Sample records for acetyl coa hydrolysis

  1. Application of reverse-phase HPLC to quantify oligopeptide acetylation eliminates interference from unspecific acetyl CoA hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Evjenth, Rune; Hole, Kristine; Ziegler, Mathias; Lillehaug, Johan R

    2009-01-01

    Protein acetylation is a common modification that plays a central role in several cellular processes. The most widely used methods to study these modifications are either based on the detection of radioactively acetylated oligopetide products or an enzyme-coupled reaction measuring conversion of the acetyl donor acetyl CoA to the product CoASH. Due to several disadvantages of these methods, we designed a new method to study oligopeptide acetylation. Based on reverse phase HPLC we detect both reaction products in a highly robust and reproducible way. The method reported here is also fully compatible with subsequent product analysis, e.g. by mass spectroscopy. The catalytic subunit, hNaa30p, of the human NatC protein N-acetyltransferase complex was used for N-terminal oligopeptide acetylation. We show that unacetylated and acetylated oligopeptides can be efficiently separated and quantified by the HPLC-based analysis. The method is highly reproducible and enables reliable quantification of both substrates and products. It is therefore well-suited to determine kinetic parameters of acetyltransferases. PMID:19660098

  2. ACETYL COA CARBOXYLASE IN AVIAN EIMERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acetyl coA carboxylase, catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. In some apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium sp., a multi-domain form of this enzyme (ACC 1) has been identified as a nuclear-encoded protein that is transported to and apparent...

  3. A Capillary Electrophoretic Assay for Acetyl CoA Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Sherrisse K.; Waldrop, Grover L.; Gilman, S. Douglass

    2013-01-01

    A simple off-column capillary electrophoretic (CE) assay for measuring acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase holoenzyme (holo-ACC) activity and inhibition was developed. The two reactions catalyzed by the holo-ACC components, biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT), were simultaneous monitored in this assay. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA), malonyl-CoA, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were separated by CE, and the depletion of ATP and acetyl-CoA as well as the production of ADP and malonyl-CoA were monitored. Inhibition of holo-ACC by the biotin carboxylase inhibitor, 2-amino-N,N-dibenzyloxazole-5-carboxamide, and the carboxyltransferase inhibitor, andrimid, was confirmed using this assay. A previously reported off-column CE assay for only the CT component of ACC was optimized, and an off-column CE assay for the BC component of ACC also was developed. PMID:23435309

  4. Regulation of the structure and activity of pyruvate carboxylase by acetyl CoA

    PubMed Central

    Adina-Zada, Abdussalam; Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Attwood, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    In this review we examine the effects of the allosteric activator, acetyl CoA on both the structure and catalytic activities of pyruvate carboxylase. We describe how the binding of acetyl CoA produces gross changes to the quaternary and tertiary structures of the enzyme that are visible in the electron microscope. These changes serve to stabilize the tetrameric structure of the enzyme. The main locus of activation of the enzyme by acetyl CoA is the biotin carboxylation domain of the enzyme where ATP-cleavage and carboxylation of the biotin prosthetic group occur. As well as enhancing reaction rates, acetyl CoA also enhances the binding of some substrates, especially HCO3?, and there is also a complex interaction with the binding of the cofactor Mg2+. The activation of pyruvate carboxylase by acetyl CoA is generally a cooperative processes, although there is a large degree of variability in the degree of cooperativity exhibited by the enzyme from different organisms. The X-ray crystallographic holoenzyme structures of pyruvate carboxylases from Rhizobium etli and Staphylococcus aureus have shown the allosteric acetyl CoA binding domain to be located at the interfaces of the biotin carboxylation and carboxyl transfer and the carboxyl transfer and biotin carboxyl carrier protein domains. PMID:22120519

  5. The capacity of plastids from developing pea cotyledons to synthesise acetyl CoA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Denyer; Alison M. Smith

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine whether the enzymes required to convert triose phosphate to acetyl CoA were present in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed plastids, a rapid, mechanical technique was used to isolate plastids from developing cotyledons. The plastids were intact and the extraplastidial contamination was low. The following glycolytic enzymes, though predominantly cytosolic, were found to be present in plastids:

  6. Materials and methods for the alteration of enzyme and acetyl CoA levels in plants

    DOEpatents

    Nikolau, Basil J. (Ames, IA); Wurtele, Eve S. (Ames, IA); Oliver, David J. (Ames, IA); Schnable, Patrick S. (Ames, IA); Wen, Tsui-Jung (Ames, IA)

    2009-04-28

    The present invention provides nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of acetyl CoA synthetase (ACS), plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (pPDH), ATP citrate lyase (ACL), Arabidopsis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and Arabidopsis aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), specifically ALDH-2 and ALDH-4. The present invention also provides a recombinant vector comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding one of the aforementioned enzymes, an antisense sequence thereto or a ribozyme therefor, a cell transformed with such a vector, antibodies to the enzymes, a plant cell, a plant tissue, a plant organ or a plant in which the level of an enzyme has been altered, and a method of producing such a plant cell, plant tissue, plant organ or plant. Desirably, alteration of the level of enzyme results in an alteration of the level of acetyl CoA in the plant cell, plant tissue, plant organ or plant. In addition, the present invention provides a recombinant vector comprising an antisense sequence of a nucleic acid sequence encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), the E1.alpha. subunit of pPDH, the E1.beta. subunit of pPDH, the E2 subunit of pPDH, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) or a ribozyme that can cleave an RNA molecule encoding PDC, E1.alpha. pPDH, E1.beta. pPDH, E2 pPDH, mtPDH or ALDH.

  7. Materials and methods for the alteration of enzyme and acetyl CoA levels in plants

    DOEpatents

    Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Oliver, David J.; Behal, Robert; Schnable, Patrick S.; Ke, Jinshan; Johnson, Jerry L.; Allred, Carolyn C.; Fatland, Beth; Lutziger, Isabelle; Wen, Tsui-Jung

    2005-09-13

    The present invention provides nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of acetyl CoA synthetase (ACS), plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (pPDH), ATP citrate lyase (ACL), Arabidopsis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and Arabidopsis aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), specifically ALDH-2 and ALDH-4. The present invention also provides a recombinant vector comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding one of the aforementioned enzymes, an antisense sequence thereto or a ribozyme therefor, a cell transformed with such a vector, antibodies to the enzymes, a plant cell, a plant tissue, a plant organ or a plant in which the level of an enzyme has been altered, and a method of producing such a plant cell, plant tissue, plant organ or plant. Desirably, alteration of the level of enzyme results in an alteration of the level of acetyl CoA in the plant cell, plant tissue, plant organ or plant. In addition, the present invention provides a recombinant vector comprising an antisense sequence of a nucleic acid sequence encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), the E1.alpha. subunit of pPDH, the E1.beta. subunit of pPDH, the E2 subunit of pPDH, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) or a ribozyme that can cleave an RNA molecule encoding PDC, E1.alpha. pPDH, E1.beta. pPDH, E2 pPDH, mtPDH or ALDH.

  8. Materials and methods for the alteration of enzyme and acetyl CoA levels in plants

    DOEpatents

    Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Oliver, David J.; Behal, Robert; Schnable, Patrick S.; Ke, Jinshan; Johnson, Jerry L.; Allred, Carolyn C.; Fatland, Beth; Lutziger, Isabelle; Wen, Tsui-Jung

    2004-07-20

    The present invention provides nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of acetyl CoA synthetase (ACS), plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (pPDH), ATP citrate lyase (ACL), Arabidopsis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and Arabidopsis aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), specifically ALDH-2 and ALDH-4. The present invention also provides a recombinant vector comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding one of the aforementioned enzymes, an antisense sequence thereto or a ribozyme therefor, a cell transformed with such a vector, antibodies to the enzymes, a plant cell, a plant tissue, a plant organ or a plant in which the level of an enzyme has been altered, and a method of producing such a plant cell, plant tissue, plant organ or plant. Desirably, alteration of the level of enzyme results in an alteration of the level of acetyl CoA in the plant cell, plant tissue, plant organ or plant. In addition, the present invention provides a recombinant vector comprising an antisense sequence of a nucleic acid sequence encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), the E1.sub..alpha. subunit of pPDH, the E1.sub..beta. subunit of pPDH, the E2 subunit of pPDH, mitochondrial pyurvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) or a ribozyme that can cleave an RNA molecule encoding PDC, E1.sub..alpha. pPDH, E1.sub..beta. pPDH, E2 pPDH, mtPDH or ALDH.

  9. Acetyl CoA carboxylase shares control of fatty acid synthesis with fatty acid synthase in bovine mammary homogenate.

    PubMed

    Wright, T C; Cant, J P; Brenna, J T; McBride, B W

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the flux control coefficients for acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase using an in vitro preparation of bovine mammary homogenate. For an enzyme to be considered rate limiting with the use of metabolic control analysis, its control coefficient would be equal to unity. The hypothesis for this experiment was that the control coefficient for acetyl CoA carboxylase was not equal to unity, and that this enzyme was not, therefore, the rate-limiting step. Mammary tissue was isolated from lactating Holstein cows at slaughter and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was ground, homogenized, and centrifuged to obtain a postmitochondrial supernatant for use in in vitro incubations containing labeled acetate. Specific inhibitors for acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase were used to fractionally inhibit de novo synthesis for the calculation of flux control coefficients. The composition of fatty acids synthesized in the absence of enzyme inhibitors was similar to the composition of fatty acids in the presence of inhibitors. Calculations following avidin inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase determined the flux control coefficient was 0.63 +/- 0.15, which means that 63% of the control of fatty acid synthesis is exerted by acetyl CoA carboxylase. The remaining control (37%) was from fatty acid synthase, which indicates a significant degree of control over the flux of acetate in de novo synthesis resides with this enzyme. The rate-limiting status ascribed to acetyl CoA carboxylase was not supported, because the flux control coefficient was less than unity. Metabolic control analysis, through its use of pathway product measurements, allows for potential interactions in the pathway such as feedback inhibition contribution to the flux control coefficients, which would not otherwise be considered in studies measuring enzyme kinetics with purified enzymes. PMID:16772574

  10. Enhanced activity of acetyl CoA synthetase adsorbed on smart microgel: an implication for precursor biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Nidhi Chandrama; Tripathi, Bijay Prakash; Müller, Martin; Stamm, Manfred; Ionov, Leonid

    2015-01-28

    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) is an essential precursor molecule for synthesis of metabolites such as the polyketide-based drugs (tetracycline, mitharamycin, Zocor, etc.) fats, lipids, and cholesterol. Acetyl CoA synthetase (Acs) is one of the enzymes that catalyzes acetyl CoA synthesis, and this enzyme is essentially employed for continuous supply of the acetyl CoA for the production of these metabolites. To achieve reusable and a more robust entity of the enzyme, we carried out the immobilization of Acs on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-poly(ethylenimine) (PNIPAm-PEI) microgels via adsorption. Cationic PNIPAm-PEI microgel was synthesized by one-step graft copolymerization of NIPAm and N,N-methylene bis-acrylamide (MBA) from PEI. Adsorption studies of Acs on microgel indicated high binding of enzymes, with a maximum binding capacity of 286 ?g/mg of microgel for Acs was achieved. The immobilized enzymes showed improved biocatalytic efficiency over free enzymes, beside this, the reaction parameters and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies indicated no significant changes in the enzyme structure after immobilization. This thoroughly characterized enzyme bioconjugate was further immobilized on an ultrathin membrane to assess the same reaction in flow through condition. Bioconjugate was covalently immobilized on a thin layer of preformed microgel support upon polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track etched membrane. The prepared membrane was used in a dead end filtration device to monitor the bioconversion efficiency and operational stability of cross-linked bioconjugate. The membrane reactor showed consistent operational stability and maintained >70% of initial activity after 7 consecutive operation cycles. PMID:25561344

  11. Hepatic acetyl CoA links adipose tissue inflammation to hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel J; Camporez, João-Paulo G; Kursawe, Romy; Titchenell, Paul M; Zhang, Dongyan; Perry, Curtis J; Jurczak, Michael J; Abudukadier, Abulizi; Han, Myoung Sook; Zhang, Xian-Man; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Yang, Xiaoyong; Caprio, Sonia; Kaech, Susan M; Sul, Hei Sook; Birnbaum, Morris J; Davis, Roger J; Cline, Gary W; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2015-02-12

    Impaired insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), yet the molecular mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Using a novel in vivo metabolomics approach, we show that the major mechanism by which insulin suppresses HGP is through reductions in hepatic acetyl CoA by suppression of lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) leading to reductions in pyruvate carboxylase flux. This mechanism was confirmed in mice and rats with genetic ablation of insulin signaling and mice lacking adipose triglyceride lipase. Insulin's ability to suppress hepatic acetyl CoA, PC activity, and lipolysis was lost in high-fat-fed rats, a phenomenon reversible by IL-6 neutralization and inducible by IL-6 infusion. Taken together, these data identify WAT-derived hepatic acetyl CoA as the main regulator of HGP by insulin and link it to inflammation-induced hepatic insulin resistance associated with obesity and T2D. PMID:25662011

  12. Role of CoA and acetyl-CoA in regulating cardiac fatty acid and glucose oxidation.

    PubMed

    Abo Alrob, Osama; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2014-08-01

    CoA (coenzyme A) and its derivatives have a critical role in regulating cardiac energy metabolism. This includes a key role as a substrate and product in the energy metabolic pathways, as well as serving as an allosteric regulator of cardiac energy metabolism. In addition, the CoA ester malonyl-CoA has an important role in regulating fatty acid oxidation, secondary to inhibiting CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase) 1, a key enzyme involved in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake. Alterations in malonyl-CoA synthesis by ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and degradation by MCD (malonyl-CoA decarboxylase) are important contributors to the high cardiac fatty acid oxidation rates seen in ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, obesity and diabetes. Additional control of fatty acid oxidation may also occur at the level of acetyl-CoA involvement in acetylation of mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidative enzymes. We find that acetylation of the fatty acid ?-oxidative enzymes, LCAD (long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and ?-HAD (?-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) is associated with an increase in activity and fatty acid oxidation in heart from obese mice with heart failure. This is associated with decreased SIRT3 (sirtuin 3) activity, an important mitochondrial deacetylase. In support of this, cardiac SIRT3 deletion increases acetylation of LCAD and ?-HAD, and increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation. Acetylation of MCD is also associated with increased activity, decreases malonyl-CoA levels and an increase in fatty acid oxidation. Combined, these data suggest that malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA have an important role in mediating the alterations in fatty acid oxidation seen in heart failure. PMID:25110000

  13. Stevioside Counteracts Beta-Cell Lipotoxicity without Affecting Acetyl CoA Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianguo; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Nordentoft, Iver; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    Chronic exposure to high levels of free fatty acids impairs beta-cell function (lipotoxicity). Then basal insulin secretion (BIS) is increased and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is inhibited. Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) acts as the sensor for insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells in response to glucose and other nutrients. Stevioside (SVS), a diterpene glycoside, has recently been shown to prevent glucotoxic effect by regulating ACC activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SVS can alleviate impaired beta-cell function by regulating ACC activity. We exposed isolated rat islets and the clonal beta-cell line, INS-1E, to palmitate concentrations of 1.0 or 0.6 mM, respectively, for a period of 24 h to 120 h. The results showed that lipotoxicity occurred in rat islets after 72 h exposure to 1.0 mM palmitate. The lipotoxicity was counteracted by 10-6 M SVS (n = 8, p < 0.001). Similar results were obtained in INS-1E cells. Neither SVS nor palmitate had any effect on the gene expression of ACC, insulin 2, and glucose transporter 2 in INS-1E cells. In contrast, palmitate significantly increased the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transporter 1 (n = 6, p = 0.003). However, the addition of SVS to palmitate did not counteract this effect (n = 6, p = 1.0). During lipotoxicity, SVS did not alter levels of ACC protein, phosphorylated-ACC, ACC activity or glucose uptake. Our results showed that SVS counteracts the impaired insulin secretion during lipotoxicity in rat islets as well as in INS-1E cells without affecting ACC activity. PMID:17487342

  14. AMP-acetyl CoA synthetase from Leishmania donovani: Identification and functional analysis of 'PX4GK' motif.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Neelagiri; Kumar, I Sravan; Shivaprasad, S; Gorakh, Landage Nitin; Dinesh, Neeradi; Swamy, Kayala Kambagiri; Singh, Sushma

    2015-04-01

    An adenosine monophosphate forming acetyl CoA synthetase (AceCS) which is the key enzyme involved in the conversion of acetate to acetyl CoA has been identified from Leishmania donovani for the first time. Sequence analysis of L. donovani AceCS (LdAceCS) revealed the presence of a 'PX4GK' motif which is highly conserved throughout organisms with higher sequence identity (96%) to lower sequence identity (38%). A ?77kDa heterologous protein with C-terminal 6X His-tag was expressed in Escherichia coli. Expression of LdAceCS in promastigotes was confirmed by western blot and RT-PCR analysis. Immunolocalization studies revealed that it is a cytosolic protein. We also report the kinetic characterization of recombinant LdAceCS with acetate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, coenzyme A and propionate as substrates. Site directed mutagenesis of residues in conserved PX4GK motif of LdAceCS was performed to gain insight into its potential role in substrate binding, catalysis and its role in maintaining structural integrity of the protein. P646A, G651A and K652R exhibited more than 90% loss in activity signifying its indispensible role in the enzyme activity. Substitution of other residues in this motif resulted in altered substrate specificity and catalysis. However, none of them had any role in modulation of the secondary structure of the protein except G651A mutant. PMID:25660655

  15. Determination of the quantity of acetyl CoA carboxylase by (/sup 14/C)methyl avidin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Lopez, C.R.; Goodson, J.; Allred, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    Conditions are described under which monomeric (/sup 14/C)methyl avidin binds to SDS-denatured biotin enzymes and remains bound through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The location of radioactive proteins on the dried gel was determined by fluorography and their identity was established by subunit molecular weight. The relative quantity of bound radioactive avidin, stoichiometrically equivalent to the molar quantity of biotin protein, can be determined by scanning the fluorograph with a soft laser densitometer. To determine the absolute quantity of biotin protein, the radioactive areas of the dried gel were cut out, resolubilized, and assayed for radioactivity. Since the specific radioactivity of the (/sup 14/C)methyl avidin was known, the quantity of avidin bound and therefore the quantity of biotin enzyme could be calculated. The method is illustrated by the analysis of purified acetyl CoA carboxylase and is applied to the analysis of biotin enzymes in isolated rat liver mitochondria.

  16. Aberrant mitosis in fission yeast mutants defective in fatty acid synthetase and acetyl CoA carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Two fission yeast temperature-sensitive mutants, cut6 and lsd1, show a defect in nuclear division. The daughter nuclei differ dramatically in size (the phenotype designated lsd, large and small daughter). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that sister chromatids were separated in the lsd cells, but appeared highly compact in one of the two daughter nuclei. EM showed asymmetric nuclear elongation followed by unequal separation of nonchromosomal nuclear structures in these mutant nuclei. The small nuclei lacked electron- dense nuclear materials and contained highly compacted chromatin. The cut6+ and lsd1+ genes are essential for viability and encode, respectively, acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, the key enzymes for fatty acid synthesis. Gene disruption of lsd1+ led to the lsd phenotype. Palmitate in medium fully suppressed the phenotypes of lsd1. Cerulenin, an inhibitor for fatty acid synthesis, produced the lsd phenotype in wild type. The drug caused cell inviability during mitosis but not during the G2-arrest induced by the cdc25 mutation. A reduced level of fatty acid thus led to impaired separation of non- chromosomal nuclear components. We propose that fatty acid is directly or indirectly required for separating the mother nucleus into two equal daughters. PMID:8769419

  17. An acetyl esterase of Trichoderma reesei and its role in the hydrolysis of acetyl xylans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaisa Poutanen; Maija Sundberg

    1988-01-01

    An acetyl esterase was purified from Trichoderma reesei by cation and anion exchange chromatography. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 45 000 as determined by SDS-electrophoresis, or 67 000 as determined by gel filtration. In chromatofocusing the enzyme was shown to consist of two isoenzymes with isoelectric points of 6.8 and 6.0. The enzyme showed activity towards naphthyl acetate,

  18. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as alpha-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected.

