, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

71

Homopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to heteropolysaccharides of complex structure, lactic bacteria produce a variety of homopolysaccharides containing only either d-fructose or d-glucose. These fructans and glucans have a common feature in being synthesized by extracellular transglycosylases (glycansucrases) using sucrose as glycosyl donor. The energy of the osidic bond of sucrose enables the efficient transfer of a d-fructosyl or d-glucosyl residue via the

Pierre Monsan; Sophie Bozonnet; Cécile Albenne; Gilles Joucla; René-Marc Willemot; Magali Remaud-Siméon

2001-01-01

72

Separation of acetic acid-water mixtures by pervaporation through silicalite membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline silicalite membranes were prepared on two kinds of porous supports by hydrothermal synthesis. The pervaporation performance of the silicalite membrane obtained was investigated using an acetic acid-water mixture as a feed. The silicalite membrane on the sintered stainless steel support selectively permeates acetic acid in the concentration of the feed acetic acid in the region of 5 to 40

Tsuneji Sano; Shigeyuki Ejiri; Kiyoshi Yamada; Yusuke Kawakami; Hiroshi Yanagishita

1997-01-01

73

4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid and plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) is a potent auxin in various auxin bioassays. Researchers have used 4-Cl-IAA as well as other halogenated auxins in biological assays to understand the structural features of auxins required to induce auxin mediated growth in plants. 4-Cl-IAA is a naturally occurring auxin in plants from the Vicieae tribe of the Fabaceae family; and 4-Cl-IAA has also been

Dennis M. Reinecke

1999-01-01

74

Dehydration of acetic acid by pervaporation with charged membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified Nafion membranes were prepared by charging Nafion 117 membrane with different long-chained counter ions and used for pervaporation of acetic acid–water mixture. It was observed, that the selectivity of Nafion membrane was enhanced by charging with long-chained counter ions. However, it led to a decrease in permeate flux because of decreasing solubility and diffusivity of the membranes. The results

Samuel P. Kusumocahyo; Masao Sudoh

1999-01-01

75

Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of wheat straw was investigated using an atmospheric acetic acid process. Under the typical conditions of 90% (v\\/v) aqueous AcOH, 4% H2SO4 (w\\/w, on straw), ratio of liquor to straw (L\\/S) 10 (v\\/w), pulping temperature 105°C, and pulping time 3h, wheat straw was fractionated to pulp (cellulose), lignin and monosaccharides mainly from hemicellulose with yields of approximately 50%, 15%

Xuejun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

2005-01-01

76

Inhibition of C4 photosynthesis by (benzamidooxy)acetic acid.  

PubMed

(Benzamidooxy)acetic acid (common name benzadox) which has herbicidal properties was evaluated as a potential inhibitor of photosynthesis in C4 plants. Among enzymes of the C4 pathway, it was a relatively strong inhibitor of alanine aminotransferase in in vitro experiments at concentrations of 5mM. In benzadox treated leaves of Panicum miliaceum, a NAD-malic enzyme type C4 species, there was strong inhibition of both alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and of photosynthetic O2 evolution within one hour. Consistent with the inhibition of these enzymes of the C4 cycle, the pool sizes of metabolites of the cycle was altered: the aspartate level was increased two fold, while the levels of other metabolites such as pyruvate, alanine, oxalacetate and malate were decreased. Kinetic studies with partially purified alanine aminotransferase showed that benzadox is a competitive inhibitor with respect to alanine and a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to 2-oxoglutarate. Comparisons between the structures and inhibitory actions of benzadox and (aminooxy)acetic acid, the latter a potent inhibitor of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, suggest that in vivo, benzadox may exert its effect through metabolism to (aminooxy)acetic acid. PMID:24458342

Nakamoto, H; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

1982-12-01

77

Growth of faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. in physicochemical sludge treated with acetic acid.  

PubMed

The use of advanced primary treatment (APT) to remove helminth ova from wastewater has raised the issue of treating the generated sludge to allow its reuse or disposal. Several studies have been performed in Mexico in order to treat the sludge with the main goal of destroying helminth ova and bacteria, one of them analysing the acid treatment. Previous research has demonstrated the feasibility of applying such a process using acetic acid to disinfect the sludge, but the potential for bacterial growth was still to be proved. The results of a growth study of faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sludge treated with acetic acid are presented in this paper. Physicochemical sludge generated in a semi-rural area of Mexico City was treated using acetic acid in 6 different doses ranging from 3,700 to 22,000 ppm (w/w) and the concentrations of faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and total and volatile solids, were monitored after 30 minutes, and 8, 21 and 35 days. Average initial concentrations in sludge were 1.1 x 10(8) MPN/g TS and 1.5 x 10(5) MPN/g TS for faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp., while pH, total and volatile solids were 5.4, 5.0% and 73% respectively. Apparently, some acidified samples presented anaerobic activity, observed as a change in sludge coloration, as well as bacterial growth. pH of the treated samples with less than 18,400 ppm raised from the initial value of approximately 4.0 up to 5.9 units, while samples with 18,400 and 22,000 ppm maintained the pH close to 4. Total and volatile solids did not present important changes except in the untreated sample where they were reduced by 0.3 and 3.4% respectively. Samples treated with more than 14,700 ppm of acetic acid did not present any increase in bacterial density. Additionally, concentrations of faecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. in untreated sludge were reduced throughout the time, in contrast to samples treated with doses lower than 14,700 ppm that showed some growth, which suggests that the use of acetic acid in doses lower than 15,000 ppm stimulates in some way the growth of these bacteria. PMID:11794686

Barrios, J A; Jiménez, B; Salgado, G; Garibay, A; Castrejon, A

2001-01-01

78

Simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid using glassy carbon electrodes in acetate buffer solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reports the simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.2M, pH 4.0, acetate buffer solution using glassy carbon (GC) electrode by square wave voltammetry. Selective detection of UA in the presence of 200-fold excess of AA is achieved at the GC electrode in acetate buffer solution. The GC electrode separates the voltammetric signal

S. Abraham John

2005-01-01

79

Brønsted Acid/Lewis Acid Cooperatively Catalyzed Addition of Diazoester to 2H-chromene Acetals.  

PubMed

A novel Brønsted acid/Lewis acid dual catalyst system has been developed to promote an efficient C-C bond formation between a range of oxocarbenium precursors derived from chromene acetals and ethyl diazoacetate. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions and is tolerant of common functionalized 2H-chromene and isochromene acetals. In addition, an asymmetric variant of diazoacetate addition towards 2H-chromene acetal is described. Continued investigations include the further optimization of asymmetric induction towards the formation of diazo ester substituted 2H-chromene. PMID:25411552

Luan, Yi; Qi, Yue; Gao, Hongyi; Ma, Qianqian; Schaus, Scott E

2014-11-01

80

A novel fermentation pathway in an Escherichia coli mutant producing succinic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol.  

SciTech Connect

Escherichia coli strain NZN111, which is unable to grow fermentatively because of insertional inactivation of the genes encoding pyruvate: formate lyase and the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase, gave rise spontaneously to a chromosomal mutation that restored its ability to ferment glucose. The mutant strain, named AFP111, fermented glucose more slowly than did its wild-type ancestor, strain W1485, and generated a very different spectrum of products. AFP111 produced succinic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol in proportions of approx 2:1:1. Calculations of carbon and electron balances accounted fully for the observed products; 1 mol of glucose was converted to 1 mol of succinic acid and 0.5 mol each of acetic acid and ethanol. The data support the emergence in E.coli of a novel succinic acid:acetic acid:ethanol fermentation pathway.

Donnelly, M. I.; Millard, C. S.; Clark, D. P.; Chen, M. J.; Rathke, J. W.; Southern Illinois Univ.

1998-04-01

81

Gas Cluster Ion Beam Etching under Acetic Acid Vapor for Etch-Resistant Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) etching of etch-resistant materials under acetic acid vapor was studied for development of new manufacturing process of future nonvolatile memory. Etching depths of various etch-resistant materials (Pt, Ru, Ta, CoFe) with acetic acid vapor during O2-GCIB irradiations were 1.8-10.7 times higher than those without acetic acid. Also, etching depths of Ru, Ta, CoFe by Ar-GCIB with acetic acid vapor were 2.2-16.1 times higher than those without acetic acid. Even after etching of Pt, smoothing of Pt was realized using O2-GCIB under acetic acid. From XPS and angular distribution of sputtered Pt, it was shown that PtOx layer was formed on Pt after O2-GCIB irradiation. PtOx reacted with acetic acid by GCIB bombardments; as a result, increase of etching depth was observed.

Yamaguchi, Akira; Hinoura, Ryo; Toyoda, Noriaki; Hara, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Isao

2013-05-01

82

Biosynthesis of bacteriocins in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of new bacteriocins in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been characterized in recent years. Most of the new bacteriocins belong to the class II bacteriocins which are small (30–100 amino acids) heat-stable and commonly not post-translationally modified. While most bacteriocin producers synthesize only one bacteriocin, it has been shown that several LAB produce multiple bacteriocins (2–3 bacteriocins).

Ingolf F. Nes; Dzung Bao Diep; Leiv Sigve Håvarstein; May Bente Brurberg; Vincent Eijsink; Helge Holo

1996-01-01

83

Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Héctor Rodríguez; José Antonio Curiel; José María Landete; Blanca de las Rivas; Félix López de Felipe; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; José Miguel Mancheño; Rosario Muñoz

2009-01-01

84

Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anchoring of proteins to the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using genetic techniques is an exciting and emerging research area that holds great promise for a wide variety of biotechnological applications. This paper reviews five different types of anchoring domains that have been explored for their efficiency in attaching hybrid proteins to the cell membrane or cell

Kees Leenhouts; Girbe Buist; Jan Kok

1999-01-01

85

Direct Determination of Citric Acid in Milk with an Improved Pyridine-Acetic Anhydride Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The determination of citric acid with pyridine and acetic anhydride has been in- vestigated at reaction temperatures from 17 to 60 ° C. The optimum proportions of pyridine, acetic anhydride, water, and acetic acid for maximum color intensity and stability are given for each temperature. The procedure has been modified to eliminate the violent nature of the reaction, even

J. R. Marier; M. Boulet

1958-01-01

86

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw II: Behavior of Ash and Silica in Rice Straw during Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping and Bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A detailed examination was made of the behavior and distribution of ash and silica during atmospheric acetic acid pulping and subsequent bleaching of rice straw. Ash-rich pulps (in unbleached pulp, about 18 %; and in bleached pulp, 16 %) with matchable strength properties for conventional alkaline pulps were obtained from rice straw by acetic acid pulping. More than 50

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano; Toshiaki Ito

1999-01-01

87

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic biomass to acetic acid.  

PubMed

A strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum (ATCC 49707) was evaluated for its homoacetate potential. This thermophilic anaerobe best produces acetate from glucose at pH 6.0 and 59 degrees C with a yield of 83% of theoretical. Enzyme hydrolysis of two substrates, a-cellulose and a pulp mill sludge, yielded 68% and 70% digestion, respectively. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were substrate dependent: 55 degrees C, pH 6.0 for alpha-cellulose, and 55 degrees C, pH 5.5 for the pulp mill sludge. In the SSF with alpha-cellulose, the overall yield of acetate was strongly influenced by the enzyme loading. In a fed-batch operation of SSF with alpha-cellulose, an overall acetic acid yield of 60 wt% was obtained. Among the factors limiting the yields were incomplete digestion by the enzyme and the end-product inhibition. In the SSF of pulp mill sludge, inhibitors present in the sludge severely limited bacterial action. A large accumulation of glucose developed over the entire process, changing the intended SSF operation into a separate hydrolysis and fermentation operation. Despite a long lag phase of microbial growth, a terminal yield of 85% was obtained with this substrate. PMID:10849850

Borden, J R; Lee, Y Y; Yoon, H H

2000-01-01

88

Regulation of acetic acid production by homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs.  

PubMed

The efficiency of sour-dough as a possible preservative agent of microbial spoilage of bread depends on its acetic acid content. As a secondary metabolite of sugar fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid may be promoted in the presence of O2 or H+ acceptors. This paper studies the influence of O2 and high fructose content products (pure sugar, invert sugar, fructose syrup) addition on acetic acid production by hetero- (Lactobacillus brevis 25a, B-21, L-62; L. sanfrancisco L-99) and homofermentative (L. plantarum B-39) lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs [280 and 250 dough yield (DY)]. The pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) of sour-doughs after 44 h fermentation varied with DY and strain. As expected, the addition of O2 promoted greater increases in TTA with heterofermentative lactobacilli (15-42%) than with L. plantarum (15%). Fructose addition was only effective for heterofermentative strains, but the overall effects were smaller than those observed for oxygenation. The ability of lactobacilli to produce acetic acid in sour-doughs without treatment varied from 0.16 g/100 g flour at 44 h (B-39, 280, 350 DY) to 0.47-0.65% (L-62, 280, 350 DY). The production of acetic acid was positively promoted by all treatments. Oxygenation was again the most effective way of inducing acetic acid production; increases ranged from 54% (B-21) to 269% (L-99, 350 DY). The addition of H+ acceptors had variable effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7975904

Martínez-Anaya, M A; Llin, M L; Pilar Macías, M; Collar, C

1994-09-01

89

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailiram-502205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mukherjee, Rudra Palash [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Bantraj, Kandi [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008, Orissa (India)

2010-10-26

90

13C6-[Benzene Ring]-Indole-3-Acetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) labeled with 13C in the six carbons of the benzene ring is described for use as an internal standard for quantitative mass spectral analysis of IAA by gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring. [13C6]IAA was compared to the available deuterium labeled compounds and shown to offer the advantages of nonexchangeability of the isotope label, high isotopic enrichment, and chromatographic properties identical to that of the unlabeled compound. The utility of [13C6]IAA for measurement of endogenous IAA levels was demonstrated by analysis of IAA in Lemna gibba G-3. PMID:16664570

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Slovin, Janet Pernise

1986-01-01

91

Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

Yadav, Vishnu P.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi; Maity, Sunil K.

2010-10-01

92

Measurements of acetone, acetic acid, and formic acid in the northern midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured acetone, acetic acid, and formic acid concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Germany. The measurements were performed by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry using new kinetic data on ion molecule reactions of formic and acetic acids with negative ions obtained at our laboratory. Mean volume mixing ratios between 384 and 832 parts per trillion (pptv) for acetone, 110 and 357 pptv for acetic acid, and 59 and 215 pptv for formic acid were obtained. The correlation between formic acid and acetic acid was very poor (r2 = 0.14). A better correlation could be observed for acetone and acetic acid, with a correlation coefficient r2 = 0.46 and a slope (acetic acid/acetone) of 0.31. For acetic acid a maximum around 9 km was observed. A significant fraction of the acetic acid observed in the lower stratosphere may be due to in situ photochemical production by reactions of HO2 and CH3O2 with peroxy acetyl radicals produced by the photolysis of acetone. In the upper troposphere, vertical transport is much more efficient, and significant acetic acid production is only possible if HOx concentrations are elevated, making the production of acetic acid fast enough to compete with vertical transport.

Reiner, Thomas; MöHler, Ottmar; Arnold, Frank

1999-06-01

93

Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  

PubMed

Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

2012-07-01

94

Reactivity of some sugars and sugar phosphates towards gold(III) in sodium acetate–acetic acid buffer medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the oxidation of some aldoses and aldose phosphates have been studied spectrophotometrically in sodium acetate–acetic acid buffer medium at different temperatures. The reactions are first order with respect to [Au(III)] and [substrate]. Both H+ and Cl? ions retard the reaction. The reactions appear to involve different gold(III) species, viz. AuCl4?, AuCl3(OH2) and AuCl3(OH)?. The results are interpreted

Kalyan Kali Sen Gupta; Biswajit Pal; Bilkis Ara Begum

2001-01-01

95

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01

96

Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photolysis of S2O82- was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H2O2\\/UV system. The SO4- radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S2O82- ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO4- radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results

Justine Criquet; Nathalie Karpel Vel Leitner

2009-01-01

97

Effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid on preservation and aerobic deterioration of grass silage  

E-print Network

Effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid on preservation and aerobic deterioration of grass deterioration of low dry matter (DM) grass silage. For comparison untreated high DM grass silage was also grass was chopped and treated with equimolar amounts of formic acid (FA ; 3.3 g/kg), acetic acid (AA ; 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process  

SciTech Connect

It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

2009-06-30

99

Biogas Production through the Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Pathway  

E-print Network

retention time OLR Organic loading rate PCR Polymerase chain reaction qPCR Quantitative polymerase chain reaction RNA Ribonucleic acid SAO Syntrophic acetate oxidation SAOB Syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria

100

High efficiency recombineering in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The ability to efficiently generate targeted point mutations in the chromosome without the need for antibiotics, or other means of selection, is a powerful strategy for genome engineering. Although oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering (ssDNA recombineering) has been utilized in Escherichia coli for over a decade, the successful adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to Gram-positive bacteria has not been reported. Here we describe the development and application of ssDNA recombineering in lactic acid bacteria. Mutations were incorporated in the chromosome of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus lactis without selection at frequencies ranging between 0.4% and 19%. Whole genome sequence analysis showed that ssDNA recombineering is specific and not hypermutagenic. To highlight the utility of ssDNA recombineering we reduced the intrinsic vancomymycin resistance of L. reuteri >100-fold. By creating a single amino acid change in the d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzyme we reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration for vancomycin from >256 to 1.5?µg/ml, well below the clinically relevant minimum inhibitory concentration. Recombineering thus allows high efficiency mutagenesis in lactobacilli and lactococci, and may be used to further enhance beneficial properties and safety of strains used in medicine and industry. We expect that this work will serve as a blueprint for the adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to other Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:22328729

van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A.

2012-01-01

101

Inflammatory cells’ role in acetic acid-induced colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1), ex vivo (group 3), and enema after immune suppression (group 5). Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H2O2, we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful. PMID:25337523

Sanei, Mohammad H.; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh; Adibi, Peyman; Alavi, Sayyed Ali

2014-01-01

102

Binding behavior of amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid to immobilized human serum albumin.  

PubMed

The affinity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and 24 of their amino acid conjugates to immobilized human serum albumin, as expressed by the retention factor k (determined by HPLC), was dependent on (1) lipophilicity, (2) chirality and (3) functional groups in the amino acid moiety; in some cases conformation plays an additional role. Two lipophilicity-related parameters afforded quantitative correlations with k: retention on a C18 reversed-phase column (experimental approach) and the distance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic poles of the molecules (in silico approach). Most compounds examined are possible metabolic precursors of IAA, an experimental tumor therapeutic. PMID:17459401

Tomasi?, Ana; Bertosa, Branimir; Tomi?, Sanja; Soski?, Milan; Magnus, Volker

2007-06-22

103

Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China  

SciTech Connect

The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

Alperowicz, N.

1993-01-27

104

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

105

Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  

PubMed

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2013-01-01

106

Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a mid-latitude temperate site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tropospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas, the aerosol, and the rainwater phases were determined in samples collected 1-2 m above ground level at an open field site in eastern Virginia. These acids were found to occur principally (98 percent or above) in the gas phase, with a marked annual seasonality, averaging 1890 ppt for formate and 1310 ppt for acetate during the growing season, as compared to 695 ppt and 700 ppt, respectively, over the nongrowing season. The data support the hypothesis that biogenic emissions from vegatation are important sources of atmospheric formic and acetic acid during the local growing season. The same time trends were observed for precipitation, although with less defined seasonality. The relative increase of the acetic acid/formic acid ratio during the nongrowing season points to the dominance of anthropogenic inputs of acetic acid from motor vehicles and biomass combustion in the wintertime.

Talbot, R. W.; Beecher, K. M.; Harriss, R. C.; Cofer, R. W., III

1988-01-01

107

Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications. PMID:25328203

Subari?, Drago; A?kar, Dur?ica; Babi?, Jurislav; Saka?, Nikola; Jozinovi?, Antun

2014-10-01

108

Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5). Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are novel candidate genes for genetic engineering to obtain more robust yeast strains against acetic acid toxicity. Among these genes there are number of transcription factors that are documented regulators of a large percentage of the genes found to exert protection against acetic acid thus being considered interesting targets for subsequent genetic engineering. The increase of potassium concentration in the growth medium was found to improve the expression of maximal tolerance to acetic acid, consistent with the idea that the adequate manipulation of nutrient concentration of industrial growth medium can be an interesting strategy to surpass the deleterious effects of this weak acid in yeast cells. PMID:20973990

2010-01-01

109

Indole-3-acetic acid improves Escherichia coli's defences to stress.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a ubiquitous molecule playing regulatory roles in many living organisms. To elucidate the physiological changes induced by IAA treatment, we used Escherichia coli K-12 as a model system. By microarray analysis we found that 16 genes showed an altered expression level in IAA-treated cells. One-third of these genes encode cell envelope components, or proteins involved in bacterial adaptation to unfavourable environmental conditions. We thus investigated the effect of IAA treatment on some of the structural components of the envelope that may be involved in cellular response to stresses. This showed that IAA-treated cells had increased the production of trehalose, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and biofilm. We demonstrated further that IAA triggers an increased tolerance to several stress conditions (heat and cold shock, UV-irradiation, osmotic and acid shock and oxidative stress) and different toxic compounds (antibiotics, detergents and dyes) and this correlates with higher levels of the heat shock protein DnaK. We suggest that IAA triggers an increased level of alert and protection against external adverse conditions by coordinately enhancing different cellular defence systems. PMID:16555073

Bianco, C; Imperlini, E; Calogero, R; Senatore, B; Amoresano, A; Carpentieri, A; Pucci, P; Defez, R

2006-06-01

110

Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.  

PubMed

Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:25060731

Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

2015-02-01

111

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

112

Vinegar as a burn-down herbicide: Acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, and adjuvants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acetic acid acts as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell membranes, which causes the rapid desiccation of the plant tissues. Vinegars with acetic acid concentrations of 11% or greater can burn the skin and cause serious to severe eye injury, including blindn...

113

Inactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases Belonging  

E-print Network

-acetic acid (IAA), also known as auxin, is a plant hormone involved in many aspects of plant growth on the growth of wild-type roots when applied exogenously. However, the roots of Arabidopsis plants carrying TInactive Methyl Indole-3-Acetic Acid Ester Can Be Hydrolyzed and Activated by Several Esterases

Pichersky, Eran

114

CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF 6,6´-DIMETHOXY-GOSSYPOL:ACETIC ACID (1:1)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

By crystallization from dilute solutions of acetic acid (2-4%) in diethyl ether, acetone, or methyl ethyl ketone, 6,6´-dimethoxy-gossypol forms an inclusion complex with acetic acid in a one-to-one molar ratio. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic P1bar1¯space group and has unit cell dimensio...

115

The sourdough microflora. Interactions between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts: metabolism of carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1, L. plantarum DC400, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 and S. exiguus M14 from sourdoughs were studied in a co-culture model system using a synthetic medium. The lack of competition for maltose when S.exiguus M14 was present in co-culture with each of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) enhanced the bacterial cell yield and lactic and acetic

M. Gobbetti; A. Corsetti; J. Rossi

1994-01-01

116

Acetate/acetyl-CoA metabolism associated with cancer fatty acid synthesis: overview and application.  

PubMed

Understanding cancer-specific metabolism is important for identifying novel targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Induced acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism is a notable feature that is related to fatty acid synthesis supporting tumor growth. In this review, we focused on the recent findings related to cancer acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism. We also introduce [1-¹¹C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET), which is a useful tool to visualize up-regulation of acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism in cancer, and discuss the utility of [1-¹¹C]acetate PET in cancer diagnosis and its application to personalized medicine. PMID:24569091

Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

2015-01-28

117

Competition between Fe(III)-reducing and methanogenic bacteria for acetate in iron-rich freshwater sediments.  

PubMed

The kinetics of acetate uptake and the depth distribution of [2-14C]acetate metabolism were examined in iron-rich sediments from a beaver impoundment in northcentral Alabama. The half-saturation constant (Km) determined for acetate uptake in slurries of Fe(III)-reducing sediment (0.8 mM) was more than 10-fold lower than that measured in methanogenic slurries (12 mM) which supported comparable rates of bulk organic carbon metabolism and Vmax values for acetate uptake. The endogenous acetate concentration (Sn) was also substantially lower (1.7 mM) in Fe(III)-reducing vs methanogenic (9.0 mM) slurries. The proportion of [2-14C]acetate converted to 14CH4 increased with depth from ca 0.1 in the upper 0.5 cm to ca 0.8 below 2 cm and was inversely correlated (r2 = 0.99) to a decline in amorphous Fe(III) oxide concentration. The results of the acetate uptake kinetics experiments suggest that differences in the affinity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria vs methanogens for acetate can account for the preferential conversion of [2-14C]acetate to 14CO2 in Fe(III) oxide-rich surface sediments, and that the downcore increase in conversion of [2-14C]acetate to 14CH4 can be attributed to progressive liberation of methanogens from competition with Fe(III) reducers as Fe(III) oxides are depleted with depth. PMID:12658519

Roden, E E; Wetzel, R G

2003-03-01

118

Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site  

SciTech Connect

Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

2011-02-21

119

Enantioselective protonation of ?-hetero carboxylic acid-derived ketene disilyl acetals under chiral ionic Brønsted acid catalysis.  

PubMed

Highly enantioselective protonation of ?-halo and alkoxy carboxylic acid-derived ketene disilyl acetals is achieved by using P-spiro chiral diaminodioxaphosphonium barfate as a Brønsted acid catalyst, where the enantiofacial discrimination by the catalyst mainly stems from the recognition of the electronic difference between two substituents on the ketene disilyl acetal. PMID:25234847

Uraguchi, Daisuke; Kizu, Tomohito; Ohira, Yuki; Ooi, Takashi

2014-11-14

120

Kozakia baliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-proteobacteria.  

PubMed

Four bacterial strains were isolated from palm brown sugar and ragi collected in Bali and Yogyakarta, Indonesia, by an enrichment culture approach for acetic acid bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the four isolates constituted a cluster separate from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter and Asaia with a high bootstrap value in a phylogenetic tree. The isolates had high values of DNA-DNA similarity (78-100%) between one another and low values of the similarity (7-25%) to the type strains of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Asaia bogorensis. The DNA base composition of the isolates ranged from 56.8 to 57.2 mol% G+C with a range of 0-4 mol%. The major quinone was Q-10. The isolates oxidized acetate and lactate to carbon dioxide and water, but the activity was weak, as with strains of Asaia bogorensis. The isolates differed from Asaia bogorensis strains in phenotypic characteristics. The name Kozakia baliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for the four isolates. Strain Yo-3T (= NRIC 0488T = JCM 11301T = IFO 16664T = DSM 14400T) was isolated from palm brown sugar collected in Bali, Indonesia, and was designated as the type strain. PMID:12054243

Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Widyastuti, Yantyati; Saono, Susono; Seki, Tatsuji; Yamada, Yuzo; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

2002-05-01

121

The feeding value of water and acetic acid reconstituted sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows  

E-print Network

. Lane Sorghum grain, reconstituted to 30? moisture using water or an acetic acid solution to result in 2l acetic acid in the reconsti- tuted grain, was ensiled and compared to air-dry grain in digestion, production, and volatile fatty acid studies... production were not affected by the rations. An 1n vivo volatile fatty acid study was conducted w1th a f1stulated steer fed rat1ons containing dry grain, water reconsti- tuted gra1n, and grain reconstituted with 0. 5, 1. 0, 1. 5, 2. 0 and 2. 5K acetic...

Bade, David Heinie

1972-01-01

122

IR plus vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of neutral and ionic organic acid molecules and clusters: acetic acid.  

PubMed

Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy of acetic acid (A) neutral and ionic monomers and clusters, employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), 10.5 eV single photon ionization of supersonically expanded and cooled acetic acid samples, is presented and discussed. Molecular and cluster species are identified by time of flight mass spectroscopy: the major mass features observed are A(n)H(+) (n=1-9), ACOOH(+) (VUV ionization) without IR radiation present, and A(+) with both IR and VUV radiation present. The intense feature ACOOH(+) arises from the cleavage of (A)(2) at the beta-CC bond to generate ACOOH(+)+CH(3) following ionization. The vibrational spectrum of monomeric acetic acid (2500-7500 cm(-1)) is measured by nonresonant ionization detected infrared (NRID-IR) spectroscopy. The fundamentals and overtones of the CH and OH stretches and some combination bands are identified in the spectrum. Mass selected IR spectra of neutral and cationic acetic acid clusters are measured in the 2500-3800 cm(-1) range employing nonresonant ionization dip-IR and IR photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopies, respectively. Characteristic bands observed at approximately 2500-2900 cm(-1) for the cyclic ring dimer are identified and tentatively assigned. For large neutral acetic acid clusters A(n)(n>2), spectra display only hydrogen bonded OH stretch features, while the CH modes (2500-2900 cm(-1)) do not change with cluster size n. The IRPD spectra of protonated (cationic) acetic acid clusters A(n)H(+) (n=1-7) exhibit a blueshift of the free OH stretch with increasing n. These bands finally disappear for n> or =6, and one broad and weak band due to hydrogen bonded OH stretch vibrations at approximately 3350 cm(-1) is detected. These results indicate that at least one OH group is not involved in the hydrogen bonding network for the smaller (n< or =5) A(n)H(+) species. The disappearance of the free OH stretch feature at n> or =6 suggests that closed cyclic structures form for A(n)H(+) for the larger clusters (n> or =6). PMID:17115753

Hu, Y J; Fu, H B; Bernstein, E R

2006-11-14

123

IR plus vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of neutral and ionic organic acid molecules and clusters: Acetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy of acetic acid (A) neutral and ionic monomers and clusters, employing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), 10.5eV single photon ionization of supersonically expanded and cooled acetic acid samples, is presented and discussed. Molecular and cluster species are identified by time of flight mass spectroscopy: the major mass features observed are AnH+(n=1-9), ACOOH+ (VUV ionization) without IR radiation present, and A+ with both IR and VUV radiation present. The intense feature ACOOH+ arises from the cleavage of (A)2 at the ?-CC bond to generate ACOOH++CH3 following ionization. The vibrational spectrum of monomeric acetic acid (2500-7500cm-1) is measured by nonresonant ionization detected infrared (NRID-IR) spectroscopy. The fundamentals and overtones of the CH and OH stretches and some combination bands are identified in the spectrum. Mass selected IR spectra of neutral and cationic acetic acid clusters are measured in the 2500-3800cm-1 range employing nonresonant ionization dip-IR and IR photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopies, respectively. Characteristic bands observed at approximately 2500-2900cm-1 for the cyclic ring dimer are identified and tentatively assigned. For large neutral acetic acid clusters An(n>2), spectra display only hydrogen bonded OH stretch features, while the CH modes (2500-2900cm-1) do not change with cluster size n. The IRPD spectra of protonated (cationic) acetic acid clusters AnH+ (n=1-7) exhibit a blueshift of the free OH stretch with increasing n. These bands finally disappear for n ?6, and one broad and weak band due to hydrogen bonded OH stretch vibrations at approximately 3350cm-1 is detected. These results indicate that at least one OH group is not involved in the hydrogen bonding network for the smaller (n?5) AnH+ species. The disappearance of the free OH stretch feature at n ?6 suggests that closed cyclic structures form for AnH+ for the larger clusters (n?6).

Hu, Y. J.; Fu, H. B.; Bernstein, E. R.

2006-11-01

124

Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08

125

Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.  