  19. Hydrolysis of wheat arabinoxylan by two acetyl xylan esterases from Chaetomium thermophilum.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaoxue; Lange, Lene; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic filamentous ascomycete Chaetomium thermophilum produces functionally diverse hemicellulases when grown on hemicellulose as carbon source. Acetyl xylan esterase (EC 3.1.1.72) is an important accessory enzyme in hemicellulose biodegradation. Although the genome of C. thermophilum has been sequenced, its carbohydrate esterases are not annotated yet. We applied peptide pattern recognition (PPR) tool for sequence analysis of the C. thermophilum genome, and 11 carbohydrate esterase genes were discovered. Furthermore, we cloned and heterologously expressed two putative acetyl xylan esterase genes, CtAxeA and CtAxeB, in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins, rCtAxeA and rCtAxeB, released acetic acids from p-nitrophenyl acetate and water-insoluble wheat arabinoxylan. These results indicate that CtAxeA and CtAxeB are true acetyl xylan esterases. For both recombinant esterases, over 93 % of the initial activity was retained after 24 h of incubation at temperatures up to 60 °C, and over 90 % of the initial activity was retained after 24 h of incubation in different buffers from pH 4.0 to 9.0 at 4 and 50 °C. The overall xylose yield from wheat arabinoxylan hydrolysis was 8 % with xylanase treatment and increased to 34 % when xylanase was combined with rCtAxeA and rCtAxeB. In sum, the present study first report the biochemical characterization of two acetyl xylan esterases from C. thermophilum, which are efficient in hydrolyzing hemicellulose with potential application in biomass bioconversion to high value chemicals or biofuels. PMID:25369895

  20. Physicochemical properties of cross-linked and acetylated starches and products of their hydrolysis in continuous recycle membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Konowa?, Emilia; Sulej-Chojnacka, Joanna; Lewandowicz, Grazyna

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the physicochemical properties of doubly modified, by cross-linking and acetylating, starches as well as the products of their enzymatic hydrolysis. A two step procedure of hydrolysis, including the batch and membrane reactors, were investigated. The second step of enzymatic processes were carried out in a continuous recycle membrane reactor (CRMR). Three kinds of commercial starches--two preparations of acetylated distarch adipate E1422 of different degrees of cross-linking, as well as one preparation of acetylated distarch phosphate E1414 were examined. It was found that the degree of substitution of acetyl groups in the macromolecules of starch did not influence the effectiveness of hydrolysis. However, the degree of cross-linking with adipate groups slightly decreased the efficiency of processing in the CRMR. Additionally, the relationship between the type of hydrocolloid and its adsorption activity in the air/water and oil/water systems was considered. All obtained derivatives revealed adsorption properties and reduced the surface/interface tension in the air/water and oil/water systems. The efficiency and effectiveness of adsorption of the investigated hydrocolloids were affected by the type of modification as well as the degree of substitution of acetyl groups in the macromolecules of starch. Particle size distributions formed in aqueous solutions for all investigated hydrolyses were determined and compared with results obtained for commercial products. PMID:19734024

  1. Simvastatin Induced Neurite Outgrowth Unveils Role of Cell Surface Cholesterol and Acetyl CoA Carboxylase in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Varshiesh; Gupta, Sarika; Yadav, Saurabh; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2013-01-01

    Statins are known to modulate cell surface cholesterol (CSC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in non-neural cells; however no study demonstrates whether CSC and AMPK may regulate simvastatin induced neuritogenesis (SIN). We found that simvastatin (SIM) maintains CSC as shown by Fillipin III staining, Flotillin-2 protein expression / localization and phosphorylation of various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the plasma membrane. Modulation of CSC revealed that SIN is critically dependent on this CSC. Simultaneously, phospho array for mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) revealed PI3K / Akt as intracellular pathway which modulates lipid pathway by inhibiting AMPK activation. Though, SIM led to a transient increase in AMPK phosphorylation followed by a sudden decline; the effect was independent of PI3K. Strikingly, AMPK phosphorylation was regulated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity which was enhanced upon SIM treatment as evidenced by increase in threonine phosphorylation. Moreover, it was observed that addition of AMP analogue and PP2A inhibitor inhibited SIN. Bio-composition of neurites shows that lipids form a major part of neurites and AMPK is known to regulate lipid metabolism majorly through acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). AMPK activity is negative regulator of ACC activity and we found that phosphorylation of ACC started to decrease after 6 hrs which becomes more pronounced at 12 hrs. Addition of ACC inhibitor showed that SIN is dependent on ACC activity. Simultaneously, addition of Fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor confirmed that endogenous lipid pathway is important for SIN. We further investigated SREBP-1 pathway activation which controls ACC and FAS at transcriptional level. However, SIM did not affect SREBP-1 processing and transcription of its target genes likes ACC1 and FAS. In conclusion, this study highlights a distinct role of CSC and ACC in SIN which might have implication in process of neuronal differentiation induced by other agents. PMID:24040277

  2. Reaction pathway and free energy profile for papain-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-acetyl-Phe-Gly 4-nitroanilide

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Donghui; Huang, Xiaoqin; Tang, Mingsheng; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Possible reaction pathways for papain-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-acetyl-Phe-Gly 4-nitroanilide (APGNA) have been studied by performing pseudobond first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical-free energy (QM/MM-FE) calculations. The whole hydrolysis process includes two stages: acylation and deacylation. For the acylation stage of the catalytic reaction, we have explored three possible paths (A, B, and C) and the corresponding free energy profiles along the reaction coordinates. It has been demonstrated that the most favorable reaction path in this stage is path B consisting of two reaction steps: the first step is a proton transfer to form a zwitterionic form (i.e. Cys-S?/His-H+ ion-pair), and the second step is the nucleophilic attack on the carboxyl carbon of the substrate accompanied with the dissociation of 4-nitroanilide. The deacylation stage includes the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule on the carboxyl carbon of the substrate and dissociation between the carboxyl carbon of the substrate and the sulfhydryl sulfur of Cys25 side chain. The free energy barriers calculated for the acylation and deacylation stages are 20.0 kcal/mol and 10.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the acylation is rate-limiting. The overall free energy barrier calculated for papain-catalyzed hydrolysis of APGNA is 20.0 kcal/mol, which is reasonably close to the experimentally derived activation free energy of 17.9 kcal/mol. PMID:23862626

  3. Effect of food deprivation and hormones of glucose homeostasis on the acetyl CoA carboxylase activity in mouse brain: a potential role of acc in the regulation of energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Kristophe J; Coppola, John; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Llanos, Domingo J; Mukherjee, Amrita; Venkatachalam, K V

    2006-01-01

    We studied the regulation of brain acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity during food deprivation and under the influence of hormones of glucose homeostasis: glucagon and insulin. Mice were deprived of food and water for time periods of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours and were then allowed to re-feed for 5, 30 and 60 minutes. Mice that were deprived for up to 6 h, and then re-fed for 60 min, consumed the same amount of food compared to the ad libitum (control) animals. However, after 9 h of deprivation, mice consumed only 50% of food present even after 1 h of re-feeding, compared to the controls. The ACC activity was measured in the whole mouse brain of controls and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h of food deprivation. Brain extracts assayed from control mice expressed an ACC activity of 0.988 ± 0.158 fmol/min/mg tissue without citrate and 0.941 ± 0.175 fmol/min/mg tissue with citrate. After 1 h of food deprivation, the total ACC activity without citrate decreased to 0.575 ± 0.087 fmol/min/mg and in the presence of citrate, 0.703 ± 0.036 fmol/min/mg activity was measured. The citrate-dependent ACC activity decreased over time, with only 0.478 ± 0.117 fmol/min/mg of activity remaining after 24 h. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of insulin, glucagon and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were performed and whole brain ACC activity measured. After hormone administration, there were no significant differences in ACC activity in the presence of citrate. However, in the absence of citrate, there was a significant 20% decrease in ACC activity with glucagon (1.36 ± 0.09 fmol/min/mg) and a 33% increase with insulin (2.49 ± 0.11 fmol/min/mg) injections compared to PBS controls (1.67 ± 0.08 fmol/min/mg). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels of corresponding brain extracts were measured by ELISA (OD) using anti-NPY antibody and showed an 18% decrease upon insulin injection (0.093 ± 0.019) and a 50% increase upon glucagon injection (0.226 ± 0.084) as compared to controls injected with PBS (0.114 ± 0.040). Thus, we postulate that the changes in ACC levels under metabolic conditions would result in a fluctuation of malonyl CoA levels, and subsequent modulation of NPY levels and downstream signaling. PMID:16483370

  4. Regioselective enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylated pyranoses and pyranosides using immobilised lipases. An easy chemoenzymatic synthesis of ?- and ?- d-glucopyranose acetates bearing a free secondary C-4 hydroxyl group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Terreni; Raul Salvetti; Laura Linati; Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente; Gloria Fernández-Lorente; Agatha Bastida; José M. Guisan

    2002-01-01

    Protected sugars with only one free hydroxyl group are useful building blocks for the synthesis of a large number of glycoderivatives. In order to avoid the problems of the classical chemical synthesis, we studied the regioselective enzymatic hydrolysis of different fully acetylated glycopyranoses and glycopyranosides. The main challenge was to obtain the hydrolysis of the substrates in only one position,

  5. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase from ox liver. Properties of its acetyl derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, D M; Tubbs, P K

    1985-01-01

    Ox liver mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (EC 4.1.3.5) reacts with acetyl-CoA to form a complex in which the acetyl group is covalently bound to the enzyme. This acetyl group can be removed by addition of acetoacetyl-CoA or CoA. The extent of acetylation and release of CoA were found to be highly temperature-dependent. At temperatures above 20 degrees C, a maximum value of 0.85 mol of acetyl group bound/mol of enzyme dimer was observed. Below this temperature the extent of rapid acetylation was significantly lowered. Binding stoichiometries close to 1 mol/mol of enzyme dimer were also observed when the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity was titrated with methyl methanethiosulphonate or bromoacetyl-CoA. This is taken as evidence for a 'half-of-the-sites' reaction mechanism for the formation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase. The Keq. for the acetylation was about 10. Isolated acetyl-enzyme is stable for many hours at 0 degrees C and pH 7, but is hydrolysed at 30 degrees C with a half-life of 7 min. This hydrolysis is stimulated by acetyl-CoA and slightly by succinyl-CoA, but not by desulpho-CoA. The site of acetylation has been identified as the thiol group of a reactive cysteine residue by affinity-labelling with the substrate analogue bromo[1-14C]acetyl-CoA. PMID:2860896

  6. Malonyl CoA control of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn heart in response to increased fatty acid supply.

    PubMed

    Onay-Besikci, Arzu; Sambandam, Nandakumar

    2006-11-01

    The concentration of fatty acids in the blood or perfusate is a major determinant of the extent of myocardial fatty acid oxidation. Increasing fatty acid supply in adult rat increases myocardial fatty acid oxidation. Plasma levels of fatty acids increase post-surgery in infants undergoing cardiac bypass operation to correct congenital heart defects. How a newborn heart responds to increased fatty acid supply remains to be determined. In this study, we examined whether the tissue levels of malonyl CoA decrease to relieve the inhibition on carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I when the myocardium is exposed to higher concentrations of long-chain fatty acids in newborn rabbit heart. We then tested the contribution of the enzymes that regulate tissue levels of malonyl CoA, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), and malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD). Our results showed that increasing fatty acid supply from 0.4 mmol/L (physiological) to 1.2 mmol/L (pathological) resulted in an increase in cardiac fatty acid oxidation rates and this was accompanied by a decrease in tissue malonyl CoA levels. The decrease in malonyl CoA was not related to any alterations in total and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase protein or the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase and malonyl CoA decarboxylase. Our results suggest that the regulatory role of malonyl CoA remained when the hearts were exposed to high levels of fatty acids. PMID:17218986

  7. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Nemazanyy, Ivan [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: nemazanyy@imbg.org.ua; Panasyuk, Ganna [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Breus, Oksana [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Zhyvoloup, Alexander [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Filonenko, Valeriy [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Gout, Ivan T. [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine) and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: i.gout@ucl.ac.uk

    2006-03-24

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy {beta} and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy {alpha}. The transcript specific for CoASy {beta} was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy {beta}. In contrast to CoASy {alpha}, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy {beta} is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation.

  8. Protein acetylation and acetyl coenzyme a metabolism in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Galdieri, Luciano; Zhang, Tiantian; Rogerson, Daniella; Lleshi, Rron; Vancura, Ales

    2014-12-01

    Cells sense and appropriately respond to the physical conditions and availability of nutrients in their environment. This sensing of the environment and consequent cellular responses are orchestrated by a multitude of signaling pathways and typically involve changes in transcription and metabolism. Recent discoveries suggest that the signaling and transcription machineries are regulated by signals which are derived from metabolism and reflect the metabolic state of the cell. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a key metabolite that links metabolism with signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Acetyl-CoA is produced by glycolysis as well as other catabolic pathways and used as a substrate for the citric acid cycle and as a precursor in synthesis of fatty acids and steroids and in other anabolic pathways. This central position in metabolism endows acetyl-CoA with an important regulatory role. Acetyl-CoA serves as a substrate for lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), which catalyze the transfer of acetyl groups to the epsilon-amino groups of lysines in histones and many other proteins. Fluctuations in the concentration of acetyl-CoA, reflecting the metabolic state of the cell, are translated into dynamic protein acetylations that regulate a variety of cell functions, including transcription, replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and aging. This review highlights the synthesis and homeostasis of acetyl-CoA and the regulation of transcriptional and signaling machineries in yeast by acetylation. PMID:25326522

  9. Recent NASA Dryden COA Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation concerns the experience that Dryden has had with Certificate of Authorization (COA) in reference to unmanned aerial systems (UAS). It reviews recent Certificate of Authorization UAS's i.e., 2005 Altair NOAA Mission, 2006 Altair Western States Fire Mission, and 2007 Ikhana. The priorities for the safety process is reviewed, as are typical UAS hazards. Slides also review the common COA provisions, best practices and lessons learned, the 2005 NOAA/NASA Science Demonstration Flights and the use of the UAS systems during fire emergencies.

  10. Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase catalyzed reactions of coenzyme A with. cap alpha. -. beta. -unsaturated carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.S.; Walt, D.R.

    1988-05-01

    ..cap alpha..,..beta..-Unsaturated coenzyme A(CoA) thioesters including acrylyl CoA, methacrylyl CoA, and propiolyl CoA were synthesized by catalysis with acetyl CoA synthetase. After isolation from the enzymatic reactions, the products were found to be the result of 1,4 addition of CoASH to the double bond and addition of water to the triple bond of the initial acyl CoA adducts. Structural determinations of these products by /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 13/C NMR, and the chemical reaction leading to their formation are described.

  11. Synthesis of radiolabeled acetyl-coenzyme A from sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R.C.; Barnum, S.R.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The synthesis of high specific radioactivity (/sup 14/C)-acetyl-Coenzyme A from (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole, and CoA is reported. Starting with 1 mumol of (/sup 14/C)sodium acetate, this method yields pure (/sup 14/C)acetyl-CoA in yields approaching 40%. Chromatography on a reversed-phase ODS column was used to separate acetyl-CoA from Coenzyme A and side products. The acetylating agent is apparently a reaction intermediate, acetylimidazole.

  12. Mechanistic investigations of the A-cluster of acetyl-CoA synthase

    E-print Network

    Bramlett, Matthew Richard

    2006-04-12

    The A-cluster of acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) catalyzes the formation of acetyl- CoA from CO, coenzyme-A, and a methyl group donated by a corrinoid iron-sulfur protein. Recent crystal structures have exhibited three different metals, Zn, Cu, and Ni...

  13. The Fasted/Fed Mouse Metabolic Acetylome: N6-Acetylation Differences Suggest Acetylation Coordinates Organ-Specific Fuel Switching

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Hartil, Kirsten; Robinson, Alan J.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Kurland, Irwin J.; Bruce, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The elucidation of extra-nuclear lysine acetylation has been of growing interest, as the co-substrate for acetylation, acetyl CoA, is at a key metabolic intersection. Our hypothesis was that mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein acetylation may be part of a fasted/re-fed feedback control system for the regulation of the metabolic network in fuel switching, where acetyl CoA would be provided by fatty acid oxidation, or glycolysis, respectively. To test this we characterized the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylome in various organs that have a high metabolic rate relative to their mass, and/or switch fuels, under fasted and re-fed conditions (brain, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, white and brown adipose tissues). Using immunoprecipitation, coupled with LC-MSMS label free quantification, we show there is a dramatic variation in global quantitative profiles of acetylated proteins from different organs. In total, 733 acetylated peptides from 337 proteins were identified and quantified, out of which 31 acetylated peptides from the metabolic proteins that may play organ-specific roles were analyzed in detail. Results suggest that fasted/re-fed acetylation changes coordinated by organ-specific (de-)acetylases in insulin-sensitive versus insensitive organs may underlie fuel use and switching. Characterization of the tissue-specific acetylome should increase understanding of metabolic conditions wherein normal fuel switching is disrupted, such as in Type II diabetes. PMID:21728379

  14. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Tenkanen, Maija; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase) or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose toward improved saccharification. In this review we: (1) summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, (2) present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, (3) describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, (4) give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and (5) discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation. PMID:23734153

  15. A homogeneous scintillation proximity assay for acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase coupled to fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Ramakrishna; Ma, Zhengping; Golla, Rajasree; Cheng, Dong

    2006-11-15

    We have devised a rapid and sensitive homogeneous assay for acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) in a scintillation proximity assay format suitable for high-throughput screening. In this assay, ACC is coupled to fatty acid synthase (FAS). Malonyl CoA, the product of the ACC reaction, and acetyl CoA serve as substrates for FAS to synthesize palmitic acid. When [(3)H]acetyl CoA is used in the ACC/FAS coupled system, [(3)H]palmitic acid, the final product, is readily detected by scintillation proximity in a FlashPlate or Image FlashPlate coated with phospholipid. The [(3)H]palmitic acid binds to the coated phospholipid through hydrophobic interaction which brings it into close proximity of the scintillant on the FlashPlate or the Image FlashPlate, yielding photons that are read in a TopCount or LeadSeeker, respectively. The current assay consists of simple reagent addition, incubation, and detection of signal. The signal is approximately 30-fold over the background and the Z' value is approximately 0.80, suggesting that this assay is robust and highly reproducible. To our knowledge this ACC/FAS coupled scintillation proximity assay is the only assay format that is compatible with high-throughput screening for systematic search of inhibitors against mammalian ACC. PMID:16996019

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of a novel acetylated neutral lipid (related to platelet activating factor, PAF) by acyl-CoA: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Tomio; Synder, F. (Oak Ridge Associated Univ., TN (USA))

    1987-05-01

    Recent data from our laboratory have described the complete enzymatic steps for the de novo synthesis of alkylacetylglycerols and their subsequent conversion to PAF. Experiments are reported here to show that the alkylacetylglycerols also are a substrate for an acyltransferase. Homogenates of HL-60 cells produced labeled 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-3-acyl-sn-glycerols from 1-({sup 3}H)hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol, 1-alkyl-2-({sup 3}H)acetyl-sn-glycerol, or (1-{sup 14}C)linoleic acid when incubated with CoA (0.1 mM), ATP (10 mM), and Mg{sup 2+} (95 mM). Formation of labeled alkylacetylacyl-glycerols by the acyltransferase required CoA, ATP, and Mg{sup 2+}. The labeled alkylacetylacylglycerol produced had an identical R{sub f} to that of an authenic standard; after treatment with pancreatic lipase, the sn-3 acyl moiety was hydrolyzed to regenerate the original 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol precursor. (1-{sup 14}C)Linoleic acid was an excellent substrate for the acylation step, whereas (1-{sup 14}C)oleic acid was barely utilized. Kinetic properties and related characteristics of this enzyme that forms the acetyl analog of a triglyceride will be presented. Although the function of this new type of acetylated neutral lipid class is presently unknown, it could serve as a potential precursor reservoir in the de novo route of PAF synthesis.

  17. CAPTAN HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Captan (N-(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide) undergoes hydrolysis readily in water with a maximum half-life of 710 min. Over the pH range 2-6, the reaction is pH independent and the pseudo-first-order rate constant is (1.8 + or - 0.1) x 10 to the -5th power/s....

  18. Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase activity in normally developing wheat leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Hawke; R. M. Leech

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the regulation of fatty-acid biosynthesis in chloroplasts, the activities and relative amounts of the enzyme have been measured in the tissue of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves undergoing development and cellular differentiation. The total activity in the first leaves of 5- to 7-d-old plants was similar but decreased

  19. Synthesis of polyrotaxanes from acetyl-?-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risti?, I. S.; Nikoli?, L.; Nikoli?, V.; Ili?, D.; Budinski-Simendi?, J.

    2011-12-01

    Polyrotaxanes are intermediary products in the synthesis of topological gels. They are created by inclusion complex formation of hydrophobic linear macromolecules with cyclodextrins or their derivatives. Then, pairs of cyclodextrin molecules with covalently linkage were practically forming the nodes of the semi-flexible polymer network. Such gels are called topological gels and they can absorb huge quantities of water due to the net flexibility allowing the poly(ethylene oxide) chains to slide through the cyclodextrin cavities, without being pulled out altogether. For polyrotaxane formation poly(ethylene oxide) was used like linear macromolecules. There are hydroxyl groups at poly(ethylene oxide) chains, whereby the linking of the voluminous molecules should be made. To avoid the reaction of cyclodextrin OH groups with stoppers, they should be protected by, e.g., acetylation. In this work, the acetylation of the OH groups of ?-cyclodextrin was performed by acetic acid anhydride with iodine as the catalyst. The acetylation reaction was assessed by the FTIR and HPLC method. By the HPLC analysis was found that the acetylation was completed in 20 minutes. Inserting of poly(ethylene oxide) with 4000 g/mol molecule mass into acetyl-?-cyclodextrin with 2:1 poly(ethylene oxide) monomer unit to acetyl-?-cyclodextrin ratio was also monitored by FTIR, and it was found that the process was completed in 12 h at the temperature of 10°C. If the process is performed at temperatures above 10°C, or for periods longer than 12 hours, the process of uncontrolled hydrolysis of acetate groups was initiated.

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    This book reviews the theory and application of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass; with implications for genetic engineering techniques. State of the art and potential industrial processes are detailed, including high productivity fermentation systems for the production of ethanol. Contents: Theory of Enzymatic Hydrolysis; Production of Cellulase and Xylanase; Hydrolysis of Agricultural Residues; Enzymatic Hydrolysis Processes; High Productivity Ethanol Fermentation;

  1. Synthesis and magnetic properties of superparamagnetic CoAs nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, P.; Ashokaan, N.; Masud, J.; Pariti, A.; Nath, M.

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a comprehensive guide on the synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic CoAs nanoparticles and elongated nanostructures with high blocking temperature, (TB), via hot-injection precipitation and solvothermal methods. Cobalt arsenides constitute an important family of magnetically active solids that find a variety of applications ranging from magnetic semiconductors to biomedical imaging. While the higher temperature hot-injection precipitation technique (300 °C) yields pure CoAs nanostructures, the lower temperature solvothermal method (200 °C) yields a mixture of CoAs nanoparticles along with other Co-based impurity phases. The synthesis in all these cases involved usage of triphenylarsine ((C6H5)3As) as the As precursor which reacts with solid Co2(CO)8 by ligand displacement to yield a single source precursor. The surfactant, hexadecylamine (HDA) further assists in controlling the morphology of the nanostructures. HDA also provides a basic medium and molten flux-like conditions for the redox chemistry to occur between Co and As at elevated temperatures. The influence of the length of reaction time was investigated by studying the evolution of product morphology over time. It was observed that while spontaneous nucleation at higher temperature followed by controlled growth led to the predominant formation of short nanorods, with longer reaction time, the nanorods were further converted to nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles obtained, was mostly in the range of 10–15 nm. The key finding of this work is exceptionally high coercivity in CoAs nanostructures for the first time. Coercivity observed was as high as 0.1 T (1000 Oe) at 2 K. These kinds of magnetic nanostructures find multiple applications in spintronics, whereas the superparamagnetic nanoparticles are viable for use in magnetic storage, ferrofluids and as contrast enhancing agents in MRI.

  2. Acetylation of Sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Nicholas; F. Smith

    1948-01-01

    THE acetylation of sugars has hitherto involved the use of acetic anhydride and a catalyst such as sodium acetate1, zinc chloride2, sulphuric acid3 or pyridine4. We have shown that glucose may be acetylated rapidly by means of a mixture of acetic anhydride and acetic acid if a small amount of perchloric acid is added to act as a catalyst5. No

  3. Site-specific acetylation of ISWI by GCN5

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Roger; Eberharter, Anton; Bonaldi, Tiziana; Chioda, Mariacristina; Imhof, Axel; Becker, Peter B

    2007-01-01

    Background The tight organisation of eukaryotic genomes as chromatin hinders the interaction of many DNA-binding regulators. The local accessibility of DNA is regulated by many chromatin modifying enzymes, among them the nucleosome remodelling factors. These enzymes couple the hydrolysis of ATP to disruption of histone-DNA interactions, which may lead to partial or complete disassembly of nucleosomes or their sliding on DNA. The diversity of nucleosome remodelling factors is reflected by a multitude of ATPase complexes with distinct subunit composition. Results We found further diversification of remodelling factors by posttranslational modification. The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 can acetylate the Drosophila remodelling ATPase ISWI at a single, conserved lysine, K753, in vivo and in vitro. The target sequence is strikingly similar to the N-terminus of histone H3, where the corresponding lysine, H3K14, can also be acetylated by GCN5. The acetylated form of ISWI represents a minor species presumably associated with the nucleosome remodelling factor NURF. Conclusion Acetylation of histone H3 and ISWI by GCN5 is explained by the sequence similarity between the histone and ISWI around the acetylation site. The common motif RKT/SxGx(Kac)xPR/K differs from the previously suggested GCN5/PCAF recognition motif GKxxP. This raises the possibility of co-regulation of a nucleosome remodelling factor and its nucleosome substrate through acetylation of related epitopes and suggests a direct crosstalk between two distinct nucleosome modification principles. PMID:17760996

  4. Acetylation Goes Global: The Emergence of Acetylation Biology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristi L. Norris (Duke University; Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology REV)

    2009-11-17

    For the first 30 years since its discovery, reversible protein acetylation has been studied and understood almost exclusively in the context of histone modification and gene transcription. With the discovery of non–histone acetylated proteins and acetylation-modifying enzymes in cellular compartments outside the nucleus, the regulatory potential of reversible acetylation has slowly been recognized in the last decade. However, the scope of protein acetylation involvement in complex biological processes remains uncertain. The recent development of new technology has enabled, for the first time, the identification and quantification of the acetylome, acetylation events at the whole-proteome level. These efforts have uncovered a stunning complexity of the acetylome that potentially rivals that of the phosphoproteome. The remarkably ubiquitous and conserved nature of protein acetylation revealed by these new studies suggests the regulatory power of this dynamic modification. The establishment of comprehensive acetylomes will change the landscape of protein acetylation, where an exciting research frontier awaits.

  5. Current research addressing starch acetylation.

    PubMed

    Golachowski, A; Zi?ba, T; Kapelko-?eberska, M; Dro?d?, W; Gryszkin, A; Grzechac, M

    2015-06-01

    Though modification of starch through acetylation is known for about 150years, it is still an object of extensive studies at various research centers worldwide. This manuscript presents an overview of literature from the last 5years concerning starch acetylation. It also describes the applied raw materials, production procedures of acetylated starch and correlations between the degree of substitution with acetyl groups and properties of the modified preparations. PMID:25624243

  6. Diastereoselective conjugate reduction with samarium diiodide: asymmetric synthesis of methyl (2S,3R)-N-acetyl-2-amino-2,3-dideuterio-3-phenylpropionate.

    PubMed

    Davies, Stephen G; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Tamayo, Juan A; Garner, A Christopher; Smith, Andrew D

    2004-11-01

    A highly diastereoselective conjugate reduction using SmI2 and D2O has been demonstrated on a homochiral benzylidene diketopiperazine template, giving methyl (2S,3R)-N-acetyl-2-amino-2,3-dideuterio-3-phenylpropionate in 93% de and 90% ee after deprotection, hydrolysis and N-acetylation. PMID:15514836

  7. Simultaneous pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of forage biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.; Linden, J.C. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Sweet sorghum is an attractive fermentation feedstock because as much as 40% of the dry weight consists of readily femented sugars such as sucrose, glucose and frutose. Cellulose and hemicellulose comprise another 50%. However, if this material is to be used a year-round feedstock for ethanol production, a stable method of storage must be developed to maintain the sugar content. A modified version of the traditional ensiling process is made effective by the addition of cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria to freshly chopped sweet sorghum prior to the production of silage. In situ hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose occurs concurrently with the acidic ensiling fementation. By hydolyzing the acetyl groups using acetyl xylan esterase and 3-0-methyl glucuronyl side chains using pectinase from hemicellulose, cellulose becomes accessible to hydrolysis by cellulase, both during in situ ensiling with enzymes and in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol.

  8. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be related to aniline nor to N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in man. PMID:24370547

  9. Hyperthermostable acetyl xylan esterase

    PubMed Central

    Drzewiecki, Katharina; Angelov, Angel; Ballschmiter, Meike; Tiefenbach, Klaus?Jürgen; Sterner, Reinhard; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Summary An esterase which is encoded within a Thermotoga maritima chromosomal gene cluster for xylan degradation and utilization was characterized after heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli and purification of the enzyme. The enzyme, designated AxeA, shares amino acid sequence similarity and its broad substrate specificity with the acetyl xylan esterase from Bacillus pumilus, the cephalosporin C deacetylase from Bacillus subtilis, and other (putative) esterases, allowing its classification as a member of carbohydrate esterase family 7. The recombinant enzyme displayed activity with p?nitrophenyl?acetate as well as with various acetylated sugar substrates such as glucose penta?acetate, acetylated oat spelts xylan and DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)?extracted beechwood xylan, and with cephalosporin C. Thermotoga maritimaAxeA represents the most thermostable acetyl xylan esterase known to date. In a 10?min assay at its optimum pH?of 6.5 the enzyme's activity peaked at 90°C. The inactivation half?life of AxeA at a protein concentration of 0.3?µg?µl?1 in the absence of substrate was about 13?h at 98°C and about 67?h at 90°C. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the thermal stability of AxeA corroborated its extreme heat resistance. A multi?phasic unfolding behaviour was found, with two apparent exothermic peaks at approximately 100–104°C and 107.5°C. In accordance with the crystal structure, gel filtration analysis at ambient temperature revealed that the enzyme has as a homohexameric oligomerization state, but a dimeric form was also found. PMID:21255309

  10. Histone Acetylation And Methylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woojin An

    Post-synthetic modification of histone proteins in chromatin architecture plays a central role in the epigenetic regulation\\u000a of transcription. Histone acetylation and methylation are the two major modifications that function as a specific transcription\\u000a regulator in response to various cellular signals. Albeit the mechanism of action of these modifications in transcription\\u000a is not well understood, recent discovery of histone acetyltransferase (HAT)

  11. Hypoglycin A: A Specific Inhibitor of Isovaleryl CoA Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kay; Miller, Edith M.; Isselbacher, Kurt J.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the specific in vivo and in vitro inhibition of isovaleryl CoA dehydrogenation by hypoglycin A and its derivative, ?-ketomethylenecyclopropylpropionic acid. ?-Methylbutyryl CoA dehydrogenation was also impaired, but the degree of inhibition was much lower. Isobutyryl CoA dehydrogenation was not inhibited. 4-Pentenoic acid inhibited none of these reactions. It is concluded that isovaleryl CoA is dehydrogenated by a specific enzyme, isovaleryl CoA dehydrogenase, contrary to previous assumptions that it is dehydrogenated by green acyl CoA dehydrogenase. The present concept agrees with our previous findings in isovaleric acidemia, a genetic disorder in which a specific defect of isovaleryl CoA dehydrogenase was observed. It was also demonstrated that isovaleric acidemia can be induced in experimental animals by the administration of hypoglycin A. Furthermore, some symptoms of “the vomiting sickness of Jamaica” appear to be due to isovaleric acid accumulation secondary to the ingestion of hypoglycin A. PMID:5276292

  12. Acetylation of endogenous STAT proteins.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Torsten; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2013-01-01

    Acetylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins has been recognized as a significant mechanism for the regulation of their cellular functions. Site-specific antibodies are available only for a minority of STATs. The detection of acetylated STATs by immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by western blot (WB) will be described in the following chapter. Defined conditions for cell lysis and IP will be elucidated on the basis of STAT1 acetylation. PMID:23296729

  13. Firefly luciferase has two nucleotide binding sites: effect of nucleoside monophosphate and CoA on the light-emission spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Steghens, J P; Min, K L; Bernengo, J C

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory-made spectroluminometer was used to analyse the light emitted by firefly (Photinus pyralis) luciferase reacting with several nucleotide derivatives. The analysis of the light emission in the presence of ATP or dATP provides some evidence that the enzyme has two nucleotide binding sites, each one leading to the formation of a complex emitting mainly at 575 nm (ATP) or 610 nm (dATP). AMP is able to displace dATP from the second site (610 nm) to the first one. Photoaffinity labelling of the second site by 8-azido-AMP gives similar results. The amplification effect of CoA and acetyl-CoA is also reconsidered according to this model. PMID:9806891

  14. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  15. STAT5 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Ginter, Torsten; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2013-01-01

    The cytokine-inducible transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A and 5B (STAT5A and STAT5B) are important for the proper development of multicellular eukaryotes. Disturbed signaling cascades evoking uncontrolled expression of STAT5 target genes are associated with cancer and immunological failure. Here, we summarize how STAT5 acetylation is integrated into posttranslational modification networks within cells. Moreover, we focus on how inhibitors of deacetylases and tyrosine kinases can correct leukemogenic signaling nodes involving STAT5. Such small molecules can be exploited in the fight against neoplastic diseases and immunological disorders. PMID:24416653

  16. Apicoplast acetyl Co-A carboxylase of the human malaria parasite is not targeted by cyclohexanedione herbicides

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    the apicoplast FASII system contributes to the overall parasite fatty acid budget at each stage of its life cycle for FASII is located in the plastids of plants and algae. Malonyl-CoA produc- tion by ACC is the first

  17. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL): Mouse and human HL gene (HMGCL) cloning and detection of large gene deletions in two unrelated HL-deficient patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.P.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Quebec (Canada)] [and others] [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Quebec (Canada); and others

    1996-04-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL, EC 4.1.3.4) catalyzes the cleavage of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA to acetoacetic acid and acetyl CoA, the final reaction of both ketogenesis and leucine catabolism. Autosomal-recessive HL deficiency in humans results in episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia and coma. Using a mouse HL cDNA as a probe, we isolated a clone containing the full-length mouse HL gene that spans about 15 kb of mouse chromosome 4 and contains nine exons. The promoter region of the mouse HL gene contains elements characteristic of a housekeeping gene: a CpG island containing multiple Sp1 binding sites surrounds exon 1, and neither a TATA nor a CAAT box are present. We identified multiple transcription start sites in the mouse HL gene, 35 to 9 bases upstream of the translation start codon. We also isolated two human HL genomic clones that include HL exons 2 to 9 within 18 kb. The mouse and human HL genes (HGMW-approved symbol HMGCL) are highly homologous, with identical locations of intron-exon junctions. By genomic Southern blot analysis and exonic PCR, was found 2 of 33 HL-deficient probands to be homozygous for large deletions in the HL gene. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Genomewide histone acetylation microarrays.

    PubMed

    Robyr, Daniel; Grunstein, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Histone acetylation and methylation are important regulators of gene activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP or ChrIP) has made it possible to examine not only the state of histone acetylation at a gene but also that of histone methylation and may soon be extended to other histone modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination. In principle such studies are possible as long as an antibody is available to the particular histone modification. Once a target gene is identified it is instructive to see the effect of mutating putative enzymes responsible for the modification to determine how a particular enzyme is responsible for altering chromatin of that gene. Although specific target genes have been studied that contain such modifications recent technical advances have made it possible to study histone modifications genomewide. This not only allows for alternate views of particular paradigms to be investigated, but also uncovers chromosomal patterns of histone modification that would be missed in analyzing individual genes. We describe here an approach to rapidly study histone modifications genomewide by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarrays. PMID:12893177

  19. Tools to tackle protein acetylation.

    PubMed

    Kamieniarz, Kinga; Schneider, Robert

    2009-10-30

    In the recent issue of Molecular Cell, Neumann et al. dissect the effect of H3K56 acetylation on chromatin structure using a novel method for generation of acetylated proteins. This is a valuable addition to the toolkit for those interested in unraveling how posttranslational modifications regulate protein function. PMID:19875076

  20. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  1. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D. (Denver, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  2. The Kinetics of Hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Moelwyn-Hughes

    1953-01-01

    The rates of hydrolysis of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and methyl iodide have been measured in the absence of the vapour phase at 10 degrees intervals between 30 and 90 degrees C. In this region, the energy of activation at first decreases with a rise in temperature, and then passes through a minimum value. Taking the energy of crystalline methyl

  3. Exome Sequence Reveals Mutations in CoA Synthase as a Cause of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Dusi, Sabrina; Valletta, Lorella; Haack, Tobias B.; Tsuchiya, Yugo; Venco, Paola; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Goffrini, Paola; Tigano, Marco; Demchenko, Nikita; Wieland, Thomas; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Invernizzi, Federica; Garavaglia, Barbara; Gregory, Allison; Sanford, Lynn; Hamada, Jeffrey; Bettencourt, Conceição; Houlden, Henry; Chiapparini, Luisa; Zorzi, Giovanna; Kurian, Manju A.; Nardocci, Nardo; Prokisch, Holger; Hayflick, Susan; Gout, Ivan; Tiranti, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders with progressive extrapyramidal signs and neurological deterioration, characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Exome sequencing revealed the presence of recessive missense mutations in COASY, encoding coenzyme A (CoA) synthase in one NBIA-affected subject. A second unrelated individual carrying mutations in COASY was identified by Sanger sequence analysis. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the final steps of CoA biosynthesis by coupling phosphopantetheine with ATP to form dephospho-CoA and its subsequent phosphorylation to generate CoA. We demonstrate alterations in RNA and protein expression levels of CoA synthase, as well as CoA amount, in fibroblasts derived from the two clinical cases and in yeast. This is the second inborn error of coenzyme A biosynthesis to be implicated in NBIA. PMID:24360804

  4. Determinants within the C-Terminal Domain of Streptomyces lividans Acetyl-CoA Synthetase that Block Acetylation of Its Active Site Lysine In Vitro by the Protein Acetyltransferase (Pat) Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Alex C.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2014-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) is a widespread regulatory mechanism that modulates the function of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. A strong case has been made for RLA control exerted by homologues of the Salmonella enterica protein acetyltransferase (SePat) enzyme on the broadly distributed AMP-forming CoA ligase (a.k.a. acyl-CoA synthetases) family of metabolic enzymes, with acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) being the paradigm in the field. Here we investigate why the Acs homologue in Streptomyces lividans (SlAcs) is poorly acetylated in vitro by the S. lividans protein acetyltransferase (SlPat) enzyme. Chimeras of S. enterica Acs (SeAcs) and S. lividans Acs (SlAcs) constructed during the course of this work were acetylated by SlPatA in vitro, retained most of their activity, and were under RLA control in a heterologous host. We identified SeAcs residues N- and C-terminal to the target lysine that when introduced into SlAcs, rendered the latter under RLA control. These results lend further support to the idea that Pat enzymes interact with extensive surfaces of their substrates. Finally, we suggest that acetylation of SlAcs depends on factors or conditions other than those present in our in vitro system. We also discuss possible explanations why SlAcs is not controlled by RLA as defined in other bacterial species. PMID:24918787

  5. Molecular Structure of Acetyl Peroxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-09

    Acetyl peroxide is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor. It is generally stored as a 25% solution in dimethyl phthalate to prevent detonation. It may explode if heated, or in contact with combustible materials. As the pure material, acetyl peroxide is unstable and incompatible with organic materials. The compound is harmful by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. It is used as an initiator and catalyst for resins, and it also promotes polymerization in the manufacture of certain plastics.

  6. Cohesin’s ATPase Activity Couples Cohesin Loading onto DNA with Smc3 Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Ladurner, Rene; Bhaskara, Venugopal; Huis in ’t Veld, Pim J.; Davidson, Iain F.; Kreidl, Emanuel; Petzold, Georg; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by topologically entrapping sister DNA molecules inside its ring structure. Cohesin is loaded onto DNA by the Scc2/NIPBL-Scc4/MAU2-loading complex in a manner that depends on the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of cohesin’s Smc1 and Smc3 subunits. Subsequent cohesion establishment during DNA replication depends on Smc3 acetylation by Esco1 and Esco2 and on recruitment of sororin, which “locks” cohesin on DNA by inactivating the cohesin release factor Wapl. Results Human cohesin ATPase mutants associate transiently with DNA in a manner that depends on the loading complex but cannot be stabilized on chromatin by depletion of Wapl. These mutants cannot be acetylated, fail to interact with sororin, and do not mediate cohesion. The absence of Smc3 acetylation in the ATPase mutants is not a consequence of their transient association with DNA but is directly caused by their inability to hydrolyze ATP because acetylation of wild-type cohesin also depends on ATP hydrolysis. Conclusions Our data indicate that cohesion establishment involves the following steps. First, cohesin transiently associates with DNA in a manner that depends on the loading complex. Subsequently, ATP hydrolysis by cohesin leads to entrapment of DNA and converts Smc3 into a state that can be acetylated. Finally, Smc3 acetylation leads to recruitment of sororin, inhibition of Wapl, and stabilization of cohesin on DNA. Our finding that cohesin’s ATPase activity is required for both cohesin loading and Smc3 acetylation raises the possibility that cohesion establishment is directly coupled to the reaction in which cohesin entraps DNA. PMID:25220052

  7. Cryogenic Optical Assembly (COA) cooldown analysis for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coladonato, Robert J.; Irish, Sandra M.; Mosier, Carol L.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), was successfully launched on November 18, 1989 aboard a Delta expendable launch vehicle. Two of the three instruments for this mission were mounted inside a liquid helium (LHe) dewar which operates at a temperature of 2 K. These two instruments are the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) and the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS). They are mounted to a common Instrument Interface Structure (IIS) and the entire assembly is called the Cryogenic Optical Assembly (COA). As part of the structural verification requirement, it was necessary to show that the entire COA exhibited adequate strength and would be capable of withstanding the launch environment. This requirement presented an unique challenge for COBE because the COA is built and assembled at room temperature (300 K), cooled to 2 K, and then subjected to launch loads. However, strength testing of the entire COA at 2 K could not be done because of facility limitations. Therefore, it was decided to perform the strength verification of the COA by analysis.

  8. Disruption of GM2/GD2 synthase gene resulted in overt expression of 9-O-acetyl GD3 irrespective of Tis211

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Keiko; Aixinjueluo, Wei; Kasama, Takeshi; Ohkawa, Yuki; Yoshihara, Michiko; Ohmi, Yusuke; Tajima, Orie; Suzumura, Akio; Kittaka, Daiji; Furukawa, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    GM2/GD2 synthase gene knockout mice lack all complex gangliosides, which are abundantly expressed in the nervous systems of vertebrates. In turn, they have increased precursor structures GM3 and GD3, probably replacing the roles of the depleted complex gangliosides. In this study, we found that 9-O-acetyl GD3 is also highly expressed as one of the major glycosphingolipids accumulating in the nervous tissues of the mutant mice. The identity of the novel component was confirmed by neuraminidase treatment, thin layer chromatography-immunostaining, two-dimensional thin layer chromatography with base treatment, and mass spectrometry. All candidate factors reported to be possible inducer of 9-O- acetylation, such as bitamine D binding protein, acetyl CoA transporter, or O-acetyl ganglioside synthase were not up-regulated. Tis21 which had been reported to be a 9-O-acetylation inducer was partially down-regulated in the null mutants, suggesting that Tis21 is not involved in the induction of 9-O-acetyl-GD3 and that accumulated high amount of GD3 might be the main factor for the dramatic increase of 9-O-acetyl GD3. The ability to acetylate exogenously added GD3 in the normal mouse astrocytes was examined, showing that the wild-type brain might be able to synthesize very low levels of 9-O-acetyl GD3. Increased 9-O-acetyl GD3, in addition to GM3 and GD3, may play an important role in the compensation for deleted complex gangliosides in the mutant mice. J. Neurochem. (2008) 105, 1057–1066. PMID:18194438

  9. Isomerization of 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose. Enzymatic hydrolysis of 1-O, 4-O, and 6-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose and the enzymatic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl glycerol by a hormone metabolizing complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalczyk, S.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    The first compound in the series of reactions leading to the ester conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in kernels of Zea mays sweet corn is the acyl alkyl acetal, 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose (1-O-IAGlu). The enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of this compound is UDP-glucose:indol-3-ylacetate glucosyl-transferase (IAGlu synthase). The IAA moiety of the high energy compound 1-O-IAGlu may be enzymatically transferred to myo-inositol or to glycerol or the 1-O-IAGlu may be enzymatically hydrolyzed. Alternatively, nonenzymatic acyl migration may occur to yield the 2-O, 4-O, and 6-O esters of IAA and glucose. The 4-O and 6-O esters may then be enzymatically hydrolyzed to yield free IAA and glucose. This work reports new enzymatic activities, the transfer of IAA from 1-O-IAGlu to glycerol, and the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-O and 6-O-IAGlu. Data is also presented on the rate of non-enzymatic acyl migration of IAA from the 1-O to the 4-O and 6-O positions of glucose. We also report that enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of 1-O-IAGlu and the hydrolysis of 1-O, 4-O, and 6-O-IAGlu fractionate as a hormone metabolizing complex. The association of synthetic and hydrolytic capabilities in enzymes which cofractionate may have physiological significance.

  10. AcK-knowledge Reversible Acetylation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Todd Cohen (Duke University; Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology REV)

    2004-08-10

    In 1966, the histone was identified as the first protein subject to reversible acetylation. The ensuing 30 years of research on histone acetylation has been critical for elucidating how gene transcription and chromatin remodeling are regulated at the molecular level. This central focus on histones, however, has also restricted our understanding of reversible acetylation, and therefore the enzymes that catalyze this reaction, to cellular processes predominantly associated with chromatin. The study of reversible acetylation has become more or less synonymous with histone acetylation. Recent developments—including increased ability to detect acetylated proteins, the characterization of novel acetyltransferases and deacetylases, and the identification of specific inhibitors for these enzymes—have revealed that this histone-central paradigm probably reflects only a fraction of the cellular processes regulated by reversible acetylation. New studies have uncovered unexpected roles for reversible acetylation in many diverse areas, thereby establishing protein acetylation as a highly versatile signaling modification that has functions beyond gene transcription and chromatin remodeling.

  11. Copper supplementation restores cytochrome c oxidase assembly defect in a mitochondrial disease model of COA6 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Alok; Trivedi, Prachi P; Timbalia, Shrishiv A; Griffin, Aaron T; Rahn, Jennifer J; Chan, Sherine S L; Gohil, Vishal M

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain biogenesis is orchestrated by hundreds of assembly factors, many of which are yet to be discovered. Using an integrative approach based on clues from evolutionary history, protein localization and human genetics, we have identified a conserved mitochondrial protein, C1orf31/COA6, and shown its requirement for respiratory complex IV biogenesis in yeast, zebrafish and human cells. A recent next-generation sequencing study reported potential pathogenic mutations within the evolutionarily conserved Cx?CxnCx??C motif of COA6, implicating it in mitochondrial disease biology. Using yeast coa6? cells, we show that conserved residues in the motif, including the residue mutated in a patient with mitochondrial disease, are essential for COA6 function, thus confirming the pathogenicity of the patient mutation. Furthermore, we show that zebrafish embryos with zfcoa6 knockdown display reduced heart rate and cardiac developmental defects, recapitulating the observed pathology in the human mitochondrial disease patient who died of neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The specific requirement of Coa6 for respiratory complex IV biogenesis, its intramitochondrial localization and the presence of the Cx?CxnCx??C motif suggested a role in mitochondrial copper metabolism. In support of this, we show that exogenous copper supplementation completely rescues respiratory and complex IV assembly defects in yeast coa6? cells. Taken together, our results establish an evolutionarily conserved role of Coa6 in complex IV assembly and support a causal role of the COA6 mutation in the human mitochondrial disease patient. PMID:24549041

  12. Peripheral Effects of FAAH Deficiency on Fuel and Energy Homeostasis: Role of Dysregulated Lysine Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Yang, Li; Hartil, Kirsten; Glaser, Sherrye; Yazulla, Stephen; Bruce, James E.; Kurland, Irwin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase), primarily expressed in the liver, hydrolyzes the endocannabinoids fatty acid ethanolamides (FAA). Human FAAH gene mutations are associated with increased body weight and obesity. In our present study, using targeted metabolite and lipid profiling, and new global acetylome profiling methodologies, we examined the role of the liver on fuel and energy homeostasis in whole body FAAH?/? mice. Methodology/Principal Findings FAAH?/? mice exhibit altered energy homeostasis demonstrated by decreased oxygen consumption (Indirect calorimetry). FAAH?/? mice are hyperinsulinemic and have adipose, skeletal and hepatic insulin resistance as indicated by stable isotope phenotyping (SIPHEN). Fed state skeletal muscle and liver triglyceride levels was increased 2–3 fold, while glycogen was decreased 42% and 57% respectively. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was decreased 22% in FAAH?/? mice. Dysregulated hepatic FAAH?/? lysine acetylation was consistent with their metabolite profiling. Fasted to fed increases in hepatic FAAH?/? acetyl-CoA (85%, p<0.01) corresponded to similar increases in citrate levels (45%). Altered FAAH?/? mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2) acetylation, which can affect the malate aspartate shuttle, was consistent with our observation of a 25% decrease in fed malate and aspartate levels. Decreased fasted but not fed dihydroxyacetone-P and glycerol-3-P levels in FAAH?/? mice was consistent with a compensating contribution from decreased acetylation of fed FAAH?/? aldolase B. Fed FAAH?/? alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acetylation was also decreased. Conclusions/Significance Whole body FAAH deletion contributes to a pre-diabetic phenotype by mechanisms resulting in impairment of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. FAAH?/? mice had altered hepatic lysine acetylation, the pattern sharing similarities with acetylation changes reported with chronic alcohol treatment. Dysregulated hepatic lysine acetylation seen with impaired FAA hydrolysis could support the liver's role in fostering the pre-diabetic state, and may reflect part of the mechanism underlying the hepatic effects of endocannabinoids in alcoholic liver disease mouse models. PMID:22442717