PubMed

In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production. PMID:24891733

Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

2014-09-01

126

Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System  

PubMed Central

In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth and higher productivity over an extended period; the productivity exceeded that from non-pH-controlled fermentation. During electrodialysis fermentation in our system, 97.6 g of acetic acid was produced from 86.0 g of ethanol; the amount of acetic acid was about 2.4 times greater than that produced by non-pH-controlled fermentation (40.1 g of acetic acid produced from 33.8 g of ethanol). Maximum productivity of electrodialysis fermentation in our system was 2.13 g/h, a rate which was 1.35 times higher than that of non-pH-controlled fermentation (1.58 g/h). PMID:16347520

Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

1988-01-01

127

Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene  

PubMed Central

We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

1998-01-01

128

Corrosion inhibition of indole-3-acetic acid on mild steel in 0.5 M HCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion inhibition of indole-3-acetic acid on mild steel in acidic medium (0.5M HCl) containing the desired amount of inhibitor has been investigated at different temperatures by using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and polarization resistance measurements. The experimental results showed that corrosion potential shifted toward a more negative potential region in the presence of indole-3-acetic acid than that of blank

Gül?en Avci

2008-01-01

129

Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene  

PubMed

We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

Robinson; Riov; Sharon

1998-12-01

130

Improving fermentation performance of recombinant Zymomonas in acetic acid-containing media.  

PubMed

In the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, the hydrolysis of the acetylated pentosans in hemicellulose during pretreatment produces acetic acid in the prehydrolysate. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently investigating a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) process that uses a proprietary metabolically engineered strain of Zymomonas mobilis that can coferment glucose and xylose. Acetic acid toxicity represents a major limitation to bioconversion, and cost-effective means of reducing the inhibitory effects of acetic acid represent an opportunity for significant increased productivity and reduced cost of producing fermentation fuel ethanol from biomass. In this study, the fermentation performance of recombinant Z. mobilis 39676:pZB4L, using a synthetic hardwood prehydrolysate containing 1% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.2% KH2PO4, 4% (w/v) xylose, and 0.8% (w/v) glucose, with varying amounts of acetic acid was examine. To minimize the concentration of the inhibitory undissociated form of acetic acid, the pH was controlled at 6.0. The final cell mass concentration decreased linearly with increasing level of acetic acid over the range 0-0.75% (w/v), with a 50% reduction at about 0.5% (w/v) acetic acid. The conversion efficiency was relatively unaffected, decreasing from 98 to 92%. In the absence of acetic acid, batch fermentations were complete at 24 h. In a batch fermentation with 0.75% (w/v) acetic acid, about two-thirds of the xylose was not metabolized after 48 h. In batch fermentations with 0.75% (w/v) acetic acid, increasing the initial glucose concentration did not have an enhancing effect on the rate of xylose fermentation. However, nearly complete xylose fermentation was achieved in 48h when the bioreactor was fed glucose. In the fed-batch system, the rate of glucose feeding (0.5 g/h) was designed to simulate the rate of cellulolytic digestion that had been observed in a modeled SSCF process with recombinant Zymomonas. In the absence of acetic acid, this rate of glucose feeding did not inhibit xylose utilization. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on xylose utilization in the SSCF biomass-to-ethanol process will be partially ameliorated because of the simultaneous saccharification of the cellulose. PMID:9627380

Lawford, H G; Rousseau, J D

1998-01-01

131

Biosynthesis of the Halogenated Auxin, 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

Tivendale, Nathan D.; Davidson, Sandra E.; Davies, Noel W.; Smith, Jason A.; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I.; Quittenden, Laura J.; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K.; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B.; Ross, John J.

2012-01-01

132

Anaerobic Conversion of Lactic Acid to Acetic Acid and 1,2-Propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri  

PubMed Central

The degradation of lactic acid under anoxic conditions was studied in several strains of Lactobacillus buchneri and in close relatives such as Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus kefir, and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Of these lactobacilli, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri were able to degrade lactic acid under anoxic conditions, without requiring an external electron acceptor. Each mole of lactic acid was converted into approximately 0.5 mol of acetic acid, 0.5 mol of 1,2-propanediol, and traces of ethanol. Based on stoichiometry studies and the high levels of NAD-linked 1,2-propanediol-dependent oxidoreductase (530 to 790 nmol min?1 mg of protein?1), a novel pathway for anaerobic lactic acid degradation is proposed. The anaerobic degradation of lactic acid by L. buchneri does not support cell growth and is pH dependent. Acidic conditions are needed to induce the lactic-acid-degrading capacity of the cells and to maintain the lactic-acid-degrading activity. At a pH above 5.8 hardly any lactic acid degradation was observed. The exact function of anaerobic lactic acid degradation by L. buchneri is not certain, but some results indicate that it plays a role in maintaining cell viability. PMID:11133436

Oude Elferink, Stefanie J. W. H.; Krooneman, Janneke; Gottschal, Jan C.; Spoelstra, Sierk F.; Faber, Folkert; Driehuis, Frank

2001-01-01

133

Chiral phosphoric acid directed regioselective acetalization of carbohydrate-derived 1,2-diols.  

PubMed

In control: A chiral phosphoric acid catalyst significantly enhances or completely overrides the inherent regioselective acetalization profiles exhibited by monosaccharide-derived 1,2-diol substrates. This study represents the first example of chiral-catalyst-directed regio- and enantioselective intermolecular acetalizations, which are complementary to existing methods for substrate-controlled functionalization of polyols. PMID:24123751

Mensah, Enoch; Camasso, Nicole; Kaplan, Will; Nagorny, Pavel

2013-12-01

134

Lactic acid bacteria of foods and their current taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of molecular genetic techniques to determine the relatedness of food-associated lactic acid bacteria has resulted in significant changes in their taxonomic classification. During the 1980s the genus Streptococcus was separated into the three genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The lactic acid bacteria associated with foods now include species of the genera Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus,

Michael E. Stiles; Wilhelm H. Holzapfel

1997-01-01

135

Effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalene acetic acid on regeneration of damask rose cuttings in three growing media.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of various levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) treatments i.e., 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L(-1) on the regeneration of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cuttings in different growing media at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan during 2004. The data revealed significant effect of different levels of growth regulators and growing media on the rose establishment parameters viz., plant height, plant spread, number of primary shoots, secondary shoots and survival percentage. Maximum plant height (134.2 cm), plant spread (46.3 cm), primary shoots (6.3), secondary shoots (25) and survival percentage (94.72%) were recorded when the rose cuttings were applied with NAA at the rate of 50 mg L(-1). Among the plant growth regulators, Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found to be superior to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for its stronger effect regarding all parameters. The optimum level of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) was found in the range of 50 and 75 mg L(-1), while no such conclusion could be drawn for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as all growth parameters were linearly increased up to the highest concentrations of IAA i.e., 100 mg L(-1). Regarding growing media, the leaf mould appeared the best in terms of its positive effect on establishment of rose cuttings by giving the maximum plant height (125.1 cm), plant spread (37 cm), primary shoots (5.2), secondary shoots (19.48) and survival percentage (85.67%), followed by soil + leaf mould, while soil media was least effective. PMID:19093472

Khan, Rahmat Ullah; Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Rashid, Abdur; Farooq, Arshad

2007-10-15

136

Bombella intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from bumble bee crop.  

PubMed

In the frame of a bumble bee gut microbiota study, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were isolated using a combination of direct isolation methods and enrichment procedures. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of the isolates and a comparison of these profiles with profiles of established AAB species identified most isolates as Asaia astilbis or as 'Commensalibacter intestini', except for two isolates (R-52486 and LMG 28161(T)) that showed an identical profile. A nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 28161(T) was determined and showed the highest pairwise similarity to Saccharibacter floricola S-877(T) (96.5?%), which corresponded with genus level divergence in the family Acetobacteraceae. Isolate LMG 28161(T) was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing; a 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence as well as partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB were extracted for phylogenetic analyses. The obtained data confirmed that this isolate is best classified into a new genus in the family Acetobacteraceae. The DNA G+C content of strain LMG 28161(T) was 54.9 mol%. The fatty acid compositions of isolates R-52486 and LMG 28161(T) were similar to those of established AAB species [with C18?:?1?7c (43.1?%) as the major component], but the amounts of fatty acids such as C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c, C14?:?0 and C14?:?0 2-OH enabled to differentiate them. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. Both isolates could also be differentiated from the known genera of AAB by means of biochemical characteristics, such as their inability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, negligible acid production from melibiose, and notable acid production from d-fructose, sucrose and d-mannitol. In addition, they produced 2-keto-d-gluconate, but not 5-keto-d-gluconate from d-glucose. Therefore, the name Bombella intestini gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this new taxon, with LMG 28161(T) (?=?DSM 28636(T)?=?R-52487(T)) as the type strain of the type species. PMID:25336723

Li, Leilei; Praet, Jessy; Borremans, Wim; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

2015-01-01

137

75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...activity in all cells that utilize oxygen as part of their respiration process. The krebs cycle is carried out in the mitochondria...believes that because acetic acid biodegrades rapidly under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the environment, residues...

2010-07-14

138

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2010-04-01

139

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2012-04-01

140

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2011-04-01

141

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2013-04-01

142

21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.  

...and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid...

2014-04-01

143

Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids.  

PubMed

The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine. PMID:19099460

de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario

2009-01-28

144

Complexation of chitosan with acetic acid according to Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the interaction between the protonated chitosan (CHI) macromolecule and the acetate ion in dilute acetic acid solutions were studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical modeling. The complexation of CHI with the acetate ion showed itself as the 934 cm-1 band in the Raman spectrum, which suggests the formation of [CHI+ · CH3COO-] type ion pairs. It was concluded that a comparative analysis of the integrated intensities of the Raman bands in the range 880-940 cm-1 makes it possible to judge about the relative content of hydrated acetate ions, CHI macromolecules of the [CHI+ · CH3COO-] complex, and acetic acid molecules not involved in CHI protonation.

Mikhailov, G. P.; Tuchkov, S. V.; Lazarev, V. V.; Kulish, E. I.

2014-06-01

145

Phase I and Clinical Pharmacology Study of Intravenous Flavone Acetic Acid (NSC347512)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a Phase I and pharmacological study of flavone acetic acid, one of a series of novel flavonoids. The drug was administered i.v. weekly for 4 weeks, with a 2-week rest and then repeated. Flavone acetic acid was given initially in a l-li infusion, but at the 3900-mg\\/m2 dose level, the infusion time was lengthened to 3 h.

Raymond B. Weiss; Raymond F. Greene; Robert D. Knight; Jerry M. Collins; John J. Pelosi; Aaron Sulkes; Gregory A. Curt

146

Responses of Pisum sativum L. to Exogenous Indole Acetic Acid Application Under Manganese Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings to manganese (50, 100 and 250 ?M) and indole acetic acid (10 and 100 ?M) treatments were investigated. Single\\u000a and combined exposure of pea to manganese and 100 ?M indole acetic acid decreased root and shoot fresh mass, chlorophyll,\\u000a carotenoids, protein and nitrogen while ammonium content increased compared to the control. Combined treatment of pea with

Savita Gangwar; Vijay Pratap Singh; Jagat Narayan Maurya

2011-01-01

147

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both

M. O. Andreae; R. W. Talbot; T. W. Andreae; R. C. Harriss

1988-01-01

148

Reactivity of some sugars and sugar phosphates towards gold(III) in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer medium.  

PubMed

The kinetics of the oxidation of some aldoses and aldose phosphates have been studied spectrophotometrically in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer medium at different temperatures. The reactions are first order with respect to [Au(III)] and [substrate]. Both H+ and Cl- ions retard the reaction. The reactions appear to involve different gold(III) species, viz. AuCl4-, AuCl3(OH2) and AuCl3(OH)- . The results are interpreted in terms of the probable intermediate formation of free radicals and Au(II). Aldoses react with gold(III) in the order: triose > tetrose > pentose > hexose. The sugar phosphates react with gold(III) at a faster rate than the parent sugars except glucose-1-phosphate, which reacts at slower rates than glucose. A tentative reaction mechanism leading to the formation of products has been suggested. PMID:11217954

Sen Gupta, K K; Pal, B; Begum, B A

2001-01-15

149

Dissimilation of Carbon Monoxide to Acetic Acid by Glucose-Limited Cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum  

PubMed Central

Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. We found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O ? CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating 9.1 mmol of CO consumed/h per liter of culture. In contrast, resting cells were found not to dissimilate CO to acetic acid. 14CO was incorporated, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons of acetic acid when the initial cultivation gas phase was 100% CO, whereas 14CO2 preferentially entered the carboxyl carbon when the initial gas phase was 100% CO2. Significantly, in the presence of saturating levels of CO, 14CO2 preferentially entered the methyl carbon, whereas saturating levels of CO2 yielded 14CO-derived labeling predominantly in the carboxyl carbon. These findings are discussed in relation to the path of carbon flow to acetic acid. PMID:16346807

Martin, Douglas R.; Misra, Arun; Drake, Harold L.

1985-01-01

150

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw IV: PhysicoChemical Characterization of Acetic Acid Lignins from Rice Straw and Woods. Part 1. Physical Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lignins obtained by atmospheric acetic acid delignification of rice straw, birch and fir were characterized by molecular weight, solubility and thermomechanical analysis, and by ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. Rice straw lignins (rice lignins) were very different from birch and fir lignins. The former was difficult to dissolve in most tested solvents and infusible

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

151

Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping of Rice Straw IV: PhysicoChemical Characterization of Acetic Acid Lignins from Rice Straw and Woods. Part 2. Chemical Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acetic acid lignins from rice straw (RLs), birch (BL) and fir (FL) were chemically characterized by means of elementary analysis, functional groups analysis, alkaline nitrobenzene and permanganate oxi- dation, Mannich reactivity and other techniques. The results showed that RLs had higher contents of residual polysaccharide and protein, and remarkably fewer acetyl groups than BL and FL. Results of nitrobenzene

Xue-Jun Pan; Yoshihiro Sano

1999-01-01

152

Identification and activity of acetate-assimilating bacteria in diffuse fluids venting from two deep-sea hydrothermal systems.  

PubMed

Diffuse hydrothermal fluids often contain organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, lipids, and organic acids. Microorganisms consuming these compounds at hydrothermal sites are so far only known from cultivation-dependent studies. To identify potential heterotrophs without prior cultivation, we combined microbial community analysis with short-term incubations using (13)C-labeled acetate at two distinct hydrothermal systems. We followed cell growth and assimilation of (13)C into single cells by nanoSIMS combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 55 °C-fluids from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal system/Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a novel epsilonproteobacterial group accounted for nearly all assimilation of acetate, representing the first aerobic acetate-consuming member of the Nautiliales. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria dominated the (13) C-acetate assimilation in incubations of 37 °C-fluids from the back-arc hydrothermal system in the Manus Basin/Papua New Guinea. Here, 16S rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to mesophilic Marinobacter, reflecting the high content of seawater in these fluids. The rapid growth of microorganisms upon acetate addition suggests that acetate consumers in diffuse fluids are copiotrophic opportunists, which quickly exploit their energy sources, whenever available under the spatially and temporally highly fluctuating conditions. Our data provide first insights into the heterotrophic microbial community, catalyzing an under-investigated part of microbial carbon cycling at hydrothermal vents. PMID:25244359

Winkel, Matthias; Pjevac, Petra; Kleiner, Manuel; Littmann, Sten; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Mußmann, Marc

2014-12-01

153

Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

1983-01-01

154

Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.  

PubMed

Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative. PMID:19241560

Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

2008-08-01

155

Amino acid dehydrogenases from thermotolerant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated many thermotolerant bacteria from soil samples and selected the bacteria, which showed phenylalanine dehydrogenase and lysine dehydrogenase activities. Phenylalanine dehydrogenase can be useful for the enzymatic syntheses of L-phenylalanine and its derivatives and for the enzymatic assay of phenylketoneurea syndrome. Lysine dehydrogenase is useful for the enzymatic syntheses of L-?- aminoadipate, which is a useful material for the

Kanoktip PACKDIBAMRUNG; Siriporn SITTIPRANEED; Shinji NAGATA; Haruo MISONO

156

Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria  

PubMed Central

Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 106 acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm?3 in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments. PMID:22572639

Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

2012-01-01

157

Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 10(6) acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm(-3) in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments. PMID:22572639

Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

2012-11-01

158

Production of Acetic Acid from Carbohydrate Biomass by Two-Step Reaction with Alkaline Hydrothermal Reaction and Wet Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out to improve the production of acetic acid by an alkaline two-step process, in which the first step is to accelerate the formation of lactic acid in a hydrothermal reaction with the addition of alkali, and the second step is further convert the lactic acid produced in the first step to acetic acid by oxidation with

X. Yan; F. Jin; K. Tohji; H. Enomoto

2007-01-01

159

Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance, and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 {+-} 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 {+-} 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 {+-} 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion.

Lubienski, Andreas [Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)], E-mail: lubienski@radiologie.uni-luebeck.de; Duex, Markus [Hospital Northwest Frankfurt, Department of Radiology (Germany); Lubienski, Katrin; Grenacher, Lars; Kauffmann, Guenter [Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2005-12-15

160

Comparative analysis of CRISPR loci in lactic acid bacteria genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are hypervariable loci widely distributed in bacteria and archaea, that provide acquired immunity against foreign genetic elements. Here, we investigate the occurrence of CRISPR loci in the genomes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including members of the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla. A total of 102 complete and draft genomes across 11 genera were

Philippe Horvath; Anne-Claire Coûté-Monvoisin; Dennis A. Romero; Patrick Boyaval; Christophe Fremaux; Rodolphe Barrangou

2009-01-01

161

Liberation of amino acids by heterotrophic nitrogen fixing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Large amounts of amino acids are produced by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium when growing in culture media amended with different carbon and nitrogen sources. This kind of bacteria live in close association with plant roots enhanced plant growth mainly as a result of their ability to fix nitrogen, improving shoot and root development

J. González-López; B. Rodelas; C. Pozo; V. Salmerón-López; M. V. Martínez-Toledo; V. Salmerón

2005-01-01

162

DEGRADATION OF AMINO ACIDS BY PURE CULTURES OF RUMEN BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Amino Acid (AA) degradation profiles of five major genera of rumen bacteria were determined using physiological levels of AA under in vitro conditions. The results indicated that (1) not all AA are degraded by all strains of rumen bacteria and (2) degradation occurs at different rates. The genera Megaspbaera, Eubacterium and Streptococcus isolate 19D degraded all 14 AA tested.

Curtis Scheifinger; Neville Russell; William Chalupa

163

Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

164

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic biomass to acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrain of Clostridium thermoaceticum (ATCC 49707) was evaluated for its homoacetate potential. This thermophilic anaerobe best produces acetate from glucose at\\u000a pH 6.0 and 59°C with a yield of 83% of theoretical. Enzyme hydrolysis of two substrates, a-cellulose and a pulp mill sludge,\\u000a yielded 68% and 70% digestion, respectively. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation\\u000a (SSF) were

Jacob R. Borden; Youn Y. Lee; Hyon-Hee Yoon

2000-01-01

165

Production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid by estuarine species of the genus Vibrio.  

PubMed

Strains of Vibrio spp. isolated from roots of the estuarine grasses Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The colorimetric Salkowski assay was used for initial screening of IAA production. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was then employed to confirm and quantify IAA production. The accuracy of IAA quantification by the Salkowski assay was examined by comparison to GC-MS assay values. Indole-3-acetamide, an intermediate in IAA biosynthesis by the indole-3-acetamide pathway, was also identified by GC-MS. Multilocus sequence typing of concatenated 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoA genes was used for phylogenetic analysis of environmental isolates within the genus Vibrio. Eight Vibrio type strains and five additional species-level clades containing a total of 16 environmental isolates and representing five presumptive new species were identified as IAA-producing Vibrio species. Six additional environmental isolates similar to four of the Vibrio type strains were also IAA producers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IAA production by species of the genus Vibrio or by bacteria isolated from an estuarine environment. PMID:19218411

Gutierrez, Casandra K; Matsui, George Y; Lincoln, David E; Lovell, Charles R

2009-04-01

166

Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen-oxy-acetic acid, (4-fluoro-phen-oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl-phen-oxy)acetic acid.  

PubMed

The structures of the ammonium salts of phen-oxy-acetic acid, NH4 (+)·C8H6O3 (-), (I), (4-fluoro-phen-oxy)acetic acid, NH4 (+)·C8H5FO3 (-), (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl-phen-oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 (+)·C9H8ClO3 (-)·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N-H?O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomorphous with the core comprising R 1 (2)(5), R 1 (2)(4) and centrosymmetric R 4 (2)(8) ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). In (III), the water mol-ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R 4 (4)(12) hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R 4 (3)(10) rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R 4 (2)(8) ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). No ?-? ring associations are present in any of the structures. PMID:25552984

Smith, Graham

2014-12-01

167

Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid  

PubMed Central

The structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H6O3 ?, (I), (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H5FO3 ?, (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 +·C9H8ClO3 ?·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H?O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomorphous with the core comprising R 1 2(5), R 1 2(4) and centrosymmetric R 4 2(8) ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). In (III), the water mol­ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R 4 4(12) hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R 4 3(10) rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R 4 2(8) ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100). No ?–? ring associations are present in any of the structures. PMID:25552984

Smith, Graham

2014-01-01

168

Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation  

SciTech Connect

Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y{sub ATP} (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 14}C)benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation.

Russell, J.B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

169

DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies using traditional biochemical methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four lactic acid bacteria species, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were the primary microorganisms in...

170

Methane production from rice straw pretreated by a mixture of acetic–propionic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice straw was treated with a mixed solution of acetic acid and propionic acid to enhance its biodegradability. The effect of acid concentration, pretreatment time, and the ratio of solid to liquid on the delignification performance of rice straw were investigated. It was found that the optimal conditions for hydrolysis were 0.75mol\\/L acid concentration, 2h pretreatment time and 1:20 solid

Rui Zhao; Zhenya Zhang; Ruiqin Zhang; Miao Li; Zhongfang Lei; Motoo Utsumi; Norio Sugiura

2010-01-01

171

Uncatalyzed reaction of silyl ketene acetals with oxalyl chloride: a straightforward preparation of symmetrical pulvinic acids.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] Several natural pulvinic acids were synthesized. Silyl ketene acetals derived from methyl arylacetates (4 equiv) reacted with oxalyl chloride at -78 degrees C, without the need of adding a catalyst. After treatment of the crude diketones with DBU and acidification with hydrochloric acid, symmetrical pulvinic acids methyl esters were obtained. Saponification of the methyl esters afforded the corresponding pulvinic acids in 60-70% overall yields from oxalyl chloride. PMID:15704989

Heurtaux, Benoît; Lion, Claude; Le Gall, Thierry; Mioskowski, Charles

2005-02-18

172

Purification and Partial Characterization of a Glucan Containing Indole-3-acetic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The “bound auxin” of Zea mays, first described by Berger and Avery (Amer. J. Bot. 1944; 31: 199-203) has been purified and partially characterized. It is an indole-3-acetic acid-containing, high molecular weight, lipophilic cellulosicglucan. The indole-3-acetic acid is in ester linkage as evidenced by indoleacetamide formation upon ammonolysis. The glucan is of variable chain length and comprises, in general, 35 to 50 per cent of the dry weight of the compound. The glucosidic residues are ? 1 ? 4 linked and are hydrolyzed by cellulase. Mild acid hydrolysis produces cellobiose and cellotriose. Other components, as yet unidentified, of the compound are described. PMID:16658117

Piskornik, Zdzislaw; Bandurski, Robert S.

1972-01-01

173

The Fate of Acetic Acid during Glucose Co-Metabolism by the Spoilage Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii  

PubMed Central

Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most widely represented spoilage yeast species, being able to metabolise acetic acid in the presence of glucose. To clarify whether simultaneous utilisation of the two substrates affects growth efficiency, we examined growth in single- and mixed-substrate cultures with glucose and acetic acid. Our findings indicate that the biomass yield in the first phase of growth is the result of the weighted sum of the respective biomass yields on single-substrate medium, supporting the conclusion that biomass yield on each substrate is not affected by the presence of the other at pH 3.0 and 5.0, at least for the substrate concentrations examined. In vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the gluconeogenic pathway is not operational and that [2?13C]acetate is metabolised via the Krebs cycle leading to the production of glutamate labelled on C2, C3 and C4. The incorporation of [U-14C]acetate in the cellular constituents resulted mainly in the labelling of the protein and lipid pools 51.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall, our data establish that glucose is metabolised primarily through the glycolytic pathway, and acetic acid is used as an additional source of acetyl-CoA both for lipid synthesis and the Krebs cycle. This study provides useful clues for the design of new strategies aimed at overcoming yeast spoilage in acidic, sugar-containing food environments. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the resistance phenotype of Z. bailii to acetic acid will have a potential impact on the improvement of the performance of S. cerevisiae industrial strains often exposed to acetic acid stress conditions, such as in wine and bioethanol production. PMID:23285028

Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Ludovico, Paula; Santos, Helena; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

2012-01-01

174

Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Amino Alcohols through Intermolecular Acetalization Catalyzed by a Chiral Brønsted Acid.  

PubMed

The kinetic resolution of racemic secondary alcohols is a fundamental method for obtaining enantiomerically enriched alcohols. Compared to esterification, which is a well-established method for this purpose, kinetic resolution through enantioselective intermolecular acetalization has not been reported to date despite the fact that the formation of acetals is widely adopted to protect hydroxy groups. By taking advantage of the thermodynamics of acetalization by the addition of alcohols to enol ethers, a highly efficient kinetic resolution of racemic amino alcohols was achieved for the first time and in a practical manner using a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. PMID:25581575

Yamanaka, Takuto; Kondoh, Azusa; Terada, Masahiro

2015-01-28

175

Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

2013-01-01

176

Acetic acid detection threshold in synthetic wine samples of a portable electronic nose.  

PubMed

Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

2013-01-01

177

Inhibition of enterobacteria and Listeria growth by lactic, acetic and formic acids.  

PubMed

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of undissociated lactic, acetic and formic acids were evaluated for 23 strains of enterobacteria and two of Listeria monocytogenes. The evaluation was performed aerobically and anaerobically in a liquid test system at pH intervals of between 4.2 and 5.4. Growth of the enterobacteria was inhibited at 2-11 mmol l-1, 0.5-14 mmol l-1 and 0.1-1.5 mmol l-1 of undissociated lactic, acetic and formic acids, respectively. The MIC value was slightly lower with anaerobic conditions compared with aerobic conditions. The influence of protons on the inhibition was observed for acetic acid at the low pH values. Undissociated lactic acid was 2 to 5 times more efficient in inhibiting L. monocytogenes than enterobacteria. Acetic acid had a similar inhibitory action on L. monocytogenes compared with enterobacteria. Inorganic acid (HCl) inhibited most enterobacteria at pH 4.0; some strains, however, were able to initiate growth to pH 3.8. The results indicate that the values of undissociated acid which occur in a silage of pH 4.1-4.5 are about 10-100 times higher than required in order to protect the forage from the growth of enterobacteria and L. monocytogenes. PMID:8365950

Ostling, C E; Lindgren, S E

1993-07-01

178

Effect of indole-3-acetic acid on aluminum-induced efflux of malic acid from wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been found to be involved in plant resistance to various types of environmental stress. Aluminum\\u000a (Al) toxicity, as one of the most important environmental stress in acid soils, is coped by most plants through the efflux\\u000a of organic acids via anion channel. This study aims to evaluate the effect of IAA on efflux of malic acid

Ye Yang; Qiao Lan Wang; Ming Jian Geng; Zai Hua Guo; Zhuqing Zhao

179

Stability of cyclopropane and conjugated linoleic acids during fatty acid quantification in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven methods commonly used for fatty acid analysis of microgrganisms and foods were compared to establish the best for the\\u000a analysis of lyophilized lactic acid bacteria. One of these methods involves fat extraction followed by methylation of fatty\\u000a acids, while the other methods use a direct methylation of the samples, under different operating conditions (e.g., reaction\\u000a temperature and time, reagents,

Fabiola Dionisi; Pierre-Alain Golay; Marina Elli; Laurent B. Fay

1999-01-01

180

Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The native auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is a major regulator of plant growth and development. Its nonuniform distribution between cells and tissues underlies the spatiotemporal coordination of many developmental events and responses to environmental stimuli. The regulation of auxin gradients and the formation of auxin maxima/minima most likely involve the regulation of both metabolic and transport processes. In this article, we have demonstrated that 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) is a major primary IAA catabolite formed in Arabidopsis thaliana root tissues. OxIAA had little biological activity and was formed rapidly and irreversibly in response to increases in auxin levels. We further showed that there is cell type–specific regulation of oxIAA levels in the Arabidopsis root apex. We propose that oxIAA is an important element in the regulation of output from auxin gradients and, therefore, in the regulation of auxin homeostasis and response mechanisms. PMID:24163311

P?n?ík, Aleš; Simonovik, Biljana; Petersson, Sara V.; Henyková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, Kathleen; Zhang, Yi; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Estelle, Mark; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ond?ej; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin

2013-01-01

181

Measuring acetic acid dimer modes by ultrafast time-domain Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Acetic acid is capable of forming strong multiple hydrogen bonds and therefore different dimeric H-bonded structures in neat liquid phase and in solutions. The low frequency Raman spectra of acetic acid (neat, in aqueous solution and as a function of temperature) were obtained by ultrafast time and polarization resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE) measurements. Isotropic OKE measurements clearly reveal a specific totally symmetric mode related to the dimeric structure H-bond stretching mode. The effects of isotope substitution, water dilution and temperature on this mode were investigated. These results together with anisotropic OKE measurements and density functional theory calculations for a number of possible dimers provide strong evidence for the cyclic dimer structure being the main structure in liquid phase persisting down to acetic acid concentrations of 10 M. Some information about the dimer structure and concentration dependence was inferred. PMID:21625711

Heisler, Ismael A; Mazur, Kamila; Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Tominaga, Keisuke; Meech, Stephen R

2011-09-14

182

Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the molecular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid. We shall elaborate on the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cross-talk of pro-survival and pro-death pathways underlying the importance of understanding fundamental aspects of yeast cell homeostasis to improve the performance of a given yeast strain in biotechnological applications. PMID:23430312

Giannattasio, Sergio; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Ždralevi?, Maša; Marra, Ersilia

2013-01-01

183

Acetic acid induced ulceration in rats is not affected by infection with Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

Analysis of rodent models of inflammatory bowel disease, airways hyper-reactivity, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis has shown that infection with helminth parasites can significantly reduce the severity of the disease. Here, we assessed whether rats infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta were protected from gastric ulceration induced by the serosal application of acetic acid. All rats gavaged with infective cysticercoids harbored adult worms when assessed 6 wk later, and acetic acid evoked the expected gastric ulceration. However, infection with H. diminuta did not affect the degree of gastric ulceration at either 3 or 7 days post-acetic acid application, as gauged by ulcer area or histopathology. While the data do not dismiss the possibility that infection with other helminths could be anti-ulcerogenic, they illustrate that 'helminth therapy' for inflammatory disease is likely to be both disease- and helminth-specific. PMID:18767911

McKay, Derek M; Wallace, John L

2009-04-01

184

Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

1987-01-01

185

Effects of Exogenously Applied Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) to Cotton  

E-print Network

for organizing and finding missing samples, and to Julie for financial encouragement. Finally, I thank B, for giving me the support I needed to finish strong. . vi NOMENCLATURE Abscisic Acid ABA Gibberellins GA3 IAA Indole-3-Acetic Acid Phytogen... for plant growth and development. They play a critical role in numerous physiological and biochemical processes. Cytokinins, and abscisic acid (ABA) are major hormones that inhibit cotton fiber development. Auxins, gibberellins, brassinosteriods...