  13. Thermostable Enzymes in Lignocellulose Hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liisa Viikari; Marika Alapuranen; Terhi Puranen; Jari Vehmaanperä; Matti Siika-aho

    Thermostable enzymes offer potential benefits in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates; higher\\u000a specific activity decreasing the amount of enzymes, enhanced stability allowing improved hydrolysis performance\\u000a and increased flexibility with respect to process configurations, all leading to improvement of the overall\\u000a economy of the process. New thermostable cellulase mixtures were composed of cloned fungal enzymes for\\u000a hydrolysis experiments. Three thermostable cellulases,

  14. Metabolic biology of 3-methylglutaconic acid-uria: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Su, Betty; Ryan, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 25 years a growing number of distinct syndromes/mutations associated with compromised mitochondrial function have been identified that share a common feature: urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3MGA). In the leucine degradation pathway, carboxylation of 3-methylcrotonyl CoA leads to formation of 3-methylglutaconyl CoA while 3-methylglutaconyl CoA hydratase converts this metabolite to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA). In "primary" 3MGA-uria, mutations in the hydratase are directly responsible for the accumulation of 3MGA. On the other hand, in all "secondary" 3MGA-urias, no defect in leucine catabolism exists and the metabolic origin of 3MGA is unknown. Herein, a path to 3MGA from mitochondrial acetyl CoA is proposed. The pathway is initiated when syndrome-associated mutations/DNA deletions result in decreased Krebs cycle flux. When this occurs, acetoacetyl CoA thiolase condenses two acetyl CoA into acetoacetyl CoA plus CoASH. Subsequently, HMG CoA synthase 2 converts acetoacetyl CoA and acetyl CoA to HMG CoA. Under syndrome-specific metabolic conditions, 3-methylglutaconyl CoA hydratase converts HMG CoA into 3-methylglutaconyl CoA in a reverse reaction of the leucine degradation pathway. This metabolite fails to proceed further up the leucine degradation pathway owing to the kinetic properties of 3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase. Instead, hydrolysis of the CoA moiety of 3-methylglutaconyl CoA generates 3MGA, which appears in urine. If experimentally confirmed, this pathway provides an explanation for the occurrence of 3MGA in multiple disorders associated with compromised mitochondrial function. PMID:24407466

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Structural basis of CoA recognition by the Pyrococcus

    E-print Network

    Zhijie, Liu

    online: 7 March 2007 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The single-domain coenzyme succinyl-CoA synthetase. Keywords CoA-binding domain Á Coenzyme A Á Pyrococcus horikoshii Á Pyrococcus furiosus Á Rossman fold Á X-ray crystallography Á YccU Introduction Coenzyme A (CoA) is an enzyme cofactor

  16. University of Minnesota Center for Outdoor Adventure (COA) Health History Form

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    1 University of Minnesota Center for Outdoor Adventure (COA) Health History Form Center for Outdoor. Participants should be free of any physical or mental conditions which may cause undue risk to themselves_____________________________________________________Relationship_________________ Phone number___________________________________ #12;2 II. Past and Present Medical History Please mark

  17. Structure of the mammalian CoA transferase from pig heart.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Katherine S; Brownie, Edward R; Wolodko, William T; Fraser, Marie E

    2002-12-10

    Ketoacidosis affects patients who are deficient in the enzyme activity of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT), since SCOT catalyses the activation of acetoacetate in the metabolism of ketone bodies. Thus far, structure/function analysis of the mammalian enzyme has been predicted based on the three-dimensional structure of a CoA transferase determined from an anaerobic bacterium that utilizes its enzyme for glutamate fermentation. To better interpret clinical data, we have determined the structure of a mammalian CoA transferase from pig heart by X-ray crystallography to 2.5 A resolution. Instrumental to the structure determination were selenomethionine substitution and the use of argon during purification and crystallization. Although pig heart SCOT adopts an alpha/beta protein fold, resembling the overall fold of the bacterial CoA transferase, several loops near the active site of pig heart SCOT follow different paths than the corresponding loops in the bacterial enzyme, accounting for differences in substrate specificities. Two missense mutations found associated with SCOT of ketoacidosis patients were mapped to a location in the structure that might disrupt the stabilization of the amino-terminal strand and thereby interfere with the proper folding of the protein into a functional enzyme. PMID:12463743

  18. Hydrolysis of biomass material

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Orth, Rick J.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail

    2004-02-17

    A method for selective hydrolysis of the hemicellulose component of a biomass material. The selective hydrolysis produces water-soluble small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. One embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A second embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A third embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose by heating the biomass material to greater than 110.degree. C. resulting in an aqueous portion that includes the solubilized hemicellulose and a water insoluble solids portion and subsequently separating the aqueous portion from the water insoluble solids portion. A fourth embodiment is a method for making a composition that includes cellulose, at least one protein and less than about 30 weight % hemicellulose, the method including solubilizing at least a portion of hemicellulose present in a biomass material that also includes cellulose and at least one protein and subsequently separating the solubilized hemicellulose from the cellulose and at least one protein.

  19. Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in species of Triticum of different ploidy.

    PubMed

    Hawke, J C; Leech, R M

    1990-07-01

    The cellular amounts and cellular activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC; EC 6.4.1.2.) were determined in the first leaves of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species of Triticum (wheat). Per leaf the ACC activities were very similar in T. monococcum (2 ?), T. dicoccum (4 ?) and T. aestivum (6 ?). The ACC activity per chloroplast also showed little variation between species of different ploidy but since chloroplast number increases with ploidy, the ACC activities and ACC amounts per cell also increased with ploidy. These cellular increases in ACC amounts associated with increases in gene dosage were highly co-ordinated in the diploids T. monococcum and T. tauschii and their respective autotetraploids so the specific activity of ACC was highly conserved in these plants. The relevance of these findings to attempts to genetically manipulate lipid biosynthesis in chloroplasts is discussed. PMID:24196935

  20. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Obataya; S. Shibutani

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and\\/or very

  1. Crystallographic trapping of the glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate of family I CoA transferases

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan,E.; Li, Y.; Ajamian, E.; Iannuzzi, P.; Kernaghan, S.; Fraser, M.; Cygler, M.; Matte, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coenzyme A transferases are involved in a broad range of biochemical processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and exhibit a diverse range of substrate specificities. The YdiF protein from Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an acyl-CoA transferase of unknown physiological function, and belongs to a large sequence family of CoA transferases, present in bacteria to humans, which utilize oxoacids as acceptors. In vitro measurements showed that YdiF displays enzymatic activity with short-chain acyl-CoAs. The crystal structures of YdiF and its complex with CoA, the first co-crystal structure for any Family I CoA transferase, have been determined and refined at 1.9 and 2.0 Angstrom resolution, respectively. YdiF is organized into tetramers, with each monomer having an open {alpha}/{beta} structure characteristic of Family I CoA transferases. Co-crystallization of YdiF with a variety of CoA thioesters in the absence of acceptor carboxylic acid resulted in trapping a covalent {gamma}-glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate. The CoA binds within a well defined pocket at the N- and C-terminal domain interface, but makes contact only with the C-terminal domain. The structure of the YdiF complex provides a basis for understanding the different catalytic steps in the reaction of Family I CoA transferases.

  2. Structural studies on 4-O-acetyl-?-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2?3)-lactose, the main oligosaccharide in echidna milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. G. Vliegenthart; J. P. Kamerling; L. Dorland; H. van Halbeek; M. Messer; R. Schauer

    1982-01-01

    The main oligosaccharide (50%) in the milk of the Australian echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) has been identified unequivocally as 4-O-acetyl-?-N-acetylneur-aminyl-(2?3)-lactose. The 4-O-acetyl substituent of the sialic acid residue was characterised by g.l.c.-m.s. of the isolated (after mild, acid hydrolysis) and trimethyl-silylated\\/esterified sialic acid, and by m.s. (after derivatisation) and 500-MHz, 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the intact oligosaccharide. Information about the glycosidic bonds

  3. Identification and Quantitative Analysis of Indole-3-Acetyl-l-Aspartate from Seeds of Glycine max L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.

    1982-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-l-aspartate (IAAsp) was isolated from seeds of Glycine max L. cv. Hark and its identity established by its chromatographic performance and its mass spectral fragmentation. Following acid hydrolysis, the aspartate moiety was shown to be the l-enantiomer by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic retention time of the bisethyl ester derivatized with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-glycopyranosyl isothiocyanate. Isotope dilution analysis using [14C]IAAsp as internal standard showed that soybean seed contained 10 ?mol/kg IAAsp and this accounted for one-half of the total indoleacetic acid of the seed. PMID:16662569

  4. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  5. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  6. Acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis from methyltetrahydrofolate, CO, and coenzyme A by enzymes purified from Clostridium thermoaceticum: attainment of in vivo rates and identification of rate-limiting steps.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J R; Lu, W P; Ragsdale, S W

    1992-01-01

    Many anaerobic bacteria fix CO2 via the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) (Wood) pathway. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), a corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein (C/Fe-SP), methyltransferase (MeTr), and an electron transfer protein such as ferredoxin II play pivotal roles in the conversion of methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate), CO, and CoA to acetyl-CoA. In the study reported here, our goals were (i) to optimize the method for determining the activity of the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, (ii) to evaluate how closely the rate of synthesis of acetyl-CoA by purified enzymes approaches the rate at which whole cells synthesize acetate, and (iii) to determine which steps limit the rate of acetyl-CoA synthesis. In this study, CODH, MeTr, C/Fe-SP, and ferredoxin were purified from Clostridium thermoaceticum to apparent homogeneity. We optimized conditions for studying the synthesis of acetyl-CoA and found that when the reaction is dependent upon MeTr, the rate is 5.3 mumol min-1 mg-1 of MeTr. This rate is approximately 10-fold higher than that reported previously and is as fast as that predicted on the basis of the rate of in vivo acetate synthesis. When the reaction is dependent upon CODH, the rate of acetyl-CoA synthesis is approximately 0.82 mumol min-1 mg-1, approximately 10-fold higher than that observed previously; however, it is still lower than the rate of in vivo acetate synthesis. It appears that at least two steps in the overall synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CH3-H4folate, CO, and CoA can be partially rate limiting. At optimal conditions of low pH (approximately 5.8) and low ionic strength, the rate-limiting step involves methylation of CODH by the methylated C/Fe-SP. At higher pH values and/or higher ionic strength, transfer of the methyl group of CH3-H4folate to the C/Fe-SP becomes rate limiting. Images PMID:1624454

  7. Regulation of schistosome egg production by HMG CoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    VandeWaa, E.A.; Bennett, J.L.

    1986-03-05

    Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) catalyzes the conversion of HMG CoA to mevalonate in the synthesis of steroids, isoprenoids and terpenes. Mevinolin, an inhibitor of this enzyme, decreased egg production in Schistosoma mansoni during in vitro incubations. This was associated with a reduction in the incorporation of /sup 14/C-acetate into polyisoprenoids and a reduction in the formation of a lipid-linked oligosaccharide. In vivo, mevinolin in daily doses of 50 mg/kg (p.o., from days 30-48 post-infection) caused no change in gross liver pathology in S. mansoni infected mice. However, when parasites exposed to mevinolin or its vehicle in vivo were cultured in vitro, worms from mevinolin-treated mice produced six times more eggs than control parasites. When infected mice were dosed with 250 mg/kg mevinolin daily (p.o., from days 35-45 post-infection), liver pathology was reduced in comparison to control mice. Thus, during in vivo exposure to a high dose of the drug egg production is decreased, while at a lower dose it appears unaffected until the parasites are cultured in a drug-free in vitro system wherein egg production is stimulated to extraordinarily high levels. It may be that at low doses mevinolin, by inhibiting the enzyme, is blocking the formation of a product (such as an isoprenoid) which normally acts to down-regulate enzyme synthesis, resulting in enzyme induction. Induction of HMG CoA reductase is then expressed as increased egg production when the worms are removed from the drug. These data suggest that HMG CoA reductase plays a role in schistosome egg production.

  8. The yeast AMPK homolog SNF1 regulates acetyl coenzyme A homeostasis and histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Galdieri, Luciano; Vancura, Ales

    2013-12-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key metabolite at the crossroads of metabolism, signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Concentration of acetyl-CoA affects histone acetylation and links intermediary metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Here we show that SNF1, the budding yeast ortholog of the mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), plays a role in the regulation of acetyl-CoA homeostasis and global histone acetylation. SNF1 phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting reaction in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. Inactivation of SNF1 results in a reduced pool of cellular acetyl-CoA, globally decreased histone acetylation, and reduced fitness and stress resistance. The histone acetylation and transcriptional defects can be partially suppressed and the overall fitness improved in snf1? mutant cells by increasing the cellular concentration of acetyl-CoA, indicating that the regulation of acetyl-CoA homeostasis represents another mechanism in the SNF1 regulatory repertoire. PMID:24081331

  9. Hydrolysis reactor for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas A.; Matthews, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for hydrolysis of a chemical hydride is provided. The method includes adding a chemical hydride to a reaction chamber and exposing the chemical hydride in the reaction chamber to a temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. in the presence of water and in the absence of an acid or a heterogeneous catalyst, wherein the chemical hydride undergoes hydrolysis to form hydrogen gas and a byproduct material.

  10. Occurrence of naturally acetylated lignin units.

    PubMed

    Del Río, José C; Marques, Gisela; Rencoret, Jorge; Martínez, Angel T; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2007-07-11

    This work examines the occurrence of native acetylated lignin in a large set of vascular plants, including both angiosperms and gymnosperms, by a modification of the so-called Derivatization Followed by Reductive Cleavage (DFRC) method. Acetylated lignin units were found in the milled wood lignins of all angiosperms selected for this study, including mono- and eudicotyledons, but were absent in the gymnosperms analyzed. In some plants (e.g., abaca, sisal, kenaf, or hornbeam), lignin acetylation occurred at a very high extent, exceeding 45% of the uncondensed (alkyl-aryl ether linked) syringyl lignin units. Acetylation was observed exclusively at the gamma-carbon of the lignin side chain and predominantly on syringyl units, although a predominance of acetylated guaiacyl over syringyl units was observed in some plants. In all cases, acetylation appears to occur at the monomer stage, and sinapyl and coniferyl acetates seem to behave as real lignin monomers participating in lignification. PMID:17552541

  11. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  12. Syntheses of acetylated steroid glycosides and selective cleavage of O-acetyl groups in sugar moiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Min Wang; Wen-Zhong Ge; Hong-Min Liu; Da-Peng Zou; Xue-Bin Yan

    2004-01-01

    Acetylated 3?-O-?-glycosyl steroid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of a new polyhydroxysteroid 3?,5?,6?-trihydroxypregn-16-en-20-one (2) with the peracetylated 1-bromo derivatives of d-glucose and d-galactose, respectively. Subsequent protection by excess acetic anhydride in pyridine selectively gave the 6?-O-acetylated steroid glycosides. Deprotection of the acetylated steroid glycosides separately with moderate catalysis dibutyltin oxide in methanol selectively removed all acetyl groups of sugar

  13. Studies of the acetyl-CoA-binding site of rat liver spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Della Ragione, F; Erwin, B G; Pegg, A E

    1983-01-01

    Rat liver spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase was found to be strongly inhibited by the dyes Cibacron F3GA, Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Congo Red. Inhibition was competitive with respect to acetyl-CoA and Ki values of 0.7 microM and 52 microM were determined for Cibacron F3GA and Coomassie Brilliant Blue respectively. The enzyme was strongly retained by columns of Affi-Gel Blue, which contains Cibacron F3GA linked to agarose. It was not eluted from this adsorbent in the presence of 10 mM-spermidine/0.5 M-NaCl/50 mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.5, but was released by 1 mM-CoA in 10 mM-spermidine/50 mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.5. These results are consistent with the presence in the enzyme of a dinucleotide fold that binds acetyl CoA and has a high affinity for Cibacron F3GA. The spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase was irreversibly inactivated by exposure to butane-2,3-dione in sodium borate, pH 7.8, or by exposure to phenylglyoxal or camphorquinone-10-sulphonic acid. All of these reagents are known to interact with arginine residues in proteins under the conditions in which they inactivated the acetyltransferase. Inactivation was prevented by the presence of acetyl-CoA or CoA, but to a lesser extent by 3'-dephospho-CoA and not at all by NAD or adenosine. This protection suggests that an arginine residue at the active site is involved in the binding of the acetyl-CoA substrate. Treatment of the assay mixture but not the spermidine N1-acetyltransferase with alkaline phosphatase prevented the reaction taking place. This suggests that the apparent loss of enzyme activity in response to alkaline phosphatase reported by Matsui, Otani, Kamei & Morisawa [(1982) FEBS Lett. 150, 211-213] is due to dephosphorylation of the acetyl-CoA substrate and that the 3'-phosphate group is essential for activity. PMID:6615455

  14. UNIQUE ACETYLATION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES BY TRICHODERMA REESEI ACETYL ESTERASE IN WATER - VINYL ACETATE MIXTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purified T. reesei RUT C-30 acetyl esterase catalyzes acetyl transfer to a variety of carbohydrates in water in the presence of vinyl acetate as the acetyl group donor. The degree of conversion and the number of formed acetates depended on the acceptor used. With some acceptors, such as methyl or ...

  15. Kinetic analysis of butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Masson, Patrick; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Gillon, Emilie; Nachon, Florian; Darvesh, Sultan; Schopfer, Lawrence M

    2007-09-01

    The aryl-acylamidase (AAA) activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) has been known for a long time. However, the kinetic mechanism of aryl-acylamide hydrolysis by BuChE has not been investigated. Therefore, the catalytic properties of human BuChE and its peripheral site mutant (D70G) toward neutral and charged aryl-acylamides were determined. Three neutral (o-nitroacetanilide, m-nitroacetanilide, o-nitrophenyltrifluoroacetamide) and one positively charged (3-(acetamido) N,N,N-trimethylanilinium, ATMA) acetanilides were studied. Hydrolysis of ATMA by wild-type and D70G enzymes showed a long transient phase preceding the steady state. The induction phase was characterized by a hysteretic "burst". This reflects the existence of two enzyme states in slow equilibrium with different catalytic properties. Steady-state parameters for hydrolysis of the three acetanilides were compared to catalytic parameters for hydrolysis of esters giving the same acetyl intermediate. Wild-type BuChE showed substrate activation while D70G displayed a Michaelian behavior with ATMA as with positively charged esters. Owing to the low affinity of BuChE for amide substrates, the hydrolysis kinetics of neutral amides was first order. Acylation was the rate-determining step for hydrolysis of aryl-acetylamide substrates. Slow acylation of the enzyme, relative to that by esters may, in part, be due suboptimal fit of the aryl-acylamides in the active center of BuChE. The hypothesis that AAA and esterase active sites of BuChE are non-identical was tested with mutant BuChE. It was found that mutations on the catalytic serine, S198C and S198D, led to complete loss of both activities. The silent variant (FS117) had neither esterase nor AAA activity. Mutation in the peripheral site (D70G) had the same effect on esterase and AAA activities. Echothiophate inhibited both activities identically. It was concluded that the active sites for esterase and AAA activities are identical, i.e. S198. This excludes any other residue present in the gorge for being the catalytic nucleophile pole. PMID:17690023

  16. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-08-22

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  17. Occurrence of Naturally Acetylated Lignin Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEL RIÄO; GISELA MARQUES; JORGE RENCORET

    This work examines the occurrence of native acetylated lignin in a large set of vascular plants, including both angiosperms and gymnosperms, by a modification of the so-called Derivatization Followed by Reductive Cleavage (DFRC) method. Acetylated lignin units were found in the milled wood lignins of all angiosperms selected for this study, including mono- and eudicotyledons, but were absent in the

  18. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

  19. The Cardiac Acetyl-Lysine Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Foster, D. Brian; Liu, Ting; Rucker, Jasma; O’Meally, Robert N.; Devine, Lauren R.; Cole, Robert N.; O’Rourke, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In the heart, lysine acetylation has been implicated in processes ranging from transcriptional control of pathological remodeling, to cardioprotection arising from caloric restriction. Given the emerging importance of this post-translational modification, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the broader role of lysine acetylation in the heart using a guinea pig model. Briefly, hearts were fractionated into myofilament-, mitochondrial- and cytosol-enriched fractions prior to proteolysis and affinity-enrichment of acetylated peptides. LC-MS/MS analysis identified 1075 acetylated peptides, harboring 994 acetylation sites that map to 240 proteins with a global protein false discovery rate <0.8%. Mitochondrial targets account for 59% of identified proteins and 64% of sites. The majority of the acetyl-proteins are enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation or the TCA cycle. Within the cytosolic fraction, the enzymes of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and lipid binding are prominent. Nuclear targets included histones and the transcriptional regulators E1A(p300) and CREB binding protein. Comparison of our dataset with three previous global acetylomic studies uniquely revealed 53 lysine-acetylated proteins. Specifically, newly-identified acetyl-proteins include Ca2+-handling proteins, RyR2 and SERCA2, and the myofilament proteins, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chains and subunits of the Troponin complex, among others. These observations were confirmed by anti-acetyl-lysine immunoblotting. In summary, cardiac lysine acetylation may play a role in cardiac substrate selection, bioenergetic performance, and maintenance of redox balance. New sites suggest a host of potential mechanisms by which excitation-contraction coupling may also be modulated. PMID:23844019

  20. HYDROLYSIS OF CHLOROSTILBENE OXIDE: I. HYDROLYSIS IN HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrolysis kinetics of 4-chlorostilbene oxide (CSO) in buffered distilled water, in natural waters, and in sediment associated water are reported. he disappearance of CSO followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in buffered water over the experimental pH range of 3 to 11. elow pH...

  1. Origin of enantiomeric selectivity in the aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid class of herbicidal acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Turner, James A; Pernich, Daniel J

    2002-07-31

    Molecular modeling was used to propose an "active conformation" for the R-2-phenoxypropionic acid portion of the aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid series of herbicidal acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors. This candidate active conformation is a low-energy conformer with the R-methyl distal to the phenoxy fragment, stabilized by the generalized anomeric effect around the propionate ether bond; the inactive S-enantiomer has difficulty accessing this conformation due to steric interaction of the S-methyl with the o-hydrogen of the phenyl. This candidate conformation was challenged by preparation of a series of novel rigid analogues. ACCase inhibition data suggest that the systems which contain a fused five-membered, but not a six-membered, ring present the necessary pharmacophore to the active site of ACCase, confirming the active conformation hypothesis and demonstrating that the precise placement of the carboxylate relative to the phenyl group is more critical than the placement of the methyl. PMID:12137475

  2. Mtabolisme actyl CoA, acide citrique,ADP, arobie, anabolisme, anarobie,ATP,ATP-

    E-print Network

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    , catabolisme, chaîne de transport des électrons, coenzyme, cycle de Krebs, cytochrome, cytosol, dette d dinucléotide (une coenzyme) 7 Glycolyse: bilan · �nergie nette 2 ATP · Les deux molécules de pyruvate servent oxaloacétate acétyl CoA H2O H2O CO2 + CO2 + Coenzyme A + Coenzyme A AdP FADH2 NADH NADH H2O NADH ATP 12 #12

  3. Are long chain acyl CoAs responsible for suppression of mitochondrial metabolism in hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Alex N; Brown, Jason C L; Staples, James F

    2014-04-01

    Hibernation in 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) is associated with a substantial suppression of whole-animal metabolism. We compared the metabolism of liver mitochondria isolated from torpid ground squirrels with those from interbout euthermic (IBE; recently aroused from torpor) and summer euthermic conspecifics. Succinate-fuelled state 3 respiration, calculated relative to mitochondrial protein, was suppressed in torpor by 48% and 44% compared with IBE and summer, respectively. This suppression remains when respiration is expressed relative to cytochrome c oxidase activity. We hypothesized that this suppression was caused by inhibition of succinate transport at the dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) by long-chain fatty acyl CoAs that may accumulate during torpor. We predicted, therefore, that exogenous palmitoyl CoA would inhibit respiration in IBE more than in torpor. Palmitoyl CoA inhibited respiration ~70%, in both torpor and IBE. The addition of carnitine, predicted to reverse palmitoyl CoA suppression by facilitating its transport into the mitochondrial matrix, did not rescue the respiration rates in IBE or torpor. Liver mitochondrial activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase did not differ among IBE, torpor and summer animals. Although palmitoyl CoA inhibits succinate-fuelled respiration, this suppression is likely not related exclusively to inhibition of the DCT, and may involve additional mitochondrial transporters such as the adenine-nucleotide transporter. PMID:24561259

  4. Quantitative measurement of acetyl fentanyl and acetyl norfentanyl in human urine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Patton, Amy L; Seely, Kathryn A; Pulla, Sharon; Rusch, Nancy J; Moran, Cindy L; Fantegrossi, William E; Knight, Laura D; Marraffa, Jeanna M; Kennedy, Paul D; James, Laura P; Endres, Gregory W; Moran, Jeffery H

    2014-02-01

    Opioid abuse involving emerging opioid compounds is a growing public health problem, which was highlighted recently by cases of human morbidity and mortality linked to acetyl fentanyl abuse. Unfortunately, the lack of information available on the toxicology and metabolism of acetyl fentanyl precludes its detection in human samples. The following study was conducted to test a new analytical procedure for the simultaneous quantification of acetyl fentanyl and its predicted metabolite, acetyl norfentanyl, in human urine. Metabolic reference standards and deuterium-labeled internal standards were synthesized for use in an assay that coupled solid-phase extraction (SPE) with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The accuracy (% Relative Error <5%) and inter- and intrarun precision (%CV <20%) of this new method resulted in low levels of quantification (?1 ng/mL). Similar results were obtained using liquid chromatography columns manufactured with phenyl-hexyl and biphenyl stationary phases (r(2) > 0.98). Preliminary human liver microsomal and in vivo rodent studies demonstrated that acetyl fentanyl is metabolized by cytochrome P450s to acetyl norfentanyl. Urine samples from rats treated with a toxic dose of acetyl fentanyl contained high concentrations of acetyl fentanyl and acetyl norfentanyl. Further toxicokinetic studies are required to fully elucidate the metabolic pathways responsible for acetyl fentanyl detoxification and excretion. PMID:24354295

  5. ABIOTIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORBED PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrolysis of pesticides that are sorbed to sterilized natural sediments has been investigated in aqueous systems at acid, neutral and alkaline pH's. The results show that the rate constants of pH independent ('neutral') hydrolyses are the same within experimental uncertainti...

  6. Acetylation modulates the STAT signaling code.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Martin; Ginter, Torsten; Brand, Peter; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2012-12-01

    A fascinating question of modern biology is how a limited number of signaling pathways generate biological diversity and crosstalk phenomena in vivo. Well-defined posttranslational modification patterns dictate the functions and interactions of proteins. The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are physiologically important cytokine-induced transcription factors. They are targeted by a multitude of posttranslational modifications that control and modulate signaling responses and gene expression. Beyond phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine residues, lysine acetylation has recently emerged as a critical modification regulating STAT functions. Interestingly, acetylation can determine STAT signaling codes by various molecular mechanisms, including the modulation of other posttranslational modifications. Here, we provide an overview on the acetylation of STATs and how this protein modification shapes cellular cytokine responses. We summarize recent advances in understanding the impact of STAT acetylation on cell growth, apoptosis, innate immunity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we discuss how STAT acetylation can be targeted by small molecules and we consider the possibility that additional molecules controlling STAT signaling are regulated by acetylation. Our review also summarizes evolutionary aspects and we show similarities between the acetylation-dependent control of STATs and other important molecules. We propose the concept that, similar to the 'histone code', distinct posttranslational modifications and their crosstalk orchestrate the functions and interactions of STAT proteins. PMID:22795479

  7. Nonhistone protein acetylation as cancer therapy targets

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brahma N; Zhang, Guanghua; Hwa, Yi L; Li, Jinping; Dowdy, Sean C; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation and deacetylation are counteracting, post-translational modifications that affect a large number of histone and nonhistone proteins. The significance of histone acetylation in the modification of chromatin structure and dynamics, and thereby gene transcription regulation, has been well recognized. A steadily growing number of nonhistone proteins have been identified as acetylation targets and reversible lysine acetylation in these proteins plays an important role(s) in the regulation of mRNA stability, protein localization and degradation, and protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions. The recruitment of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the transcriptional machinery is a key element in the dynamic regulation of genes controlling cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Many nonhistone proteins targeted by acetylation are the products of oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes and are directly involved in tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. Aberrant activity of HDACs has been documented in several types of cancers and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been employed for therapeutic purposes. Here we review the published literature in this field and provide updated information on the regulation and function of nonhistone protein acetylation. While concentrating on the molecular mechanism and pathways involved in the addition and removal of the acetyl moiety, therapeutic modalities of HDACi are also discussed. PMID:20553216

  8. Structural insights into rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water in relation to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoce; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Seiichi; Wang, Jianlong; Endo, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Pretreatment-induced structural alteration is critical in influencing the rate and extent of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. The present work has investigated structural features of rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water (HCW) from 140 to 240 °C for 10 or 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis profiles of pretreated rice straw. Compositional profiles of pretreated rice straw were examined to offer the basis for structural changes. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis revealed possible modification in crystalline microstructure of cellulose and the severity-dependent variation of crystallinity. The specific surface area (SSA) of pretreated samples was able to achieve more than 10-fold of that of the raw material and was in linear relationship with the removal of acetyl groups and xylan. The glucose yield by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated materials correlated linearly with the SSA increase and the dissolution of acetyl and xylan. A quantitatively intrinsic relationship was suggested to exist between enzymatic hydrolysis and the extraction of hemicellulose components in hydrothermally treated rice straw, and SSA was considered one important structural parameter signaling the efficiency of enzymatic digestibility in HCW-treated materials in which hemicellulose removal and lignin redistribution happened. PMID:25178420

  9. Competition between acetate and oleate for the formation of malonyl-CoA and mitochondrial acetyl-CoA in the perfused rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Fang; Kasumov, Takhar; Jobbins, Kathryn A.; Minkler, Paul E.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L.; Brunengraber, Henri

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that in the perfused rat heart, the capacity of n-fatty acids to generate mitochondrial acetyl-CoA decreases as their chain length increases. In the present study, we investigated whether the oxidation of a long-chain fatty acid, oleate, is inhibited by short-chain fatty acids, acetate or propionate (which do and do not generate mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, respectively). We perfused rat hearts with buffer containing 4 mM glucose, 0.2 mM pyruvate, 1 mM lactate, and various concentrations of either (i) [U-13C]acetate, (ii) [U-13C]acetate plus [1-13C]oleate, or (iii) unlabeled propionate plus [1-13C]oleate. Using mass isotopomer analysis, we determined the contributions of the labeled substrates to the acetyl moiety of citrate (a probe of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA) and to malonyl-CoA. We found that acetate, even at low concentration, markedly inhibits the oxidation of [1-13C]oleate in the heart, without change in malonyl-CoA concentration. We also found that propionate, at a concentration higher than 1 mM, decreases (i) the contribution of [1-13C]oleate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, and (ii) malonyl-CoA concentration. The inhibition by acetate or propionate of acetyl-CoA production from oleate probably results from a competition for mitochondrial CoA between the CoA-utilizing enzymes. PMID:17020764

  10. Chemical biology of peptidoglycan acetylation and deacetylation.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Patrick J; Sychantha, David; Clarke, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    Post-synthetic modification of the bacterial cell wall represents an important strategy for pathogenic bacteria to evade innate immunity and control autolysins. Modifications to the glycan backbone of peptidoglycan are generally restricted to the C-6 hydroxyl and C-3 amino moieties, with the most common being acetylation and deacetylation. In this review we discuss the pathways for O-acetylation, de-O-acetylation and N-deacetylation with an emphasis on the chemical-biological approaches used in their investigation. The current challenges in the field and the prospects of targeting these systems with novel therapeutics are also explored. PMID:24769153

  11. Reverse genetic characterization of two paralogous acetoacetyl CoA thiolase genes in Arabidopsis reveals their importance in plant growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Huanan; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.

    2012-03-31

    Acetoacetyl CoA thiolase (AACT, EC 2.3.1.9) catalyzes the condensation of two acetyl?CoA molecules to form acetoacetyl?CoA. Two AACT?encoding genes, At5g47720 (AACT1) and At5g48230 (AACT2), were functionally identified in the Arabidopsis genome by direct enzymological assays and functional expression in yeast. Promoter::GUS fusion experiments indicated that AACT1 is primarily expressed in the vascular system and AACT2 is highly expressed in root tips, young leaves, top stems and anthers. Characterization of T?DNA insertion mutant alleles at each AACT locus established that AACT2 function is required for embryogenesis and for normal male gamete transmission. In contrast, plants lacking AACT1 function are completely viable and show no apparent growth phenotypes, indicating that AACT1 is functionally redundant with respect to AACT2 function. RNAi lines that express reduced levels of AACT2 show pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduced apical dominance, elongated life span and flowering duration, sterility, dwarfing, reduced seed yield and shorter root length. Microscopic analysis reveals that the reduced stature is caused by a reduction in cell size and fewer cells, and male sterility is caused by loss of the pollen coat and premature degeneration of the tapetal cells. Biochemical analyses established that the roots of AACT2 RNAi plants show quantitative and qualitative alterations in phytosterol profiles. These phenotypes and biochemical alterations are reversed when AACT2 RNAi plants are grown in the presence of mevalonate, which is consistent with the role of AACT2 in generating the bulk of the acetoacetyl?CoA precursor required for the cytosol?localized, mevalonate?derived isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway.

  12. Energy from biomass through hydrolysis of wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Guha; A. L. Titchener

    1978-01-01

    An effective method for converting biological material to liquid fuel is the production of ethanol by hydrolysis of cellulose and fermentation of the resulting sugar. The conversion of wood cellulose to sugar is best achieved through dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis process. The hydrolysis of wood is described by a two step consecutive reactions of saccharification and decomposition. The first order

  13. Dispersed fluorescence observations of the CO/A 1Pi to X 1Sigma+/ transitions from photodissociation of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E.; Lee, C. L.; Judge, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The spectra of vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) fluorescence resulting from the excitation of CO2 by photons from an intense line emission source at 15 wavelengths in the range 449-955 A were obtained. The vibrational population distributions for the v = 0, 1, and 2 levels of the CO(A 1Pi) fragments were obtained at several incident photon wavelengths from 700 to 923 A. At incident photon wavelengths of 901 and 923, the relative intensities of the CO(A to X) bands were determined, permitting examination of the variation of the electronic transition moment with the r centroid.

  14. Influence of ionic liquids on the rates and regioselectivity of lipase-mediated biotransformations on 3,4,6-tri- O-acetyl- d-glucal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susheel J Nara; Swapnil S Mohile; Jitendra R Harjani; Prashant U Naik; Manikrao M Salunkhe

    2004-01-01

    Lipase-mediated regioselective biotransformations such as hydrolysis and alcoholysis of 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-d-glucal, 1 have been studied in organic solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and two different ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [bmim]PF6 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim]BF4. The influence of different reaction media on the rates and regioselectivity of enzyme catalysis has been demonstrated. A marked regioselectivity towards the formation of 4,6-di-O-acetyl-d-glucal, 2 was observed

  15. GENES ENCODING PLASTID ACETYL-COA CARBOXYLASE AND 3-PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE OF THE TRITICUM/AEGILOPS COMPLEX AND THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF POLYPLOID WHEAT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The classic wheat evolutionary history is one of adaptive radiation of the diploid Triticum/Aegilops species (A, S, D) , genome convergence and divergence of the tetraploid (T. turgidum AABB, and T. timopheevii AAAGG) and hexaploid (T. aestivum, AABBDD) species. The objective of this study was to a...

  16. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Obataya; Joseph Gril

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo\\u000aspruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling\\u000ain various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The\\u000aacetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids\\u000asuch as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only\\u000aslightly and\\/or very

  17. Reversible Acetylation Of Non Histone Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiran Batta; Chandrima Das; Shrikanth Gadad; Jayasha Shandilya; Tapas Kundu

    Post-translational modifications of nonhistone proteins play a significant role in regulating the chromatin structure, dynamics\\u000a and thereby gene regulation. Among the different posttranslational modifications, reversible acetylation of non-histone proteins\\u000a has profound functional implications on wide range of cellular processes. The acetylation status of these proteins is regulated\\u000a by several cellular and non-cellular factors like viruses, physiological stresses, DNA damaging agents

  18. 4-Acetyl­piperazinium picrate

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Channappa N.; Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.

    2014-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H13N2O+·C6H2N3O7 ? (systematic name: 4-acetyl­piperazin-1-ium 2,4,6-tri­nitro­phenolate), the piperazin-1-ium ring has a slightly distorted chair conformation. In the picrate anion, the mean planes of the two o-NO2 and p-NO2 groups are twisted with respect to the benzene ring by 15.0?(2), 68.9?(4) and 4.4?(3)°, respectively. In the crystal, N—H?O hydrogen bonds are observed, linking the ions into an infinite chain along [010]. In addition, weak cation–anion C—H?O inter­molecular inter­actions and a weak ?–? stacking inter­action between the benzene rings of the anions, with an inter-centroid distance of 3.771?(8)?Å, help to stabilize the crystal packing, giving an overall sheet structure lying parallel to (100). Disorder was modelled for one of the O atoms in one of the o-NO2 groups over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.57?(6):0.43?(6). PMID:24940287

  19. 4-Acetyl-piperazinium picrate.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Channappa N; Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P; Yathirajan, Hemmige S

    2014-06-01

    In the title salt, C6H13N2O(+)·C6H2N3O7 (-) (systematic name: 4-acetyl-piperazin-1-ium 2,4,6-tri-nitro-phenolate), the piperazin-1-ium ring has a slightly distorted chair conformation. In the picrate anion, the mean planes of the two o-NO2 and p-NO2 groups are twisted with respect to the benzene ring by 15.0?(2), 68.9?(4) and 4.4?(3)°, respectively. In the crystal, N-H?O hydrogen bonds are observed, linking the ions into an infinite chain along [010]. In addition, weak cation-anion C-H?O inter-molecular inter-actions and a weak ?-? stacking inter-action between the benzene rings of the anions, with an inter-centroid distance of 3.771?(8)?Å, help to stabilize the crystal packing, giving an overall sheet structure lying parallel to (100). Disorder was modelled for one of the O atoms in one of the o-NO2 groups over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.57?(6):0.43?(6). PMID:24940287

  20. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase in complex with the feedback inhibitor CoA reveals only one active-site conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Wubben, T.; Mesecar, A.D. (Purdue); (UIC)

    2014-10-02

    Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) catalyzes the penultimate step in the coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway, reversibly transferring an adenylyl group from ATP to 4'-phosphopantetheine to form dephosphocoenzyme A (dPCoA). To complement recent biochemical and structural studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPAT (MtPPAT) and to provide further insight into the feedback regulation of MtPPAT by CoA, the X-ray crystal structure of the MtPPAT enzyme in complex with CoA was determined to 2.11 {angstrom} resolution. Unlike previous X-ray crystal structures of PPAT-CoA complexes from other bacteria, which showed two distinct CoA conformations bound to the active site, only one conformation of CoA is observed in the MtPPAT-CoA complex.

  1. Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT): Human cDNA cloning, human chromosomal mapping to 5p13, and mutation detection in a SCOT-deficient patient

    SciTech Connect

    Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Gifu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; E.C.2.8.3.5) mediates the rate-determining step of ketolysis in extrahepatic tissues, the esterification of acetoacetate to CoA for use in energy production. Hereditary SCOT deficiency in humans causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We obtained human-heart SCOT cDNA clones spanning the entire 1,560-nt coding sequence. Sequence alignment of the human SCOT peptides with other known CoA transferases revealed several conserved regions of potential functional importance. A single {approximately}3.2-kb SCOT mRNA is present in human tissues (heart > leukocytes {much_gt} fibroblasts), but no signal is detectable in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. We mapped the human SCOT locus (OXCT) to the cytogenetic band 5p13 by in situ hybridization. From fibroblasts of a patient with hereditary SCOT deficiency, we amplified and cloned cDNA fragments containing the entire SCOT coding sequence. We found a homozygous C-to-G transversion at nt 848, which changes the Ser 283 codon to a stop codon. This mutation (S283X) is incompatible with normal enzyme function and represents the first documentation of a pathogenic mutation in SCOT deficiency. 45 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Cellulase hydrolysis of unsorted MSW.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2011-12-01

    A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition of surfactant. Concurrently, the enzyme performance was analysed on pure cellulose in a solution of MSW wastewater. Results showed no effect of surfactant addition to the hydrolysis media as measured by viscosity and particle size distribution. MSW treatment wastewater was found to contain a high amount of calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride and others that may affect cellulolytic enzymes. Cellulase performance showed no effect of adding the metal ion-chelating agent EDTA to the solution. The cellulases were stable, tolerated and functioned in the presence of several contaminants. PMID:21989799

  3. [The study of peptide stability during hydrolysis by rat gastroenteric tract fragments].

    PubMed

    Akimov, M G; Nazimov, I V; Gretskaia, N M; De?gin, V I; Bezuglov, V V

    2010-01-01

    The hydrolytic stability of therapeutic peptides such as dalargin, stemokin and some others, including cyclic tripeptides modified by ibuprofen and aspirin, was studied. Two experimental systems were used, one containing purified enzymes pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin and other based on fragments of rat stomach and ileum. It was found that linear peptides without D-aminoacids are hydrolyzed by fragments of stomach and ileum but resistant to hydrolysis with purified enzymes. The peptides with D-aminoacids and cyclic peptides are stable in all experimental conditions used, however, peptides modified with aspirin lost acetyl moiety of aspirin residue in acidic medium, the process is accelerated in presence of pepsin. PMID:21317940

  4. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  5. Identification and Characterization of a Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA):Benzoate CoA Transferase in Geobacter metallireducens

    PubMed Central

    Oberender, Jana; Kung, Johannes W.; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Geobacter metallireducens is a Fe(III)-respiring deltaproteobacterium and serves as a model organism for aromatic compound-degrading, obligately anaerobic bacteria. In this study, a genetic system was established for G. metallireducens using nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor. Surprisingly, disruption of the benzoate-induced bamY gene, encoding a benzoate coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, reproducibly showed an increased biomass yield in comparison to the wild type during growth with benzoate but not during growth with acetate. Complementation of bamY in trans converted the biomass yield back to the wild-type level. Growth of the bamY mutant with benzoate can be rationalized by the identification of a previously unknown succinyl-CoA:benzoate CoA transferase activity; it represents an additional, energetically less demanding mode of benzoate activation. The activity was highly enriched from extracts of cells grown on benzoate, yielding a 50-kDa protein band; mass spectrometric analysis identified the corresponding benzoate-induced gene annotated as a CoA transferase. It was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized as a specific succinyl-CoA:benzoate CoA transferase. The newly identified enzyme in conjunction with a benzoate-induced succinyl-CoA synthetase links the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the upper benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway during growth on aromatic growth substrates. PMID:22408161

  6. Structural, Kinetic and Proteomic Characterization of Acetyl Phosphate-Dependent Bacterial Protein Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Alexandria; Sorensen, Dylan; Minasov, George; Lima, Bruno P.; Scholle, Michael; Mrksich, Milan; Anderson, Wayne F.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging view of N?-lysine acetylation in eukaryotes is of a relatively abundant post-translational modification (PTM) that has a major impact on the function, structure, stability and/or location of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. This PTM is typically considered to arise by the donation of the acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA) to the ?-amino group of a lysine residue that is reversibly catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, biochemical and structural evidence that N?-lysine acetylation is an equally abundant and important PTM in bacteria. Applying a recently developed, label-free and global mass spectrometric approach to an isogenic set of mutants, we detected acetylation of thousands of lysine residues on hundreds of Escherichia coli proteins that participate in diverse and often essential cellular processes, including translation, transcription and central metabolism. Many of these acetylations were regulated in an acetyl phosphate (acP)-dependent manner, providing compelling evidence for a recently reported mechanism of bacterial N?-lysine acetylation. These mass spectrometric data, coupled with observations made by crystallography, biochemistry, and additional mass spectrometry showed that this acP-dependent acetylation is both non-enzymatic and specific, with specificity determined by the accessibility, reactivity and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target lysine. Crystallographic evidence shows acP can bind to proteins in active sites and cofactor binding sites, but also potentially anywhere molecules with a phosphate moiety could bind. Finally, we provide evidence that acP-dependent acetylation can impact the function of critical enzymes, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and RNA polymerase. PMID:24756028

  7. HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrolytic processes provide the baseline loss rate for any chemical in an aqueous envi- ronment. Although various hydrolytic pathways account for significant degradation of certain classes of organic chemicals, other organic structures are completely inert. Strictly speaking, hy...