Clement, Jenny D.

2011-08-08

186

Surface Binding of Aflatoxin B1 by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific lactic acid bacterial strains remove toxins from liquid media by physical binding. The stability of the aflatoxin B1 complexes formed with 12 bacterial strains in both viable and nonviable (heat- or acid-treated) forms was assessed by repetitive aqueous extraction. By the fifth extraction, up to 71% of the total aflatoxin B1 remained bound. Nonviable bacteria retained the highest amount

CAROLYN A. HASKARD; HANI S. EL-NEZAMI; PASI E. KANKAANPAA; SEPPO SALMINEN; JORMA T. AHOKAS

2001-01-01

187

Successive adsorption of methanol, butylamine, and acetic acid on titanium dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The sequence of modification of TiO/sub 2/ by amines and alcohols or by acids and alcohols affects the value of the adsorption of the individual substances and the nature of the mixed adsorption layers formed in this case. The adsorption layer formed in the modification of rutile first with methanol and then with n-butylamine is denser with respect to the adsorption of benzene and more resistant to the action of water vapors in comparison with the adsorption layer formed when these modifiers were applied in the reverse order. The modification of TiO/sub 2/ by acid and alcohol in any sequence leads to an interaction of them with one another in the adsorption layer; methanol displaces only part of the preadsorbed molecules of acetic acid from the surface, while the acid displaces virtually all of the alcohol. Under moist conditions the adsorption layer obtained by applying acetic acid on rutile with preadsorbed methanol is more stable.

Isirikyan, A.A.; Mikhailova, S.S.; Polunina, I.A.; Tolstaya, S.N.

1985-09-01

188

Genesis of Acetate and Methane by Gut Bacteria of Nutritionally Diverse Termites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of different feeding guilds in termites is paralleled by differences in the activity of their gut microbiota. In wood-feeding termites, carbon dioxide-reducing acetogenic bacteria were found to generally outprocess carbon dioxide-reducing methanogenic bacteria for reductant (presumably hydrogen) generated during microbial fermentation in the hindgut. By contrast, acetogenesis from hydrogen and carbon dioxide was of little significance in fungus-growing

Alain Brauman; Matthew D. Kane; Marc Labat; John A. Breznak

1992-01-01

189

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.

Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.

1988-02-20

190

Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.  

PubMed

Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

2014-08-29

191

Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement-A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag+. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag+ release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Sedira, Sofiane; Ayachi, Ahmed Abdelhakim; Lakehal, Sihem; Fateh, Merouane; Achour, Slimane

2014-08-01

192

Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A. [Assumption College, Worcester, MA (USA)

2009-02-15

193

Equations and calculations for fermentations of butyric acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharolytic clostridia grow anaerobically on a variety of substrates, can produce a large number of useful prod- uct~,~-~ and thus appear to be very promising bacteria for production of organic chemicals from mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Butyric acid bacteria (clostridia) in par- ticular, can anaerobically ferment a variety of sugars (hex- oses, pentoses, and oligosac~harides )~~~~~ to produce a variety

Eleftherios Terry Papoutsakis

1984-01-01

194

Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress  

PubMed Central

When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L?1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L?1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large rearrangements in its lipid profile. PMID:24023914

Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

2013-01-01

195

Influence of 5-Methyltryptophan-Resistant Bradyrhizobium japonicum on Soybean Root Nodule Indole-3-Acetic Acid Content †  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutants resistant to 5-methyltryptophan were isolated. Some of these mutants were found to accumulate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and tryptophan in culture. In greenhouse studies, nodules from control plants inoculated with wild-type bradyrhizobia contained 0.04, 0.10, and 0.58 ?g of free, ester-linked, and peptidyl IAA g (fresh weight) of nodules?1, respectively. Nodules from plants inoculated with 5-methyltryptophan-resistant bradyrhizobia contained 0.94, 1.30, and 10.6 ?g of free, ester-linked, and peptidyl IAA g (fresh weight) of nodules?1, respectively. This manyfold increase in nodule IAA content indicates that the Bradyrhizobium inoculum can have a considerable influence on the endogenous IAA level of the nodule. Further, these data imply that much of the IAA that accumulated in the high-IAA-containing nodules was of bacterial rather than plant origin. These high-IAA-producing 5-methyltryptophan-resistant bacteria were poor symbiotic nitrogen fixers. Plants inoculated with these bacteria had a lower nodule mass and fixed less nitrogen per gram of nodule than did plants inoculated with wild-type bacteria. PMID:16347335

Hunter, William J.

1987-01-01

196

Calibration and intercomparison of acetic acid measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acetic acid is one of the most abundant organic acids in the ambient atmosphere, with maximum mixing ratios reaching into the tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv) range. The identities and associated magnitudes of the major sources and sinks for acetic acid are poorly characterized, due in part to the limitation in available measurement techniques. This paper demonstrates that Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) can reliably quantify acetic acid vapor in ambient air. Three different PTR-MS configurations were calibrated at low ppbv mixing ratios using permeation tubes, which yielded calibration factors between 7.0 and 10.9 normalized counts per second per ppbv (ncps ppbv?1) at a drift tube field strength of 132 townsend (Td). Detection limits ranged from 0.06 to 0.32 ppbv with dwell times of 5 s. These calibration factors showed negligible humidity dependence. Using the experimentally determined calibration factors, PTR-MS measurements of acetic acid during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign were validated against results obtained using Mist Chambers coupled with Ion Chromatography (MC/IC). An orthogonal least squares linear regression of paired data yielded a slope of 1.14 ± 0.06 (2?), an intercept of 0.049 ± 20 (2?) ppbv, and an R2 of 0.78. The median mixing ratio of acetic acid on Appledore Island, ME during the ICARTT campaign was 0.530 ± 0.025 ppbv with a minimum of 0.075 ± 0.004 ppbv, and a maximum of 3.555 ± 0.171 ppbv.

Haase, K.B.; Keene, W.C.; Pszenny, A.A.P.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.W.; Sive, B.C.

2012-01-01

197

Acetic acid treatment for wrinkle-free oral mucosal epithelia in paraffin section preparation.  

PubMed

For histopathological assessment of oral borderline malignancies, it is important to carefully detect subtle epithelial changes on fully stretched tissue sections. However, it is not generally easy to obtain wrinkle-free sections when using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oral mucosal samples. Since acetic acid treatment is already utilized for large brain tissue sections, we examined whether that treatment was also effective for oral mucosal tissues containing normal to malignant epithelial lesions. Paraffin sections were floated in various concentrations of acetic acid for 10 min after stretching in water for 1 min, then wrinkle formations were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining, as well as for staining intensity with keratin immunohistochemistry. Wrinkles were formed in both epithelial and connective tissue zones of sections treated with less than a 40-mM (0.25%) concentration of acetic acid. In contrast, treatments with concentrations at 80 mM (0.5%) and higher resulted in cracking between the epithelial layer and lamina propria, as well as poor immunohistochemical results for keratins 13 and 17, even though the wrinkles completely disappeared. These results indicate that 40 mM is the optimal concentration of acetic acid solution to prevent wrinkles in the epithelial layer while maintaining the immunohistochemical qualities of oral mucosa tissue sections, especially those containing borderline malignant epithelial lesions. PMID:20623754

Ahsan, Md Shahidul; Maruyama, Satoshi; Cheng, Jun; Al-Eryani, Kamal; Yamazaki, Manabu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Tsuneki, Masayuki; Saku, Takashi

2011-03-01

198

EXTRACTION AND ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN EXTRACTED FROM CORN GLUTEN MEAL USING ACETIC ACID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been demonstrated that zein fibers can be produced using the electrospinning technique. Fibers electrospun from acetic acid solution under suitable conditions provide fibers with a more consistent morphology (round 0.5-2.0 micro fibers) compared to fibers produced from aqueous ethanol soluti...

199

GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III* ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

200

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

1990-01-01

201

Protective Effect of Comaruman, a Pectin of Cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of comaruman CP, a pectin of marsh cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., was investigated using a model of acetic acid-induced colitis in mice. Mice were administered comaruman CP orally 2 days prior to rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 hr later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury, higher levels of myeloperoxidase activity, enhanced

Sergey V. Popov; Raisa G. Ovodova; Pavel A. Markov; Ida R. Nikitina; Yury S. Ovodov

2006-01-01

202

Late Imaging with [1-11C]Acetate Improves Detection of Tumor Fatty Acid Synthesis with PET.  

PubMed

Tumors are often characterized by high levels of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The kinetics of acetate incorporation into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and into lipids suggest that detection of tumors with [1-(11)C]acetate PET could be improved by imaging at later time points. PMID:24777291

Lewis, David Y; Boren, Joan; Shaw, Greg L; Bielik, Robert; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Larkin, Timothy J; Martins, Carla P; Neal, David E; Soloviev, Dmitry; Brindle, Kevin M

2014-04-28

203

Effects of ?-lipoic acid on deoxycorticosterone acetate–salt-induced hypertension in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential of natural occurring antioxidant ?-lipoic acid to prevent hypertension and hypertensive tissue injury induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and salt in rats. Two weeks after the start of DOCA–salt treatment, the rats were given ?-lipoic acid (10 or 100 mg\\/kg\\/day, s.c.) or its vehicle for 2 weeks. Uninephrectomized rats without DOCA–salt treatment served as sham-operated controls.

Masanori Takaoka; Yutaka Kobayashi; Mikihiro Yuba; Mamoru Ohkita; Yasuo Matsumura

2001-01-01

204

Leuconostoc gelidum and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum strains dominated the lactic acid bacterium population associated with strong slime formation in an acetic-acid herring preserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoilage characterised by strong slime and gas formation affected some manufacture lots of an acetic-acid Baltic herring (Culpea haerengus membras) preserve after few weeks of storage at 0–6 °C. The product consisted of herring filets in acetic acid marinade containing sugar, salt, allspice and carrot slices. Microbiological analyses of the spoiled product showed high lactic acid bacterium (LAB) levels ranging

Ulrike Lyhs; Joanna M. K. Koort; Hanna-Saara Lundström; K. Johanna Björkroth

2004-01-01

205

STABILITY OF MFI ZEOLITE-FILLED PDMS MEMBRANES DURING PERVAPORATIVE ETHANOL RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS MIXTURES CONTAINING ACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Pervaporation is a potential process for recovering bioethanol produced from biomass fermentation. Fermentation broths contain ethanol, water, and a variety of other compounds, often including carboxylic acids. The effects of acetic acid on long-term pervaporation of aqueous et...

206

Enzymological studies of one-carbon reactions in the pathway of acetate utilization by methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Several enzymes in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane and carbon dioxide have been purified from Methanosarcina thermophila. The mechanisms of these enzymes are under investigation utilizing biochemical, biophysical and molecular genetic approaches. Acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase catalyzes the activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA. The primary structure of these enzymes will be determined through cloning and sequencing of the genes. Two protein components of the CO dehydrogenase complex are under investigations. The metal centers of each component have been characterized using EPR. Cloning and sequencing of the genes for the two subunits of each component is in progress. Results indicate that the Ni/Fe-S component cleaves the C-C and C-S bonds of acetyl-CoA followed by oxidation of the carbonyl group to carbon dioxide and transfer of the methyl group to the Co/Fe-S component. The enzymes and cofactors involved in transfer of the methyl group from the Co/Fe-S component to coenzyme M will be purified and characterized. Ferredoxin is an electron acceptor for the Ni/Fe-S component and also serves to reductively reactivate methylreductase which catalyzes the demethylation of methyl coenzyme M to methane. This ferredoxin is being characterized utilizing EPR and RR spectroscopic methods to determine the properties of the Fe-S centers. Genes encoding this and other ferredoxins have been cloned and sequenced to determine the primary structures. Carbonic anhydrase is being purified and characterized to determine the function of this enzyme in the pathway.

Ferry, J.G.

1991-12-31

207

Enzymological studies of one-carbon reactions in the pathway of acetate utilization by methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Several enzymes in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane and carbon dioxide have been purified from Methanosarcina thermophila. The mechanisms of these enzymes are under investigation utilizing biochemical, biophysical and molecular genetic approaches. Acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase catalyzes the activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA. The primary structure of these enzymes will be determined through cloning and sequencing of the genes. Two protein components of the CO dehydrogenase complex are under investigations. The metal centers of each component have been characterized using EPR. Cloning and sequencing of the genes for the two subunits of each component is in progress. Results indicate that the Ni/Fe-S component cleaves the C-C and C-S bonds of acetyl-CoA followed by oxidation of the carbonyl group to carbon dioxide and transfer of the methyl group to the Co/Fe-S component. The enzymes and cofactors involved in transfer of the methyl group from the Co/Fe-S component to coenzyme M will be purified and characterized. Ferredoxin is an electron acceptor for the Ni/Fe-S component and also serves to reductively reactivate methylreductase which catalyzes the demethylation of methyl coenzyme M to methane. This ferredoxin is being characterized utilizing EPR and RR spectroscopic methods to determine the properties of the Fe-S centers. Genes encoding this and other ferredoxins have been cloned and sequenced to determine the primary structures. Carbonic anhydrase is being purified and characterized to determine the function of this enzyme in the pathway.

Ferry, J.G.

1991-01-01

208

Fed-batch fermentation with and without on-line extraction for propionic and acetic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch propionic and acetic acid fermentations were performed in semi-defined laboratory medium and in corn steep liquor withPropionibacterium acidipropionici strain P9. On average, over four experiments, 34.5 g\\/l propionic acid and 12.8 g\\/l acetic acid were obtained in about 146 h in laboratory medium with 79 g\\/l glucose added over five feeding periods. The highest concentration of propionic acid, 45

F. Ozadali; B. A. Glatz; C. E. Glatz

1996-01-01

209

Formation of Short-Chain Fatty Acids from H2 and CO2 by a Mixed Culture of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The biological utilization of CO2 and H2 for the formation of short-chain fatty acids was studied by using a mixed culture of bacteria. Optimization of a medium was carried out in continuous culture to identify limiting factors which controlled growth and production of organic acids. The optimal pH for growth and acid production was 7.0 at 37°C; the maximal cell concentration obtained was 5.9 g of cells per liter (dry weight), and the maximal amount of volatile acids formed was 4.7 g/liter, with acetic acid as the predominant acid. With the optimized medium, it was found that the rate of transfer of hydrogen or carbon dioxide, or both, from gas to liquid was the limiting factor which controlled growth and production of acids. PMID:16345680

Goldberg, I.; Cooney, C. L.

1981-01-01

210

Genomic Expression Program Involving the Haa1p-Regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Response to Acetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Abstract The alterations occurring in yeast genomic expression during early response to acetic acid and the involvement of the transcription factor Haa1p in this transcriptional reprogramming are described in this study. Haa1p was found to regulate, directly or indirectly, the transcription of approximately 80% of the acetic acid-activated genes, suggesting that Haa1p is the main player in the control of yeast response to this weak acid. The genes identified in this work as being activated in response to acetic acid in a Haa1p-dependent manner include protein kinases, multidrug resistance transporters, proteins involved in lipid metabolism, in nucleic acid processing, and proteins of unknown function. Among these genes, the expression of SAP30 and HRK1 provided the strongest protective effect toward acetic acid. SAP30 encode a subunit of a histone deacetylase complex and HRK1 encode a protein kinase belonging to a family of protein kinases dedicated to the regulation of plasma membrane transporters activity. The deletion of the HRK1 gene was found to lead to the increase of the accumulation of labeled acetic acid into acid-stressed yeast cells, suggesting that the role of both HAA1 and HRK1 in providing protection against acetic acid is, at least partially, related with their involvement in the reduction of intracellular acetate concentration. PMID:20955010

Becker, Jorg D.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

2010-01-01

211

An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.  

PubMed

An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method. PMID:12207255

van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

2002-09-01

212

Genesis of acetate and methane by gut bacteria of nutritionally diverse termites  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of different feeding guilds in termites is paralleled by differences in the activity of their gut microbiota. In wood-feeding termites, carbon dioxide-reducing acetogenic bacteria were found to generally outprocess carbon dioxide-reducing methanogenic bacteria for reductant (presumably hydrogen) generated during microbial fermentation in the hindgut. By contrast, acetogenesis from hydrogen and carbon dioxide was of little significance in fungus-growing and soil-feeding termites, which evolved more methane than their wood- and grass-feeding counterparts. Given the large biomass of termites on the earth and especially in the tropics, these findings should help refine global estimates of carbon dioxide reduction in anoxic habitats and the contribution of termite emissions to atmospheric methane concentrations.

Brauman, A.; Labat, M. (Univ. de Provence, Marseille Cedex (France)); Kane, M.D.; Breznak, J.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

1992-09-04

213

[Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Progress report, May 15, 1989--May 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH{sub 4}. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

Zinder, S.H.

1993-06-01

214

Production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was undertaken to determine the suitability of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Cabbage juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old lactic culture and incubated at 30°C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled

Kyung Young Yoon; Edward E. Woodams; Yong D. Hang

2006-01-01

215

Carriers for abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in primary roots: their regional localisation and thermodynamic driving forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carrier for the uptake of abscisic acid (ABA) is present in the tips and elongating zones of primary roots of both leguminous (runner bean, French bean, pea) and non-leguminous (sunflower, maize) seedlings. No ABA carrier was present in more mature root regions. For indole-3-acetic acid both carrier-mediated uptake and a 2,3,5-triiodobenzoate-sensitive efflux component are present in growing and in

M. C. Astle; P. H. Rubery

1983-01-01

216

Studies on glycolic acid metabolism by freshwater bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of uptake and mineralization of 14C-labeled glycolic acid by freshwater heterotrophs showed that respiration (mineralization) accounts for 69% of total uptake, and that the heterotrophic potential ( V,,,,, ) for glycolate is comparable with that for other commonly used substrates. Bacteria cultured from lake water showed uptake and mineraliza- tion patterns similar to those from the natural plankton. Enrichment

RICHARD T. WRIGHT

1975-01-01

217

Identification of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional cachaça fermentations  

PubMed Central

During the production of traditional cachaça (alembic´s cachaça), contamination of the fermented must is one of the factors leading to economic losses in the beverage manufacturing industry. The diversity of bacterial populations and the role of these microorganisms during the cachaça production process are still poorly understood in Brazil. In our work, the fermentation process was followed in two distilleries located in the state of Minas Gerais. The objective of this work was to identify the populations of lactic acid bacteria present during cachaça fermentation using physiological and molecular methods. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated in high frequencies during all of the fermentative processes, and Lactobacillus plantarum and L. casei were the most prevalent species. Other lactic acid bacteria were found in minor frequencies, such as L. ferintoshensis, L. fermentum, L. jensenii, L. murinus, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus sp. and Weissella confusa. These bacteria could contribute to the increase of volatile acidity levels or to the production of compounds that could influence the taste and aroma of the beverage. PMID:24031520

Gomes, Fatima C. O.; Silva, Carol L. C.; Vianna, Cristina R.; Lacerda, Inayara C. A.; Borelli, Beatriz M.; Nunes, Álvaro C.; Franco, Gloria R.; Mourão, Marina M.; Rosa, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

218

Polyphasic characterization of the lactic acid bacteria in kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactic acid bacteria of kefir were isolated and characterized using phenotypical, biochemical, and genotypical methods. Polyphasic analyses of results permitted the identification of the microflora to the strain level. The genus Lactobacillus was represented by the species Lb. kefir and Lb. kefiranofaciens. Both subspecies of Lactococcus lactis (lactis and cremoris) were isolated. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris was also found.The

Isabelle Mainville; Normand Robert; Byong Lee; Edward R. Farnworth

2006-01-01

219

Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. Moreover, functional and comparative metagenomic studies are taking off and provide a wealth of insight in the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in a variety of applications, ranging from starters in complex fermentations to their marketing as probiotics. In this new era of high throughput analysis, biology has become big science. Hence, there is a need to systematically store the generated information, apply this in an intelligent way, and provide modalities for constructing self-learning systems that can be used for future improvements. This review addresses these systems solutions with a state of the art overview of the present paradigms that relate to the use of lactic acid bacteria in industrial applications. Moreover, an outlook is presented of the future developments that include the transition into practice as well as the use of lactic acid bacteria in synthetic biology and other next generation applications. PMID:21995776

2011-01-01

220

alpha-Chitinase activity among lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Chitin is a polysaccharide widely distributed in nature. Among 115 strains from 29 species of lactic acid bacteria only strains belonging to Carnobacterium divergens and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum hydrolyzed alpha-chitin. This activity was not affected by temperature (10 degrees C versus 30 degrees C) and in most cases not subject to glucose catabolite repression. PMID:18424038

Leisner, Jørgen J; Vogensen, Finn K; Kollmann, Johannes; Aideh, Bashir; Vandamme, Peter; Vancanneyt, Marc; Ingmer, Hanne

2008-06-01

221

Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Results Heme- (and menaquinone) stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae. The increased biomass production without further acidification, which are respiration associated traits, are suitable for high-throughput screening as demonstrated by the screening of 8000 Lactococcus lactis insertion mutants. Respiration-negative insertion-mutants were found with noxA, bd-type cytochrome and menaquinol biosynthesis gene-disruptions. Phenotypic screening and in silico genome analysis suggest that respiration can be considered characteristic for certain species. Conclusion We propose that the cyd-genes were present in the common ancestor of lactic acid bacteria, and that multiple gene-loss events best explains the observed distribution of these genes among the species. PMID:19480672

Brooijmans, Rob; Smit, Bart; Santos, Filipe; van Riel, Jan; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

2009-01-01

222

Modelling strategies for the industrial exploitation of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long tradition of use in the food industry, and the number and diversity of their applications has increased considerably over the years. Traditionally, process optimization for these applications involved both strain selection and trial and error. More recently, metabolic engineering has emerged as a discipline that focuses on the rational improvement of industrially useful

Eddy J. Smid; Bas Teusink

2006-01-01

223

Synthesis and antiradical/antioxidant activities of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and its related propionic, acetic, and benzoic acid analogues.  

PubMed

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive component isolated from propolis. A series of CAPE analogues was synthesized and their antiradical/antioxidant effects analyzed. The effect of the presence of the double bond and of the conjugated system on the antioxidant effect is evaluated with the analogues obtained from 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid. Those obtained from 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid allow the evaluation of the effect of the presence of two carbons between the carbonyl and aromatic system. PMID:23222926

LeBlanc, Luc M; Paré, Aurélie F; Jean-François, Jacques; Hébert, Martin J G; Surette, Marc E; Touaibia, Mohamed

2012-01-01

224

Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

2011-12-01

225

Total Synthesis of Acetate from CO2 V. Determination by Mass Analysis of the Different Types of Acetate Formed from 13CO2 by Heterotrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Mass analysis was used to determine the amount of acetate which is totally synthesized from 13CO2 during fermentations by Clostridium formicoaceticum, C. acidiurici, C. cylindrosporum, Butyribacterium rettgeri, and Diplococcus glycinophilus. In the fermentation of fructose by C. formicoaceticum, 27% of the acetate was found to be totally synthesized from CO2, and the remaining acetate was unlabeled, having been formed from fructose. Evidence is presented that the purine-fermenting organisms, C. acidiurici and C. cylindrosporum, totally synthesized about 9% of the acetate from CO2, and that the methyl group of an additional 9% was formed from CO2. The remaining acetate was formed from the carbons of the purine and not via CO2. It has been postulated that the fermentation of the purines and synthesis of acetate from CO2 both occur via derivatives of tetrahydrofolate. Evidence is presented that a compartmentalization of these folate intermediates is required if both the purine degradation and the CO2 utilization involve identical intermediates. Neither B. rettgeri nor D. glycinophilus incorporated sufficient 13CO2 into acetate to allow determination of the types of acetate by mass analysis, although they did incorporate labeled 14CO2 in both positions of acetate. PMID:5058447

Schulman, Marvin; Parker, Donald; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wood, Harland G.

1972-01-01

226

Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.  

PubMed

Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. PMID:24888497

Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

2014-10-01

227

Degradation of Phthalic Acids by Denitrifying, Mixed Cultures of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Mixed cultures of bacteria, enriched from aquatic sediments, grew anaerobically on all three isomers of phthalic acid. Each culture grew anaerobically on only one isomer and also grew aerobically on the same isomer. Pure cultures were isolated from the phthalic acid (o-phthalic acid) and isophthalic acid (m-phthalic acid) enrichments that grew aerobically on phthalic and isophthalic acids. Cell suspension experiments indicated that protocatechuate is an intermediate of aerobic catabolism. Pure cultures which grew aerobically on terephthalic acid (p-phthalic acid) could not be isolated from the enrichments, and neither could pure cultures that grew anaerobically on any of the isomers. Cell suspension experiments suggested that separate pathways exist for the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of phthalic acids. Each enrichment culture used only one phthalic acid isomer under anaerobic conditions, but all isomers were simultaneously adapted for the anaerobic catabolism of benzoate. Cells grown anaerobically on a phthalic acid immediately attacked the isomer under anaerobic conditions, whereas there was a lag before aerobic breakdown occurred, and, for phthalic and terephthalic acids, chloramphenicol stopped aerobic adaptation but had no effect on anaerobic catabolism. This work suggests that phthalic acids are biodegradable in anaerobic environments. PMID:16345769

Aftring, R. Paul; Chalker, Bruce E.; Taylor, Barrie F.

1981-01-01

228

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects vitamin E acetate metabolism and intestinal bile acid signature in monocolonized mice.  

PubMed

Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of ?-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM. PMID:24717228

Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R

2014-01-01

229

Regulation of Acetate Kinase Isozymes and Its Importance for Mixed-Acid Fermentation in Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

Acetate kinase (ACK) converts acetyl phosphate to acetate along with the generation of ATP in the pathway for mixed-acid fermentation in Lactococcus lactis. The reverse reaction yields acetyl phosphate for assimilation purposes. Remarkably, L. lactis has two ACK isozymes, and the corresponding genes are present in an operon. We purified both enzymes (AckA1 and AckA2) from L. lactis MG1363 and determined their oligomeric state, specific activities, and allosteric regulation. Both proteins form homodimeric complexes, as shown by size exclusion chromatography and static light-scattering measurements. The turnover number of AckA1 is about an order of magnitude higher than that of AckA2 for the reaction in either direction. The Km values for acetyl phosphate, ATP, and ADP are similar for both enzymes. However, AckA2 has a higher affinity for acetate than does AckA1, suggesting an important role under acetate-limiting conditions despite the lower activity. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and phospho-enol-pyruvate inhibit the activities of AckA1 and AckA2 to different extents. The allosteric regulation of AckA1 and AckA2 and the pool sizes of the glycolytic intermediates are consistent with a switch from homolactic to mixed-acid fermentation upon slowing of the growth rate. PMID:24464460

Puri, Pranav; Goel, Anisha; Bochynska, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

230

Novel wine yeast with mutations in YAP1 that produce less acetic acid during fermentation.  

PubMed

Acetic acid, a byproduct formed during yeast alcoholic fermentation, is the main component of volatile acidity (VA). When present in high concentrations in wine, acetic acid imparts an undesirable 'vinegary' character that results in a significant reduction in quality and sales. Previously, it has been shown that saké yeast strains resistant to the antifungal cerulenin produce significantly lower levels of VA. In this study, we used a classical mutagenesis method to isolate a series of cerulenin-resistant strains, derived from a commercial diploid wine yeast. Four of the selected strains showed a consistent low-VA production phenotype after small-scale fermentation of different white and red grape musts. Specific mutations in YAP1, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for oxidative stress tolerance, were found in three of the four low-VA strains. When integrated into the genome of a haploid wine strain, the mutated YAP1 alleles partially reproduced the low-VA production phenotype of the diploid cerulenin-resistant strains, suggesting that YAP1 might play a role in (regulating) acetic acid production during fermentation. This study offers prospects for the development of low-VA wine yeast starter strains that could assist winemakers in their effort to consistently produce wine to definable quality specifications. PMID:23146134

Cordente, Antonio G; Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Pretorius, Isak S; Curtin, Christopher D

2013-02-01

231

Influence of Acidic pH on Hydrogen and Acetate Production by an Electrosynthetic Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (?5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at ?600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ?5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ?6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at ?765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at ?800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying ?800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (?2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate (?=?4.7 kg CO2 captured). PMID:25333313

LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.

2014-01-01

232

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy of Chronically Infected Wounds Using 1% Acetic Acid Irrigation  

PubMed Central

Background Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) induces angiogenesis and collagen synthesis to promote tissue healing. Although acetic acid soaks normalize alkali wound conditions to raise tissue oxygen saturation and deconstruct the biofilms of chronic wounds, frequent dressing changes are required. Methods Combined use of NPWT and acetic acid irrigation was assessed in the treatment of chronic wounds, instilling acetic acid solution (1%) beneath polyurethane membranes twice daily for three weeks under continuous pressure (125 mm Hg). Clinical photographs, pH levels, cultures, and debrided fragments of wounds were obtained pre- and posttreatment. Tissue immunostaining (CD31, Ki-67, and CD45) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], vascular endothelial growth factor receptor [VEGFR]; procollagen; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha [HIF-1-alpha]; matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1,-3,-9; and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase [TIMP]) were also performed. Results Wound sizes tended to diminish with the combined therapy, accompanied by drops in wound pH (weakly acidic or neutral) and less evidence of infection. CD31 and Ki-67 immunostaining increased (P<0.05) post-treatment, as did the levels of VEGFR, procollagen, and MMP-1 (P<0.05), whereas the VEGF, HIF-1-alpha, and MMP-9/TIMP levels declined (P<0.05). Conclusions By combining acetic acid irrigation with negative-pressure dressings, both the pH and the size of chronic wounds can be reduced and infections be controlled. This approach may enhance angiogenesis and collagen synthesis in wounds, restoring the extracellular matrix. PMID:25606491

Lee, Byeong Ho; Lee, Hye Kyung; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Moon, Min Seon; Suh, In Suck

2015-01-01

233

Lactic Acid Bacteria – Friend or Foe? Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Production of Polysaccharides and Fuel Ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used in the production of fermented foods and as probiotics. Alternan is a glucan with a distinctive backbone structure of alternating a-(1,6) and a-(1,3) linkages produced by the LAB Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In recent years, we have developed improved...

234

Amino acid-containing membrane lipids in bacteria.  

PubMed

In the bacterial model organism Escherichia coli only the three major membrane lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin occur, all of which belong to the glycerophospholipids. The amino acid-containing phosphatidylserine is a major lipid in eukaryotic membranes but in most bacteria it occurs only as a minor biosynthetic intermediate. In some bacteria, the anionic glycerophospholipids phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin can be decorated with aminoacyl residues. For example, phosphatidylglycerol can be decorated with lysine, alanine, or arginine whereas in the case of cardiolipin, lysine or d-alanine modifications are known. In few bacteria, diacylglycerol-derived lipids can be substituted with lysine or homoserine. Acyl-oxyacyl lipids in which the lipidic part is amide-linked to the alpha-amino group of an amino acid are widely distributed among bacteria and ornithine-containing lipids are the most common version of this lipid type. Only few bacterial groups form glycine-containing lipids, serineglycine-containing lipids, sphingolipids, or sulfonolipids. Although many of these amino acid-containing bacterial membrane lipids are produced in response to certain stress conditions, little is known about the specific molecular functions of these lipids. PMID:19703488

Geiger, Otto; González-Silva, Napoleón; López-Lara, Isabel M; Sohlenkamp, Christian

2010-01-01

235

A combined experimental and computational study of the esterification reaction of glycerol with acetic acid.  