  8. A novel functional site in the PB2 subunit of influenza A virus essential for acetyl-CoA interaction, RNA polymerase activity, and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Dai; Shoji, Masaki; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Hirota, Takenori; Nagae, Monami; Yanagisawa, Shin; Nakano, Masahiro; Ohmi, Naho; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    The PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, components of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus, are essential for viral transcription and replication. The PB2 subunit binds to the host RNA cap (7-methylguanosine triphosphate (m(7)GTP)) and supports the endonuclease activity of PA to "snatch" the cap from host pre-mRNAs. However, the structure of PB2 is not fully understood, and the functional sites remain unknown. In this study, we describe a novel Val/Arg/Gly (VRG) site in the PB2 cap-binding domain, which is involved in interaction with acetyl-CoA found in eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs). In vitro experiments revealed that the recombinant PB2 cap-binding domain that includes the VRG site interacts with acetyl-CoA; moreover, it was found that this interaction could be blocked by CoA and various HAT inhibitors. Interestingly, m(7)GTP also inhibited this interaction, suggesting that the same active pocket is capable of interacting with acetyl-CoA and m(7)GTP. To elucidate the importance of the VRG site on PB2 function and viral replication, we constructed a PB2 recombinant protein and recombinant viruses including several patterns of amino acid mutations in the VRG site. Substitutions of the valine and arginine residues or of all 3 residues of the VRG site to alanine significantly reduced the binding ability of PB2 to acetyl-CoA and its RNA polymerase activity. Recombinant viruses containing the same mutations could not be replicated in cultured cells. These results indicate that the PB2 VRG sequence is a functional site that is essential for acetyl-CoA interaction, RNA polymerase activity, and viral replication. PMID:25063805

  9. A Novel Functional Site in the PB2 Subunit of Influenza A Virus Essential for Acetyl-CoA Interaction, RNA Polymerase Activity, and Viral Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Dai; Shoji, Masaki; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Hirota, Takenori; Nagae, Monami; Yanagisawa, Shin; Nakano, Masahiro; Ohmi, Naho; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, components of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus, are essential for viral transcription and replication. The PB2 subunit binds to the host RNA cap (7-methylguanosine triphosphate (m7GTP)) and supports the endonuclease activity of PA to “snatch” the cap from host pre-mRNAs. However, the structure of PB2 is not fully understood, and the functional sites remain unknown. In this study, we describe a novel Val/Arg/Gly (VRG) site in the PB2 cap-binding domain, which is involved in interaction with acetyl-CoA found in eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs). In vitro experiments revealed that the recombinant PB2 cap-binding domain that includes the VRG site interacts with acetyl-CoA; moreover, it was found that this interaction could be blocked by CoA and various HAT inhibitors. Interestingly, m7GTP also inhibited this interaction, suggesting that the same active pocket is capable of interacting with acetyl-CoA and m7GTP. To elucidate the importance of the VRG site on PB2 function and viral replication, we constructed a PB2 recombinant protein and recombinant viruses including several patterns of amino acid mutations in the VRG site. Substitutions of the valine and arginine residues or of all 3 residues of the VRG site to alanine significantly reduced the binding ability of PB2 to acetyl-CoA and its RNA polymerase activity. Recombinant viruses containing the same mutations could not be replicated in cultured cells. These results indicate that the PB2 VRG sequence is a functional site that is essential for acetyl-CoA interaction, RNA polymerase activity, and viral replication. PMID:25063805

  10. Selective inactivation of various acyl-CoA dehydrogenases by (methylenecyclopropyl)acetyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Tanaka, K

    1990-04-19

    Inactivation of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases by (methylenecyclopropyl)acetyl-CoA (MCPA-CoA), the toxic metabolite of hypoglycin from unripe ackee fruit, was investigated using purified enzyme preparations. Short-chain acyl-CoA (SCADH), medium-chain acyl-CoA (MCADH) and isovaleryl-CoA (IVDH) dehydrogenases were severely and irreversibly inactivated by MCPA-CoA, while 2-methyl-branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (2-meBCADH) was only slowly and mildly inactivated. Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCADH) was not significantly inactivated, even after prolonged incubation with MCPA-CoA. Inactivation of SCADH, MCADH and IVDH was effectively prevented by the addition of substrate. This mode of inactivation by MCPA-CoA explains the urinary metabolite profile in hypoglycin treated-rats, which includes large amounts of metabolites from fatty acids and leucine, and relatively small amounts of those from valine and isoleucine. Spectrophotometric titration of SCADH and MCADH with MCPA-CoA, together with the protective effects of substrate, indicates that MCPA-CoA is acted upon by, and exerts in turn irreversible inactivation of, SCADH and MCADH, confirming that MCPA-CoA is a suicide inhibitor (Wenz et al. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9809-9812). Spectrophotometric titration data of LCADH and MCPA-CoA is typical of non-reacting CoA ester. PMID:2331485

  11. Beating the acetyl coenzyme A-pathway to the origin of life

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Wolfgang; Russell, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to draft plausible scenarios for the origin of life have in the past mainly built upon palaeogeochemical boundary conditions while, as detailed in a companion article in this issue, frequently neglecting to comply with fundamental thermodynamic laws. Even if demands from both palaeogeochemistry and thermodynamics are respected, then a plethora of strongly differing models are still conceivable. Although we have no guarantee that life at its origin necessarily resembled biology in extant organisms, we consider that the only empirical way to deduce how life may have emerged is by taking the stance of assuming continuity of biology from its inception to the present day. Building upon this conviction, we have assessed extant types of energy and carbon metabolism for their appropriateness to conditions probably pertaining in those settings of the Hadean planet that fulfil the thermodynamic requirements for life to come into being. Wood–Ljungdahl (WL) pathways leading to acetyl CoA formation are excellent candidates for such primordial metabolism. Based on a review of our present understanding of the biochemistry and biophysics of acetogenic, methanogenic and methanotrophic pathways and on a phylogenetic analysis of involved enzymes, we propose that a variant of modern methanotrophy is more likely than traditional WL systems to date back to the origin of life. The proposed model furthermore better fits basic thermodynamic demands and palaeogeochemical conditions suggested by recent results from extant alkaline hydrothermal seeps. PMID:23754811

  12. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose to yield glucose

    DOEpatents

    Tsao, George T. (West Lafayette, IN); Ladisch, Michael R. (West Lafayette, IN); Bose, Arindam (West Lafayette, IN)

    1979-01-01

    A process to yield glucose from cellulose through acid hydrolysis. Cellulose is recovered from cellulosic materials, preferably by pretreating the cellulosic materials by dissolving the cellulosic materials in Cadoxen or a chelating metal caustic swelling solvent and then precipitating the cellulose therefrom. Hydrolysis is accomplished using an acid, preferably dilute sulfuric acid, and the glucose is yielded substantially without side products. Lignin may be removed either before or after hydrolysis.

  13. Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Supply: Functional Expression of a Bacterial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in the Cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Barbara U.; van Rossum, Harmen M.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R.; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1?, E1?, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs+ reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. PMID:25336454

  14. Enhancement of lysine acetylation accelerates wound repair.

    PubMed

    Spallotta, Francesco; Cencioni, Chiara; Straino, Stefania; Sbardella, Gianluca; Castellano, Sabrina; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Martelli, Fabio; Gaetano, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    In physiopathological conditions, such as diabetes, wound healing is significantly compromised and chronic complications, including ulcers, may occur. In a mouse model of skin repair, we recently reported that wound treatment with Sirtuin activators and class I HDAC inhibitors induced keratinocyte proliferation and enhanced healing via a nitric oxide (NO) dependent mechanism. We observed an increase in total protein acetylation in the wound area, as determined by acetylation of ?-tubulin and histone H3 Lysine 9. We reasoned that this process activated cell function as well as regulated gene expression to foster tissue repair. We report here that the direct activation of P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) by the histone acetylase activator pentadecylidenemalonate 1b (SPV-106) induced Lysine acetylation in the wound area. This intervention was sufficient to enhance repair process by a NO-independent mechanism. Hence, an impairment of PCAF and/or other GCN5 family acetylases may delay skin repair in physiopathological conditions. PMID:24265859

  15. Acid Hydrolysis of Trioxalatocobaltate (III) Ion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggans, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an investigation involving acid hydrolysis and using both volumetric and kinetic techniques. Presents examples of the determination of the rate constant and its variation with temperature. (GS)

  16. Complex N-acetylation of triethylenetetramine.

    PubMed

    Cerrada-Gimenez, Marc; Weisell, Janne; Hyvönen, Mervi T; Park, Myung Hee; Alhonen, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Tuomo A

    2011-12-01

    Triethylenetetramine (TETA) is an efficient copper chelator that has versatile clinical potential. We have recently shown that spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT1), the key polyamine catabolic enzyme, acetylates TETA in vitro. Here, we studied the metabolism of TETA in three different mouse lines: syngenic, SSAT1-overexpressing, and SSAT1-deficient (SSAT1-KO) mice. The mice were sacrificed at 1, 2, or 4 h after TETA injection (300 mg/kg i.p.). We found only N(1)-acetyltriethylenetetramine (N(1)AcTETA) and/or TETA in the liver, kidney, and plasma samples. As expected, SSAT1-overexpressing mice acetylated TETA at an accelerated rate compared with syngenic and SSAT1-KO mice. It is noteworthy that SSAT1-KO mice metabolized TETA as syngenic mice did, probably by thialysine acetyltransferase, which had a K(m) value of 2.5 ± 0.3 mM and a k(cat) value of 1.3 s(-1) for TETA when tested in vitro with the human recombinant enzyme. Thus, the present results suggest that there are at least two N-acetylases potentially metabolizing TETA. However, their physiological significance for TETA acetylation requires further studies. Furthermore, we detected chemical intramolecular N-acetyl migration from the N(1) to N(3) position of N(1)AcTETA and N(1),N(8)-diacetyltriethylenetetramine in an acidified high-performance liquid chromatography sample matrix. The complex metabolism of TETA together with the intramolecular N-acetyl migration may explain the huge individual variations in the acetylation rate of TETA reported earlier. PMID:21878558

  17. Acetylation of bleached Kraft pulp: effect of xylan content on properties of acetylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Karol; Reyes, Herna; Escobar, Danilo; Vega-Lara, Johana; Berg, Alex; Pereira, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Bleached Kraft pulp (BKP) from Eucalyptus globulus and cotton xylan blends (CXB) was acetylated. The effects of xylan content on cellulose acetylation and the properties of the acetylated material were studied. An increase in xylan content caused a slight decrease in the degree of substitution (2.98 to 2.68 for CXB; 2.93 to 2.84 for BKP). Thermal analysis showed that the melting temperature also decreases from 268.0 to 188.8 °C for CXB and from 221.4 to 212.8 °C for BKP. Moreover, the solubility decreased due to the partial dissolution of acetylated xylans. The presence of xylans during Kraft pulp acetylation does not have a significant negative effect on the physical properties of the acetylated material, but the decrease in melting temperature was beneficial for the application of acetylated polymer as a natural internal plasticizer. This is considered to be an important argument for BKP utilization in the cellulose acetate manufacturing process. PMID:25498729

  18. Temporal analysis of protein lysine acetylation during adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zuyuan; Ande, Sudharsana Rao; Mishra, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The post-translational modification of protein by acetylation has been emerging as a prevalent modification in enzymes that catalyze intermediary metabolism. However, the dynamics of protein acetylation during adipocyte differentiation that involves a major shift in cellular metabolism is not known. In this study, we investigated the temporal changes in acetylation during adipocyte differentiation. Almost all acetylated proteins identified showed a sequential change in acetylation during the differentiation process. While the majority of the acetylated proteins showed a sequential upregulation during adipocyte differentiation, in a few proteins a sequential downregulation of protein acetylation was also observed. Our findings suggest that a wide-ranging temporal change in protein acetylation occurs during adipocyte differentiation including differentially expressed proteins signifying an important role in adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23700550

  19. Discovery and characterization of Ku acetylation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Lin; Fleming, Joy; Deng, Jiaoyu; Wang, Xude; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wei, Wenjing; Bi, Lijun

    2015-03-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification and is known to regulate many eukaryotic cellular processes. Little, however, is known about acetylated proteins in prokaryotes. Here, using immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and mutagenesis studies, we investigate the acetylation dynamics of the DNA repair protein Ku and its relationship with the deacetylase protein Sir2 and the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We report that acetylation of Ku increases with growth, while NHEJ activity decreases, providing support for the hypothesis that acetylation of Ku may be involved in the DNA damage response in bacteria. Ku has multiple lysine sites. Our results indicate that K29 is an important acetylation site and that deficiency of Sir2 or mutation of K29 affects the quantity of Ku and its acetylation dynamics. Our findings expand knowledge of acetylation targets in prokaryotes and indicate a new direction for further research on bacterial DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:25767122

  20. Retarded hydrolysis-condensing reactivity of tetrabutyl titanate by acetylacetone and the application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Conghua, E-mail: chzhou@csu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Jun; Yang, Bingchu

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effect of acetone acetyl on coarsening rate of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites was studied. • Hydrolysis reactivity of alkoxide was retarded with addition of acetone acetyl. • Coarsening rate of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites is retarded with addition of acetone acetyl. • The synthesized TiO{sub 2} sols were utilized in dye sensitized solar cells. • Small particles formed by Ti-complexes were beneficial for device performance. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction using tetrabutyl titanate as source material. Acetylacetone was utilized to modify hydrolysis-condensation behavior of the alkoxide and thus coarsening dynamics of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in the reaction. With assistance of Fourier transformation infrared spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction, interaction between acetylacetone and tetrabutyltitanate was explored, crystallographic and morphological properties of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites were monitored. Less hydrolysable complex was formed by “method of chelating” as tetrabutyltitanate was mixed with acetylacetone, leading to retarded coarsening rate of nanocrystallites. The obtained TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites were applied to fabricate nanoporous photoanode of dye sensitized solar cells. Improvement of 18% has been achieved for photo-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of the devices due to both upgraded open circuit voltage and photocurrent density.

  1. Isolation, purification and structural characterization of an acetylated heteroglycan from the unripe fruits of Manilkara zapota L.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Subhas; Das, Debsankar; Roy, Sadhan K; Islam, Syed S

    2012-06-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide isolated from the hot water extract of the unripe fruits of Manilkara zapota L. was found to consist of 3-O-acyl-L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, 3-O-acetyl-D-methyl galacturonate in a molar proportion of nearly 1:1:1. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total hydrolysis, methylation analysis; periodate oxidation followed by GLC-MS, and NMR experiments. On the basis of the above experiments it is concluded that the following repeating unit is present in the polysaccharide. PMID:22560630

  2. Rate of Hydrolysis of Tertiary Halogeno Alkanes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure the relative rate of hydrolysis of the 2-x-2 methylpropanes, where x is bromo, chloro or iodo. The results are plotted on a graph from which the relative rate of hydrolysis can be deduced. (Author/GA)

  3. Microwave Pretreatment For Hydrolysis Of Cellulose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; George, Clifford E.; Lightsey, George R.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave pretreatment enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes into soluble saccharides used as feedstocks for foods, fuels, and other products. Low consumption of energy, high yield, and low risk of proposed hydrolysis process incorporating microwave pretreatment makes process viable alternative to composting.

  4. SELECTIVE HYDROLYSIS OF POLAR TRIACYLGLYCEROLS BY LIPASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many lipases display some degree of sn-1, sn-3 selectivity toward acyl groups linked to the glycerol backbone. We have found conditions which provide selective hydrolysis of acyl chains from the triacylglycerol. These conditions depend on the lipase itself, the solvent in which hydrolysis or alcohol...

  5. Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts that generally are designed to do one job well, but to do one job only. Therefore, the enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar do not break down the sugars. Thus, enzymatic processes are capable of yields approaching 100%. Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have been under development for only 10 years. Although improvements have been

  6. A slow dance for microtubule acetylation.

    PubMed

    Kull, F Jon; Sloboda, Roger D

    2014-06-01

    Microtubules contribute to diverse cellular processes through balancing dynamic, short-lived and stable, long-lived populations. One way in which long-lived microtubules are marked is by posttranslational acetylation of ?-tubulin by tubulin acetyltransferase (TAT). Szyk et al. now provide insight into TAT's mechanism of action and its unique time-stamping ability. PMID:24906144

  7. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, Paul G. (Golden, CO); Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI)

    1996-01-01

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.

  8. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, P.G.; Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1996-09-24

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives are disclosed which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides. 5 figs.

  9. Activation of Inactive Hepatocytes through Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yujun; Sun, Huaiqiang; Bao, Ji; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Jie; Li, Li; Bu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms by which hepatic function is maintained after extensive parenchymal loss are unclear. In this study, we propose a novel concept of “functional heterogeneity” of hepatocytes based on their different expression of acetylated histones, the markers of active gene transcription, to explain the powerful compensatory capability of the liver. In the healthy human liver, only a fraction of the hepatocytes were marked by acetylated histones (ac-H2AK5, ac-H2BK5, ac-H3K9, ac-H3K14, ac-H3K27, and ac-H3K9/14). With the progression of cirrhosis, the ratio of the positive cells was gradually elevated, accompanied by the gradual exhaustion of the negative cells. By examining the global transcriptome of the mouse hepatocytes, we observed that the primed genes in the positive cells were much more numerous than those in negative cells. In a 70% hepatectomized mouse, the remnant hepatocytes were extensively activated, and the liver function was well maintained even when regeneration was severely inhibited. The functional compensation was absolutely dependent on the elevated expression of acetyl-histones. Additionally, when liver regeneration was blocked, the metabolism-related genes seemed to be preferentially transcribed. In conclusion, we demonstrate that normally, part of the active hepatocytes are competent for routine physiological requirements. The inactive hepatocytes, delicately regulated by acetyl-histones, act as a functional reservoir for future activation to restore the liver function after massive parenchymal loss. PMID:21763259

  10. Nucleosome structure incorporated histone acetylation site prediction in arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Zhao; Hui Liu; Jiang Li; Youping Deng; Tieliu Shi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetylation is a crucial post-translational modification for histones, and plays a key role in gene expression regulation. Due to limited data and lack of a clear acetylation consensus sequence, a few researches have focused on prediction of lysine acetylation sites. Several systematic prediction studies have been conducted for human and yeast, but less for Arabidopsis thaliana. RESULTS: Concerning the

  11. Swelling of acetylated wood I. Swelling in organic liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Obataya; Joseph Gril

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, acetylated yezo spruce wood specimens were soaked in various liquids, and their swellings were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in liquids having low hydrogen bonding power such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly or

  12. Akt-dependent metabolic reprogramming regulates tumor cell histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce V; Carrer, Alessandro; Shah, Supriya; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Wei, Shuanzeng; Venneti, Sriram; Worth, Andrew J; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Lim, Hee-Woong; Liu, Shichong; Jackson, Ellen; Aiello, Nicole M; Haas, Naomi B; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Judkins, Alexander; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Chodosh, Lewis A; Garcia, Benjamin A; Stanger, Ben Z; Feldman, Michael D; Blair, Ian A; Wellen, Kathryn E

    2014-08-01

    Histone acetylation plays important roles in gene regulation, DNA replication, and the response to DNA damage, and it is frequently deregulated in tumors. We postulated that tumor cell histone acetylation levels are determined in part by changes in acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) availability mediated by oncogenic metabolic reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that acetyl-CoA is dynamically regulated by glucose availability in cancer cells and that the ratio of acetyl-CoA:coenzyme A within the nucleus modulates global histone acetylation levels. In vivo, expression of oncogenic Kras or Akt stimulates histone acetylation changes that precede tumor development. Furthermore, we show that Akt's effects on histone acetylation are mediated through the metabolic enzyme ATP-citrate lyase and that pAkt(Ser473) levels correlate significantly with histone acetylation marks in human gliomas and prostate tumors. The data implicate acetyl-CoA metabolism as a key determinant of histone acetylation levels in cancer cells. PMID:24998913

  13. Lysine acetylation in obesity, diabetes and metabolic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abishek Iyer; David P Fairlie; Lindsay Brown

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) mediate acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins and transcription factors. There is abundant evidence that these enzymes regulate the acetylation state of many cytoplasmic proteins, including lysine residues in important metabolic enzymes. Lysine acetylation regulates major cellular functions as a common post-transcriptional modification of proteins, conserved from prokaryotes to humans. In this article,

  14. SUBSURFACE WELL-LOG CORRELATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fluvial Garber Sandstone and the underlying Wellington Formation are important sources of drinking water in central Oklahoma. These formations, which make up much of the COA, consist of amalgamated sandstones with some interbedded mudstones, siltstones, and local mudstone- a...

  15. Identification of 9?-Hydroxy-17-Oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-Hexanorandrostan-5-Oic Acid in Steroid Degradation by Comamonas testosteroni TA441 and Its Conversion to the Corresponding 6-En-5-Oyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Involving Open Reading Frame 28 (ORF28)- and ORF30-Encoded Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Toshiaki; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Malon, Michal; Hirota, Hiroshi; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades steroids via aromatization and meta-cleavage of the A ring, followed by hydrolysis, and produces 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid as an intermediate compound. Herein, we identify a new intermediate compound, 9?-hydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid. Open reading frame 28 (ORF28)- and ORF30-encoded acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase was shown to convert the CoA ester of 9?-hydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid to the CoA ester of 9?-hydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrost-6-en-5-oic acid. A homology search of the deduced amino acid sequences suggested that the ORF30-encoded protein is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase_fadE6_17_26 family, whereas the deduced amino acid sequence of ORF28 showed no significant similarity to specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family proteins. Possible steroid degradation gene clusters similar to the cluster of TA441 appear in bacterial genome analysis data. In these clusters, ORFs similar to ORFs 28 and 30 are often found side by side and ordered in the same manner as ORFs 28 and 30. PMID:25092028

  16. Contribution of CoA ligases to benzenoid biosynthesis in petunia flowers.

    PubMed

    Klempien, Antje; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Qualley, Anthony; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Widhalm, Joshua R; Orlova, Irina; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Taguchi, Goro; Kish, Christine M; Cooper, Bruce R; D'Auria, John C; Rhodes, David; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2012-05-01

    Biosynthesis of benzoic acid from Phe requires shortening of the side chain by two carbons, which can occur via the ?-oxidative or nonoxidative pathways. The first step in the ?-oxidative pathway is cinnamoyl-CoA formation, likely catalyzed by a member of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) family that converts a range of trans-cinnamic acid derivatives into the corresponding CoA thioesters. Using a functional genomics approach, we identified two potential CoA-ligases from petunia (Petunia hybrida) petal-specific cDNA libraries. The cognate proteins share only 25% amino acid identity and are highly expressed in petunia corollas. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant proteins revealed that one of these proteins (Ph-4CL1) has broad substrate specificity and represents a bona fide 4CL, whereas the other is a cinnamate:CoA ligase (Ph-CNL). RNA interference suppression of Ph-4CL1 did not affect the petunia benzenoid scent profile, whereas downregulation of Ph-CNL resulted in a decrease in emission of benzylbenzoate, phenylethylbenzoate, and methylbenzoate. Green fluorescent protein localization studies revealed that the Ph-4CL1 protein is localized in the cytosol, whereas Ph-CNL is in peroxisomes. Our results indicate that subcellular compartmentalization of enzymes affects their involvement in the benzenoid network and provide evidence that cinnamoyl-CoA formation by Ph-CNL in the peroxisomes is the committed step in the ?-oxidative pathway. PMID:22649270

  17. Acyl CoA Binding Proteins are Required for Cuticle Formation and Plant Responses to Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; Yu, Keshun; Gao, Qing-ming; Wilson, Ella V.; Navarre, Duroy; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) and lipids are well known regulators of plant defense. Our previous studies have shown that components of prokaryotic (plastidal) FA biosynthesis pathway regulate various aspects of plant defense. Here, we investigated the defense related roles of the soluble acyl CoA binding proteins (ACBPs), which are thought to facilitate the intracellular transport of FA/lipids. We show that ACBP3 and 4 are required for maintaining normal lipid levels and that ACBP3 contributes to the lipid flux between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways. We also show that loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 impair normal development of the cuticle and affect both basal and resistance protein-mediated defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 also inhibits the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) due to the plants inability to generate SAR inducing signal(s). Together, these data show that ACBP3, ACBP4, and ACBP6 are required for cuticle development as well as defense against microbial pathogens. PMID:23060893

  18. ?-Lapachone Ameliorates Lipotoxic Cardiomyopathy in Acyl CoA Synthase Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Moon Hee; Tran, Nguyen Khoi Song; Kwak, Tae Hwan; Park, Byung Keon; Lee, Chul Soon; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Young-Hoon; Park, Woo Jin; Yang, Dong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Lipotoxic cardiomyopathy is caused by myocardial lipid accumulation and often occurs in patients with diabetes and obesity. This study investigated the effects of ?-lapachone (?-lap), a natural compound that activates Sirt1 through elevation of the intracellular NAD+ level, on acyl CoA synthase (ACS) transgenic (Tg) mice, which have lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Oral administration of ?-lap to ACS Tg mice significantly attenuated heart failure and inhibited myocardial accumulation of triacylglycerol. Electron microscopy and measurement of mitochondrial complex II protein and mitochondrial DNA revealed that administration of ?-lap restored mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis in ACS Tg hearts. Accordingly, ?-lap administration significantly increased the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid metabolism that were down-regulated in ACS Tg hearts. ?-lap also restored the activities of Sirt1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the two key regulators of metabolism, which were suppressed in ACS Tg hearts. In H9C2 cells, ?-lap-mediated elevation of AMPK activity was retarded when the level of Sirt1 was reduced by transfection of siRNA against Sirt1. Taken together, these results indicate that ?-lap exerts cardioprotective effects against cardiac lipotoxicity through the activation of Sirt1 and AMPK. ?-lap may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24614171