PubMed

This work describes theoretical and experimental studies on glycerol esterification to obtain acetins focusing on the obtained isomers. The reaction of glycerol with acetic acid was carried out on Amberlyst 36 wet. Density functional theory calculations on the level of M06-2X functional and 6-311+G(d,p) basis set are carried out and the most stable structures of the reactants and products are located by considering a large number of conformers. The thermodynamics is discussed in terms of the calculated reaction Gibbs free energy. The AIM theory was used to characterize reactants and products. The glycerol esterification with acetic acid is found to be thermodynamically favored, with exothermal property. These agree well with experiments and allow us to explain the relative selectivity of products. PMID:24633772

Bedogni, Gabriel Alejandro; Padró, Cristina Liliana; Okulik, Nora Beatriz

2014-04-01

236

DFT computation and experimental analysis of vibrational and electronic spectra of phenoxy acetic acid herbicides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An absolute vibrational analysis has been attempted on the basis of experimental FTIR and NIR-FT Raman spectra with calculated vibrational wavenumbers and intensities of phenoxy acetic acids. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated with the help of B3LYP method with Dunning correlation consistent basis set aug-cc-pVTZ. The electronic structures of molecular fragments were described in terms of natural bond orbital analysis, which shows intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O and intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The electronic absorption spectra with different solvents have been investigated in combination with time-dependent density functional theory calculation. The pKa values of phenoxy acetic acids were compared.

Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

2013-05-01

237

Molecular Biology and Genetics of the Acetate-Utilizing Methanogenic Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Methane biosynthesis by the Methanosarcina species, in contrast to other methanogens, occurs from the full range of methanogenic substrates that include acetate, methanol, tri-methyl, di-methyl, and methyl-amine, methyl-sulfides, and in limited instances, H2/CO2. The Methanosarcina are also versatile in their ability to adapt and grow in habitats of varying osmolarity ranging from fresh water environments, marine environments, and to hyper saline environments (ca to 1.2 M NaCl). To facilitate studies that address the biochemistry, molecular biology and physiology of these organisms, we have constructed a whole-genome microarray to identify classes of differentially expressed genes in M. mazei strain Goe1. We propose to further identify and examine how genes and their proteins involved in the synthesis and transport of osmolytes in the cell are regulated. These compounds include N-epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine, alpha-glutamate, betaine, and potassium whose levels within the cell are modulated in order to provide appropriate osmotic balance. We will identify differentially expressed genes involved in hydrogen and carbon dioxide sequestration since M. mazei strain Goe1 is currently the only practical model for such study. Finally, we will explore the essential roles of two metals, molybdate and tungstate, in methanogen regulation and metabolism of these environmentally essential organsims. The above studies will advance our general understanding of how methanogens respond to their environmental signals, and adapt by adjusting their physiology to thrive in changing anaerobic habitats whether natural or man-made.

Robert P. Gunsalus

2003-07-21

238

Direct oxidation of methane to acetic acid catalyzed by Pd2+ and Cu2+ in the presence of molecular oxygen  

E-print Network

to acetic acid in concentrated sulfuric acid using a combination of Pd2+ and Cu2+ in the presence of oxygen from methane without the addition of COx.3 The reaction is carried out in concentrated sulfuric acid be regenerated by sulfuric acid oxidation of Pd(0); however, this process is slow. We recently showed

Bell, Alexis T.

239

Effect of initial glucose concentration and inoculation level of lactic acid bacteria in shrimp waste ensilation.  

PubMed

Fermentation conditions and microorganisms were determined, based on acid production, glucose concentration as carbohydrate source. Inoculation levels to obtain a stable shrimp waste silage were also determined. Shrimp waste ensilation was an efficient method of preservation, allowing the recovery of chitin and another added-value products such as pigments, proteins and enzymes. From the various lactic acid bacteria tested, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus sp. (B2) were the best lactic acid producers, although small quantities of acetic acid were detected in samples inoculated with Lactobacillus pentosus. Therefore B2 was chosen for the analysis of glucose consumption as well as for the determination of optimum inoculation levels. The best results were obtained at 10% (w/w wet basis) and 5% (v/w wet basis) respectively. Presence of starters and initial glucose concentration were critical factors in the fermentation of shrimp waste. High initial glucose and starter concentrations reduced the time and increased the amount of lactic acid produced. The fermentation pattern changed during ensilation from hetero to homofermentative. Shrimp waste ensilation prevented the growth of spoilage microorganisms keeping their microbial counts steady and pH values within the acid region. PMID:11240204

Shirai, K; Guerrero, I; Huerta, S; Saucedo, G; Castillo, A; Obdulia Gonzalez, R; Hall, G M.

2001-03-01

240

Enhancement of tumor radiation response by the antivascular agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) selectively damages tumor vasculature and is currently in clinical trial as an antitumor agent. Its ability to induce synthesis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and its apparent selectivity for poorly-perfused regions in tumors, suggests it possible use in combination with radiotherapy. This investigation examines activity of DMXAA as a radiation modifier using two murine tumors.Methods and

WilliamR Wilson; AlanE Li; David S. M Cowan; BronwynG Siim

1998-01-01

241

Differential responses of pea seedlings to indole acetic acid under manganese toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study showed the responses of pea seedlings to exogenous indole acetic acid (IAA; 10 and 100 ?M) application under\\u000a manganese (Mn; 50, 100 and 250 ?M) toxicity. Manganese and 100 ?M IAA alone as well as in combination decreased growth of\\u000a pea seedlings compared to control. Moreover, some parameters of oxidative stress—hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also increased by single

Savita Gangwar; Vijay Pratap Singh; Sheo Mohan Prasad; Jagat Narayan Maurya

2011-01-01

242

Trifluoroacetic anhydride promoted tandem conjugate addition of boronic acids/acetal ring opening.  

PubMed

A new stereoselective tandem reaction consisting of the metal-free conjugate addition of boronic acids followed by an intramolecular ring opening of a cyclic acetal has been disclosed. Optically pure polysubstituted tetrahydropyrans have been synthesized diastereoselectively by this new reaction. Two new C-C bonds and up to three stereocenters are formed in a single step, allowing the generation of quaternary stereocenters. PMID:22339156

Roscales, Silvia; Csáky, Aurelio G

2012-03-01

243

Sequential induction of the ethylene biosynthetic enzymes by indole-3-acetic acid in etiolated peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene induced an increase in the accumulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase transcript level and enzyme activity in the first internode of 5- to 6-day-old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which stimulates ethylene production by enhancing ACC synthase activity, also caused an increase in ACC oxidase transcript and activity levels. The IAA-induced increase in ACC oxidase mRNA

Scott C. Peck; Hans Kende

1995-01-01

244

Comparative evaluation of arachidonic acid (AA)- and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced dermal inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of topical application of arachidonic acid (AA) or phorbol ester, tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), on edema response, vascular permeability, MPO, NAG, and generation of eicosanoids were studied in two murine models of cutaneous inflammation. AA produced a short-lived edema response with a rapid onset that was associated with marked increases in levels of prostaglandins (PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1a, PGF2a), thromboxane B2

Tadimeti S. Rao; Jerry L. Currie; Alexander F. Shaffer; Peter C. Isakson

1993-01-01

245

Production of formic and acetic acids from phenol by hydrothermal oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal technology is a core environmental-protection technique which can be used for waste water treatment and biomass\\u000a conversion. In this paper a novel idea, alkaline hydrothermal oxidation, is proposed for producing formic and acetic acids\\u000a from wastewater containing phenolic compounds. The effects of the most important conditions—reaction temperature, reaction\\u000a time, oxygen supply, and type of alkaline catalyst—on yields of formic

Man Lu; Xu Zeng; Jiang-Lin Cao; Zhi-Bao Huo; Fang-Ming Jin

2011-01-01

246

Indole3-acetic acid concentration and ethylene evolution during early fruit development in peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene evolution was measured from greenhouse-grown ‘Jerseyglo’ peach fruits beginning 29 days after anthesis. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were measured in the pericarp and seed tissues of individual fruits on a single shoot when variable ethylene evolution was noted. Despite hand-pollinating all flowers on the same day, variability within the shoot existed in fruit fresh weight, IAA levels, and ethylene

Anita Nina Miller; Christopher S. Walsh

1990-01-01

247

Production of acetic acid by immobilized whole cells of Clostridium thermoaceticum.  

PubMed

Immobilized cells of Clostridium thermoaceticum for acetic acid production has been investigated. Using kappa-carrageenan gel as the immobilization-matrix, high cell concentration within the gel could be achieved and thus lead to high volumetric acetic acid productivity. Batch experiments using 3% gel showed that cell concentration up to 65 g (dry cell weight)/L gel could be achieved. These dry weight cell concentrations in the gel through immobilization are typically 10-15 times greater than what can be obtained in free-cell fermentations. The specific growth rate and acetic acid formation rate were similar to those observed for the free cells. Continuous culture experiments using a feed medium containing 20 g/L of glucose were performed where the reactor contained 50% by volume of the carrageenan gel and the pH was controlled at 6.9. Different steady states were acheived at dilution rates ranging from 0.061 to 0.399 h-1. Cells grew mainly near the surface of the gel and reached maximum concentration within the matrix of approximately 35 g/L. Dilution rates much greater than the maximum specific growth rate were obtained, which resulted in volumetric productivity up to 4.9 g/L-h. This value was significantly greater than that for the conventional continuous culture with free cells. Using a 40 g/L feed glucose concentration, steady states could be achieved between dilution rates of 0.12-0.4 h-1. The maximum productivity further increased to 6.9 g/L-h at a dilution rate of 0.37 h-1 and at an acetic acid concentration of 19 g/L. The cell concentration was 60 g (dry weight)/L gel at steady state. PMID:6679712

Wang, G; Wang, D I

1983-12-01

248

Improving the environmental profile of wood panels via co-production of ethanol and acetic acid.  

PubMed

The oriented strand board (OSB) biorefinery is an emerging technology that could improve the building, transportation, and chemical sectors' environmental profiles. By adding a hot water extraction stage to conventional OSB panel manufacturing, hemicellulose polysaccharides can be extracted from wood strands and converted to renewably sourced ethanol and acetic acid. Replacing fossil-based gasoline and acetic acid has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, among other possible impacts. At the same time, hemicellulose extraction could improve the environmental profile of OSB panels by reducing the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during manufacturing. In this study, the life cycle significance of such GHG, VOC, and other emission reductions was investigated. A process model was developed based on a mix of laboratory and industrial-level mass and energy flow data. Using these data a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built. Sensitive process parameters were identified and used to develop a target production scenario for the OSB biorefinery. The findings suggest that the OSB biorefinery's deployment could substantially improve human and ecosystem health via reduction of select VOCs compared to conventionally produced OSB, gasoline, and acetic acid. Technological advancements are needed, however, to achieve desirable GHG reductions. PMID:21967719

Earles, J Mason; Halog, Anthony; Shaler, Stephen

2011-11-15

249

Dual Antiplatelet Regime Versus Acetyl-acetic Acid for Carotid Artery Stenting  

SciTech Connect

Carotid artery stenting has been proposed as an option treatment of carotid artery stenosis. The aim of this single-institution study is to compare the dual-antiplatelet treatment and heparin combined with acetyl-acetic acid, in patients who underwent carotid artery stenting. We compared 2 groups of 50 patents each who underwent carotid artery stenting for primary atherosclerotic disease. Group A received heparin for 24 h combined with 325 mg acetyl-acetic acid and group B received 250 mg ticlopidine twice a day combined with 325 mg acetyl-acetic acid. Outcome measurements included 30-day bleeding and neurological complications and 30-day thrombosis/occlusion rates. The neurological complications were 16% in group A and 2% in group B (p < 0.05). Bleeding complications occurred in 4% in group A and 2% in group B (p > 0.05). The 30-day thrombosis/occlusion rate was 2% in group A and 0% in group B (p > 0.05). Dual antiplatelet treatment is recommended in all patients undergoing carotid artery stenting.

Dalainas, Ilias, E-mail: hdlns@freemail.gr; Nano, Giovanni; Bianchi, Paolo; Stegher, Silvia; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G. [University of Milan, Istituto Policlinico San Donato, 1st Unit of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

2006-08-15

250

Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.  

PubMed

Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically. PMID:19944597

Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

2010-03-01

251

A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods  

PubMed Central

l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

252

Influence of Dilute Acetic Acid Treatments on American Pondweed Winter Buds in the Nevada Irrigation District, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

American pondweed ( Potamogeton nodosus Poir.) is com- monly found in northern California irrigation canals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure of American pondweed winter buds to dilute acetic acid un- der field conditions would result in reduced subsequent bio- mass. The treatment consisted of adding either 1703 or 3406 L of 2.3% acetic

D. F. SPENCER; C. L. ELMORE; G. G. KSANDER; J. A. RONCORONI

253

Deciphering the origin of cooperative catalysis by dirhodium acetate and chiral spiro phosphoric acid in an asymmetric amination reaction.  

PubMed

The mechanism of asymmetric amination of diazo-acetate by tert-butyl carbamate catalyzed by dirhodium tetra(trifluoro)acetate and chiral SPINOL-phosphoric acid is examined using DFT (M06 and B3LYP) computations. A cooperative participation of both catalysts is noticed in the stereo-controlling transition state of the reaction. PMID:25313895

Kisan, Hemanta K; Sunoj, Raghavan B

2014-12-01

254

Adaptive response to acetic acid in the highly resistant yeast species Zygosaccharomyces bailii revealed by quantitative proteomics.  

PubMed

Zygosaccharomyces bailii is the most tolerant yeast species to acetic acid-induced toxicity, being able to grow in the presence of concentrations of this food preservative close to the legal limits. For this reason, Z. bailii is the most important microbial contaminant of acidic food products but the mechanisms behind this intrinsic resistance to acetic acid are very poorly characterized. To gain insights into the adaptive response and tolerance to acetic acid in Z. bailii, we explored an expression proteomics approach, based on quantitative 2DE, to identify alterations occurring in the protein content in response to sudden exposure or balanced growth in the presence of an inhibitory but nonlethal concentration of this weak acid. A coordinate increase in the content of proteins involved in cellular metabolism, in particular, in carbohydrate metabolism (Mdh1p, Aco1p, Cit1p, Idh2p, and Lpd1p) and energy generation (Atp1p and Atp2p), as well as in general and oxidative stress response (Sod2p, Dak2p, Omp2p) was registered. Results reinforce the concept that glucose and acetic acid are coconsumed in Z. bailii, with acetate being channeled into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When acetic acid is the sole carbon source, results suggest the activation of gluconeogenic and pentose phosphate pathways, based on the increased content of several proteins of these pathways after glucose exhaustion. PMID:22685079

Guerreiro, Joana F; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel

2012-08-01

255

Short communication Metatranscriptome analysis of lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation with  

E-print Network

Short communication Metatranscriptome analysis of lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation January 2009 Keywords: Metagenome Metatranscriptome GPM Kimchi Lactic acid bacteria We constructed genome probing microarrays (GPM) that are specific to 39 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an effort to monitor

Bae, Jin-Woo

256

L-Glutamine regulates amino acid utilization by intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed

Catabolism of amino acids (AA) by intestinal bacteria greatly affects their bioavailability in the systemic circulation and the health of animals and humans. This study tests the novel hypothesis that L-glutamine regulates AA utilization by luminal bacteria of the small intestine. Pure bacterial strains (Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp.) and mixed bacterial cultures derived from the jejunum or ileum of pigs were cultured in the presence of 0-5 mM L-glutamine under anaerobic conditions. After 3 h of incubation, samples were taken for the determination of AA utilization. Results showed concentration-dependent increases in the utilization of glutamine in parallel with the increased conversion of glutamine into glutamate in all the bacteria. Complete utilization of asparagine, aspartate and serine was observed in pure bacterial strains after the 3-h incubation. The addition of glutamine reduced the net utilization of asparagine by both jejunal and ileal mixed bacteria. Net utilization of lysine, leucine, valine, ornithine and serine by jejunal or ileal mixed bacteria decreased with the addition of glutamine in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, glutamine dynamically modulates the bacterial metabolism of the arginine family of AA as well as the serine and aspartate families of AA and reduced the catabolism of most AA (including nutritionally essential and nonessential AA) in jejunal or ileal mixed bacteria. The beneficial effects of glutamine on gut nutrition and health may involve initiation of the signaling pathways related to AA metabolism in the luminal bacteria of the small intestine. PMID:22451274

Dai, Zhao-Lai; Li, Xi-Long; Xi, Peng-Bin; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Guoyao; Zhu, Wei-Yun

2013-09-01

257

Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives. PMID:24066293

Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir

2013-01-01

258

Modeling and optimization in anaerobic bioconversion of complex substrates to acetic and butyric acids.  

PubMed

Cheese-processing wastewater was biologically treated to produce short-chain organic acids in laboratory scale continuously stirred tank reactors. A constant inoculum system was used to mimimize the experimental error due to the use of inconsistent inoculum. The inoculum system was operated with dilute cheese-processing wastewater with 5000 mg soluble chemical oxygen demand/L at pH 6.5 and 35 degrees C at 0.5 days hydraulic retention time. Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum physiological conditions where the maximum rates of acetic and butyric acid production occurred. These were pH 7.01 at 36.2 degrees C and pH 7.26 at 36.2 degrees C, respectively. The lack of overall predictability for butyric acid production meant that the response surface was much more complicated than that of acetic acid; therefore, a small change in pH or temperature could cause large variations in the response of butyric acid production. PMID:18634137

Hwang, S; Hansen, C L

1997-06-01

259

Method for the preparation of stabile microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A method to produce viable and stabile dry microorganisms for food and agricultural purposes was developed. Spray-dried, freeze-dried or liquid culture concentrates of lactic acid-producing bacteria were mixed with various bulking agents to form a homogeneous wet granulation having a water content of 35–60% (w\\/w). The wet granulation was extruded through a dye onto a spinning plate (350–500 rpm)

H. S. Kim; B. J. Kamara; I. C. Good; G. L. Enders

1988-01-01

260

Ethyl Butanoate Formation by Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of ethyl butanoate by non-growing cells of 22 starter and 49 non-starter dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) varied widely (0.4–310units 100mg-1 dry weight cells) and was both species and strain dependent. Strains of the thermophilic starter Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus produced the highest levels of ethyl butanoate (an average of 156 units 100mg-1 dry weight cells), while strains

S.-Q Liu; R Holland; V. L Crow

1998-01-01

261

Quorum sensing-controlled gene expression in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involves peptides that are directly sensed by membrane-located histidine kinases, after which the signal is transmitted to an intracellular response regulator. This regulator in turn activates transcription of target genes, that commonly include the structural gene for the inducer molecule. The two-component signal-transduction machinery has proven to be indispensable for transcription activation and

Oscar P. Kuipers; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos

1998-01-01

262

Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Acetic acid is an important intermediate in aqueous methylglyoxal oxidation and a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. Altieri et al. (2008) proposed that acetic acid was the precursor of oligoesters observed in methylglyoxal oxidation. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid at concentrations relevant to atmospheric waters (20 ?M-10 mM) was oxidized by OH radical. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and IC-ESI-MS. The formation of glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids were observed. In contrast to methylglyoxal oxidation, succinic acid and oligomers were not detected. Using results from these and methylglyoxal + OH radical experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

Tan, Y.; Lim, Y. B.; Altieri, K. E.; Seitzinger, S. P.; Turpin, B. J.

2011-06-01

263

Thermoelectric method of determining the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids. Investigation of the thermal conductivity of acetic acid vapors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermoelectric method of determining the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids is described based on using the Peltier effect. Data are presented on the thermal conductivity of neon, PMFS-4, and acetic acid vapors.

D. L. Timrot; V. V. Makhrov

1976-01-01

264

Metabolism of ?-Aminoisobutyric Acid by Soil Bacteria1  

PubMed Central

Eleven different bacteria, isolated by enrichment procedures on ?-aminoisobutyric (AIB) as sole fixed nitrogen source, were examined for the mechanism by which they attacked the amino acid. All eleven organisms, including one which grew well on isopropylamine, converted AIB to acetone and CO2 and showed an absolute dependence upon pyruvate for this reaction. No organism isolated degraded AIB to isopropylamine as the primary reaction. The data suggested that the usual mode of attack upon this amino acid is by an overall reaction comprised of two half reactions, one a decarboxylation-dependent transamination and the other a normal exchange transamination. PMID:4974389

Dempsey, Walter B.

1969-01-01

265

Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

1990-01-01

266

Mutants of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus tolerant to hardwood spent sulfite liquor and acetic acid.  

PubMed

A strain development program was initiated to improve the tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Several rounds of UV mutagenesis followed by screening were used to select for mutants of P. tannophilus NRRL Y2460 with improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HW SSL) and acetic acid in separate selection lines. The wild type (WT) strain grew in 50 % (v/v) HW SSL while third round HW SSL mutants (designated UHW301, UHW302 and UHW303) grew in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL, with two of these isolates (UHW302 and UHW303) being viable and growing, respectively, in 70 % (v/v) HW SSL. In defined liquid media containing acetic acid, the WT strain grew in 0.70 % (w/v) acetic acid, while third round acetic acid mutants (designated UAA301, UAA302 and UAA303) grew in 0.80 % (w/v) acetic acid, with one isolate (UAA302) growing in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid. Cross-tolerance of HW SSL-tolerant mutants to acetic acid and vice versa was observed with UHW303 able to grow in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid and UAA302 growing in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL. The UV-induced mutants retained the ability to ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol in defined media. These mutants of P. tannophilus are of considerable interest for bioconversion of the sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol. PMID:24122119

Harner, Nicole K; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Habash, Marc B; Trevors, Jack T; Austin, Glen D; Lee, Hung

2014-01-01

267

Oxidation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid by MoVNbO catalysts M. Roussel1  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The influence of niobium on the physicochemical properties of the Mo-V-O system and on its that the most efficient formula was Mo0.73V0.18Nb0.9Oy. Acetic acid was formed at high pressure only. Analysis catalytic properties in the oxidation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid is examined. Solids based on Mo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Specific modulation of complement-dependent human granulocyte function by imidazole acetic acid.  

PubMed

Because imidazole acetic acid (IAA), a product of histamine catabolism was shown to inhibit histaminase release from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the effect of this compound on other neutrophil functions was investigated. IAA at concentrations of 10(-10) or more inhibited histaminase release induced by particle-bound C3b, the larger fragment of the activated form of the third component of complement. Release of histaminase induced by aggregated IgG, phorbal myristate acetate (PMA), formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and calcium ionophore was not affected by IAA. In addition IAA had no effect on release of beta-glucuronidase, myeloperoxidase, and lysozyme or on phagocytosis and superoxide generation. IAA did modestly inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. These findings suggest a highly specific modulating effect of the histamine catabolite IAA on complement-mediated PMN function. PMID:6252258

Herman, J J; Colten, H R

1980-10-01

269

CTAB and acetic acid effect in the nanocrystallite growth of spray deposited CdO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdO thin films were deposited on glass substrates from cadmium acetate dihydrate along with precursor additives, acetic acid and CTAB using home built splay pyrolysis unit. XRD studies imply that the CdO thin films to be preferably oriented in the (1 1 1) plane. The Williamson-Hall plot indicates the presence of microstrain, especially high with acetic acid additive. Surface morphology was found to be closely packed spherical crystallite with precursor additives. Optical studies reveal a considerable change in the transmittance and band gap. Peak position is shifted in the Raman spectra, due to precursor additives.

Pavithra, S.; Balamurugan, D.; Pandeeswari, R.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

2014-11-01

270

Investigations of the pore formation in the lead selenide films using glacial acetic acid- and nitric acid-based electrolyte  

PubMed Central

We report a novel synthesis of porous PbSe layers on Si substrates by anodic electrochemical treatment of PbSe/CaF2/Si(111) epitaxial structures in an electrolyte solution based on glacial acetic acid and nitric acid. Electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and local chemical microanalysis investigation results for the porous layers are presented. Average size of the synthesized mesopores with approximately 1010 cm?2 surface density was determined to be 22 nm. The observed phenomenon of the active selenium redeposition on the mesopore walls during anodic treatment is discussed. PMID:22726822

2012-01-01

271

Cross ketonization of Cuphea sp. oil with acetic acid over a composite oxide of Fe, Ce, and Al  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this work was to demonstrate the viability of the cross ketonization reaction with the triacylglycerol from Cuphea sp. and acetic acid in a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor. The seed oil from Cuphea sp. contains up to 71% decanoic acid and the reaction of this fatty acid residue with ac...

272

A mutation affecting the synthesis of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, schemes depicting auxin biosynthesis in plants have been notoriously complex. They have involved up to four possible pathways by which the amino acid tryptophan might be converted to the main active auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), while another pathway was suggested to bypass tryptophan altogether. It was also postulated that different plants use different pathways, further adding to the complexity. In 2011, however, it was suggested that one of the four tryptophan-dependent pathways, via indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), is the main pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana,1 although concurrent operation of one or more other pathways has not been excluded. We recently showed that, for seeds of Pisum sativum (pea), it is possible to go one step further.2 Our new evidence indicates that the IPyA pathway is the only tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis pathway operating in pea seeds. We also demonstrated that the main auxin in developing pea seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA), which accumulates to levels far exceeding those of IAA, is synthesized via a chlorinated version of the IPyA pathway. PMID:23073010

Ross, John J.; Tivendale, Nathan D.; Davidson, Sandra E.; Reid, James B.; Davies, Noel W.; Quittenden, Laura J.; Smith, Jason A.

2012-01-01

273

Synthesis of  -Aminobutyric Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from a Variety of Italian Cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of -aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 22 Italian cheese varieties that differ in several technological traits markedly varied from 0.26 to 391 mg kg1. Presumptive lactic acid bacteria were isolated from each cheese variety (total of 440 isolates) and screened for the capacity to synthesize GABA. Only 61 isolates showed this activity and were identified by partial sequencing of

S. Siragusa; M. De Angelis; R. Di Cagno; C. G. Rizzello; R. Coda; M. Gobbetti

2007-01-01

274

Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin, Chlorogenic Acid, Caffeic Acid, and Ferulic Acid on Tumor Promotion in Mouse Skin by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of topically applied curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, epidermal DNA syn thesis, and the promotion of skin tumors were evaluated in female CD-I mice. Topical application of 0.5, 1, 3, or 10 iano\\\\ of curcumin inhibited by 31, 46, 84, or 98%, respectively, the induction of epidermal

Mou-Tuan Huang; Robert C. Smart; Ching-Quo Wong; Allan H. Conney

275

Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry.  

PubMed

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway. PMID:10092839

Zakharova, E A; Shcherbakov, A A; Brudnik, V V; Skripko, N G; Bulkhin, N Sh; Ignatov, V V

1999-02-01

276

Molecular cloning and characterization of an amidase from Arabidopsis thaliana capable of converting indole-3-acetamide into the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid.  

PubMed

Acylamidohydrolases from higher plants have not been characterized or cloned so far. AtAMI1 is the first member of this enzyme family from a higher plant and was identified in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana based on sequence homology with the catalytic-domain sequence of bacterial acylamidohydrolases, particularly those that exhibit indole-3-acetamide amidohydrolase activity. AtAMI1 polypeptide and mRNA are present in leaf tissues, as shown by immunoblotting and RT-PCR, respectively. AtAMI1 was expressed from its cDNA in enzymatically active form and exhibits substrate specificity for indole-3-acetamide, but also some activity against L-asparagine. The recombinant enzyme was characterized further. The results show that higher plants have acylamidohydrolases with properties similar to the enzymes of certain plant-associated bacteria such as Agrobacterium-, Pseudomonas- and Rhodococcus-species, in which these enzymes serve to synthesize the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid, utilized by the bacteria to colonize their host plants. As indole-3-acetamide is a native metabolite in Arabidopsis thaliana, it can no longer be ruled out that one pathway for the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid involves indole-3-acetamide-hydrolysis by AtAMI1. PMID:12620340

Pollmann, Stephan; Neu, Daniel; Weiler, Elmar W

2003-02-01

277

Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.  

PubMed

In the 1950s Corynebacterium glutamicum was found to be a very efficient producer of L-glutamic acid. Since this time biotechnological processes with bacteria of the species Corynebacterium developed to be among the most important in terms of tonnage and economical value. L-Glutamic acid and L-lysine are bulk products nowadays. L-Valine, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid and L-alanine are among other amino acids produced by Corynebacteria. Applications range from feed to food and pharmaceutical products. The growing market for amino acids produced with Corynebacteria led to significant improvements in bioprocess and downstream technology as well as in molecular biology. During the last decade big efforts were made to increase the productivity and to decrease the production costs. This review gives an overview of the world market for amino acids produced by Corynebacteria. Significant improvements in bioprocess technology, i.e. repeated fed batch or continuous production are summarised. Bioprocess technology itself was improved furthermore by application of more sophisticated feeding and automatisation strategies. Even though several amino acids developed towards commodities in the last decade, side aspects of the production process like sterility or detection of contaminants still have increasing relevance. Finally one focus of this review is on recent developments in downstream technology. PMID:12948636

Hermann, Thomas

2003-09-01

278

Fed-batch fermentation with and without on-line extraction for propionic and acetic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch propionic and acetic acid fermentations were performed in semi-defined laboratory medium and in corn steep liquor with Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain P9. On average, over four experiments, 34.5rg\\/l propionic acid and 12.8rg\\/l acetic acid were obtained in about 146rh in laboratory medium with 79rg\\/l glucose added over five feeding periods. The highest concentration of propionic acid, 45rg\\/l, was obtained when

F. Ozadali; B. A. Glatz; C. E. Glatz

1996-01-01

279

Acid and base catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-benzoylthiocarbamoyl-acetals.  

PubMed

Acid and base catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-benzoylthioureidoacetal, containing four functional groups adjacent to thiourea such as benzocarbamoyl, acetal, thioure and amide, were investigated. The condensation reaction of N-benzoyl thiocarbamoylglycine amide in the presence of 10% aqueous NaOH provided 1-(2,2-dimethoxy)ethyl-imidazolidine-2-thione exclusively. In the presence of pyridine, it was transformed to 2-thiohydantoin. N-Benzoyl thiocarbamoyl glycine amide was completely transformed to an iminothiazolidine exclusively in the presence of Lewis acid such as borontrifluoride etherate or trimethylsilyl iodide. 1-(2,2-Dimethoxy)ethyl-imidazolidine-2-thione was transformed to imidazole[2,1-b]thiazole and pyrazino[5,1-a]imidazole in the presence of BF3.Et2O and formic acid, respectively. PMID:10836733

Lee, B; Kim, C; Lee, J W

2000-04-01

280

Metabolism of Linoleic Acid by Human Gut Bacteria: Different Routes for Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid?  

PubMed Central

A survey of 30 representative strains of human gram-positive intestinal bacteria indicated that Roseburia species were among the most active in metabolizing linoleic acid (cis-9,cis-12-18:2). Different Roseburia spp. formed either vaccenic acid (trans-11-18:1) or a 10-hydroxy-18:1; these compounds are precursors of the health-promoting conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in human tissues and the intestine, respectively. PMID:17209019

Devillard, Estelle; McIntosh, Freda M.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Wallace, R. John

2007-01-01

281

Development of Mucosal Vaccines Based on Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, sufficient data are available to support the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), notably lactococci and lactobacilli, as delivery vehicles for the development of new mucosal vaccines. These non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria have been safely consumed by humans for centuries in fermented foods. They thus constitute an attractive alternative to the attenuated pathogens (most popular live vectors actually studied) which could recover their pathogenic potential and are thus not totally safe for use in humans. This chapter reviews the current research and advances in the use of LAB as live delivery vectors of proteins of interest for the development of new safe mucosal vaccines. The use of LAB as DNA vaccine vehicles to deliver DNA directly to antigen-presenting cells of the immune system is also discussed.

Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Innocentin, Silvia; Lefèvre, Francois; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Langella, Philippe

282

Ability of Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria To Produce Aroma Compounds from Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

Although a large number of key odorants of Swiss-type cheese result from amino acid catabolism, the amino acid catabolic pathways in the bacteria present in these cheeses are not well known. In this study, we compared the in vitro abilities of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus to produce aroma compounds from three amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, under mid-pH conditions of cheese ripening (pH 5.5), and we investigated the catabolic pathways used by these bacteria. In the three lactic acid bacterial species, amino acid catabolism was initiated by a transamination step, which requires the presence of an ?-keto acid such as ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) as the amino group acceptor, and produced ?-keto acids. Only S. thermophilus exhibited glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which produces ?-KG from glutamate, and consequently only S. thermophilus was capable of catabolizing amino acids in the reaction medium without ?-KG addition. In the presence of ?-KG, lactobacilli produced much more varied aroma compounds such as acids, aldehydes, and alcohols than S. thermophilus, which mainly produced ?-keto acids and a small amount of hydroxy acids and acids. L. helveticus mainly produced acids from phenylalanine and leucine, while L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis produced larger amounts of alcohols and/or aldehydes. Formation of aldehydes, alcohols, and acids from ?-keto acids by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis mainly results from the action of an ?-keto acid decarboxylase, which produces aldehydes that are then oxidized or reduced to acids or alcohols. In contrast, the enzyme involved in the ?-keto acid conversion to acids in L. helveticus and S. thermophilus is an ?-keto acid dehydrogenase that produces acyl coenzymes A. PMID:15240255

Helinck, Sandra; Le Bars, Dominique; Moreau, Daniel; Yvon, Mireille

2004-01-01

283

Graft Loss Due to Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of a Lymphocele Using Acetic Acid After Renal Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Development of lymphoceles after renal transplantation is a well-described complication that occurs in up to 40% of recipients. The gold standard approach for the treatment of symptomatic cases is not well defined yet. Management options include simple aspiration, marsupialization by a laparotomy or laparoscopy, and percutaneous sclerotherapy using different chemical agents. Those approaches can be associated, and they depend on type, dimension, and localization of the lymphocele. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is considered to be less invasive than the surgical approach; it can be used safely and effectively, with low morbidity, in huge, rapidly accumulating lymphoceles. Moreover, this approach is highly successful, and the complication rate is acceptable; the major drawback is a recurrence rate close to 20%. We herewith report a renal transplant case in which the patient developed a symptomatic lymphocele that was initially treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and thereafter using acetic acid for early recurrence. A few hours after injection of acetic acid in the lymphatic cavity, the patient started to complain of acute pain localized to the renal graft and fever. An ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thrombosis of the renal vein and artery. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room, where the diagnosis of vascular thrombosis was confirmed and the graft was urgently explanted. In conclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding the use of acetic acid as a slerosating agent for the percutaneous treatment of post-renal transplant lymphocele because, based on our experience, it could be complicated by vascular thrombosis of the kidney, ending in graft loss.

Adani, Gian Luigi, E-mail: adanigl@hotmail.com; Baccarani, Umberto; Bresadola, Vittorio; Lorenzin, Dario [University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy); Montanaro, Domenico [AOSMM, Sauta Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Division of Nephrology (Italy); Risaliti, Andrea; Terrosu, Giovanni [University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy); Sponza, Massimo [AOSMM, Sauta Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Department of Radiology (Italy); Bresadola, Fabrizio [University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Transplantation (Italy)

2005-12-15

284

Glycolaldehyde, methyl formate and acetic acid adsorption and thermal desorption from interstellar ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have undertaken a detailed investigation of the adsorption, desorption and thermal processing of the astrobiologically significant isomers glycolaldehyde, acetic acid and methyl formate. Here, we present the results of laboratory infrared and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies of the three isomers from model interstellar ices adsorbed on a carbonaceous dust grain analogue surface. Laboratory infrared data show that the isomers can be clearly distinguished on the basis of their infrared spectra, which has implications for observations of interstellar ice spectra. Laboratory TPD data also show that the three isomers can be distinguished on the basis of their thermal desorption behaviour. In particular, TPD data show that the isomers cannot be treated the same way in astrophysical models of desorption. The desorption of glycolaldehyde and acetic acid from water-dominated ices is very similar, with desorption being mainly dictated by water ice. However, methyl formate also desorbs from the surface of the ice, as a pure desorption feature, and therefore desorbs at a lower temperature than the other two isomers. This is more clearly indicated by models of the desorption on astrophysical time-scales corresponding to the heating rate of 25 and 5 M? stars. For a 25 M? star, our model shows that a proportion of the methyl formate can be found in the gas phase at earlier times compared to glycolaldehyde and acetic acid. This has implications for the observation and detection of these molecules, and potentially explains why methyl formate has been observed in a wider range of astrophysical environments than the other two isomers.

Burke, Daren J.; Puletti, Fabrizio; Brown, Wendy A.; Woods, Paul M.; Viti, Serena; Slater, Ben

2015-02-01

285

Simultaneous determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid by first derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method for simultaneously determining 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) in mixtures has been developed using derivation synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy based on their synchronous fluorescence. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were obtained with ?? = 100 nm in a pH 8.5 NaH2PO4-NaOH buffer solution, and the detected wavelengths of quantitative analysis were set at 239 nm for BNOA and 293 nm for IAA respectively. The over lapped fluorescence spectra were well separated by the synchronous derivative method. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.003 ?g/mL for BNOA and 0.012 ?g/mL for IAA. This method is simple and expeditious, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in fruit juice samples with satisfactory results. The samples were only filtrated through a 0.45 ?m membrane filter, which was free from the tedious separation procedures. The obtaining recoveries were in the range of 83.88-87.43% for BNOA and 80.76-86.68% for IAA, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 5.0%. Statistical comparison of the results with high performance liquid chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between these two methods.

Liu, Xiangxiang; Wan, Yiqun

2013-07-01

286

Diastereoselectivity in the Lewis acid mediated aldol reaction of chiral ?, ?-epoxyaldehydes with a ketene silyl acetal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lewis acid mediated aldol reaction of chiral a, ß-cis andtrans epoxyaldehydes1 and2 withtert-butyl ketene silyl acetal proceeds mainly withanti diastereofacial preference. The best results were obtained forcis epoxyaldehyde1 in the presence of catalytic amounts of BiCl3·1.5 eq. ZnI2 (anti:syn ~ 13:1), whereas the poorest stereoselectivity was observed when an excess of LiClO4 was used (anti:syn ~ 1:1). The more

E. Fontaine; M. Baltas; J.-M. Escudier; L. Gorrichon

1996-01-01

287

In planta production of indole-3-acetic acid by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene.  

PubMed

The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene utilizes external tryptophan to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) through the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (IAM). We studied the effects of tryptophan, IAA, and IAM on IAA biosynthesis in fungal axenic cultures and on in planta IAA production by the fungus. IAA biosynthesis was strictly dependent on external tryptophan and was enhanced by tryptophan and IAM. The fungus produced IAM and IAA in planta during the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The amounts of IAA produced per fungal biomass were highest during the biotrophic phase. IAA production by this plant pathogen might be important during early stages of plant colonization. PMID:15006816

Maor, Rudy; Haskin, Sefi; Levi-Kedmi, Hagit; Sharon, Amir

2004-03-01

288

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. PMID:16347053

Schaffner, D W; Beuchat, L R

1986-05-01

289

[Clinical application of testing methods on acid-fast bacteria].  

PubMed

Clinical bacteriology pertaining to acid-fast bacteria has made marked advances over the past decade, initiated by the development of a DNA probe kit for identification of acid-fast bacteria. Wide-spread use of nucleic acid amplification for rapid detection of tubercle bacillus contributed more greatly than any other factor to such advances in this field. At present, 90% of all kits used for nucleic acid amplification in the world are consumed in Japan. Unfortunately, not a few clinicians in Japan have a false idea that the smear method and nucleic acid amplification are necessary but culture is not. In any event nucleic acid amplification has exerted significant impacts on the routine works at bacteriology laboratories. Among others, collecting bacteria by pretreatment with NALC-NaOH has simplified the introduction of the collective mode smear method and liquid media. Furthermore, as clinicians have become increasingly more experienced with various methods of molecular biology, it now seems possible to apply these techniques for detection of genes encoding drug resistance and for utilization of molecular epidemiology in routine laboratory works. Meanwhile, attempts to diagnose acid-fast bacteriosis by checking blood for antibody have also been made, primarily in Japan. At present, two kits for detecting antibodies to glycolipids (LAM, TDM, etc.) are covered by national health insurance in Japan. We have an impression that in Japan clinicians do not have adequate knowledge and skill to make full use of these new testing methods clinically. We, as the chairmen of this symposium, hope that this symposium will help clinicians increase their skill related to new testing methods, eventually leading to stimulation of advances in clinical practices related to acid-fast bacteria in Japan. 1. Smear microscopy by concentration method and broth culture system: Kazunari TSUYUGUCHI (Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) Smear microscopy and culture still remain the cornerstone to diagnose tuberculosis. However, the classical methods in Japan using direct microscopy and Ogawa solid media were not sufficient for clinical use. In recent years substantial advance has been made in these fields. Concentration of clinical samples by centrifugation improves the sensitivity of smear microscopy with excellent reproducibility. The Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system using liquid media yields high sensitivity and rapidity. Using these methods, more and more tuberculosis cases would be correctly diagnosed and treated adequately based on drug susceptibility testing. 2. New technologies for anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing: Satoshi MITARAI (Bacteriology Division, Reference Centre for Mycobacterium, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) Several new technologies have been developed to obtain anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (AST) results rapidly, utilising liquid culture and molecular technologies. Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), as a popular liquid culturing and AST system, was evaluated for its accuracy and usefulness. As for isoniazid, MGIT showed 12.6% of discordant result comparing with standard method. These MGIT resistant and Ogawa susceptible strains had relatively high MICs ranging 0.13 to 2.0 microg/ml. The molecular detection of resistant gene mutation is also a useful method to estimate drug resistance rapidly. The rpoB mutation detection is reliable with high sensitivity and specificity. 3. Nucleic acid amplification and novel diagnostic methods: Shunji TAKAKURA (Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine) Sensitivities of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis meet clinical requirement that patients with high-risk of transmission should be identified within a day. Comparison of the performance of various NAATs is difficult because of the difference in sample processing and in samples tested among methods and reports. Con

Ichiyama, Satoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiro

2005-02-01

290

Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

2009-04-01

291

PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers electrospun using diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate solvent system for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Composite nanofibrous scaffolds with various poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin ratios (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 wt.%) were successfully electrospun using diluted acetic and ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of this solvent system on the solution properties of the composites and its electrospinning properties were investigated. Viscosity and conductivity of the solutions, with the addition of gelatin, allowed for the electrospinning of uniform nanofibers with increasing hydrophilicity and degradation. Composite nanofibers containing 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin showed an optimum combination of hydrophilicity and degradability and also maintained the structural integrity of the scaffold. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) showed favorable interaction with and proliferation on, the composite scaffolds. hMSC proliferation was highest in the 30 and 40 wt.% gelatin containing composites. Our experimental data suggested that PCL-gelatin composite nanofibers containing 30-40 wt.% of gelatin and electrospun in diluted acetic acid-ethyl acetate mixture produced nanofiber scaffolds with optimum hydrophilicity, degradability, and bio-functionality for stem cell-based bone tissue engineering. PMID:24274102

Binulal, N S; Natarajan, Amrita; Menon, Deepthy; Bhaskaran, V K; Mony, Ullas; Nair, Shantikumar V

2014-01-01

292

Wall Teichoic Acids of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The peptidoglycan layers of many gram-positive bacteria are densely functionalized with anionic glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (WTAs). These polymers play crucial roles in cell shape determination, regulation of cell division, and other fundamental aspects of gram-positive bacterial physiology. Additionally, WTAs are important in pathogenesis and play key roles in antibiotic resistance. We provide an overview of WTA structure and biosynthesis, review recent studies on the biological roles of these polymers, and highlight remaining questions. We also discuss prospects for exploiting WTA biosynthesis as a target for new therapies to overcome resistant infections. PMID:24024634

Brown, Stephanie; Santa Maria, John P.; Walker, Suzanne

2013-01-01

293

Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by New Klebsiella oxytoca Free and Immobilized Cells on Inorganic Matrices  

PubMed Central

While many natural and synthetic compounds exhibit auxin-like activity in bioassays, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is recognized as the key auxin in most plants. IAA has been implicated in almost all aspects of plant growth and development and a large array of bacteria have been reported to enhance plant growth. Cells of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from the rhizosphere of Aspidosperma polyneuron and immobilized by adsorption on different inorganic matrices were used for IAA production. The matrices were prepared by the sol-gel method and the silica-titanium was the most suitable matrix for effective immobilization. In operational stability assays, IAA production was maintained after four cycles of production, obtaining 42.80 ± 2.03??g?mL?1 of IAA in the third cycle, which corresponds to a 54% increase in production in relation to the first cycle, whereas free cells began losing activity after the first cycle. After 90 days of storage at 4°C the immobilized cells showed the slight reduction of IAA production without significant loss of activity. PMID:22623901

Celloto, Valéria R.; Oliveira, Arildo J. B.; Gonçalves, José E.; Watanabe, Cecília S. F.; Matioli, Graciette; Gonçalves, Regina A. C.

2012-01-01

294

Indole-3-acetamide-dependent auxin biosynthesis: a widely distributed way of indole-3-acetic acid production?  

PubMed

During the course of evolution plants have evolved a complex phytohormone-based network to regulate their growth and development. Herein auxins have a pivotal function, as they are involved in controlling virtually every aspect related to plant growth. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major endogenous auxin of higher plants that is already known for more than 80 years. In spite of the long-standing interest in this topic, IAA biosynthesis is still only partially uncovered. Several pathways for the formation of IAA have been proposed over the past years, but none of these pathways are yet completely defined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the indole-3-acetamide (IAM)-dependent pathway of IAA production in plants and to discuss the properties of the involved proteins and genes, respectively. Their evolutionary relationship to known bacterial IAM hydrolases and other amidases from bacteria, algae, moss, and higher plants is discussed on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, we report on the transcriptional regulation of the Arabidopsis AMI1 gene. PMID:20701997

Lehmann, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maik; Hentrich, Mathias; Pollmann, Stephan

2010-12-01

295

Intravenous Acetate Elicits a Greater Free Fatty Acid Rebound in Normal than Hyperinsulinaemic Humans  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber may improve insulin sensitivity via the metabolic effects of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in reducing free fatty acids (FFA). The main objectives of this study were to compare peripheral uptake of acetate (AC) in participants with normal (< 40pmol/L, NI) and high (? 40pmol/L, HI) plasma-insulin and the ability of AC to reduce FFA in both groups. Subject/Methods Overnight fasted NI (n = 9) and HI (n = 9) participants were given an intravenous (IV) infusion of 140 mmol/L sodium acetate at 3 different rates over 90 minutes. The total amount of AC infused was 51.85 mmols. Results Acetate clearance in NI participants was not significantly different than that in HI participants (2.11 ± 0.23 vs 2.09 ± 0.24 ml/min). FFA fell in both groups, but rebounded to a greater extent in NI than HI participants (time × group interaction, P = 0.001). Significant correlations between insulin resistance (IR) indices (HOMA-IR, Matsuda and Insulinogenic Index) vs FFA rebound during IV AC infusion were also observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that AC uptake is similar in both groups. Participants with lower plasma insulin and lower IR indices had a greater FFA rebound. These results support the hypothesis that increasing AC concentrations in the systemic circulation may reduce lipolysis and plasma FFA concentrations and thus improve insulin sensitivity. More in-depth studies are needed to look at the effects of SCFA on FFA metabolism in insulin resistant participants. PMID:22828730

Fernandes, Judlyn; Vogt, Janet; Wolever, Thomas MS

2014-01-01

296

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil. Results A total of 489 LAB isolates were obtained from four distilleries in 2007 and 2008. The abundance of LAB in the fermentation tanks varied between 6.0 × 105 and 8.9 × 108 CFUs/mL. Crude sugar cane juice contained 7.4 × 107 to 6.0 × 108 LAB CFUs. Most of the LAB isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus according to rRNA operon enzyme restriction profiles. A variety of Lactobacillus species occurred throughout the bioethanol process, but the most frequently found species towards the end of the harvest season were L. fermentum and L. vini. The different rep-PCR patterns indicate the co-occurrence of distinct populations of the species L. fermentum and L. vini, suggesting a great intraspecific diversity. Representative isolates of both species had the ability to grow in medium containing up to 10% ethanol, suggesting selection of ethanol tolerant bacteria throughout the process. Conclusions This study served as a first survey of the LAB diversity in the bioethanol process in Brazil. The abundance and diversity of LAB suggest that they have a significant impact in the bioethanol process. PMID:21092306

2010-01-01

297

Synthesis and evaluation of mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid linked to 2-phenylbenzoxazole-2-yl-5-acetic acid in ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

In this study, the syntheses of 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid, (an analogue of a known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]) and 5-[4-(benzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid)phenylazo]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (a novel mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA]) are reported. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using infrared (IR), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS) spectroscopy. Incubation of the azo compound with rat cecal contents demonstrated the susceptibility of the prepared azo prodrug to bacterial azoreductase enzyme. The azo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were evaluated for inflammatory bowel diseases, in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNB)-induced colitis in rats. The synthesized diazo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were found to be as effective as 5-aminosalicylic acid for ulcerative colitis. The results of this work suggest that the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid may represent a new lead for treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:23983456

Jilani, Jamal A; Shomaf, Maha; Alzoubi, Karem H

2013-01-01

298

Production of indole-3-acetic acid and related indole derivatives from L-tryptophan by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.  

PubMed

Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 produces indoles with simultaneous utilization of L-tryptophan. Fifteen chromatographically distinct indole derivatives were detected from the L-tryptophan-supplemented cultures of R. benzoatilyticus JA2. Nine of these were identified as, indole 3-acetamide, Methoxyindole-3-aldehyde, indole 3-aldehyde, methoxyindole-3-acetic acid, indole 3-acetic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetonitrile, indole, and trisindoline. Tryptophan stable isotope feeding confirmed the indoles produced are from the supplemented L-tryptophan. Indole 3-acetic acid is one of the major products of L-tryptophan catabolism by R. benzoatilyticus JA2 and its production was influenced by growth conditions. Identification of indole 3-acetamide and tryptophan monooxygenase activity suggests indole 3-acetamide routed IAA biosynthesis in R. benzoatilyticus JA2. The study also indicated the possible multiple pathways of IAA biosynthesis in R. benzoatilyticus JA2. PMID:20972782

Mujahid, Md; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2011-02-01

299

Preclinical in vitro and in vivo activity of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid.  

PubMed Central

5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (5,6-MeXAA) is a fused tricyclic analogue of flavone acetic acid (FAA) which was developed in an attempt to improve on the activity of FAA. Previous studies have shown 5,6-MeXAA to be curative in 80% of mice bearing colon 38 tumours and 12 times more dose potent than FAA. This investigation has demonstrated that a murine colon tumour cell line (MAC15A) is approximately 60 times more sensitive to 5,6-MeXAA than to FAA, although these differences were not seen in three human cell lines tested. 5,6-MeXAA caused significant blood flow shutdown and haemorrhagic necrosis in subcutaneous MAC15A tumours in syngeneic and nude hosts, but measurable changes in tumour volume were seen only in syngeneic hosts. 5,6-MeXAA was inactive against intraperitoneal MAC15A but produced significant anti-tumour effects against the same cell line inoculated via an intravenous route. FAA has been shown previously to be inactive in this model. Interestingly, the effects against lung colonies were not accompanied by obvious necrotic changes, suggesting that they may be the result of increased direct cytotoxicity rather than an indirect host mechanism. Further studies to investigate the effects against systemic tumour deposits are under way. Images Figure 3 PMID:7779712

Laws, A. L.; Matthew, A. M.; Double, J. A.; Bibby, M. C.

1995-01-01

300

Dissociative electron-ion recombination of the interstellar species protonated glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and methyl formate.  

PubMed

Recently, methyl formate, glycolaldehyde, and acetic acid have been detected in the Interstellar Medium, ISM. The rate constants, ?(e), for dissociative electron-ion recombination of protonated gycolaldehyde, (HOCH(2)CHO)H(+), and protonated methyl formate, (HCOOCH(3))H(+), have been determined at 300 K in a variable temperature flowing afterglow using a Langmuir probe to obtain the electron density. The recombination rate constants at 300 K are 3.2 × 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) for protonated methyl formate and 7.5 × 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) for protonated glycolaldehyde. The recombination rate constant of protonated acetic acid could not be directly measured, but it appears to have a rate constant, ?(e), on the 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) scale. Several high- and low-temperature measurements for protonated methyl formate were made. In addition, an ?(e) measurement at 220 K for protonated glycolaldehyde was performed. The astrochemical implications of the rates of recombination, ?(e), and protonation routes are discussed. PMID:22335483

Lawson, Patrick A; Osborne, David S; Adams, Nigel G

2012-03-22

301

Transgenically enhanced expression of indole-3-acetic Acid confers hypervirulence to plant pathogens.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum and F. arthrosporioides, pathogenic on Orobanche aegyptiaca, were transformed with two genes of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway leading to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to attempt to enhance virulence. Transgenic F. oxysporum lines containing both the tryptophan-2-monooxyngenase (iaaM) and indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH) genes produced significantly more IAA than the wild type. IAM accumulated in culture extracts of F. oxysporum containing iaaM alone. F. arthrosporioides containing only iaaM accumulated IAM and an unidentified indole. Some transformants of F. oxysporum expressing only the iaaM gene also produced more IAA than the wild type. Sub-threshold levels (that barely infect Orobanche) of transgenic F. oxysporum expressing both genes and of F. arthrosporioides expressing iaaM were more effective in suppressing the number and size of Orobanche shoots than the wild type on tomato plants grown in soil mixed with Orobanche seed. Stimulating an auxin imbalance enhanced pathogen virulence by affecting the host in a manner similar to low doses of auxin herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. PMID:18944254

Cohen, Barry A; Amsellem, Ziva; Maor, Rudy; Sharon, Amir; Gressel, Jonathan

2002-06-01

302

Synthesis and anticancer activities of 3-arylflavone-8-acetic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

This paper describes the synthesis and the antiproliferative activities of compounds 9a-r, 3-aryl analogs of flavone-8-acetic acid that bear diverse substituents on the benzene rings at the 2- and 3-positions of the flavone nucleus. Their direct and indirect cytotoxicities were evaluated against HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (HPBMCs). The results indicate that most of the compounds bearing electron-withdrawing substituents (9b-m) exhibited moderate direct cytotoxicities. And compounds 9e and 9i showed comparable indirect cytotoxicities with 5, 6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), and low direct cytotoxicities toward HPBMCs. Interestingly, the compounds 9n-r bearing methoxy groups at the 2- or 3-position of the flavone nucleus exhibited higher indirect cytotoxicities against A549 cell lines than DMXAA, and lower cytotoxicities against HPBMCs. In addition, compounds 9p-r were found to be able to induce tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) production in HPBMCs. PMID:25461325

Yan, Guang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Fang; Ge, Bing-Chen; Shi, Xiu-Dong; Chen, Yu-Fang; Yang, Xue-Mei; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Liu, Shu-Wen; Zhao, Pei-Liang; Zhou, Zhong-Zhen; Zhou, Chun-Qiong; Chen, Wen-Hua

2015-01-27

303

Production of indole-3-acetic acid and related indole derivatives from L-tryptophan by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 produces indoles with simultaneous utilization of L-tryptophan. Fifteen chromatographically distinct indole derivatives\\u000a were detected from the L-tryptophan-supplemented cultures of R. benzoatilyticus JA2. Nine of these were identified as, indole 3-acetamide, Methoxyindole-3-aldehyde, indole 3-aldehyde, methoxyindole-3-acetic\\u000a acid, indole 3-acetic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetonitrile, indole, and trisindoline. Tryptophan stable isotope\\u000a feeding confirmed the indoles produced are from the supplemented L-tryptophan.

Ch. Sasikala; Ch. V. Ramana

2011-01-01

304

A novel kinetic model for polysaccharide dissolution during atmospheric acetic acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Acetic acid (AcH) pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with the catalysis of sulfuric acid (SA) could greatly enhance the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. However, polysaccharide dissolution happened inevitably during the pretreatment. It was found that the simplest model, which assumes that the total polysaccharides were reactive to be dissolved, could not well describe the kinetic behavior of polysaccharide dissolution. A novel pseudo-homogenous kinetic model was thus developed by introducing a parameter termed as "potential dissolution degree" (?(d)) based on the multilayered structure of cell wall. It was found that solid xylan and glucan dissolutions were a first-order reaction with respect to the dissolvable fraction. Due to the delignification action of AcH, polysaccharide dissolutions were enhanced in AcH media compared with those in aqueous system. Acetylizations of cellulose and sugars were also observed, and AcH concentration showed a significant influence on the degree of acetylization. PMID:24215769

Zhao, Xuebing; Morikawa, Yuichi; Qi, Feng; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Dehua

2014-01-01

305

PHOTOLYSIS RATES OF (2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXY)ACETIC ACID AND 4-AMINO-3,5,6-TRICHLOROPICOLINIC ACID IN NATURAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Photoreactions of (2,45-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) were studied in distilled water, natural water samples, fulvic acid solutions, and solutions containing iron (III) and/or hydrogen peroxide to determine the effect...

306

Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage  

PubMed Central

Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

2014-01-01

307

Comparative Studies of Class IIa Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Four class IIa bacteriocins (pediocin PA-1, enterocin A, sakacin P, and curvacin A) were purified to homogeneity and tested for activity toward a variety of indicator strains. Pediocin PA-1 and enterocin A inhibited more strains and had generally lower MICs than sakacin P and curvacin A. The antagonistic activity of pediocin-PA1 and enterocin A was much more sensitive to reduction of disulfide bonds than the antagonistic activity of sakacin P and curvacin A, suggesting that an extra disulfide bond that is present in the former two may contribute to their high levels of activity. The food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was among the most sensitive indicator strains for all four bacteriocins. Enterocin A was most effective in inhibiting Listeria, having MICs in the range of 0.1 to 1 ng/ml. Sakacin P had the interesting property of being very active toward Listeria but not having concomitant high levels of activity toward lactic acid bacteria. Strains producing class IIa bacteriocins displayed various degrees of resistance toward noncognate class IIa bacteriocins; for the sakacin P producer, it was shown that this resistance is correlated with the expression of immunity genes. It is hypothesized that variation in the presence and/or expression of such immunity genes accounts in part for the remarkably large variation in bacteriocin sensitivity displayed by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:9726871

Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Skeie, Marianne; Middelhoven, P. Hans; Brurberg, May Bente; Nes, Ingolf F.

1998-01-01

308

Effects of intramuscular injection of alpha-tocopheryl acetate on fatty acid profile in lamb liver.  

PubMed

The effects of intramuscularly administrated vitamin E on total lipids, fatty acid profile, and lipid stability to oxidation was investigated in lamb liver. Twenty-four 5-day-old lambs were allotted to 4 groups of 6 each and given respectively 0 (control), 125, 200, 300 mg dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate weekly from day 5 to 33. alpha-Tocopherol stored in lamb liver at the end of experiment showed linear correlation with the level of injected vitamin E. No effect on total lipids was found. A decrease in the level of liver thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances (TBARS), significantly correlated with liver alpha-tocopherol content, was found in vitamin E groups. The amount of linoleic and linolenic acids significantly increased in the vitamin E groups as compared to control group, and were correlated with the liver alpha-tocopherol content. TBARS were negatively correlated with the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Finally, in the liver of the treated groups, vitamin E concentrations in the range 30-50 micrograms/g showed adequate for an efficient protection from peroxidation of membrane lipids, and determined an increase in the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:10642895

Oriani, G; Salvatori, G; Maiorano, G; Manchisi, A; Brienza, A; Pantaleo, L; Di Caterina, R; Rotunno, T

1999-11-01

309

Crystal structure of an indole-3-acetic acid amido synthetase from grapevine involved in auxin homeostasis.  

PubMed

Auxins are important for plant growth and development, including the control of fruit ripening. Conjugation to amino acids by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases is an important part of auxin homeostasis. The structure of the auxin-conjugating Gretchen Hagen3-1 (GH3-1) enzyme from grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in complex with an inhibitor (adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]phosphate), is presented. Comparison with a previously published benzoate-conjugating enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that grapevine GH3-1 has a highly similar domain structure and also undergoes a large conformational change during catalysis. Mutational analyses and structural comparisons with other proteins have identified residues likely to be involved in acyl group, amino acid, and ATP substrate binding. Vv GH3-1 is a monomer in solution and requires magnesium ions solely for the adenlyation reaction. Modeling of IAA and two synthetic auxins, benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), into the active site indicates that NAA and BTOA are likely to be poor substrates for this enzyme, confirming previous enzyme kinetic studies. This suggests a reason for the increased effectiveness of NAA and BTOA as auxins in planta and provides a tool for designing new and effective auxins. PMID:23136372

Peat, Thomas S; Böttcher, Christine; Newman, Janet; Lucent, Del; Cowieson, Nathan; Davies, Christopher

2012-11-01

310

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

PubMed Central

In the present work, simulated cocoa fermentation was investigated at the level of metabolic pathway fluxes (fluxome) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are typically found in the microbial consortium known to convert nutrients from the cocoa pulp into organic acids. A comprehensive 13C labeling approach allowed to quantify carbon fluxes during simulated cocoa fermentation by (i) parallel 13C studies with [13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, and [13C6]fructose, respectively, (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of secreted acetate and lactate, (iii) stoichiometric profiling, and (iv) isotopomer modeling for flux calculation. The study of several strains of L. fermentum and L. plantarum revealed major differences in their fluxes. The L. fermentum strains channeled only a small amount (4 to 6%) of fructose into central metabolism, i.e., the phosphoketolase pathway, whereas only L. fermentum NCC 575 used fructose to form mannitol. In contrast, L. plantarum strains exhibited a high glycolytic flux. All strains differed in acetate flux, which originated from fractions of citrate (25 to 80%) and corresponding amounts of glucose and fructose. Subsequent, metafluxome studies with consortia of different L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains indicated a dominant (96%) contribution of L. fermentum NCC 575 to the overall flux in the microbial community, a scenario that was not observed for the other strains. This highlights the idea that individual LAB strains vary in their metabolic contribution to the overall fermentation process and opens up new routes toward streamlined starter cultures. L. fermentum NCC 575 might be one candidate due to its superior performance in flux activity. PMID:23851099

Adler, Philipp; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Dohnt, Katrin; Hansen, Carl Erik

2013-01-01

311

Production of caproic acid by cocultures of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria and Clostridium kluyveri grown on cellulose and ethanol.  