  19. Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Luttik, Marijke A H; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-01-01

    The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1?, E1?, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs(+) reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. Importance: Genetically engineered microorganisms are intensively investigated and applied for production of biofuels and chemicals from renewable sugars. To make such processes economically and environmentally sustainable, the energy (ATP) costs for product formation from sugar must be minimized. Here, we focus on an important ATP-requiring process in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): synthesis of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A, a key precursor for many industrially important products, ranging from biofuels to fragrances. We demonstrate that pyruvate dehydrogenase from the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, a huge enzyme complex with a size similar to that of a ribosome, can be functionally expressed and assembled in the cytosol of baker's yeast. Moreover, we show that this ATP-independent mechanism for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis can entirely replace the ATP-costly native yeast pathway. This work provides metabolic engineers with a new option to optimize the performance of baker's yeast as a "cell factory" for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:25336454

  20. Enzymatic sequencing of partially acetylated chitosan oligomers.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Stefanie Nicole; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria; Kolkenbrock, Stephan

    2014-06-17

    Chitosan oligosaccharides have diverse biological activities with potentially valuable applications, for example, in the fields of medicine and agriculture. These functionalities are thought to depend on their degree of polymerization and acetylation, and possibly on specific patterns of acetylation. Chitosan oligomers with fully defined architecture are difficult to produce, and their complete analysis is demanding. Analysis is typically done using MS or NMR, requiring access to expensive infrastructure, and yielding unequivocal results only in the case of rather small oligomers. We here describe a simple and cost-efficient method for the sequencing of ?g amounts of chitosan oligosaccharides which is based on the sequential action of two recombinant glycosidases, namely an exo-?-N-acetylhexosaminidase (GlcNAcase) from Bacillus subtilis 168 and an exo-?-d-glucosaminidase (GlcNase) from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1. Starting from the non-reducing end, GlcNAcase and GlcNase specifically remove N-acetyl glucosamine (A) and glucosamine (D) units, respectively. By the sequential addition and removal of these enzymes in an alternating way followed by analysis of the products using high-performance thin-layer chromatography, the sequence of chitosan oligosaccharides can be revealed. Importantly, both enzymes work under identical conditions so that no buffer exchange is required between steps, and the enzyme can be removed conveniently using simple ultra-filtration devices. As proof-of-principle, the method was used to sequence the product of enzymatic deacetylation of chitin pentamer using a recombinant chitin deacetylase from Vibrio cholerae which specifically removes the acetyl group from the second unit next to the non-reducing end of the substrate, yielding mono-deacetylated pentamer with the sequence ADAAA. PMID:24824785

  1. The functional significance of nuclear receptor acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Vladimir M.; Wang, Chenguang; Andrew Shirley, L.; Rosenberg, Anne; Li, Shengwen; Nevalainen, Marja; Fu, Maofu; Pestell, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine signaling governing nuclear receptor (NR) function has been known for several decades to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of several tumor types. Notably among these are the estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer and androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer. Other nuclear receptors may be involved in cancer progression including the peroxisome-proliferator activating receptor gamma (PPAR?), which has been implicated in breast, thyroid, and colon cancers. These NR are phylogenetically conserved modular transcriptional regulators, which like histones, undergo post translational modification by acetylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Importantly, the transcriptional activity of the receptors is governed by the coactivator p300, the activity of which is thought to be rate-limiting in the activity of these receptors. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), modify histones by adding or removing an acetyl group from the ? amino group of an evolutionarily conserved lysine motif. Histone acetylation results in changes in chromatin structure in response to specific signals. These enzymes can also directly catalyze the NRs themselves, thus modifying signals at the receptor level. The post translational modification of NR which is regulated by hormones, alters the NR function toward a growth promoting receptor. The deacetylation of NR is mediated by TSA-sensitive and NAD-dependent deacetylases. The regulation of NR by NAD-dependent enzymes provides a direct link between intracellular metabolism and hormone signaling. PMID:17291555

  2. Cohesin acetylation speeds the replication fork.

    PubMed

    Terret, Marie-Emilie; Sherwood, Rebecca; Rahman, Sadia; Qin, Jun; Jallepalli, Prasad V

    2009-11-12

    Cohesin not only links sister chromatids but also inhibits the transcriptional machinery's interaction with and movement along chromatin. In contrast, replication forks must traverse such cohesin-associated obstructions to duplicate the entire genome in S phase. How this occurs is unknown. Through single-molecule analysis, we demonstrate that the replication factor C (RFC)-CTF18 clamp loader (RFC(CTF18)) controls the velocity, spacing and restart activity of replication forks in human cells and is required for robust acetylation of cohesin's SMC3 subunit and sister chromatid cohesion. Unexpectedly, we discovered that cohesin acetylation itself is a central determinant of fork processivity, as slow-moving replication forks were found in cells lacking the Eco1-related acetyltransferases ESCO1 or ESCO2 (refs 8-10) (including those derived from Roberts' syndrome patients, in whom ESCO2 is biallelically mutated) and in cells expressing a form of SMC3 that cannot be acetylated. This defect was a consequence of cohesin's hyperstable interaction with two regulatory cofactors, WAPL and PDS5A (refs 12, 13); removal of either cofactor allowed forks to progress rapidly without ESCO1, ESCO2, or RFC(CTF18). Our results show a novel mechanism for clamp-loader-dependent fork progression, mediated by the post-translational modification and structural remodelling of the cohesin ring. Loss of this regulatory mechanism leads to the spontaneous accrual of DNA damage and may contribute to the abnormalities of the Roberts' syndrome cohesinopathy. PMID:19907496

  3. Restricted mitochondrial protein acetylation initiates mitochondrial autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Bradley R.; Scott, Iain; Han, Kim; Li, Jian H.; Lu, Zhongping; Stevens, Mark V.; Malide, Daniela; Chen, Yong; Samsel, Leigh; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P.; McCoy, J. Philip; Combs, Christian A.; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Because nutrient-sensing nuclear and cytosolic acetylation mediates cellular autophagy, we investigated whether mitochondrial acetylation modulates mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). Knockdown of GCN5L1, a component of the mitochondrial acetyltransferase machinery, diminished mitochondrial protein acetylation and augmented mitochondrial enrichment of autophagy mediators. This program was disrupted by SIRT3 knockdown. Chronic GCN5L1 depletion increased mitochondrial turnover and reduced mitochondrial protein content and/or mass. In parallel, mitochondria showed blunted respiration and enhanced ‘stress-resilience’. Genetic disruption of autophagy mediators Atg5 and p62 (also known as SQSTM1), as well as GCN5L1 reconstitution, abolished deacetylation-induced mitochondrial autophagy. Interestingly, this program is independent of the mitophagy E3-ligase Parkin (also known as PARK2). Taken together, these data suggest that deacetylation of mitochondrial proteins initiates mitochondrial autophagy in a canonical autophagy-mediator-dependent program and shows that modulation of this regulatory program has ameliorative mitochondrial homeostatic effects. PMID:24006259

  4. Kinetics of maltooligosaccharide hydrolysis in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, Shabnam Haghighat; Ota, Shuji; Kimura, Yukitaka; Adachi, Shuji

    2006-05-17

    The kinetics of the hydrolysis of maltooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 3-6 in subcritical water was studied using a tubular reactor at temperatures between 200 and 260 degrees C and at a constant pressure of 10 MPa. The maltooligosaccharide disappearance and product formation at residence times shorter than 50 s could be expressed by first-order kinetics. The rate constants for the hydrolysis of each maltooligosaccharide were evaluated. There was a tendency that the exosite glucosidic bond was hydrolyzed faster than the endo-site one irrespective of the DP of the maltooligosaccharide. The hydrolysis of the maltooligosaccharides was consecutively preceded, and the time dependence of the hydrolysis for maltooligosaccharides with different DPs could be calculated by simultaneously solving the mass balance equations for all the possible saccharides. PMID:19127742

  5. O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production. PMID:22639638

  6. Lactose Utilization and Hydrolysis in Saccharomyces fragilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. DAVIES

    1964-01-01

    SUMMARY Sodium azide, 2,4-dinitrophenol and iodoacetate did not inhibit hydrolysis of lactose by cell-free preparations of Sacchuromyces fragilis ,8-galactosidase, but with intact organisms fermentation and hydrolysis were inhibited to a similar extent. This suggests that these inhibitors may interfere with the transport of lactose into the cell. Galactose fermentation was inhibited by sodium azide and dinitrophenol to a much greater

  7. Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of palm oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. T. Khor; N. H. Tan; C. L. Chua

    1986-01-01

    The hydrolysis of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin, soybean oil, corn oil and peanut oil by the commercial lipase fromCandida rugosa (formerly known asC. cylindracea) was studied. The optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of palm oil by the lipase were established. The lipase fromC. rugosa exhibits an optimal activity at 37 C and at pH 7.5. The optimal

  8. Formation of intranuclear crystalloids and proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in schwann cells induced by tellurium treatment: association with overexpression of HMG CoA reductase and HMG CoA synthase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Berciano, M T; Fernandez, R; Pena, E; Calle, E; Villagra, N T; Rodriguez-Rey, J C; Lafarga, M

    2000-02-01

    Administration of tellurium (Te) in weaning rats causes a well-established demyelinating neuropathy induced by the inhibition in myelinating Schwann cells (SC) of the synthesis of cholesterol, a major component of the myelin sheath, at the level of squalene epoxidase. We have used this experimental model of Te neuropathy to study the biogenesis and reorganization of the endomembranes of the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to Te treatment by ultrastructural analysis and in situ hybridization for the detection of HMG CoA reductase and synthase mRNA, which encode key enzymes in cholesterol synthesis. The adaptive response of myelinating SC to cholesterol depletion includes cell hypertrophy, the formation of tubular invaginations of proliferating nuclear membranes giving rise to peculiar nuclear inclusions termed crystalloids, and, at the cytoplasmic level, the formation of lamellar bodies of rough ER, proliferation of the smooth ER, and overexpression of HMG CoA reductase and synthase mRNAs. The changes revert after withdrawal of Te treatment. Our results show that the biogenesis and structural organization of both endomembrane systems change dynamically upon Te-induced cholesterol depletion, indicating that this constituent plays a critical role in the organization of nuclear envelope and ER compartments in SC. The results also suggest that the HMG CoA reductase, an integral membrane protein of ER, provides the signal for the extensive membrane assembly. While the physiological meaning of crystalloid remains to be clarified, the hypertrophy of the smooth ER may represent a cytoprotective mechanism involved in detoxification of the neurotoxic agent or its metabolic derivates. PMID:10642751

  9. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of adipate content of acetylated di-starch adipate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G A; Vanderbist, M J; Meert, F F

    1982-03-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method is described for rapid, quantitative determination of adipate content of acetylated di-starch adipate. The adipate group is very labile and, under mild alkaline conditions at ambient temperature, is easily hydrolyzed from the starch. Free adipic acid is formed by acidification of the solution with HCl, and then extracted with ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum distillation, and a silyl derivative of the adipic acid is formed. Glutaric acid internal standard is introduced into the original starch sample before hydrolysis. An aliquot of the silylated solution is injected into a gas chromatograph fitted with a column having silicone oil as the active phase. A flame ionization detector is also incorporated. Results correlate well the amount of adipylating reagent used. No adipic acid is detectable when a hydrolyzed, extracted sample of acetylated di-starch adipate is subjected to a second extraction. Recovery levels of adipic acid, from starches fortified with 100-500 ppm, are in the range of 97-102.5%. PMID:7085540

  10. Acetylation and methylation sites in histone H4 from Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Waterborg, J H; Fried, S R; Matthews, H R

    1983-11-01

    Histone H4 has been isolated and purified from plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum. The four major fragments produced by hydrolysis of H4 by acetic acid were separated and the complete amino acid sequence of two of them was determined. By analogy with calf H4, these peptides are at the C-terminus and give the sequence from residue 68 to the C-terminus (residue 102). In this 35 residue sequence there are two minor differences from calf H4: (i) residue 77 is arginine in Physarum H4 and lysine in calf H4; (ii) lysine-79 is partially methylated in Physarum. Arginine occurs at position 77 in pea H4 but the occurrence of methylated lysine at position 79 has not been reported for other species. In the N-terminal region, amino acid compositions of acetic acid, tryptic and chymotryptic peptides indicate that Physarum H4 and calf H4 have identical sequences from the N-terminus to residue 47. There may be minor differences in the region from residue 46 to residue 67. The sites of acetylation were determined by Edman degradation of acetate-labelled peptide 4-17 of Physarum H4. Acetylation was observed at positions 5, 8, 12, and 16. The only other labelled peptide was the N-terminal peptide, which is not susceptible to Edman degradation and is thus probably alpha-N-acetylated as in most other organisms. The results confirm the conservation of H4 sequence and place Physarum H4 in an intermediate position between lower eukaryote H4, such as yeast or Tetrahymena H4, and higher eukaryote H4, such as mammalian H4 or pea H4. PMID:6628379

  11. The Development of a Decision Analytic Model of Changes in Mean Deviation in People with Glaucoma: The COA Model

    PubMed Central

    Kymes, Steven M.; Lambert, Dennis L.; Lee, Paul P.; Musch, David C.; Siegfried, Carla J.; Kotak, Sameer V.; Stwalley, Dustin L.; Fain, Joel; Johnson, Chris; Gordon, Mae O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To create and validate a statistical model predicting progression of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) assessed by loss of visual field as measured in mean deviation (MD) using three landmark studies of glaucoma progression and treatment. Design A Markov decision analytic model using patient level data described longitudinal MD changes over seven years. Participants Patient level data from the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS, n=607), the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS, n=148, only those who developed POAG in the first five years of OHTS) and Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS, n=591), the COA model. Methods We developed a Markov model with transition matrices stratified by current MD, age, race and intraocular pressure categories and used a microsimulation approach to estimate change in MD over seven years. Internal validation compared model prediction for seven years to actual MD for COA participants. External validation used a cohort of glaucoma patients drawn from university clinical practices. Main Outcome Measures Change in visual field as measured in MD in decibels (dB). Results Regressing the actual MD against the predicted produced an R2 of 0.68 for the right eye and 0.63 for the left. The model predicted ending MD for right eyes of 65% of participants and for 63% of left eyes within 3 dB of actual results at seven years. In external validation the model had an R2 of 0.79 in the right eye and 0.77 in the left at five years. Conclusion The COA model is a validated tool for clinicians, patients and health policy makers seeking to understand longitudinal changes in mean deviation in people with glaucoma.. PMID:22537616

  12. Towards an understanding of the biological function of histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Loidl, P

    1988-01-25

    A model is presented which explains the biological function of posttranslational acetylation of core histones in chromatin. Along the lines of this model histone acetylation serves as a general mechanism to destabilize nucleosome core particles during various processes occurring in chromatin. Acetylation acts as a signal that modulates histone-protein and histone-DNA interactions and finally leads to the displacement of particular histones from nucleosome cores. The high specificity of the acetylation signal for different processes (DNA replication, transcription, differentiation-specific histone replacement) is achieved by site specificity and asymmetry of acetylation in nucleosomes. The essential features of this model are in accord with the more recent results on histone acetylation. PMID:3338575

  13. Acetylation of Retinal Histones in Diabetes Increases Inflammatory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Chandra Sekhar Rao; Zheng, Ling; Du, Yunpeng; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Kao, Hung-Ying; Miyagi, Masaru; Kern, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetylation was significantly increased in retinas from diabetic rats, and this acetylation was inhibited in diabetics treated with minocycline, a drug known to inhibit early diabetic retinopathy in animals. Histone acetylation and expression of inflammatory proteins that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy were increased likewise in cultured retinal Müller glia grown in a diabetes-like concentration of glucose. Both the acetylation and induction of the inflammatory proteins in elevated glucose levels were significantly inhibited by inhibitors of histone acetyltransferase (garcinol and antisense against the histone acetylase, p300) or activators of histone deacetylase (theophylline and resveratrol) and were increased by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberolylanilide hydroxamic acid. We conclude that hyperglycemia causes acetylation of retinal histones (and probably other proteins) and that the acetylation contributes to the hyperglycemia-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory proteins and thereby to the development of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:22648458

  14. Synthesis, biodistribution, and imaging of PEGylated-acetylated polyamidoamine dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianfeng; Liu, Jinjian; Chu, Liping; Tong, Lingling; Gao, Hongjun; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Dezhi; Shi, Linqi; Kong, Deling; Li, Zongjin

    2014-05-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been widely used as drug carriers, non-viral gene vectors and imaging agents. However, the use of dendrimers in biological system is constrained because of inherent toxicity and organ accumulation. In this study, the strategy of acetylation and PEGylation-acetylation was used to minimize PAMAM dendrimers toxicities and to improve their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics for medical application. PEGylated-acetylated PAMAM (G4-Ac-PEG) dendrimers were synthesized by PEGylation of acetylated PAMAM dendrimer of generation 4 (G4) with acetic anhydride and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3.4 k. To investigate the cytotoxicity and in vivo biodistribution of the conjugates, in vitro cell viability analysis, Iodine-125 (125I) imaging, tissue distribution and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining were performed. We find that acetylation and PEGylation-acetylation essentially eliminates the inherent dendrimer cytotoxicity in vitro. Planar gamma (gamma) camera imaging revealed that all the conjugates were slowly eliminated from the body, and higher abdominal accumulation of acetylation PAMAM dendrimer was observed. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PEGylated-acetylated dendrimers have longer blood retention and lower accumulation in organs such as the kidney and liver than the non-PEGylated-acetylated dendrimers, but acetylation only can significantly increase the accumulation of G4 in the kidney and decrease the concentration in blood. Histology results reveal that no obvious damage was observed in all groups after high dose administration. This study indicates that PEGylation-acetylation could improve the blood retention, decrease organ accumulation, and improve pharmacokinetic profile, which suggests that PEGylation-acetylation provides an alternative method for PAMAM dendrimers modification. PMID:24734545

  15. Acetylation of p53 Inhibits Its Ubiquitination by Mdm2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muyang Li; Jianyuan Luo; Christopher L. Brooks; Wei Gu

    2002-01-01

    In response to DNA damage, the activity of the p53 tumor suppressor is modulated by protein stabilization and post-translational modifications including acetyla- tion. Interestingly, both acetylation and ubiquitination can modify the same lysine residues at the C terminus of p53, implicating a role of acetylation in the regulation of p53 stability. However, the direct effect of acetylation on Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination

  16. N-Acetylation in healthy and diseased children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hadagovfi; V. Brygovfi; E. Kadl?aková

    1990-01-01

    Summary  Acetylation capacity was examined in three groups of Czech children by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of sulphamethazine\\u000a and its acetylated metabolite 6 h after an oral test dose of 20 mg\\/kg sulphamethazine. Amongst 82 healthy children aged 4-15\\u000a y there were 32 (39%) fast acetylators; there was no significant difference between the number of boys and girls, or

  17. Dynamic Histone Acetylation of Late Embryonic Genes during Seed Germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen H. Tai; George C. C. Tai; Tannis Beardmore

    2005-01-01

    Histone acetylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression in plants and eukaryotes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs)\\u000a are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from histones, which is associated with the repression of gene expression.\\u000a To study the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of gene expression during seed germination, trichostatin A (TSA),\\u000a a specific inhibitor of

  18. Molecular Bases for Sensitivity to Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Inhibitors in Black-Grass1

    PubMed Central

    Délye, Christophe; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Michel, Séverine; Matéjicek, Annick; Powles, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    In grasses, residues homologous to residues Ile-1,781 and Ile-2,041 in the carboxyl-transferase (CT) domain of the chloroplastic acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) from the grass weed black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides [Huds.]) are critical determinants for sensitivity to two classes of ACCase inhibitors, aryloxyphenoxypropionates (APPs) and cyclohexanediones. Using natural mutants of black-grass, we demonstrated through a molecular, biological, and biochemical approach that residues Trp-2,027, Asp-2,078, and Gly-2,096 are also involved in sensitivity to ACCase inhibitors. In addition, residues Trp-2,027 and Asp-2,078 are very likely involved in CT activity. Using three-dimensional modeling, we found that the side chains of the five residues are adjacent, located at the surface of the inside of the cavity of the CT active site, in the vicinity of the binding site for APPs. Residues 1,781 and 2,078 are involved in sensitivity to both APPs and cyclohexanediones, whereas residues 2,027, 2,041, and 2,096 are involved in sensitivity to APPs only. This suggests that the binding sites for these two classes of compounds are overlapping, although distinct. Comparison of three-dimensional models for black-grass wild-type and mutant CTs and for CTs from organisms with contrasted sensitivity to ACCase inhibitors suggested that inhibitors fitting into the cavity of the CT active site of the chloroplastic ACCase from grasses to reach their active sites may be tight. The three-dimensional shape of this cavity is thus likely of high importance for the efficacy of ACCase inhibitors. PMID:15579665

  19. BRCA1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase through its tandem of BRCT domains.

    PubMed

    Magnard, Clémence; Bachelier, Richard; Vincent, Anne; Jaquinod, Michel; Kieffer, Sylvie; Lenoir, Gilbert M; Venezia, Nicole Dalla

    2002-10-01

    Germ-line alterations in BRCA1 are associated with an increased susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1 is a 220-kDa protein that contains a tandem of two BRCA1 C-Terminal (BRCT) domains. Among missense and nonsense BRCA1 mutations responsible for family breast cancer, some are located into the BRCT tandem of BRCA1 coding sequence. In an attempt to understand how BRCT is critical for BRCA1 function, we search for partners of this BRCT tandem of BRCA1. Using a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay with murine cells, we isolated only one major BRCA1-interacting protein, further identified as Acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Carboxylase alpha (ACCA). We showed that this interaction is conserved through murine and human species. We also delineated the minimum interacting region as being the whole tandem of BRCT domains. We demonstrated that BRCA1 interacts in vitro and in vivo with ACCA. This interaction is completely abolished by five distinct germline BRCA1 deleterious mutations affecting the BRCT tandem of BRCA1. Interestingly, ACCA originally known as a rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acids biosynthesis, has been recently shown to be over-expressed in breast cancers and considered as a potential target for anti-neoplastic therapy. Furthermore, our observation is making a bridge between the genetic factors involved in susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancers, and environmental factors such as nutrition considered as key elements in the etiology of those cancers. PMID:12360400

  20. The Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase in Fatty Acid

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    The Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase in Fatty Acid Synthesis 50011 Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) formed within the plastid is the precursor for the biosynthesis for plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase in acetyl-CoA formation during lipid synthesis in seeds. Acetyl-coenzyme

  1. Growth rate regulation of Escherichia coli acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which catalyzes the first committed step of lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, S J; Cronan, J E

    1993-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase catalyzes the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the first intermediate of fatty acid synthesis. The Escherichia coli enzyme is encoded by four subunits located at three different positions on the E. coli chromosome. The accBC genes lie in a small operon at min 72, whereas accA and accD are located at min 4.3 and 50, respectively. We examined the expression of the genes that encode the E. coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits (accA, accBC, and accD) under a variety of growth conditions by quantitative Northern (RNA) blot analysis. We found a direct correlation between the levels of transcription of the acc genes and the rate of cellular growth. Consistent results were also obtained upon nutritional upshift and downshift experiments and upon dilution of stationary-phase cultures into fresh media. We also determined the 5' end of the accA and accD mRNAs by primer extension and did transcriptional fusion analysis of the previously reported accBC promoter. Several interesting features were found in the promoter regions of these genes, including a bent DNA sequence and an open reading frame within the unusually long leader mRNA of the accBC operon, potential stem-loop structures in the accA and accD mRNA leader regions, and a stretch of GC-rich sequences followed by AT-rich sequences common to all three promoters. In addition, both accA and accD are located in complex gene clusters. For example, the accA promoter was localized within the upstream polC gene (which encodes the DNA polymerase III catalytic subunit), suggesting that additional regulatory mechanisms exist. PMID:7678242

  2. Growth rate regulation of Escherichia coli acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which catalyzes the first committed step of lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S J; Cronan, J E

    1993-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase catalyzes the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the first intermediate of fatty acid synthesis. The Escherichia coli enzyme is encoded by four subunits located at three different positions on the E. coli chromosome. The accBC genes lie in a small operon at min 72, whereas accA and accD are located at min 4.3 and 50, respectively. We examined the expression of the genes that encode the E. coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits (accA, accBC, and accD) under a variety of growth conditions by quantitative Northern (RNA) blot analysis. We found a direct correlation between the levels of transcription of the acc genes and the rate of cellular growth. Consistent results were also obtained upon nutritional upshift and downshift experiments and upon dilution of stationary-phase cultures into fresh media. We also determined the 5' end of the accA and accD mRNAs by primer extension and did transcriptional fusion analysis of the previously reported accBC promoter. Several interesting features were found in the promoter regions of these genes, including a bent DNA sequence and an open reading frame within the unusually long leader mRNA of the accBC operon, potential stem-loop structures in the accA and accD mRNA leader regions, and a stretch of GC-rich sequences followed by AT-rich sequences common to all three promoters. In addition, both accA and accD are located in complex gene clusters. For example, the accA promoter was localized within the upstream polC gene (which encodes the DNA polymerase III catalytic subunit), suggesting that additional regulatory mechanisms exist. Images PMID:7678242

  3. New Targets for Acetylation in Autophagy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ahmed Hamai (Paris; INSERM REV)

    2012-07-03

    Macroautophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process that mediates the degradation of long-lived cytoplasmic components in eukaryotes, which allows cells to survive stresses such as inflammation, hypoxia, and deprivation of nutrients or growth factors. At least 30 members of the Atg (autophagy-related) protein family orchestrate this degradative process. Additional complexity resides in the signaling networks controlling the autophagic process, which include various posttranslational modifications of key components. Evidence is accumulating that protein acetylation represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism tightly regulating macroautophagy.