PubMed

Ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 or Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1) were combined with the non-ruminal bacterium Clostridium kluyveri and grown together on cellulose and ethanol. Succinate and acetate produced by the cellulolytic organisms were converted to butyrate and caproate only when the culture medium was supplemented with ethanol. Ethanol (244 mM) and butyrate (30 mM at pH 6.8) did not inhibit cellulose digestion or product formation by S85 or FD-1; however caproate (30 mM at pH 6.8) was moderately inhibitory to FD-1. Succinate consumption and caproate production were sensitive to culture pH, with more caproic acid being produced when the culture was controlled at a pH near neutrality. In a representative experiment under conditions of controlled pH (at 6.8) 6.0 g cellulose l-1 and 4.4 g ethanol l-1 were converted to 2.6 g butyrate l-1 and 4.6 g caproate l-1. The results suggest that bacteria that efficiently produce low levels of ethanol and acetate or succinate from cellulose should be useful in cocultures for the production of caproic acid, a potentially useful industrial chemical and bio-fuel precursor. PMID:8597554

Kenealy, W R; Cao, Y; Weimer, P J

1995-12-01

312

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15

313

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01

314

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of acetic acid over Cu-Zn supported calcium aluminate.  

PubMed

Hydrogen can be produced by catalytic steam reforming (CSR) of biomass-derived oil. Typically bio oil contains 12-14% acetic acid; therefore, this acid was chosen as model compound for reforming of biooil with the help of a Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst for high yield of H(2) with low CH(4) and CO content. Calcium aluminate support was prepared by solid-solid reaction at 1350°C. X-ray diffraction indicates 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) as major, CaA(l4)O(7) and Ca(5)A(l6)O(14) as minor phases. Cu and Zn were loaded onto the support by wet-impregnation at 10 and 1wt.%, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM and the surface area for both support and Cu-Zn were 10.5 and 5.8m(2)/g, respectively. CSR was carried out in a tubular fixed bed reactor (I.D.=19mm) at temperatures between 600 and 800°C with 3-g loadings and (H(2)O/acetic acid) wt. ratio of 9:1. Significantly high (80%) yield of hydrogen was obtained over Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst, as incorporation of Zn enhanced the H(2) yield by reducing deactivation of the catalyst. The coke formation on the support (Ca-12/Al-7) surface was negligible due to the presence of excess oxygen in the 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) phase. PMID:22944490

Mohanty, Pravakar; Patel, Madhumita; Pant, Kamal K

2012-11-01

315

Insights into the evolution of sialic acid catabolism among bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon amino sugars that are prevalent in mucus rich environments. Sialic acids from the human host are used by a number of pathogens as an energy source. Here we explore the evolution of the genes involved in the catabolism of sialic acid. Results The cluster of genes encoding the enzymes N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NanA), epimerase (NanE), and kinase (NanK), necessary for the catabolism of sialic acid (the Nan cluster), are confined 46 bacterial species, 42 of which colonize mammals, 33 as pathogens and 9 as gut commensals. We found a putative sialic acid transporter associated with the Nan cluster in most species. We reconstructed the phylogenetic history of the NanA, NanE, and NanK proteins from the 46 species and compared them to the species tree based on 16S rRNA. Within the NanA phylogeny, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria do not form distinct clades. NanA from Yersinia and Vibrio species was most closely related to the NanA clade from eukaryotes. To examine this further, we reconstructed the phylogeny of all NanA homologues in the databases. In this analysis of 83 NanA sequences, Bacteroidetes, a human commensal group formed a distinct clade with Verrucomicrobia, and branched with the Eukaryotes and the Yersinia/Vibrio clades. We speculate that pathogens such as V. cholerae may have acquired NanA from a commensal aiding their colonization of the human gut. Both the NanE and NanK phylogenies more closely represented the species tree but numerous incidences of incongruence are noted. We confirmed the predicted function of the sialic acid catabolism cluster in members the major intestinal pathogens Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. Conclusion The Nan cluster among bacteria is confined to human pathogens and commensals conferring them the ability to utilize a ubiquitous carbon source in mucus rich surfaces of the human body. The Nan region shows a mosaic evolution with NanA from Bacteroidetes, Vibrio and Yersinia branching closely together with NanA from eukaryotes. PMID:19470179

Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E Fidelma

2009-01-01

316

Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

317

ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

318

Halolactibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Halolactibacillus miurensis sp. nov., halophilic and alkaliphilic marine lactic acid bacteria constituting a phylogenetic lineage in Bacillus rRNA group 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven novel strains of marine-inhabiting lactic acid bacteria that were isolated from living and decaying marine organisms collected from a temperate area of Japan are described. The isolates were motile with peritrichous flagella and non-sporulating. They lacked catalase, quinones and cytochromes. Fermentation products from glucose were lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Lactate yield as percentage conversion from glucose was affected

Morio Ishikawa; Kazuyuki Nakajima; Yuko Itamiya; Sayumi Furukawa; Yasushi Yamamoto; Kazuhide Yamasato

2005-01-01

319

Immunomodulation of monocytes by probiotic and selected lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, are recognized as common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and have received considerable attention in the last decades due to their postulated health-promoting effects. LAB and probiotic bacteria can modulate the host immune response. However, much is unknown about the mediators and mechanisms responsible for their immunological effect. Here, we present a study using cytokine secretion from the monocytic cell line THP-1 and NF-?B activation in the monocytic cell line U937-3xkB-LUC to elucidate immune stimulating abilities of LAB in vitro. In this study, we investigate both commercially available and potential probiotic LAB strains, and the role of putative surface proteins of L. reuteri using mutants. L. reuteri strains induced the highest cytokine secretion and the highest NF-?B activation, whereas L. plantarum strains and L. rhamnosus GG were low inducers/activators. One of the putative L. reuteri surface proteins, Hmpref0536_10802, appeared to be of importance for the stimulation of THP-1 cells and the activation of NF-?B in U937-3xkB-LUC cells. Live and UV-inactivated preparations resulted in different responses for two of the strains investigated. Our results add to the complexity in the interaction between LAB and human cells and suggest the possible involvement of secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators of LAB. It is likely that it is the sum of bacterial surface proteins and bacterial metabolites and/or secreted proteins that induce cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells and activate NF-?B in U937-3xkB-LUC cells in this study. PMID:25331988

Jensen, Hanne; Drømtorp, Signe Marie; Axelsson, Lars; Grimmer, Stine

2015-03-01

320

Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

1991-01-01

321

Study of polydimethylsiloxane/aromatic polyamide laminated membranes for separation of acetic acid/water mixtures by pervaporation process  

SciTech Connect

Separation of acetic acid/water mixtures by pervaporation was attempted over a range of compositions using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), aromatic polyamide (PA), and laminated polydimethylsiloxane-aromatic polyamide membranes. PDMS membranes are hydrophobic and acetic acid selective, whereas PA membranes are hydrophilic and water selective. When PDMS and PA membranes were laminated, with PDMS on the top side and in contact with the feed, water selectivity of the bottom PA membrane was intensified. On the other hand, when the PA membrane was on the top side and in contact with the feed, the selectivity was lowered. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Deng, S.; Sourirajan, S.; Matsuura, T. (Univ. of Ottawa (Canada))

1994-06-01

322

Effect of pH and lactic or acetic acid on ethanol productivity by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in corn mash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lactic and acetic acids on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in corn mash, as influenced by pH and dissolved solids concentration, were examined. The lactic and acetic acid concentrations utilized were 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0% w\\/v, and 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% w\\/v, respectively. Corn mashes (20, 25 and 30% dry solids)

Tara Graves; Neelakantam V. Narendranath; Karl Dawson; Ronan Power

2006-01-01

323

Effect of different concentrations of acetic, citric, and propionic acid dipping solutions on bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial contamination of raw, processed poultry may include spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens. We evaluated different combinations of organic acid (OA) wash solutions for their ability to reduce bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin and to inhibit growth of spoilage bacteria and path...

324

The excessive production of indole-3-acetic acid and its significance in studies of the biosynthesis of this regulator of plant growth and development.  

PubMed

Because of the importance of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the growth and development of plants, extensive studies of the biosynthesis of IAA have been performed during the four decades since the discovery of IAA as a plant hormone. The pathway for the biosynthesis of IAA in plants remains, however, to be unelucidated, even though studies within the past decade have revealed unexpected aspects of such biosynthesis. By contrast, two pathways to IAA have been characterized in bacteria at the molecular level: the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway (L-tryptophan-->IAM-->IAA); the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway (L-tryptophan-->indole-3-pyruvic acid-->indole-3-acetaldehyde-->IAA) (Fig. 1). In both pathways, the details of the biosynthesis of IAA were clarified using IAA-overproducing bacteria. After a description of recent advances of the studies of the biosynthesis of IAA in plants, this review focuses on the excessive production of IAA in several organisms and its significance in the studies of the biosynthesis of IAA. PMID:9032962

Kawaguchi, M; Syono, K

1996-12-01

325

A comparative study on the chitosan membranes prepared from glycine hydrochloride and acetic acid.  

PubMed

In this study, glycine hydrochloride (Gly·HCl) is confirmed to be a promising solvent for dissolving native chitosan and preparing regenerated chitosan membrane. As compared with the chitosan membrane prepared from traditional acetic acid, the membrane prepared from Gly·HCl by dry technique shows excellent tensile strength and initial modulus, i.e. 103.8MPa and 3.2GPa, respectively, which is superior to any chitosan membrane and most chitosan blend membranes reported in literatures. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to visualize the difference between the two kind of regenerated chitosan membranes. The SEM results show that the membrane prepared from Gly·HCl by dry technique presents a novel structure, which ensures its high tenacity. Furthermore, the chitosan microporous membranes were also prepared using PEG as porogen. PMID:23121935

Ma, Bomou; Li, Xiang; Qin, Aiwen; He, Chunju

2013-01-16

326

A molecular molybdenum electrocatalyst for generating hydrogen from acetic acid or water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of 2-pyridylamino-N,N-bis(2-methylene-4,6-difluorophenol) (H2L?) and MoCl5 affords a molybdenum(VI) complex [MoL?(O)2] 1, a new molecular electrocatalyst, which has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies show that a molybdenum(IV) intermediate is responsible for the reductive proton to generate H2, and 1 can catalyze hydrogen evolution from acetic acid or aqueous buffer. Turnover frequency (TOF) reaches a maximum of 50.6 (in DMF) and 756 (in buffer, pH 6.0) moles of hydrogen per mole of catalyst per hour, respectively. Sustained proton reduction catalysis occurs at glassy carbon (GC) electrode to give H2 over a 72 h electrolysis period and no observable decomposition of the catalyst.

Cao, Jie-Ping; Zhou, Ling-Ling; Fu, Ling-Zhi; Zhan, Shuzhong

2014-12-01

327

Treatment of Myositis Ossificans with acetic acid phonophoresis: a case series  

PubMed Central

Objective To create awareness of myositis ossificans (MO) as a potential complication of muscle contusion by presenting its clinical presentation and diagnostic features. An effective method of treatment is offered for those patients who develop traumatic MO. Management: Patients in this case series developed traumatic MO, confirmed on diagnostic ultrasound. Patients participated in a treatment regimen consisting of phonophoresis of acetic acid with ultrasound. Outcome: In all cases, a trial of phonophoresis therapy significantly decreased patient signs, symptoms and the size of the calcification on diagnostic ultrasound in most at a 4-week post diagnosis mark. Discussion: Due to the potential damage to the muscle and its function, that surgical excision carries; safe effective methods of conservative treatment for MO are crucial. MO deserves more attention in the literature due to its common presentation in athletes.

Bagnulo, Angela; Gringmuth, Robert

2014-01-01

328

Characterization of three endophytic, indole-3-acetic acid-producing yeasts occurring in Populus trees.  

PubMed

Three endophytic yeast, one isolated from stems of wild cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), two from stems of hybrid poplar (P. trichocarpaxPopulus deltoides), were characterized by analyzing three ribosomal genes, the small subunit (18S), internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and D1/D2 region of the large subunit (26S). Phenotypic characteristics of the yeast isolates were also obtained using a commercial yeast identification kit and used for assisting the species identification. The isolate from wild cottonwood was identified to be closest to species Rhodotorula graminis. The two isolates from hybrid poplar were identified to be species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. In addition, the three yeast isolates were observed to be able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a phytohormone which can promote plant growth, when incubated with l-tryptophan. To our knowledge, the yeast strains presented in this study were the first endophytic yeast strains isolated from species of Populus. PMID:19539760

Xin, Gang; Glawe, Dean; Doty, Sharon L

2009-09-01

329

Amino acid profiles of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from kefir grains and kefir starter made from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of cell growth, lactic acid production, amino acid release and consumption by single-strain cultures of lactic acid bacteria (isolated from kefir grains), and by a multiple-strain kefir starter prepared from them, were studied. The change in the levels of free amino acids was followed throughout the kefir process: single-strain kefir bacteria and the kefir starter (Lactococcus lactis C15–1%+Lactobacillus

Emilina Simova; Zhelyasko Simov; Dora Beshkova; Ginka Frengova; Zhechko Dimitrov; Zdravko Spasov

2006-01-01

330

Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by Citrobacter sp. TKF04 from acetic and propionic acids.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain, TKF04, capable of producing a bioflocculant from acetic and/or propionic acids was isolated from a biofilm formed in inside a kitchen drain. It was identified as a Citrobacter based on its morphological and physiological characteristics and the partial sequences of its 16S rRNA. TKF04 produced the bioflocculant during the logarithmic phase of growth, and the optimum temperature and pH for the bioflocculant production were 30 degrees C and 7.2-10.0, respectively. It could utilize some organic acids and sugars for its growth as the sole carbon sources when yeast extract was supplemented; however, only acetate and propionate were found to be good substrates for the bioflocculant production. The crude bioflocculant could be recovered from the supernatant of the culture broth by ethanol precipitation and dialysis against deionized water. It was found to be effective for flocculation of a kaolin suspension, when added at a final concentration of 1-10 mg/l, over a wide range of pHs (2-8) and temperatures (approximately 3-95 degrees C), while the co-presence of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Al3+ or Fe3+) did not enhance the flocculating activity. It could efficiently flocculate a variety of inorganic and organic suspended particles, including kaolin, diatomite, bentonite, activated carbon, soil and activated sludge. It contained glucosamine as the major component, and the molecular weight was estimated to be between 232 and 440 kDa by gel filtration. The observation that the flocculating activity was completely lost following chitinase treatment and its analysis with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer suggested that the bioflocculant is a biopolymer structurally-similar to chitin or chitosan. PMID:16232696

Fujita, M; Ike, M; Tachibana, S; Kitada, G; Kim, S M; Inoue, Z

2000-01-01

331

Pickled egg production: effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on acidification rate.  

PubMed

U.S. federal regulations require that acidified foods must reach a pH of 4.6 or lower within 24 h of packaging or be kept refrigerated until then. Processes and formulations should be designed to satisfy this requirement, unless proper studies demonstrate the safety of other conditions. Our objective was to determine the effect of brine acetic acid concentration and packing conditions on the acidification rate of hard-boiled eggs. Eggs were acidified (60/40 egg-to-brine ratio) at various conditions of brine temperature, heat treatment to filled jars, and postpacking temperature: (i) 25 °C/none/25 °C (cold fill), (ii) 25 °C/none/2 °C (cold fill/refrigerated), (iii) 85 °C/none/25 °C (hot fill), and (iv) 25 °C/100 °C for 16 min/25 °C (water bath). Three brine concentrations were evaluated (7.5, 4.9, and 2.5% acetic acid) and egg pH values (whole, yolk, four points within egg) were measured from 4 to 144 h, with eggs equilibrating at pH 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3, respectively. Experiments were conducted in triplicate, and effects were considered significant when P < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect on pH values at the center of the yolk. Regression analysis showed that brine concentration of 2.5% decreased the acidification rate, while packing conditions of the hot fill trial increased it. Inverse prediction was used to determine the time for the center of the yolk and the total yolk to reach a pH value of 4.6. These results demonstrate the importance of conducting acidification studies with proper pH measurements to determine safe conditions to manufacture commercially stable pickled eggs. PMID:24780334

Acosta, Oscar; Gao, Xiaofan; Sullivan, Elizabeth K; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

2014-05-01

332

Influence of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7 membrane lipid composition, verotoxin secretion, and acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid.  

PubMed

The effect of organic acid (acetic, citric, and lactic acids) adaptation at equivalent initial pH values (6.4 and 5.4) on changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin concentration, and acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.5, 37 degrees C) was determined for Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 (HEC) and an rpoS mutant of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 (RM, FRIK 816-3). For HEC, lactic acid-adapted (pH 5.4) cells had the greatest D-value (32.2 min) and acetic acid-adapted (pH 5.4) cells had the smallest D-value (16.6 min) in simulated gastric fluid. For RM, D-values of citric and acetic acid-adapted cells were similar to those for nonadapted cells grown at pH 7.3, but D-values increased from 13.1 to 27.9 min in lactic acid-adapted cells (from pH 7.3 to pH 5.4). For both strains, the ratio of cis-vaccenic to palmitic acids decreased for citric and lactic acid-adapted cells, but the ratio increased for acetic acid-adapted cells at pH 5.4. Organic acid-adapted cells produced less total verotoxin than did nonadapted cells at approximately 10(8) CFU/ml. Extracellular verotoxin concentration proportionally decreased with decreasing pH for both HEC and RM. Changes in membrane lipid composition, verotoxin concentration, and acid resistance in HEC and RM were dependent on both pH and organic acid. Deletion of the rpoS gene did not affect these changes but did decrease acid resistance in citric acid-adapted cells. Results indicate that decreased membrane fluidity may have caused increased acid resistance and decreased verotoxin secretion. PMID:15830655

Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Marshall, Douglas L

2005-04-01

333

Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study  

PubMed Central

Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

2015-01-01

334

Acetic Acid can catalyze succinimide formation from aspartic Acid residues by a concerted bond reorganization mechanism: a computational study.  

PubMed

Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. PMID:25588215

Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

2014-01-01

335

ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

336

Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.  

PubMed

The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 ?g/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene. PMID:24994472

Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

2014-12-01

337

The use of the SPASIBA spectroscopic potential for reproducing the structures and vibrational frequencies of a sries of acids: acetic acid, pivalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid and ?-glutamic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal coordinate analyses have been performed on acetic, pivalic, succinic and adipic acid dimers (including their deutero analogues) and the L-glutamic acid dimer. It is shown that the calculated potential energy surfaces and harmonic vibrational frequencies are in very good accordance with the experimental results. For all the observed vibrational modes below 1750 cm -1, the standard deviation between the 381 calculated and observed frequencies is approximately 12 cm -1. Comparison with previous assignments underlines a quasi-agreement for the four former molecules. In contrast, new assignments are given for some vibrational bands of L-glutamic acid.

Chhiba, M.; Derreumaux, P.; Vergoten, G.

1994-01-01

338

Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate- and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina? †  

PubMed Central

Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3 mM each) and excess sulfate, SRB first used propionate and butyrate for the production of acetate, which reached concentrations of up to 12 mM prior to being used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction. In contrast, hNRB used all three organic acids with similar kinetics, while reducing nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen. Transient inhibition of VFA-utilizing SRB was observed with 0.5 mM nitrite and permanent inhibition with concentrations of 1 mM or more. The addition of nitrate to medium flowing into an upflow, packed-bed bioreactor with an established VFA-oxidizing SRB consortium led to a spike of nitrite up to 3 mM. The nitrite-mediated inhibition of SRB led, in turn, to the transient accumulation of up to 13 mM of acetate. The complete utilization of nitrate and the incomplete utilization of VFA, especially propionate, and sulfate indicated that SRB remained partially inhibited. Hence, in addition to lower sulfide concentrations, an increase in the concentration of acetate in the presence of sulfate in waters produced from an oil field subjected to nitrate injection may indicate whether the treatment is successful. The microbial community composition in the bioreactor, as determined by culturing and culture-independent techniques, indicated shifts with an increasing fraction of nitrate. With VFA and sulfate, the SRB genera Desulfobotulus, Desulfotignum, and Desulfobacter as well as the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas and the NR-SOB Arcobacter were detected. With VFA and nitrate, Pseudomonas spp. were present. hNRB/NR-SOB from the genus Sulfurospirillum were found under all conditions. PMID:18502934

Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Cornish, Sabrina L.; Buziak, Brenton; Lin, Shiping; Cavallaro, Adriana; Arensdorf, Joseph J.; Voordouw, Gerrit

2008-01-01

339

Lactic acid bacteria in the quality improvement and depreciation of wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The winemaking process includes two main steps: lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the malolactic fermentation which follows the alcoholic fermentation by yeasts. Both types of microorganisms are present on grapes and on cellar equipment. Yeasts are better adapted to growth in grape must than lactic acid bacteria, so the alcoholic fermentation starts quickly. In must, up to ten lactic

Aline Lonvaud-Funel

1999-01-01

340

Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic bacteria for fatty acids production.  

PubMed

In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4d, cell concentration continuously increased from 0.97 g dcw/L to 2.05 g dcw/L as lactate concentration increased from 30 mM to 60mM. At 70 mM, however, cell concentration fluctuated with incomplete substrate degradation. By installing a membrane unit to CFSTR, a stable performance was observed under much higher substrate loading (lactate 100mM and HRT 1.5d). A maximum cell concentration of 16.2g dcw/L, cell productivity of 1.9 g dcw/L/d, and FA productivity of 665 mg FA/L/d were attained, and these values were comparable with those achieved using microalgae. The FA content of R. sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7). PMID:24055970

Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kang, Seoktae; Kim, Mi-Sun

2013-11-01

341

Estimation of the entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point for azeotropic mixtures containing water, alcohol or acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point has been estimated for binary and ternary azotropic mixtures containing water, alcohol or acetic acid. For this purpose, the Lee–Kesler correlation, developed originally for pure substances, is used with the appropriate mixing rules to estimate the heat of vaporization of the mixtures. Estimations for the entropy of vaporization of the 97

Ya?ar Demirel

1999-01-01

342

Liquid phase esterification of acetic acid over WO3 promoted ?-SiC in a solvent free system.  

PubMed

A series of tungstate promoted ?-SiC catalysts was synthesized by a wetness impregnation method. The as synthesized catalysts were unambiguously characterized by XRD, Raman, FTIR, XPS, UV-Vis DRS, TEM, BET surface areas and FE-SEM, and simultaneously the total amount of the acidity of the catalysts was estimated by NH(3)-TPD. The catalytic activities of the synthesized materials were tested in the liquid phase esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol in a solvent free medium. The reaction parameters were optimized to a temperature of 120 °C, molar ratio of butanol and acetic acid of 1:2 and a reaction time of 6 h after performing a number of experiments. Under the optimum conditions, the catalytic esterification revealed a significant effect of 88% conversion with 100% selectivity to butyl acetate in 20 wt% WO(3)/?-SiC. This is the first report on the effective utilization of ?-SiC as a catalyst support for liquid phase esterification of acetic acid. PMID:23042240

Mishra, Gopa; Behera, Gobinda C; Singh, S K; Parida, K M

2012-12-21

343

Metal-organic coordination architectures of azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties  

SciTech Connect

Four new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups, [Co(L{sup 1}){sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [CuL{sup 1}N{sub 3}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(L{sup 2}){sub 2}.0.5C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH.H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (3) and [Co(L{sup 2}){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) (here, HL{sup 1}=1H-imidazole-1-yl-acetic acid, HL{sup 2}=1H-benzimidazole-1-yl-acetic acid) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal structure analysis shows that 3 and 4 are 2D complexes with 4{sup 4}-sql topologies, while another 2D complex 1 has a (4{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6})-kgd topology. And 2 is a 3D complex composed dinuclear mu{sub 1,1}-bridging azido Cu{sup II} entities with distorted rutile topology. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied. - Graphical Abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the new coordination complexes with azole heterocycle ligands bearing acetic acid groups are reported.

Hu Bowen; Zhao Jiongpeng; Yang Qian; Hu Tongliang; Du Wenping [Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Bu Xianhe, E-mail: buxh@nankai.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2009-10-15

344

ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

345

Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of a Bile Leak from an Isolated Bile Duct After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy  

SciTech Connect

Bile leak after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not uncommon, and it mainly occurs from the cystic duct stump and can be easily treated by endoscopic techniques. However, treatment for leakage from an isolated bile duct can be troublesome. We report a successful case of acetic acid sclerotherapy for bile leak from an isolated bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Choi, Gibok, E-mail: choigibok@yahoo.co.kr; Eun, Choong Ki, E-mail: ilovegod@chollian.net [Inje University, Department of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Choi, HyunWook, E-mail: gdkid92@daum.net [Maryknoll Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15

346

Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH3COOH)n.H+, the feature related to the fragment ions (CH3COOH)H+.COO (105 amu) via ?-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH3COOH).H+ and (CH3COOH)H+.COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH3COOH)H+.COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 ± 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH3COOH)+ becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH3COOH).CH3CO+. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV.

Guan, Jiwen; Hu, Yongjun; Zou, Hao; Cao, Lanlan; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi

2012-09-01

347

2-Aryl(pyrrolidin-4-yl)acetic acids are potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors.  

PubMed

A series of 2-aryl(pyrrolidin-4-yl)acetic acids were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated as agonists of S1P receptors. These analogs were able to induce lowering of lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of mice and were found to have good overall pharmacokinetic properties in rat. PMID:16621543

Yan, Lin; Budhu, Richard; Huo, Pei; Lynch, Christopher L; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Mandala, Suzanne M

2006-07-01

348

Improved Monitoring of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Pear Ester Plus Acetic Acid in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in clear delta traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA) in separate lures (PE+AA) was compared with catch in orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing PE and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadie...

349

Mitochondrial degradation in acetic acid-induced yeast apoptosis: the role of Pep4 and the ADP/ATP carrier.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that acetic acid activates a mitochondria-dependent death process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) is required for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release. Mitochondrial fragmentation and degradation have also been shown in response to this death stimulus. Herein, we show that autophagy is not active in cells undergoing acetic acid-induced apoptosis and is therefore not responsible for mitochondrial degradation. Furthermore, we found that the vacuolar protease Pep4p and the AAC proteins have a role in mitochondrial degradation using yeast genetic approaches. Depletion and overexpression of Pep4p, an orthologue of human cathepsin D, delays and enhances mitochondrial degradation respectively. Moreover, Pep4p is released from the vacuole into the cytosol in response to acetic acid treatment. AAC-deleted cells also show a decrease in mitochondrial degradation in response to acetic acid and are not defective in Pep4p release. Therefore, AAC proteins seem to affect mitochondrial degradation at a step subsequent to Pep4p release, possibly triggering degradation through their involvement in mitochondrial permeabilization. The finding that both mitochondrial AAC proteins and the vacuolar Pep4p interfere with mitochondrial degradation suggests a complex regulation and interplay between mitochondria and the vacuole in yeast programmed cell death. PMID:20345665

Pereira, Clara; Chaves, Susana; Alves, Sara; Salin, Bénédict; Camougrand, Nadine; Manon, Stéphen; Sousa, Maria João; Côrte-Real, Manuela

2010-06-01

350

5-MERCAPTOTETRAZOLE-1-ACETIC Acid as a Novel Capping Ligand for Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The novel stabilizing ligand, 5-mercaptotetrazole-1-acetic acid, has been applied for synthesis of silver and palladium nanoparticles in aqueous media. The morphology of the synthesized particles and some properties were determined by TEM, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and quantum-chemical calculations.

Nichick, M. N.; Voitekhovich, S. V.; Matulis, V. E.; Komsa, D. N.; Lesnikovich, A. I.; Ivashkevich, O. A.

2013-05-01

351

The Potential of 11C-acetate PET for Monitoring the Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Tumors  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a molecular imaging modality that provides the opportunity to rapidly and non-invasively visualize tumors derived from multiple organs. In order to do so, PET utilizes radiotracers, such as 18F-FDG and 11C-acetate, whose uptake coincides with altered metabolic pathways within tumors. Increased expression and activity of enzymes in the fatty acid synthesis pathway is a frequent hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, this pathway has become a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Although multiple drugs have been developed that both directly and indirectly interfere with fatty acid synthesis, an optimal means to assess their efficacy is lacking. Given that 11C-acetate is directly linked to the fatty acid synthesis pathway, this probe provides a unique opportunity to monitor lipogenic tumors by PET. Herein, we review the relevance of the fatty acid synthesis pathway in cancer. Furthermore, we address the potential utility of 11C-acetate PET in imaging tumors, especially those that are not FDG-avid. Last, we discuss several therapeutic interventions that could benefit from 11C-acetate PET to monitor therapeutic response in patients with certain types of cancers. PMID:23597406

DeFord-Watts, Laura M.; Mintz, Akiva; Kridel, Steven J.

2013-01-01

352

Use of Optical Density Detection Times To Assess the Effect of Acetic Acid on Single-Cell Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Listeria innocua at different acetic acid concentrations (0 to 2,000 ppm) was monitored by optical density measurements in a Bioscreen (Labsystems, Vantaa, Finland). The generated populations came from low inocula that were obtained by serial dilution. A new method to estimate both the growth rate and the lag time of single cells from the detection times (time

A. Metris; S. M. George; J. Baranyi

2006-01-01

353

Acetic acid promoted metal-free aerobic carbon-carbon bond forming reactions at ?-position of tertiary amines.  

PubMed

The oxidative functionalization of the benzylic C-H bonds in tetrahydroisoquinolines and tetrahydro-?-carboline derivatives was investigated. C-C bond forming reactions proceeded with a range of nucleophiles (nitroalkane, enol silyl ether, indole, allylstannane, and tetrabutylammonium cyanide) under metal-free conditions and an oxygen atmosphere. Acetic acid caused a significant acceleration effect. PMID:25062493

Ueda, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Kei; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi

2014-08-15

354

GC-MS QUANTIFICATION OF THE METHANOL AND ACETIC ACID CONTENT OF PECTIN USING HEADSPACE SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A simple, fast, and direct procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of the methanol and acetic acid present as esters in the plant cell wall polysaccharide pectin. After base-hydrolysis of esters and acidification of pectin samples, headspace solid-phase microextraction was perfor...

355

[Lactic acid bacteria growing at low temperature with a high exploitability--a review].  

PubMed

At present, increasing attentions have been paid to lactic acid bacteria because of their probiotic effects. In the nature, there exists a kind of lactic acid bacteria growing at low temperature with a long history of use. However, they have not been well studied and developed. Most articles about the lactic acid bacteria growing at low temperature focused on meat and fish storage at low temperature, or Kimchi, a kind of fermented vegetable. Many microorganisms studied are Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus species. Nevertheless, a few researches in this field are reported in China. In this paper, we review the living environment, varieties and functions of lactic acid bacteria growing at low temperature, to provide an overview for further studies. We also discuss perspectives of further development and utilization of these lactic acid bacteria. PMID:18338590

Yang, Hongyan; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

2008-01-01

356

Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on the Transcriptional Activities and Stress Tolerance of Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

PubMed Central

A genome-wide transcriptional profile of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of the soybean plant, revealed differential expression of approximately 15% of the genome after a 1 mM treatment with the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). A total of 1,323 genes were differentially expressed (619 up-regulated and 704 down-regulated) at a two-fold cut off with q value ? 0.05. General stress response genes were induced, such as those involved in response to heat, cold, oxidative, osmotic, and desiccation stresses and in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis. This suggests that IAA is effective in activating a generalized stress response in B. japonicum. The transcriptional data were corroborated by the finding that stress tolerance of B. japonicum in cell viability assays was enhanced when pre-treated with 1 mM IAA compared to controls. The IAA treatment also stimulated biofilm formation and EPS production by B. japonicum, especially acidic sugar components in the total EPS. The IAA pre-treatment did not influence the nodulation ability of B. japonicum. The data provide a comprehensive overview of the potential transcriptional responses of the symbiotic bacterium when exposed to the ubiquitous hormone of its plant host. PMID:24098533

Donati, Andrew J.; Lee, Hae-In; Leveau, Johan H. J.; Chang, Woo-Suk

2013-01-01

357

Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on the transcriptional activities and stress tolerance of Bradyrhizobium japonicum.  

PubMed

A genome-wide transcriptional profile of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of the soybean plant, revealed differential expression of approximately 15% of the genome after a 1 mM treatment with the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). A total of 1,323 genes were differentially expressed (619 up-regulated and 704 down-regulated) at a two-fold cut off with q value ? 0.05. General stress response genes were induced, such as those involved in response to heat, cold, oxidative, osmotic, and desiccation stresses and in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis. This suggests that IAA is effective in activating a generalized stress response in B. japonicum. The transcriptional data were corroborated by the finding that stress tolerance of B. japonicum in cell viability assays was enhanced when pre-treated with 1 mM IAA compared to controls. The IAA treatment also stimulated biofilm formation and EPS production by B. japonicum, especially acidic sugar components in the total EPS. The IAA pre-treatment did not influence the nodulation ability of B. japonicum. The data provide a comprehensive overview of the potential transcriptional responses of the symbiotic bacterium when exposed to the ubiquitous hormone of its plant host. PMID:24098533

Donati, Andrew J; Lee, Hae-In; Leveau, Johan H J; Chang, Woo-Suk

2013-01-01

358

Immunohistochemical observation of indole-3-acetic acid at the IAA synthetic maize coleoptile tips.  

PubMed

To investigate the distribution of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and the IAA synthetic cells in maize coleoptiles, we established immunohistochemistry of IAA using an anti-IAA-C-monoclonal antibody. We first confirmed the specificity of the antibody by comparing the amounts of endogenous free and conjugated IAA to the IAA signal obtained from the IAA antibody. Depletion of endogenous IAA showed a corresponding decrease in immuno-signal intensity and negligible cross-reactivity against IAA-related compounds, including tryptophan, indole-3-acetamide, and conjugated-IAA was observed. Immunolocalization showed that the IAA signal was intense in the approximately 1 mm region and the outer epidermis at the approximately 0.5 mm region from the top of coleoptiles treated with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid. By contrast, the IAA immuno-signal in the outer epidermis almost disappeared after 5-methyl-tryptophan treatment. Immunogold labeling of IAA with an anti-IAA-N-polyclonal antibody in the outer-epidermal cells showed cytoplasmic localization of free-IAA, but none in cell walls or vacuoles. These findings indicated that IAA is synthesized in the 0–2.0 mm region of maize coleoptile tips from Trp, in which the outer-epidermal cells of the 0.5 mm tip are the most active IAA synthetic cells. PMID:22112455

Nishimura, Takeshi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Lucas, M Mercedes; Strnad, Miroslav; Baluska, Frantisek; Koshiba, Tomokazu

2011-12-01

359

Immunohistochemical observation of indole-3-acetic acid at the IAA synthetic maize coleoptile tips  

PubMed Central

To investigate the distribution of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and the IAA synthetic cells in maize coleoptiles, we established immunohistochemistry of IAA using an anti-IAA-C-monoclonal antibody. We first confirmed the specificity of the antibody by comparing the amounts of endogenous free and conjugated IAA to the IAA signal obtained from the IAA antibody. Depletion of endogenous IAA showed a corresponding decrease in immuno-signal intensity and negligible cross-reactivity against IAA-related compounds, including tryptophan, indole-3-acetamide, and conjugated-IAA was observed. Immunolocalization showed that the IAA signal was intense in the approximately 1 mm region and the outer epidermis at the approximately 0.5 mm region from the top of coleoptiles treated with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid. By contrast, the IAA immuno-signal in the outer epidermis almost disappeared after 5-methyl-tryptophan treatment. Immunogold labeling of IAA with an anti-IAA-N-polyclonal antibody in the outer-epidermal cells showed cytoplasmic localization of free-IAA, but none in cell walls or vacuoles. These findings indicated that IAA is synthesized in the 0–2.0 mm region of maize coleoptile tips from Trp, in which the outer-epidermal cells of the 0.5 mm tip are the most active IAA synthetic cells. PMID:22112455

Nishimura, Takeshi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Lucas, M. Mercedes; Strnad, Miroslav; Baluška, František; Koshiba, Tomokazu

2011-01-01

360

Flavone acetic acid induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest in mammary carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a synthetic flavonoid that demonstrated extraordinary anti-tumour properties in murine models but was not effective in clinical trials. In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms by which FAA asserts its tumouricidal activities, we have examined the effect of FAA on the cell cycle. We observed FAA-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest in mammary carcinoma cells at a concentration previously demonstrated to have anti-tumour effects in rodent models. The cell cycle arrest was accompanied by an increase in the P34cdc2 (cdc2) cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Morphological cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a colcemid-like effect of FAA on cytokinesis by causing accumulation of condensed C-metaphases of a sustained mitotic block. The cell cycle effect was blocked by the antioxidants ADPC and ascorbate, the superoxide scavenger Tiron, and the sphingosine kinase inhibitor L-cycloserine, but not by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. Based on these data, we propose that FAA may induce cell cycle arrest by stimulating the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471038

Panaro, N J; Popescu, N C; Harris, S R; Thorgeirsson, U P

1999-01-01

361

Effect of acetic acid and pH on the cofermentation of glucose and xylose to ethanol by a genetically engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

A current challenge of the cellulosic ethanol industry is the effect of inhibitors present in biomass hydrolysates. Acetic acid is an example of one such inhibitor that is released during the pretreatment of hemicellulose. This study examined the effect of acetic acid on the cofermentation of glucose and xylose under controlled pH conditions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST), a genetically engineered industrial yeast strain. Acetic acid concentrations of 7.5 and 15 g L(-1), representing the range of concentrations expected in actual biomass hydrolysates, were tested under controlled pH conditions of 5, 5.5, and 6. The presence of acetic acid in the fermentation media led to a significant decrease in the observed maximum cell biomass concentration. Glucose- and xylose-specific consumption rates decreased as the acetic acid concentration increased, with the inhibitory effect being more severe for xylose consumption. The ethanol production rates also decreased when acetic acid was present, but ethanol metabolic yields increased under the same conditions. The results also revealed that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid could be reduced by increasing media pH, thus confirming that the undissociated form of acetic acid is the inhibitory form of the molecule. PMID:20402796

Casey, Elizabeth; Sedlak, Miroslav; Ho, Nancy W Y; Mosier, Nathan S

2010-06-01

362

Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 ?g/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ? 80 ?g/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 ?g/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ? 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ? Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ? Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ? LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ? Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ? Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head.

Strecker, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Strecker@cos.uni-heidelberg.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weigt, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weigt@merckgroup.com [Institute of Toxicology, Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Braunbeck, Thomas, E-mail: braunbeck@uni-hd.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-04-15

363

Formic, acetic, oxalic, malonic and succinic acid concentrations and their contribution to organic carbon in cloud water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon content of cloud water at a continental background site in Austria was studied during two intensive field campaigns in spring 1999 and 2000. Six carboxylic acids, total (TC) and black (BC) carbon as well as major inorganic ions were determined. Organic carbon (OC) was calculated as the difference between TC and BC. The most abundant carboxylic acids were acetic (average: 0.93 ?g ml -1) and formic (0.61) followed by oxalic (0.38), succinic (0.15) and malonic (0.20) acids. Pyruvic acid was below the detection limit (<0.08) in all samples. The BC concentration was 1.15 and OC 4.81 ?g ml -1 on average. Relating carboxylic acid concentrations to OC, the monocarboxylic acids alone represent 9.3% of OC. Adding the dicarboxylic acids, this average value increases to 11%. Although they are major components, no general trend could be seen between carboxylic acid and OC concentrations.

Löflund, M.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Schuster, B.; Giebl, H.; Hitzenberger, R.; Puxbaum, H.

364

Bioaugmentation with resin-acid-degrading bacteria enhances resin acid removal in sequencing batch reactors treating pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

Resin acids are the major toxicants in pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs), and they form pitch interfering with papermaking. Efficient and reliable resin acid removal is critically important to prevent toxicity discharge and ensure proper functioning of paper machines. Two resin-acid-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9 and Zoogloea resiniphila DhA-35, were tested in laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for their ability to enhance resin acid removal by biomass from a full-scale biotreatment system treating PPMEs. Both bacteria enhanced resin acid removal but not removal of total organic carbon (TOC) by either pH-shocked or starved activated sludge. These two bacteria also increased resin acid removal when the sludge was given high concentration (200 microM) of resin acid. A most-probable-number polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) assay showed that these two bacteria were initially not detectable (detection limit: 10(2) bacterial cells/ml) in the sludge community and were persistent after inoculation. Both bacteria did not substantially change the indigenous microbial community composition, as assayed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Our results suggest that it is feasible and potentially useful to enhance resin acid removal by bioaugmentation using resin-acid-degrading bacteria such as BKME-9 and DhA-35. PMID:11235883

Yu, Z; Mohn, W W

2001-03-01

365

Influence of ammonia solution on gastric mucosa and acetic acid induced ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

Aqueous ammonia in concentrations of 0.02 or 0.1% was continuously administered to rats to study its effect on the gastric mucosa histologically and cell kinetically. Furthermore, acetic acid ulcer, which is a model of chronic gastric ulcer, was experimentally induced in the stomachs of rats to assess the influence of 0.02% ammonia on the course of this ulcer. Male Donryu rats were divided into three groups given 0.02% ammonia, 0.1% ammonia or tap water. On several occasions (1, 3 and 5 days and 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks from the beginning of the experiment), the gastric mucosa in the fundic gland region and the antrum was examined histologically, and from the viewpoint of cell kinetics. The assessment in the 8th and 24th weeks employed the double labeling technique with bromodeoxyuridine and 3H-thymidine. The assessment on the other occasions used the flash labeling technique with bromodeoxyuridine. Both the 0.02% and 0.1% ammonia treatment groups showed a decrease in PAS-positive mucus and an enhanced cell cycling in the early stage of the experiment. After long periods of treatment, these groups showed a reduction in the gland height, a recovery in PAS-positive mucus and a suppression of cell cycle, suggesting direct toxicity of ammonia on the gastric mucosa. Although glandular atrophy was observed in these animals, infiltration of inflammatory cells was not observed. Thus, the relationship between ammonia and gastritis remained obscure. No ulcer developed in any group. Subsequently, we experimentally induced Ul-IV or Ul-V acetic acid ulcers in the stomachs of rats, according to the method of Okabe et al. (1971, 1972). These rats were divided into two groups given 0.02% ammonia or tap water. In the 4th and 8th weeks of the experiment, the stomachs of these rats were examined histologically and from the viewpoint of cell kinetics. The 0.02% ammonia treatment group showed a significant increase in the ulcer index (long diameter x short diameter; mm2) in the 4th and 8th weeks. This group also showed suppressed cell cycling of the regenerative epithelium and fibroblasts in the ulcer margin, suggesting direct toxicity of ammonia. Thus, healing of peptic ulcer was delayed by continuous administration of 0.02% ammonia. PMID:7517730

Hata, M; Yamazaki, Y; Ueda, T; Kato, T; Kohli, Y; Fujiki, N

1994-01-01

366

Lactic acid bacteria effective for regulating the growth of contaminant bacteria during the fermentation of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid fermentation of seaweed is a recent topic and quite limited information is available on culture conditions. To\\u000a know the suitable strains for use as a starter culture for seaweed fermentation, 14 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, including\\u000a 11 species, were tested in culture conditions prepared with or without salt. A commercial product of Undaria pinnatifida powder was used

Motoharu Uchida; Masakazu Murata; Fumiyasu Ishikawa

2007-01-01

367

Preliminary analysis of lipids and fatty acids of green bacteria and Chloroflexus aurantiacus.  

PubMed

The complex lipids and fatty acids of the seven type species of green bacteria and three strains of Chloroflexus aurantiacus were analyzed. The green bacteria contained lipids that behaved as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol on thin-layer chromatography. They did not contain phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine. Similarly, Chloroflexus contained lipids that behaved as phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol on thin-layer chromatography and did not contain phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine. The green bacteria contained glycolipids I and II of Constantopoulos and Bloch (monogalactosyldiglyceride and a galactose- and rhamnose-containing diglyceride). Chloroflexus exhibited galactose-containing glycolipids that behaved identically with the mono- and digalactosyldiglycerides of spinach on thin-layer chromatography, and each contained galactose as well as at least one other sugar. The fatty acids of both groups of bacteria consisted entirely of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. In the green bacteria, myristic, palmitic, and hexadecenoic acids predominated. In Chloroflexus, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids predominated. The positions of the double bonds in the monounsaturated fatty acids of Chloroflexus indicated synthesis by the anaerobic pathway. The lipid analyses suggest a close relationship between the green bacteria and Chloroflexus and further suggest that these groups of photosynthetic bacteria are more closely related to the blue-green algae than are the purple bacteria. PMID:4421249

Kenyon, C N; Gray, A M

1974-10-01

368

Animal Rennets as Sources of Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The microbial composition of artisan and industrial animal rennet pastes was studied by using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Pyrosequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene allowed to identify 361 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the genus/species level. Among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus thermophilus and some lactobacilli, mainly Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus reuteri, were the most abundant species, with differences among the samples. Twelve groups of microorganisms were targeted by viable plate counts revealing a dominance of mesophilic cocci. All rennets were able to acidify ultrahigh-temperature-processed (UHT) milk as shown by pH and total titratable acidity (TTA). Presumptive LAB isolated at the highest dilutions of acidified milks were phenotypically characterized, grouped, differentiated at the strain level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Only 18 strains were clearly identified at the species level, as Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus, while the other strains, all belonging to the genus Enterococcus, could not be allotted into any previously described species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains might represent different unknown species. All strains were evaluated for their dairy technological performances. All isolates produced diacetyl, and 10 of them produced a rapid pH drop in milk, but only 3 isolates were also autolytic. This work showed that animal rennet pastes can be sources of LAB, mainly enterococci, that might contribute to the microbial diversity associated with dairy productions. PMID:24441167

Cruciata, Margherita; Sannino, Ciro; Ercolini, Danilo; Scatassa, Maria L.; De Filippis, Francesca; Mancuso, Isabella; La Storia, Antonietta; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

369

Effects of pod removal on the transport and accumulation of abscisic Acid and indole-3-acetic Acid in soybean leaves.  

PubMed

Concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the second most recently expanded trifoliolate leaf were determined during reproductive development of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr cv ;Chippewa 64'). The concentration of ABA in leaves was constant during most of the seed filling period until the seeds began to dry. The concentration of IAA in the leaves decreased throughout development. Removal of pods 36 hours prior to sampling resulted in increased concentrations of ABA in leaves during the period of rapid pod filling but had little effect on the concentration of IAA in leaves. ABA appears to accumulate in leaves after fruit removal only when fruits represent the major sink for photosynthate.ABA and IAA moving acropetally and basipetally in petioles of soybean were estimated using a phloem exudation technique. ABA was found to move mostly in the basipetal direction in petioles (away from laminae). IAA, primarily in the form of ester conjugate(s), was found to be moving acropetally (toward laminae) in petioles. The highest amount of IAA ester(s) was found in petiole exudate during the mid and late stages of seed filling. Removal of fruits 36 hours prior to exudation reduced the amount of IAA ester recovered in exudate, suggesting that fruits were a source of the IAA conjugate in petiole exudate. PMID:16663979

Hein, M B; Brenner, M L; Brun, W A

1984-12-01

370

Food-grade gene expression in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In the 1990s, significant efforts were invested in the research and development of food-grade expression systems in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). At this time, Lactococcus lactis in particular was demonstrated to be an ideal cell factory for the food-grade production of recombinant proteins. Steady progress has since been made in research on LAB, including Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, in the areas of recombinant enzyme production, industrial food fermentation, and gene and metabolic pathway regulation. Over the past decade, this work has also led to new approaches on chromosomal integration vectors and host/vector systems. These newly constructed food-grade gene expression systems were designed with specific attention to self-cloning strategies, food-grade selection markers, plasmid replication and chromosomal gene replacements. In this review, we discuss some well-characterized chromosomal integration and food-grade host/vector systems used in LAB, with a special focus on sustainability, stability and overall safety, and give some attractive examples of protein expression that are based on these systems. PMID:21858927

Peterbauer, Clemens; Maischberger, Thomas; Haltrich, Dietmar

2011-09-01

371

Removal of paralytic shellfish toxins by probiotic lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%-97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%-49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A

2014-07-01

372

Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

2014-01-01

373

Removal of 3-methylindole by lactic acid bacteria in vitro  

PubMed Central

3-Methylindole (3MI) is a substance with an unpleasant odor that is found in intact male pigs and is known to negatively affect consumers of pork. The growth of four strains of lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus brevis 1.12 (L. brevis 1.12), L. plantarum 102, L. casei 6103 and L. plantarum ATCC8014] in incubation medium with 3MI was studied. The four strains were tested for their ability to remove 3MI from the medium. The growth of L. brevis 1.12 remained steady as the levels of 3MI increased 3MI from 0.2 to 1.0 ?g/ml. The 3MI removal ability of L. brevis 1.12 was the strongest among the four strains, and the highest removal rate was 65.35±0.3% in 1 ml incubation medium containing 1.0 ?g/ml 3MI for 120 h. Furthermore, the supernatant fluid of the fermentation broth of L. brevis 1.12 had a stronger ability to remove 3MI than cell pellets and cell extracts and the removal rate was 14.4±0.3% in 24 h. Further results indicate that the mode of removal of 3MI was not through the physical binding of cells by L. brevis 1.12. PMID:24137302

MENG, XIAO; HE, ZHI-FEI; LI, HONG-JUN; ZHAO, XIN

2013-01-01

374

Enantioselective synthesis of piperidines through the formation of chiral mixed phosphoric acid acetals: experimental and theoretical studies.  

PubMed

An enantioselective intramolecular chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed cyclization of unsaturated acetals has been utilized for the synthesis of functionalized chiral piperidines. The chiral enol ether products of these cyclizations undergo subsequent in?situ enantioenrichment through acetalization of the minor enantiomer. A new computational reaction exploration method was utilized to elucidate the mechanism and stereoselectivity of this transformation. Rather than confirming the originally postulated cyclization proceeding directly through a vinyl oxocarbenium ion, simulations identified an alternative two-step mechanism involving the formation of a mixed chiral phosphate acetal, which undergoes a concerted, asynchronous S(N)2'-like displacement to yield the product with stereoselectivity in agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25196818

Sun, Zhankui; Winschel, Grace A; Zimmerman, Paul M; Nagorny, Pavel

2014-10-13

375

Optimal design and experimental validation of a simulated moving bed chromatography for continuous recovery of formic acid in a model mixture of three organic acids from Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation.  

PubMed

The economically-efficient separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid has been a key issue in the production of formic acid with the Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation. To address this issue, an optimal three-zone simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography for continuous separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid was developed in this study. As a first step for this task, the adsorption isotherm and mass-transfer parameters of each organic acid on the qualified adsorbent (Amberchrom-CG300C) were determined through a series of multiple frontal experiments. The determined parameters were then used in optimizing the SMB process for the considered separation. During such optimization, the additional investigation for selecting a proper SMB port configuration, which could be more advantageous for attaining better process performances, was carried out between two possible configurations. It was found that if the properly selected port configuration was adopted in the SMB of interest, the throughout and the formic-acid product concentration could be increased by 82% and 181% respectively. Finally, the optimized SMB process based on the properly selected port configuration was tested experimentally using a self-assembled SMB unit with three zones. The SMB experimental results and the relevant computer simulation verified that the developed process in this study was successful in continuous recovery of formic acid from a ternary organic-acid mixture of interest with high throughput, high purity, high yield, and high product concentration. PMID:25240652

Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Lee, Ki Bong; Mun, Sungyong

2014-10-24

376

Selective optimization in thermophilic acidogenesis of cheese-whey wastewater to acetic and butyric acids: partial acidification and methanation.  

PubMed

For partial acidogenesis of cheese-whey wastewater, a set of experiments were carried out to produce short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) in laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The maximum rate of acetic and butyric acid production associated with simultaneous changes in hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, and temperature was investigated, in which the degree of acidification of the whey to the short-chain VFAs was less than 20% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration. Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum physiological conditions where the maximum rates of acetic and butyric acid production occurred. These were 0.40-day HRT, pH 6.0 at 54.1 degrees C and 0.22-day HRT, pH 6.5 at 51.9 degrees C, respectively. The optimum conditions for acetic acid production were selected for partial acidification of cheese-whey wastewater because of a higher rate in combined productions of acetic and butyric acids than that at optimum conditions for butyric acid production. A thermophilic two-phase process with the partial acidification followed by a methanation step was operated. Performance of the two-phase process was compared to the single-phase anaerobic system. The two-phase process clearly showed a better performance in management of cheese-whey wastewater over the single-phase system. Maximum rate of COD removal and the rate of methane production in the two-phase process were, respectively, 116% and 43% higher than those of the single-phase system. PMID:12727259

Yang, Keunyoung; Yu, Youngseob; Hwang, Seokhwan

2003-05-01

377

Exchange of atmospheric formic and acetic acids with trees and crop plants under controlled chamber and purified air conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the exchange of formic and acetic acids between the atmosphere and various tree species such as beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.), ash ( Fraxinus excelsior L.), spruce ( Picea abies L.) Karst, holm oak ( Quercus ilex L.), and birch ( Betula pendula L.). and some crop-plant species such as corn ( Zea mays, var. Banjo), pea ( Pisum sativum, var. Solara), barley ( Hordeum vulgare, var. Igri) and oat (Avena sativa, var. Wiesel). All experiments were done with dynamic enclosures flushed with purified oxidant-free air, containing only low or controlled amounts of the two acids. Significant and light-triggered emission of both acids from all tree species was observed. For one tree species (ash) a seasonal large increase in fall due to early leaf decomposition was found. The standard emission factors (30°C and PAR=1000 ?mol m 2 s -1) given as (nmol m -2 min -1) for acetic and formic acids, respectively, were 8.1 and 29.7 (ash, autumn), 1.0 and 3.3 (ash, summer), 0.9 and 1.4 (beech), 0.7 and 1.45 (spruce), 1.9 and 2.4 (Holm oak) and 1.7 and 6.7 (birch). Rough estimation of global annual emissions range between 20 and 130 Gmol formic acid and 10 and 33 Gmol acetic acid. These numbers reflect a 15-30% contribution by forest emissions to the continental organic acid budget. As compared to the global total NMHC emissions low molecular weight organic acids are of minor importance. In contrast to the trees, none of the crop-plant species investigated showed an emission, but always a clear deposition of both acids. Both emission from trees as well as uptake by the agricultural plants could be related to transpiration rates and leaf conductances.

Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Gerlach, C.; Jork, E.-M.

378

Influence of indole-3-acetic acid on adventitious root primordia of brittle willow.  

PubMed

Removal of the stem apex and certain leaves and axillary buds of brittle willows (Salix fragilis) was employed to limit the supply of endogenous auxin to adventitious root primordia during their formation, which occurs at predetermined sites. Limiting endogenous auxin by this surgical treatment resulted in reduced primordium initiation and, to a lesser degree, primordium growth in cell number. Root primordium cells in surgically treated plants differentiated into mature parenchyma after losing their meristematic character. Application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to surgically treated plants partially overcame the effects of the surgical tretament, increasing root primordium initiation and growth by cell division. When IAA-2-(14)C was applied to surgically treated plants, label was detected in root primordium cells by means of autoradiography. Root primordium cells took up more label during the earliest stage of initiation than during a later stage of growth. The data indicate that the initiation of these primordia is more dependent on a supply of auxin than is their subsequent development. Further, the auxin apparently acts directly in the cells which initiate primordia. PMID:24497018

Haissig, B E

1970-03-01

379

Branching Mutant rms-2 in Pisum sativum (Grafting Studies and Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels).  

PubMed Central

Isogenic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were used to determine the physiological site of action of the Rms-2 gene, which maintains apical dominance, and its effect on endogenous free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. In mutant rms-2 scions, which normally produce lateral branches below node 3 and above node 7, apical dominance was almost fully restored by grafting to Rms-2 (wild-type) stocks. In the reciprocal grafts, rms-2 stocks did not promote branching in wild-type shoots. Together, these results suggest that the Rms-2 gene inhibits branching in the shoot of pea by controlling the synthesis of a translocatable (hormone-like) substance that is produced in the roots and/or cotyledons and in the shoot. At all stages, including the stage at which aerial lateral buds commence outgrowth, the level of IAA in rms-2 shoots was elevated (up to 5-fold) in comparison with that in wild-type shoots. The internode length of rms-2 plants was 40% less than in wild-type plants, and the mutant plants allocated significantly more dry weight to the shoot than to the root in comparison with wild-type plants. Grafting to wild-type stocks did not normalize IAA levels or internode length in rms-2 scions, even though it inhibited branching, suggesting that the involvement of Rms-2 in the control of IAA level and internode length may be confined to processes in the shoot. PMID:12232140

Beveridge, C. A.; Ross, J. J.; Murfet, I. C.

1994-01-01

380

Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. PMID:25518064

Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

2014-01-01

381

Photo-activated 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid induces apoptosis of prostate and bladder cancer cells.  

PubMed

5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), an indole derivative, is the main metabolite of serotonin in the human body. We determined whether or not ultraviolet B (UVB)-activated 5-HIAA (5-HIAA(UVB)) affects the viability of human prostate (LnCaP and PC-3) and bladder cancer cells (TCCSUP). While 5-HIAA alone had no cytotoxic effect at <1mM, 5-HIAA(UVB) induced LnCaP, PC-3, and TCCSUP cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis showed that 5-HIAA(UVB) markedly increased the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase and resulted in cell cycle disruption. To elucidate the death mechanism by 5-HIAA(UVB), we examined the signal transduction pathways related to apoptosis using Western blot analysis. 5-HIAA(UVB) led to phosphorylation of stress-activated signaling proteins, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and/or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, 5-HIAA(UVB) activated caspase-8, -9, and -3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which are indicators of apoptosis. From these findings, the present study demonstrated that 5-HIAA(UVB) induces apoptotic cell death of prostate and bladder cancer cells via stress-mediated signaling and apoptotic pathways. Therefore, we suggest that 5-HIAA might be used as a new photosensitizer for photodynamic cancer therapy. PMID:21310627

Jeong, Yun-Mi; Li, Hailan; Kim, Su Yeon; Park, Woo-Jae; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Dong-Seok

2011-04-01

382

Diagnosis of early gastric cancer using narrow band imaging and acetic acid  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether the endoscopic findings of depressed-type early gastric cancers (EGCs) could precisely predict the histological type. METHODS: Ninety depressed-type EGCs in 72 patients were macroscopically and histologically identified. We evaluated the microvascular (MV) and mucosal surface (MS) patterns of depressed-type EGCs using magnifying endoscopy (ME) with narrow-band imaging (NBI) (NBI-ME) and ME enhanced by 1.5% acetic acid, respectively. First, depressed-type EGCs were classified according to MV pattern by NBI-ME. Subsequently, EGCs unclassified by MV pattern were classified according to MS pattern by enhanced ME (EME) images obtained from the same angle. RESULTS: We classified the depressed-type EGCs into the following 2 MV patterns using NBI-ME: a fine-network pattern that indicated differentiated adenocarcinoma (25/25, 100%) and a corkscrew pattern that likely indicated undifferentiated adenocarcinoma (18/23, 78.3%). However, 42 of the 90 (46.7%) lesions could not be classified into MV patterns by NBI-ME. These unclassified lesions were then evaluated for MS patterns using EME, which classified 33 (81.0%) lesions as MS patterns, diagnosed as differentiated adenocarcinoma. As a result, 76 of the 90 (84.4%) lesions were matched with histological diagnoses using a combination of NBI-ME and EME. CONCLUSION: A combination of NBI-ME and EME was useful in predicting the histological type of depressed-type EGC.

Matsuo, Ken; Takedatsu, Hidetoshi; Mukasa, Michita; Sumie, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Hikaru; Watanabe, Yasutomo; Akiba, Jun; Nakahara, Keita; Tsuruta, Osamu; Torimura, Takuji

2015-01-01

383

Indole-3-acetic acid production by endophytic Streptomyces sp. En-1 isolated from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Plant-associated actinobacteria are rich sources of bioactive compounds including indole-derived molecules such as phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In view of few investigations concerning the biosynthesis of IAA by endophytic actinobacteria, this study evaluated the potential of IAA production in endophytic streptomycete isolates sourced from medicinal plant species Taxus chinensis and Artemisia annua. By HPLC analysis of IAA combined with molecular screening approach of iaaM, a genetic determinant of streptomycete IAA synthesis via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), our data showed the putative operation of IAM-mediated IAA biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. En-1 endophytic to Taxus chinensis. Furthermore, using the co-cultivation system of model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and streptomycete, En-1 was found to be colonized intercellularly in the tissues of Arabidopsis, an alternative host, and the effects of endophytic En-1 inoculation on the model plant were also assayed. The phytostimulatory effects of En-1 inoculation suggest that IAA-producing Streptomyces sp. En-1 of endophytic origin could be a promising candidate for utilization in growth improvement of plants of economic and agricultural value. PMID:23512121

Lin, Lan; Xu, Xudong

2013-08-01

384

Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m(3) d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m(3) d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO(2) contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO(2) content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted. PMID:21168957

Vaiopoulou, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

2011-02-28

385

Indole acetic acid distribution coincides with vascular differentiation pattern during Arabidopsis leaf ontogeny.  

PubMed

We used an anti-indole acetic acid (IAA or auxin) monoclonal antibody-based immunocytochemical procedure to monitor IAA level in Arabidopsis tissues. Using immunocytochemistry and the IAA-driven beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity of Aux/IAA promoter::GUS constructs to detect IAA distribution, we investigated the role of polar auxin transport in vascular differentiation during leaf development in Arabidopsis. We found that shoot apical cells contain high levels of IAA and that IAA decreases as leaf primordia expand. However, seedlings grown in the presence of IAA transport inhibitors showed very low IAA signal in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the youngest pair of leaf primordia. Older leaf primordia accumulate IAA in the leaf tip in the presence or absence of IAA transport inhibition. We propose that the IAA in the SAM and the youngest pair of leaf primordia is transported from outside sources, perhaps the cotyledons, which accumulate more IAA in the presence than in the absence of transport inhibition. The temporal and spatial pattern of IAA localization in the shoot apex indicates a change in IAA source during leaf ontogeny that would influence flow direction and, consequently, the direction of vascular differentiation. The IAA production and transport pattern suggested by our results could explain the venation pattern, and the vascular hypertrophy caused by IAA transport inhibition. An outside IAA source for the SAM supports the notion that IAA transport and procambium differentiation dictate phyllotaxy and organogenesis. PMID:12226500

Avsian-Kretchmer, Orna; Cheng, Jin-Chen; Chen, Lingjing; Moctezuma, Edgar; Sung, Z Renee

2002-09-01

386

Temperature-Sensitive Plant Cells with Shunted Indole-3-Acetic Acid Conjugation.  

PubMed Central

Cells of henbane (Hyoscyamus muticus L.) grow indefinitely in culture without exogenous auxin. Cells of its temperature-sensitive variant XIIB2 grow like the wild type at 26[deg]C but die rapidly at 33[deg]C unless auxin is added to the medium. Despite this temperature-sensitive auxin auxotrophy, XIIB2 produces wild-type amounts of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IAA is the predominant auxin and is important for plant growth and development. Since the IAA production of the variant is functional, we investigated whether the synthesis or degradation of IAA metabolites, possibly active auxins themselves, is altered. The IAA metabolites were IAA-aspartate (IAAsp) and IAA-glucose. The wild type converted IAA mainly to IAAsp, whereas the variant produced mainly IAA-glucose. Exogenous auxin corrected the shunted IAA metabolism of the variant. The half-life of labeled IAAsp in the variant was reduced 21-fold, but in the presence of exogenous auxin it was not different from the wild type. The temperature sensitivity of XIIB2 was also corrected by supplying IAAsp. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that henbane rapidly metabolizes IAAsp to compounds not identical to IAA. The data show that the variant XIIB2 is a useful tool to study the function of IAA conjugates to challenge the popular hypothesis that IAA conjugates are merely slow-release storage forms of IAA. PMID:12223777

Oetiker, J. H.; Aeschbacher, G.

1997-01-01

387

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the convulsant interaction between norfloxacin and biphenyl acetic acid in rats  

PubMed Central

Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are associated with a low incidence of central nervous system (CNS) side effects, possibly leading to convulsions, especially when co-administered with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Although the in vivo pro-convulsant activity of NSAIDS is essentially unknown, the convulsant potential of FQs is traditionally evaluated by in vitro ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding experiments in the presence of 4-biphenyl acetic acid (BPAA), the active metabolite of fenbufen.The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the BPAA-norfloxacin convulsant interaction in vivo.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=27) were given BPAA orally, at various doses 1?h before norfloxacin infusion, which was maintained until the onset of maximal seizures, when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were collected for analysis.An inhibitory Emax effect model with a baseline effect parameter was fitted to the norfloxacin versus BPAA concentrations in the CSF, previously shown to be part of the biophase. This model includes three parameters: the concentrations of norfloxacin in the absence of BPAA (CCSF0, Nor), and when BPAA concentration tends toward infinity (CCSFbase, Nor), and the BPAA concentration for which half of the maximal effect is observed (CCSF50, BPAA). The maximal proconvulsant effect of BPAA is given by the CCSF0, Nor / CCSFbase, Nor ratio, estimated to approximately 6 in this study.Derived models were developed in plasma to account for the non-linear CSF diffusion of norfloxacin and protein binding of BPAA.In conclusion this study has shown that the convulsant interaction between norfloxacin and BPAA in rats, can be adequately characterized by modelling of the CSF concentrations of the two drugs at the onset of activity, following their administration in various proportions. PMID:10780965

Marchand, Sandrine; Pariat, Claudine; Bouquet, Serge; Courtois, Philippe; Couet, William

2000-01-01

388

The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

2014-01-01

389

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Relatedness Among Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium lepraernuriurn, and Selected Bacteria by Dot Blot and Spectrophotometric Deoxyribonucleic Acid Hybridization Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepraemurium and other selected bacteria was studied by both dot blot and spectrophotometric deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization assays. The results obtained by the two methods were similar, except for the relatedness values between M. leprae and two corynebacterial strains. Among the mycobacterial species examined, acid-fast organisms isolated from armadillos and a mangabey monkey

R. S. ATHWAL; S. S. DEO; T. IMAEDA

390

Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The naturally occurring compound, fumaric acid, was evaluated as a potential preservative for the long-term storage of cucumbers. Fumaric acid inhibited growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an acidified cucumber juice medium model system resembling conditions that could allow preservation of cucu...

391

Combined application of origanum vulgare l. essential oil and acetic acid for controlling the growth of staphylococcus aureus in foods  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and acetic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index and kill-time assay in nutrient broth, meat broth and in a food model (meat pieces). Acetic acid showed MIC and MFC of 0.6 and 1.25 ?L.mL-1, respectively. For O. vulgare essential oil MIC and MBC were 1.25 and 2.5 ?L.mL-1, respectively. FIC indexes of the mixture of essential oil and acetic acid at MIC x ½ were ? 1.0, showing an additive effect. No synergy was found at kill-time study. Anti-staphylococcal effect of the antimicrobials alone or in mixture (MIC x ½) was lower in meat than in nutrient and meat broths. The effective combination of essential oils and organic acids could appear as an attractive alternative for the food industry, as the doses to inhibit the microbial growth in foods can be lowered. PMID:24031377

de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Barros, Jefferson Carneiro; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Neto, Nelson Justino Gomes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira

2009-01-01

392

Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.  

PubMed

This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA. PMID:24412985

Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

2014-01-15

393

Bioconversion of ovine scotta into lactic acid with pure and mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Scotta is the main by-product in the making of ricotta cheese. It is widely produced in southern Europe and particularly in Italy where it represents a serious environmental pollutant due to its high lactose content. With the aim of evaluating whether scotta bioconversion into lactic acid can be considered as an alternative to its disposal, besides providing it with an added value, here the growth, fermentative performances, and lactic acid productions of pure and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus were evaluated on ovine scotta-based media, without and with the addition of nutritional supplements. The outcomes indicate that ovine scotta can be utilized for the biotechnological production of lactic acid with yields up to 92%, comparable to those obtained on cheese-whey. Indeed, the addition of nutritional supplements generally improves the fermentative performances of lactic acid bacteria leading to about 2 g l(-1) h(-1) of lactic acid. Moreover, the use of mixed cultures for scotta bioconversion reduces the need for nutritional supplements, with no detrimental effects on the productive parameters compared to pure cultures. Finally, by using L. casei and S. thermophilus in pure and mixed cultures, up to 99% optically pure L: -lactic acid can be obtained. PMID:21739193

Secchi, Nicola; Giunta, Daniela; Pretti, Luca; García, Mónica Ruiz; Roggio, Tonina; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Catzeddu, Pasquale

2012-01-01

394

Alternative mechanism for the evaluation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production by Azospirillum brasilense strains and its effects on the germination and growth of maize seedlings.  

PubMed

We evaluated the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by Azospirillum brasilense strains in vitro (cell culture supernatants) and in vivo (stems and roots of maize seedlings) to clarify the role of this phytohormone as a signaling and effector molecule in the symbiotic interaction between maize and A. brasilense. The three strains all showed IAA production when cultured in NFb medium supplemented with 100 ?g/ml L-tryptophan. The level of IAA production was 41.5 ?g/ml for Yu62, 12.9 ?g/ml for Az39, and 0.15 ?g/ml for ipdC-. The release of IAA into culture medium by the bacteria appeared to be the main activator of the early growth promotion observed in the inoculated maize seedlings. The application of supernatants with different IAA contents caused significant differences in the seedling growth. This observation provides the basis for novel technological tools for effective quality control procedures on inoculants. The approach described can be incorporated into different inoculation methods, including line sowing, downspout, and foliar techniques, and increase the sustainability of symbiotic plant-bacteria systems. PMID:24037658

Masciarelli, Oscar; Urbani, Lucia; Reinoso, Herminda; Luna, Virginia

2013-10-01

395

Yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid: acidic conditions caused by the organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures induce expression of intracellular metal metabolism genes regulated by Aft1p.  

PubMed

Using two types of genome-wide analysis to investigate yeast genes involved in response to lactic acid and acetic acid, we found that the acidic condition affects metal metabolism. The first type is an expression analysis using DNA microarrays to investigate 'acid shock response' as the first step to adapt to an acidic condition, and 'acid adaptation' by maintaining integrity in the acidic condition. The other is a functional screening using the nonessential genes deletion collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression analysis showed that genes involved in stress response, such as YGP1, TPS1 and HSP150, were induced under the acid shock response. Genes such as FIT2, ARN1 and ARN2, involved in metal metabolism regulated by Aft1p, were induced under the acid adaptation. AFT1 was induced under acid shock response and under acid adaptation with lactic acid. Moreover, green fluorescent protein-fused Aft1p was localized to the nucleus in cells grown in media containing lactic acid, acetic acid, or hydrochloric acid. Both analyses suggested that the acidic condition affects cell wall architecture. The depletion of cell-wall components encoded by SED1, DSE2, CTS1, EGT2, SCW11, SUN4 and YNL300W and histone acetyltransferase complex proteins encoded by YID21, EAF3, EAF5, EAF6 and YAF9 increased resistance to lactic acid. Depletion of the cell-wall mannoprotein Sed1p provided resistance to lactic acid, although the expression of SED1 was induced by exposure to lactic acid. Depletion of vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase and high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins caused acid sensitivity. Moreover, our quantitative PCR showed that expression of PDR12 increased under acid shock response with lactic acid and decreased under acid adaptation with hydrochloric acid. PMID:16911514

Kawahata, Miho; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

2006-09-01

396

Hypolipidemic effects of lactic acid bacteria fermented cereal in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60) in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) was incorporated), B (unfermented high fat diet) or C (commercial rat chow) respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Results Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) were able to grow and ferment maize meal into ‘ogi’ of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor. It is also possible that consumption of fermented food enhances conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by activating cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase. PMID:23231860

2012-01-01

397

Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from potted plants.  

PubMed

We study the growth of different isolates of Botrytis cinerea collected from potted plants which were affected by Botrytis blight in southern Spain during recent years. These isolates, which show widely phenotypic differences when grown in vitro, are differentially affected by growth temperature, gibberellic acid applications and paclobutrazol, an efficient plant growth retardant and fungicide at the same time. In this work, we have evaluated the effect of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) dose (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/plate) on the growth of the collection of B. cinerea isolates obtained from the following potted plants: Cyclamen persicum, Hydrangea macrophylla, Lantona camara, and Lonicera japonica. B. cinerea produces indolacetic acid, but so far the precise biosynthetic pathway and some effects on this fungal species are still unclear, although recent studies have revealed an antifungal activity of IAA on several fungi, including B. cinerea isolated from harvested fruits. Mycelial growth curves and growth rates assessed from difference in colony areas during the both linear and deceleration phase, conidiation (measured as time of appearance), conidia length (microm), and sclerotia production (number/plate) were evaluated in the isolates, which were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar for up to 35 days. Mycelial growth curves fitted a typical kinetic equation of fungi grown on solid media. B. cinerea isolates showed a high degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate and auxin dose. This plant growth substance delayed mycelial growth during the linear phase in an isolate-dependent manner, thus isolates from C. persicum, H. macrophylla and L. camara were more affected by IAA than L. japonica. On the other hand, 100 mg of IAA was the critical dose to significantly reduce the growth rate in all isolates and to promote brown-striped hyphae development, especially in isolate from C. persicum. 10 and 100 mg IAA delayed conidiation in isolates from H. macrophylla but scarcely effects were found in the conidia length. The sclerotia production process was blocked at IAA doses of 100 mg in isolates from L. camara and L. japonica, and was reduced in isolate from H. macrophylla. However, dose of 100 mg IAA had no effect on sclerotia production in isolate from C. persicum. It was concluded that the effect of IAA on B. cinerea growth depends on the isolate, thus isolates from H. macrophylla and L. camara were the most affected by IAA. B. cinerea reduced its development under IAA applications, depending on the isolate and dose. These results confirm those recently published on the inhibitory effect of IAA on Botrytris species growth. PMID:22702183

Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

2011-01-01

398

Pretreatment of Gymnema sylvestre revealed the protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Overproduction of free radicals and decreased antioxidant capacity are well-known risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves extract is distinguished for its anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Present study is designed to evaluate the preventative activities of GS against acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in Wistar rats. Methods Experimentally ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by AA in animals pretreated with three different doses of GS leaves extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day) and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg/day) for seven days. Twenty four hours later, animals were sacrificed and the colonic tissues were collected. Colonic mucus content was determined using Alcian blue dye binding technique. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione sulfhydryl group (T-GSH) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NPSH) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in colon tissues. Colonic nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein (TP) concentrations were also determined. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in colonic tissues. The histopathological changes of the colonic tissues were also observed. Results In AA administered group TBARS levels were increased, while colonic mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH, SOD and CAT were reduced in colon. Pretreatment with GS inhibited TBARS elevation as well as mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH reduction. Enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were brought back to their normal levels in GS pretreated group. A significant reduction in DNA, RNA and TP levels was seen following AA administration and this inhibition was significantly eliminated by GS treatment. GS pretreatment also inhibited AA-induced elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PGE2 and NO levels in colon. The apparent UC protection was further confirmed by the histopathological screening. Conclusion The GS leaves extract showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24507431

2014-01-01

399

Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput. PMID:21896164

2011-01-01

400

The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell  

E-print Network

The Fate of Amino Acid in Soil Experiments: Bacteria, Roots and Fungi Melissa Campbell Clark of amino acid in soil using radioactive isotopes, however many experiments use only one relatively large, and organisms behave differently when different concentrations of free amino acids are present. In soil

Vallino, Joseph J.

401

Effects of phenolic acids on the proteolytic activity of the rumen bacteria Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens  

E-print Network

Effects of phenolic acids on the proteolytic activity of the rumen bacteria Butyrivibrio microorganisms. Mar- tin and Akin (1988) noted the inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on the polysaccharidases-cell-wall proteins. This paper aims to determine whether the phenolic acids released during the degrada- tion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics calculation of the ?O-H IR spectra for acetic acid cyclic dimers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach calculations and a quantum theoretical model are used in order to study the IR spectrum of the acetic acid dimer in the gas phase. The theoretical model is taking into account the strong anharmonic coupling, Davydov coupling, multiple Fermi resonances between the first harmonics of some bending modes and the first excited state of the symmetric combination of the two vO-H modes and the quantum direct and indirect relaxation. The IR spectra obtained from DFT-based molecular dynamics is compared with our theoretical lineshape and with experiment. Note that in a previous work we have shown that our approach reproduces satisfactorily the main futures of the IR experimental lineshapes of the acetic acid dimer [Mohamed el Amine Benmalti, Paul Blaise, H. T. Flakus, Olivier Henri-Rousseau, Chem Phys, 320(2006) 267-274.].

El Amine Benmalti, Mohamed; Krallafa, Abdelghani; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

2015-01-01

403

In situ decarboxylation of acetic and formic acids in aqueous inclusions as a possible way to produce excess CH4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate reconstruction of diagenetic P-T conditions in petroleum reservoirs from fluid inclusion data relies on valid measurements of methane concentration in aqueous inclusions. Techniques have been developed (Raman spectrometry) to provide sufficiently accurate data, assuming measured methane concentration has not been modified after aqueous inclusion entrapment. In petroleum reservoirs, acetic (CH3COOH) and formic (HCOOH) acids are the most commonly reported organic acids, and the concentration of the total organic acids can be as high as 10,000 ppm at temperature below 120°C. This study investigates the likelihood that organic acids derived from petroleum fluids and dissolved in formation water might suffer decarboxylation upon post-entrapment heating within the fluid inclusion chamber upon post-entrapment heating, thereby generating excess CH4 in the inclusions. Four different experiments were conducted in Fused Silica Capillary Capsules (FSCCs), mimicking fluid inclusions. The capsules were loaded with acetic (CH3COOH) or formic (HCOOH) acid solution and were heated to 250°C for short durations (< 72hrs) in closed system conditions, with or without applying a fixed PH2. Reaction products were characterized by Raman and FT-IR spectrometry. The beginning of the decarboxylation of acetic acid is reached in 32 h at 250°C, with production of CH4 and CO2. Complete decarboxylation of formic acid is reached in 5 h at 250°C, with production of CO2, CO and H2. The lack of CH4 production in experiments with formic acid may be attributed to the relatively short duration of the experiments and/or the loss of H2 through the FSCC by diffusion during the experiment. Further experiments with a longer heating duration should be performed to assess the possibility of reducing the CO2 into CH4 from the formic acid. 2) The injection of H2 in the FSCC as a way to promote CO2 reduction did not promote decarboxylation in the duration of our experiment. These results suggest that methane may be produced from dissolved acetic acid in natural aqueous inclusions in specific situations, possibly inducing errors in the thermodynamic interpretation.

Ong, Anthony; Pironon, Jacques; Robert, Pascal; Dubessy, Jean; Caumon, Marie-Camille; Randi, Aurélien; Chailan, Olivier; Girard, Jean-Pierre

2013-04-01

404

Application of molecular methods for the classification and identification of lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the typical lactic acid bacteria (LAB) belong to the Gram-positive bacteria with a low guanine plus cytosine DNA content. The genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Pediococcus can be traditionally differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological properties but phylogentically they are intermixed. The former genus Streptococcus has been split up into the four genera Enterococcus,

Karl-Heinz Schleifer; Mathias Ehrmann; Claudia Beimfohr; Elke Brockmann; Wolfgang Ludwig; Rudolf Amann

1995-01-01

405

5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a novel antivascular agent: phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this phase I, dose-escalation study was to determine the toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic end points of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone acetic acid (DMXAA). In all, 46 patients received a total of 247 infusions of DMXAA over 15 dose levels ranging from 6 to 4900 mg m?2. The maximum tolerated dose was established at 3700 mg m?2; dose-limiting

G J S Rustin; C Bradley; S Galbraith; M Stratford; P Loadman; S Waller; K Bellenger; L Gumbrell; L Folkes; G Halbert; GJS Rustin

2003-01-01

406

Clinical aspects of a phase I trial of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a novel antivascular agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antitumour action of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) is mediated through tumour-selective antivascular effects and cytokine induction. This clinical phase I trial was conducted to examine its toxicity, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). A secondary objective was to assess its antitumour efficacy. DMXAA was administered every 3 weeks as a 20-min i.v. infusion. Dose escalation initially followed a

M B Jameson; P I Thompson; B C Baguley; B D Evans; V J Harvey; D J Porter; M R McCrystal; M Small; K Bellenger; L Gumbrell; G W Halbert; P Kestell

2003-01-01

407

Stability of the Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Irritation Model in Alpha Chloralose-Anesthetized Female Cats  

PubMed Central

Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in ?-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min “quiet period” (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

Kullmann, F. Aura; Wells, Grace I.; Langdale, Christopher L.; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B.

2013-01-01

408

Preparation of core-shell PAN nanofibers encapsulated ?-tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate for photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (MAAP) and ?-tocopherol acetate (?-TAc), as the stable vitamin C and vitamin E derivative, respectively, are often applied to skin care products for reducing UV damage. The encapsulation of MAAP (0.5%, g\\/mL) and ?-TAc (5%, g\\/mL) together within the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers was demonstrated using a coaxial electrospinning technique. The structure and morphology characterizations of the

Xiao-Mei Wu; Christopher J. Branford-White; Deng-Guang Yu; Nicholas P. Chatterton; Li-Min Zhu

2011-01-01

409

Synthesis and characterization of poly(3-thiophenyl acetic acid) (P3TAA)–BaFe 12O 19 nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have presented a method for the fabrication of poly(3-thiophenyl acetic acid) (P3TAA)–BaFe12O19 nanocomposites by the in situ polymerization of P3TAA in the presence of synthesized BaFe12O19 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles and the nanocomposite were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, TGA, TEM, VSM and conductivity techniques for structural and physicochemical characteristics. Crystallographic analysis revealed the phase as hexaferrite and X-ray line profile

Z. Durmus; B. Unal; M. S. Toprak; H. Sozeri; A. Baykal

2011-01-01

410

Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations  

SciTech Connect

In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH{sub 3}COOH){sub n}{center_dot}H{sup +}, the feature related to the fragment ions (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO (105 amu) via {beta}-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH{sub 3}COOH){center_dot}H{sup +} and (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 {+-} 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH{sub 3}COOH){sup +} becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH{sub 3}COOH){center_dot}CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV.

Guan Jiwen; Hu Yongjun; Zou Hao [MOE Key laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Cao Lanlan; Liu Fuyi; Shan Xiaobin; Sheng Liusi [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

2012-09-28

411

High-performance ion-pair chromatographic behaviour of conjugated bile acids with di- n-butylamine acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper dealt with a simple and efficient method for separating a mixture of different series of ionic, high polar, and hydrophilic conjugates of bile acids by high-performance ion-pair chromatography (HPIPC) with a new volatile ion-pair chromatographic reagent, di-n-butylamine acetate (DBAA), as a mobile phase additive. The substrates examined included eleven different classes of C-24 glycine- or taurine-amidated, 3-sulfated, 3-glucosylated,

Tomoaki Sasaki; Takashi Iida; Toshio Nambara

2000-01-01

412

The urinary ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in surgical patients with chronic alcohol misuse.  

PubMed

The urinary ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid was reported to be elevated for a period of up to 22 h following acute alcohol ingestion. Therefore, the ratio could detect continuous alcohol consumption, in what was considered to be a high-risk surgical group, on the evening prior to surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the preoperative ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in patients with continuous preoperative alcohol misuse. Forty-two patients participated in this institutionally approved study, once their written informed consent had been obtained. Chronic alcoholics were defined by meeting the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria and an ethanol consumption > or =60 g/day. The urine samples were taken preoperatively and determined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. The urinary ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid was significantly increased in chronic alcoholics. The ICU stay of these patients was significantly prolonged due to an increased incidence of pneumonia and sepsis. Five chronic alcoholics died, whereas no deaths occurred in the nonalcoholic group (p = 0.05). As the measurement of the urinary ratio of 5-hydroxy-tryptophol to 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid could detect alcohol consumption immediately prior to operation, this marker could assist the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in screening for patients with high-level dependency; these patients were considered to be at a high risk of developing intercurrent complications. PMID:9895033

Spies, C D; Herpell, J; Beck, O; Müller, C; Pragst, F; Borg, S; Helander, A

1999-01-01

413

Screening and Optimization of Indole3Acetic Acid Production and Phosphate Solubilization from Rhizobacteria Aimed at Improving Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 216 bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soils in Northern Thailand. The bacterial strains were\\u000a initially tested for solubilization of inorganic phosphate, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, selected strains were then\\u000a tested for optimized conditions for IAA production and whether these caused stimulatory effects on bean and maize seedling\\u000a growth. It was found that all strains

Mathurot Chaiharn; Saisamorn Lumyong

2011-01-01

414

Pervaporation separation of water-acetic acid mixtures through poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes crosslinked with glutaraldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) were prepared by a solution method for the pervaporation separation of acetic acid-water mixtures. In the solution method, dry PVA films were crosslinked by immersion for 2 days at 40°C in reaction solutions which contained different contents of GA, acetone and a catalyst, HCl. In order to fabricate the crosslinked PVA membranes

Choong-Kyun Yeom; Kew-Ho Lee

1996-01-01

415

Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Fou...

416

Invited Review: Methods for the Screening, Isolation, and Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) is widespread among lactic acid bacteria (LAB), although the physiological role of these molecules has not been clearly established yet. Some EPS confer on LAB a \\

P. Ruas-Madiedo; C. G. de los Reyes-Gavilán

2005-01-01

417

Protective effect of comaruman, a pectin of cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

The efficacy of comaruman CP, a pectin of marsh cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., was investigated using a model of acetic acid-induced colitis in mice. Mice were administered comaruman CP orally 2 days prior to rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 hr later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury, higher levels of myeloperoxidase activity, enhanced vascular permeability, and diminution of colonic mucus. Oral administration of comaruman CP was found to prevent progression of colitis. Colonic macroscopic scores and the total square of damage were significantly reduced in mice treated with CP compared with the vehicle-treated colitis group. Peroral pretreatment of mice with comaruman CP was shown to decrease tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons compared with the colitis group. Comaruman CP was found to stimulate production of mucus by colons of normal and colitis mice. Comaruman CP decreased the inflammatory status of normal mice as elicited by reduction of vascular permeability and adhesion of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages. Thus, a preventive effect of comaruman on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice was detected. Reduction of neutrophil infiltration and enhancement of colon-bound mucus may be implicated in the protective effect of comaruman. PMID:16927150

Popov, Sergey V; Ovodova, Raisa G; Markov, Pavel A; Nikitina, Ida R; Ovodov, Yury S

2006-09-01

418

Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface.  

PubMed

The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our computations. In those molecules, where dispersion forces contribute significantly to the binding mechanism, the water layer has a stronger screening effect. Additionally, this effect can be enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups in the molecule. Thus, with the introduction of a water layer, the adsorption energy of isooctane and ethanol is reduced but it is increased in the case of the acetic acid. The adsorption configuration of ethanol is changed, while the one of acetic acid is moderately, and for isooctane only very slightly altered. Therefore, the effect of a water layer in the adsorption of organic molecules on an Fe(100) surface strongly depends on the type of bond and consequently, so do the tribological properties. PMID:25243045

Bedolla, Pedro O; Feldbauer, Gregor; Wolloch, Michael; Gruber, Christoph; Eder, Stefan J; Dörr, Nicole; Mohn, Peter; Redinger, Josef; Vernes, András

2014-09-18

419

Nematocyst discharge in Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) oral arms can be affected by lidocaine, ethanol, ammonia and acetic acid.  

PubMed

Nematocyst discharge and concomitant delivery of toxins is triggered to perform both defence and predation strategies in Cnidarians, and may lead to serious local and systemic reactions in humans. Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) is a jellyfish particularly abundant in the Strait of Messina (Italy). After accidental contact with this jellyfish, not discharged nematocysts or even fragments of tentacles or oral arms may tightly adhere to the human skin and, following discharge, severely increase pain and the other adverse consequences of the sting. The aim of the present study is to verify if the local anesthetic lidocaine and other compounds, like alcohols, acetic acid and ammonia, known to provide pain relief after jellyfish stings, may also affect in situ discharge of nematocysts. Discharge was induced by a combined physico-chemical stimulation of oral arms by chemosensitizers (such as N-acetylated sugars, aminoacids, proteins and nucleotides), in the presence or absence of 1% lidocaine, 70% ethanol, 5% acetic acid or 20% ammonia, followed by mechanical stimulation by a non-vibrating test probe. The above mentioned compounds failed to induce discharge per se, and dramatically impaired the chemosensitizer-induced discharge response. We therefore suggest that prompt local treatment of the stung epidermis with lidocaine, acetic acid, ethanol and ammonia may provide substantial pain relief and help in reducing possible harmful local and systemic adverse reaction following accidental contact with P. noctiluca specimens. PMID:24637105

Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Dossena, Silvia; La Spada, Giuseppa

2014-06-01

420

Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface  

PubMed Central

The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our computations. In those molecules, where dispersion forces contribute significantly to the binding mechanism, the water layer has a stronger screening effect. Additionally, this effect can be enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups in the molecule. Thus, with the introduction of a water layer, the adsorption energy of isooctane and ethanol is reduced but it is increased in the case of the acetic acid. The adsorption configuration of ethanol is changed, while the one of acetic acid is moderately, and for isooctane only very slightly altered. Therefore, the effect of a water layer in the adsorption of organic molecules on an Fe(100) surface strongly depends on the type of bond and consequently, so do the tribological properties. PMID:25243045

2014-01-01

421

Global Effect of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis on Multiple Virulence Factors of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937?  

PubMed Central

Production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widespread among plant-associated microorganisms. The non-gall-forming phytopathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (strain Ech3937) possesses iaaM (ASAP16562) and iaaH (ASAP16563) gene homologues. In this work, the null knockout iaaM mutant strain Ech138 was constructed. The IAA production by Ech138 was reduced in M9 minimal medium supplemented with l-tryptophan. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, Ech138 exhibited reduced ability to produce local maceration, but its multiplication in Saintpaulia ionantha was unaffected. The pectate lyase production of Ech138 was diminished. Compared with wild-type Ech3937, the expression levels of an oligogalacturonate lyase gene, ogl, and three endopectate lyase genes, pelD, pelI, and pelL, were reduced in Ech138 as determined by a green fluorescent protein-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting promoter activity assay. In addition, the transcription of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes, dspE (a putative T3SS effector) and hrpN (T3SS harpin), was found to be diminished in the iaaM mutant Ech138. Compared with Ech3937, reduced expression of hrpL (a T3SS alternative sigma factor) and gacA but increased expression of rsmA in Ech138 was also observed, suggesting that the regulation of T3SS and pectate lyase genes by IAA biosynthesis might be partially due to the posttranscriptional regulation of the Gac-Rsm regulatory pathway. PMID:17189441

Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Qiu; Guo, Jianhua; Charkowski, Amy O.; Glick, Bernard R.; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Cooksey, Donald A.; Yang, Ching-Hong

2007-01-01

422

Visual inspection with acetic acid as a cervical cancer test: accuracy validated using latent class analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of an alternative cervical cancer test – visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) – by addressing possible imperfections in the gold standard through latent class analysis (LCA). The data were originally collected at peri-urban health clinics in Zimbabwe. Methods Conventional accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) estimates for VIA and two other screening tests using colposcopy/biopsy as the reference standard were compared to LCA estimates based on results from all four tests. For conventional analysis, negative colposcopy was accepted as a negative outcome when biopsy was not available as the reference standard. With LCA, local dependencies between tests were handled through adding direct effect parameters or additional latent classes to the model. Results Two models yielded good fit to the data, a 2-class model with two adjustments and a 3-class model with one adjustment. The definition of latent disease associated with the latter was more stringent, backed by three of the four tests. Under that model, sensitivity for VIA (abnormal+) was 0.74 compared to 0.78 with conventional analyses. Specificity was 0.639 versus 0.568, respectively. By contrast, the LCA-derived sensitivity for colposcopy/biopsy was 0.63. Conclusion VIA sensitivity and specificity with the 3-class LCA model were within the range of published data and relatively consistent with conventional analyses, thus validating the original assessment of test accuracy. LCA probably yielded more likely estimates of the true accuracy than did conventional analysis with in-country colposcopy/biopsy as the reference standard. Colpscopy with biopsy can be problematic as a study reference standard and LCA offers the possibility of obtaining estimates adjusted for referent imperfections. PMID:17663796

Gaffikin, Lynne; McGrath, John A; Arbyn, Marc; Blumenthal, Paul D

2007-01-01

423

The Cardiovascular Effect of the Uremic Solute Indole-3 Acetic Acid.  

PubMed

In CKD, uremic solutes may induce endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether the uremic solute indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) predicts clinical outcomes in patients with CKD and has prooxidant and proinflammatory effects. We studied 120 patients with CKD. During the median study period of 966 days, 29 patients died and 35 experienced a major cardiovascular event. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that mortality and cardiovascular events were significantly higher in the higher IAA group (IAA>3.73 µM) than in the lower IAA group (IAA<3.73 µM). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that serum IAA was a significant predictor of mortality and cardiovascular events after adjustments for age and sex; cholesterol, systolic BP, and smoking; C-reactive protein, phosphate, body mass index, and albumin; diastolic BP and history of cardiovascular disease; and uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate. Notably, IAA level remained predictive of mortality when adjusted for CKD stage. IAA levels were positively correlated with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: C-reactive protein and malondialdehyde, respectively. In cultured human endothelial cells, IAA activated an inflammatory nongenomic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/p38MAPK/NF-?B pathway that induced the proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2. Additionally, IAA increased production of endothelial reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, serum IAA may be an independent predictor of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with CKD. In vitro, IAA induces endothelial inflammation and oxidative stress and activates an inflammatory AhR/p38MAPK/NF-?B pathway. PMID:25145928

Dou, Laetitia; Sallée, Marion; Cerini, Claire; Poitevin, Stéphane; Gondouin, Bertrand; Jourde-Chiche, Noemie; Fallague, Karim; Brunet, Philippe; Calaf, Raymond; Dussol, Bertrand; Mallet, Bernard; Dignat-George, Françoise; Burtey, Stephane

2014-08-21