  4. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of acetylated EGCG and antioxidant properties of the acetylated derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) acetylated derivatives were prepared by lipase catalyzed acylation of EGCG with vinyl acetate to improve its lipophilicity and expand its application in lipophilic media. The immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, was found to be the optimum catalyst. The optimiz...

  5. Review: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-07-16

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  6. Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts that generally are designed to do one job well, but to do one job only. Therefore, the enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar do not break down the sugars. Thus, enzymatic processes are capable of yields approaching 100%. Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have been under development for only 10 years. Although improvements have been made in enzymatic technology, more are both possible and necessary. The important research issues include understanding the processes necessary to render the crystalline cellulose easily digestible, understanding and improving the basic mechanisms in the hydrolysis step, and developing better and less expensive enzymes. The hemicellulose fraction (25%) is primarily composed of xylan, which is simple to convert to the simple sugar xylose, but the xylose is difficult to ferment to ethanol. There were no practical systems for xylose fermentation 10 years ago. Today, methods have been identified using new yeasts, fungi, bacteria, and processes combining enzymes and yeasts. Although none of the fermentations is yet ready for commercial use, considerable progress has been made. The following sections describe current research efforts in each of the major areas (cellulose hydrolysis, xylose fermentation, and lignin conversion), with an emphasis on enzymatic hydrolysis using fungal enzymes.

  7. In vitro effects of valproate and valproate metabolites on mitochondrial oxidations. Relevance of CoA sequestration to the observed inhibitions.

    PubMed

    Ponchaut, S; van Hoof, F; Veitch, K

    1992-06-01

    The inhibitory effects of valproate (VPA) and nine of its metabolites on mitochondrial oxidations have been investigated. Valproate, 4-ene-VPE, 2,4-diene-VPA and 2-propylglutaric acid inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by rat liver mitochondrial fractions with long- and medium-chain fatty acids, glutamate (+/- malate), succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate (+ malate) and pyruvate (+ malate) as substrates. Sequestration of intramitochondrial free CoA by valproate and these three metabolites has been demonstrated and quantified. However, CoA trapping could not account for all the inhibitions observed. 2-ene-VPA and 3-oxo-VPA, metabolites formed during the beta-oxidation of valproate, were not capable of trapping intramitochondrial CoA although they were inhibitors of the beta-oxidation of decanoate, probably by inhibition of the medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. PMID:1610408

  8. Pig heart CoA transferase exists as two oligomeric forms separated by a large kinetic barrier.

    PubMed

    Rochet, J C; Brownie, E R; Oikawa, K; Hicks, L D; Fraser, M E; James, M N; Kay, C M; Bridger, W A; Wolodko, W T

    2000-09-19

    Pig heart CoA transferase (EC 2.8.3.5) has been shown previously to adopt a homodimeric structure, in which each subunit has a molecular weight of 52 197 and consists of N- and C-domains linked by a hydrophilic linker or "hinge". Here we identify and characterize a second oligomeric form constituent in purified enzyme preparations, albeit at low concentrations. Both species catalyze the transfer of CoA with similar values for k(cat) and K(M). This second form sediments more rapidly than the homodimer under the conditions of conventional sedimentation velocity and active enzyme centrifugation. Apparent molecular weight values determined by sedimentation equilibrium and gel filtration chromatography are 4-fold greater than the subunit molecular weight, confirming that this form is a homotetramer. The subunits of both oligomeric forms are indistinguishable with respect to molecular mass, far-UV CD, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, and equilibrium unfolding. Dissociation of the homotetramer to the homodimer occurs very slowly in benign solutions containing high salt concentrations (0.25-2.0 M KCl). The homotetramer is fully converted to homodimer during refolding from denaturant at low protein concentrations. Disruption of the hydrophilic linker between the N- and C-domains by mutagenesis or mild proteolysis causes a decrease in the relative amount of the larger conformer. The homotetramer is stabilized by interactions involving the helical hinge region, and a substantial kinetic barrier hinders interconversion of the two oligomeric species under nondenaturing conditions. PMID:10985774

  9. N-acetylation polymorphism of dapsone in a Japanese population.

    PubMed Central

    Horai, Y; Ishizaki, T

    1988-01-01

    1. The N-acetylation of dapsone (DDS) was studied in 182 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. The frequency of slow acetylators determined using the plasma monoacetyldapsone (MADDS) to DDS ratio (MADDS/DDS, slow acetylators less than 0.30 and rapid acetylators greater than 0.35) at 3 h after an oral dose of DDS (100 mg) was 6.6% (12 of the 182 subjects) with a 95% confidence interval of 3.8 to 11.2%. 2. The frequency distribution histogram of the plasma MADDS/DDS ratio showed an apparent trimodal pattern. However, the numbers of heterozygous (n = 105) and homozygous rapid acetylators (n = 65) derived from the observed data did not agree with those predicted for the respective rapid acetylators (n = 70, and n = 100) by applying the Hardy-Weinberg Law, when the suggested antimode of 0.85 discriminating these two rapid acetylators was employed. 3. The incidence of slow acetylators was unexpectedly lower in the males (1.4%, 1 of the 69 subjects, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.2 to 7.7%) compared with the incidence in the females (9.7%, 11 of the 113 subjects, with a 95% confidence interval of 5.5 to 16.6%). The difference reached a marginally significant level (Fisher's exact probability test, P = 0.02). 4. The mean plasma concentration of MADDS was significantly (P less than 0.001) lower in the slow compared to the rapid acetylators and there was a highly significant correlation (rs = 0.757, P less than 0.001) between plasma MADDS levels and MADDS/DDS ratios. 5. Slow acetylators showed a significantly (P less than 0.001) lower urinary MADDS/DDS ratio and excreted less (P less than 0.001) MADDS than rapid acetylators.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3382590

  10. Acylglucuronide in alkaline conditions: migration vs. hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Di Meo, Florent; Steel, Michele; Nicolas, Picard; Marquet, Pierre; Duroux, Jean-Luc; Trouillas, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    This work rationalizes the glucuronidation process (one of the reactions of the phase II metabolism) for drugs having a carboxylic acid moiety. At this stage, acylglucuronides (AG) metabolites are produced, that have largely been reported in the literature for various drugs (e.g., mycophenolic acid (MPA), diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenylacetic acids). The competition between migration and hydrolysis is rationalized by adequate quantum calculations, combing MP2 and density functional theory (DFT) methods. At the molecular scale, the former process is a real rotation of the drug around the glucuconic acid. This chemical-engine provides four different metabolites with various toxicities. Migration definitely appears feasible under alkaline conditions, making proton release from the OH groups. The latter reaction (hydrolysis) releases the free drug, so the competition is of crucial importance to tackle drug action and elimination. From the theoretical data, both migration and hydrolysis appear kinetically and thermodynamically favored, respectively. PMID:23420401

  11. Cross sections for production of the CO(A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma) fourth positive band system and O(3 S) by photodissociation of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentieu, E. P.; Mentall, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The CO(A 1 Pi) cross sections reported here, along with previously determined electron impact results, establish the basis for calculating CO fourth positive system volume emission rates in the Martian dayglow. Calculated volume emission rates in turn determine relative distribution of photon vs. electron impact as mechanisms for producing CO(A 1 Pi) in the Mars atmosphere. The smallness of the O(1304) cross section confirms previous indirect evidence that photodissociative excitation of CO2 is not an important source of O(3 S) in the upper atmosphere of Mars.

  12. Formation of the thioester, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine, by reaction of N-acetylcysteine with pyruvaldehyde in aqueous solution. [in prebiotic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine reacts efficiently with pyruvaldehyde (methylglyoxal) in aqueous solution (pH 7.0) in the presence of a weak base, like imidazole or phosphate, to give the thioester, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine. Reactions of 100 mM N-acetylcysteine with 14 mM, 24 mM and 41 mM pyruvaldehyde yield, respectively, 86%, 76% and 59% N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine based on pyruvaldehyde. The decrease in the percent yield at higher pyruvaldehyde concentrations suggests that during its formation the thioester is not only consumed by hydrolysis, but also by reaction with some substance in the pyruvaldehyde preparation. Indeed, purified N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine disappears much more rapidly in the presence of pyruvaldehyde than in its absence. Presumably, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine synthesis occurs by rearrangement of the hemithioacetal of N-acetylcysteine and pyruvaldehyde. The significance of this pathway of thioester formation to molecular evolution is discussed.

  13. Study on Dendrobium officinale O-acetyl-glucomannan (Dendronan®): part II. Fine structures of O-acetylated residues.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaohui; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shaoping; Phillips, Glyn O; Goff, H Douglas; Wang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Main objective of this study was to investigate the detailed structural information about O-acetylated sugar residues in Dendronan(®). A water solution (2%, w/w) of Dendronan(®) was treated with endo-?-mannanase to produce oligosaccharides rich in O-acetylated sugar residues. The oligosaccharides were partly recovered by ethanol precipitation (70%, w/w). The recovered sample (designated Hydrolyzed Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide, HDOP) had a yield of 24.7% based on the dry weight of Dendronan(®) and was highly O-acetylated. A D2O solution of HDOP (6%, w/w) generated strong signals in (1)H, (13)C, 2D (1)H-(1)H COSY, 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY, 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY, 2D (1)H-(13)C HMQC, and 2D (1)H-(13)C HMBC NMR spectra. Results of NMR analyses showed that the majority of O-acetylated mannoses were mono-substituted with acetyl groups at O-2 or O-3 position. There were small amounts of mannose residues with di-O-acetyl substitution at both O-2 and O-3 positions. Minor levels of mannoses with 6-O-acetyl, 2,6-di-O-acetyl, and 3,6-di-O-acetyl substitutions were also identified. Much information about sugar residue sequence was extracted from 2D (1)H-(13)C HMBC and 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY spectra. (1)J(C-H) coupling constants of major sugar residues were obtained. Evidences for the existence of branches or O-acetylated glucoses in HDOP were not found. The major structure of Dendronan(®) is shown as follows: [Formula: see text] M: ?-D-mannopyranose; G: ?-D-glucopyranose; a: O-acetyl group. PMID:25498655

  14. Site-specific reactivity of nonenzymatic lysine acetylation.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Josue; Smallegan, Michael J; Denu, John M

    2015-01-16

    Protein acetylation of lysine ?-amino groups is abundant in cells, particularly within mitochondria. The contribution of enzyme-catalyzed and nonenzymatic acetylation in mitochondria remains unresolved. Here, we utilize a newly developed approach to measure site-specific, nonenzymatic acetylation rates for 90 sites in eight native purified proteins. Lysine reactivity (as second-order rate constants) with acetyl-phosphate and acetyl-CoA ranged over 3 orders of magnitude, and higher chemical reactivity tracked with likelihood of dynamic modification in vivo, providing evidence that enzyme-catalyzed acylation might not be necessary to explain the prevalence of acetylation in mitochondria. Structural analysis revealed that many highly reactive sites exist within clusters of basic residues, whereas lysines that show low reactivity are engaged in strong attractive electrostatic interactions with acidic residues. Lysine clusters are predicted to be high-affinity substrates of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 both in vitro and in vivo. Our analysis describing rate determination of lysine acetylation is directly applicable to investigate targeted and proteome-wide acetylation, whether or not the reaction is enzyme catalyzed. PMID:25555129

  15. Inhibition of core histones acetylation by carcinogenic nickel(II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip Golebiowski; Kazimierz S. Kasprzak

    2005-01-01

    Nickel, a well-established human carcinogen, was shown to decrease acetylation of histones H4 and H3 in cultured cells. Such a decrease is expected to suppress gene expression. However, nickel is known to not only suppress but also enhance the expression of many genes. So, perhaps, nickel can alter histone acetylation in a more complex way? In a first step of

  16. Globin Intergenic Transcription and Histone Acetylation Dependent on an Enhancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kim; H. Zhao; I. Ifrim; A. Dean

    2007-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases are associated with the elongating RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complex, support- ing the idea that histone acetylation and transcription are intertwined mechanistically in gene coding se- quences. Here, we studied the establishment and function of histone acetylation and transcription in noncoding sequences by using a model locus linking the -globin HS2 enhancer and the embryonic -globin gene

  17. Modeling the regulatory network of histone acetylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung Pham; Roberto Ferrari; Shawn J Cokus; Siavash K Kurdistani; Matteo Pellegrini

    2007-01-01

    Acetylation of histones plays an important role in regulating transcription. Histone acetylation is mediated partly by the recruitment of specific histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) to genomic loci by transcription factors, resulting in modulation of gene expression. Although several specific interactions between transcription factors and HATs and HDACs have been elaborated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the full regulatory network remains

  18. Semi-synthetic preparation of 1-O-(1'-/sup 14/C)hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor) using plant cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, N.; Mangold, H.K.

    1985-04-01

    Incubation of photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures of rape (Brassica napus) and heterotrophic cell suspension cultures of soya (Glycine max) with 1-O-(1'-/sup 14/C)hexadecyl-sn-glycerol or rac-1-O-(1'-/sup 14/C)hexadecylglycerol leads in high yield (up to 78%) to labeled 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines. Alkaline hydrolysis of the choline glycerophospholipids yields pure 1-O-(1'-/sup 14/C)hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. 1-O-(1'-14C)Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor) is obtained by acetylating the lyso compound. The semi-synthetic preparation described leads to labeled platelet activating factor in an overall yield of 50-60% without loss of specific activity.

  19. Evaluation of co-agglutination (COA), counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), culture and direct microscopic (Dm) examination of cere-brospinal fluid (CSF) for detection of meningitis caused by common bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Z U; Rahman, K M; Miah, R A; Hussain, T; Asna, Z H; Khan, W A

    1990-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid from 260 children clinically diagnosed as meningitis were examined by Dm, culture, COA and CIE test. Dm revealed the presence of bacteria in 41 (15.8%) whereas culture showed growth of organism in 52 (20%) cases. COA and CIE test were done for the detection of antigen of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Among the 3 methods viz. culture, COA and CIE test which were used for the detection of the above three organisms COA detected the maximum numbers (23.5%). COA test could detect antigen in both culture positive and culture negative CSF samples. COA test detected 100% of pneumococcal, 88.5% of H. influenzae and 66.7% of N. meningitidis antigens from CSF. Diagnosis by CIE in detecting H. influenzae and N. meningitidis antigens is inferior to culture and COA, whereas in detecting pneumococcal antigens CIE is superior to culture. So COA is a valuable, cheap, rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of meningitis caused by the above three organisms and when used along with culture 100% of cases can be diagnosed. PMID:2205198

  20. SIAH-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of acetyl-transferases regulate the p53 response and protein acetylation.

    PubMed

    Grishina, Inna; Debus, Katherina; García-Limones, Carmen; Schneider, Constanze; Shresta, Amit; García, Carlos; Calzado, Marco A; Schmitz, M Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation regulates many biological processes ranging from signal transduction to chromatin compaction. Here we identify the acetyl-transferases CBP/p300, Tip60 and PCAF as new substrates for the ubiquitin E3 ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2. While CBP/p300 can undergo ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation by SIAH1 and SIAH2, the two other acetyl-transferases are exclusively degraded by SIAH2. Accordingly, SIAH-deficient cells show enhanced protein acetylation, thus revealing SIAH proteins as indirect regulators of the cellular acetylation status. Functional experiments show that Tip60/PCAF-mediated acetylation of the tumor suppressor p53 is antagonized by the p53 target gene SIAH2 which mediates ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation of both acetyl-transferases and consequently diminishes p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. The p53 kinase HIPK2 mediates hierarchical phosphorylation of SIAH2 at 5 sites, which further boosts its activity as a ubiquitin E3 ligase for several substrates and therefore dampens the late p53 response. PMID:23044042

  1. Patterns of histone acetylation in Physarum polycephalum. H2A and H2B acetylation is functionally distinct from H3 and H4 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Waterborg, J H; Matthews, H R

    1984-07-16

    Histone acetylation has previously been correlated with both chromosome replication and transcription. We present evidence that (a) confirms both correlations in the true slime mold, Physarum polycephalum and (b) shows that quite a different pattern of acetate turnover is associated with replication compared with transcription. The pattern associated with replication involves turnover of acetate on all four core histones on species containing one or two acetates per molecule. This pattern was resolved from the transcription-associated pattern by three different procedures: (a) detailed analysis of gels of histones pulse-labelled with acetate; (b) the pattern of acetylation of histones pulse-labelled with [3H]lysine; and (c) the pattern of acetylation of soluble histones. The pattern associated with transcription is restricted to histones H3 and H4 and occurs mostly on highly acetylated species. This pattern was resolved by (a) analysis of gels of histones pulse-labelled with acetate; (b) the pattern of histone acetylation in G2 phase of the cell cycle; and (c) the pattern of histone acetylation in the presence of cycloheximide. PMID:6745279

  2. A Bacterial Indole3-acetyl-L-aspartic Acid Hydrolase Inhibits Mung Bean ( Vigna radiata L.) Seed Germination Through Arginine-rich Intracellular Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Liu; Han-Jung Lee; Sio San Leong; Chen-Lun Liu; Jyh-Ching Chou

    2007-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (IAA-Asp) is a natural product in many plant species and plays many important roles in auxin\\u000a metabolism and plant physiology. IAA-Asp hydrolysis activity is, therefore, believed to affect plant physiology through changes\\u000a in IAA metabolism in plants. We applied a newly discovered technique, arginine-rich intracellular delivery (AID), to deliver\\u000a a bacterial IAA-Asp hydrolase into cells of mung bean

  3. The Mechanism of Boron Mobility in Wheat and Canola Phloem1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Stangoulis, James; Tate, Max; Graham, Robin; Bucknall, Martin; Palmer, Lachlan; Boughton, Berin; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight borate complexes were isolated from canola (Brassica napus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) phloem exudates, as well as the cytoplasm of the fresh-water alga Chara corallina, and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Phloem exudate was collected from field-grown canola inflorescence stalks by shallow incision, while wheat phloem exudate was collected by aphid stylectomy. Chara cytoplasm was collected by careful manual separation of the cell wall, vacuole, and cytosolic compartments. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed the presence of isotopic borate complexes, at mass-to-charge ratio of 690.22/691.22 in the canola and wheat phloem and at 300.11/301.11 in canola phloem and Chara cytoplasm. Using reference compounds, the borate complexes with mass-to-charge ratio 690.22/691.22 was identified as a bis-sucrose (Suc) borate complex in which the 4,6-hydroxyl pairs from the two ?-glucopyranoside moieties formed an [L2B]?1 complex. Further investigation using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of the bis-Suc borate complex in wheat phloem with a concentration up to 220 ?m. The 300.11/301.11 complex was putatively identified as a bis-N-acetyl-serine borate complex but its concentration was below the detection limits of the liquid chromatography electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometer so could not be quantified. The presence of borate complexes in the phloem provides a mechanistic explanation for the observed phloem boron mobility in canola and wheat and other species that transport Suc as their primary photoassimilate. PMID:20413647

  4. Phosphatase Hydrolysis of Soil Organic Phosphorus Fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant available inorganic phosphorus (Pi) is usually limited in highly weathered Ultisols. The high Fe, Al, and Mn contents in these soils enhance Pi retention and fixation. The metals are also known to form complexes with organic phosphorus (Po) compounds. Hydrolysis of Po compounds is needed for P...

  5. The Neutral Hydrolysis of the Methyl Halides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Heppolette; R. E. Robertson

    1959-01-01

    The rate of hydrolysis of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and methyl iodide have been measured in water over a wide range of temperature by a conductance method. The temperature dependence of the rate was shown to conform to an equation of the general form log10 k = A\\/T + B log10 T + C within experimental error. This implies that

  6. COMPUTERIZED EXTRAPOLATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program RATE was developed to aid in the extrapolation and interpretation of hydrolysis rate data to a format that is useful for environmental risk assessment. ydrolysis data typically are reported in the literature as pseudo-first-order rate constants at the temperature and ...

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: theory and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Wilke; B. Maiorella; A. Sciamanna; K. Tangnu; D. Wiley; H. Wong

    1980-01-01

    A large amount of research has been published on the theory of enzymatic hydrolysis and the various microbial, and other, sources of the enzymes. The present report endeavors to supplement this information by emphasizing insofar as possible the status of the technology and of potential industrial processes for production of sugars from cellulose. A substantial research effort on cellulose conversion

  8. Monitoring enzymatic ATP hydrolysis by EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Hintze, Christian; Marx, Andreas; Drescher, Malte

    2014-07-14

    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue modified with two nitroxide radicals is developed and employed to study its enzymatic hydrolysis by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. For this application, we demonstrate that EPR holds the potential to complement fluorogenic substrate analogues in monitoring enzymatic activity. PMID:24872080

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of spent coffee ground.

    PubMed

    Jooste, T; García-Aparicio, M P; Brienzo, M; van Zyl, W H; Görgens, J F

    2013-04-01

    Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the main residue generated during the production of instant coffee by thermal water extraction from roasted coffee beans. This waste is composed mainly of polysaccharides such as cellulose and galactomannans that are not solubilised during the extraction process, thus remaining as unextractable, insoluble solids. In this context, the application of an enzyme cocktail (mannanase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase) with more than one component that acts synergistically with each other is regarded as a promising strategy to solubilise/hydrolyse remaining solids, either to increase the soluble solids yield of instant coffee or for use as raw material in the production of bioethanol and food additives (mannitol). Wild fungi were isolated from both SCG and coffee beans and screened for enzyme production. The enzymes produced from the selected wild fungi and recombinant fungi were then evaluated for enzymatic hydrolysis of SCG, in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Out of the enzymes evaluated on SCG, the application of mannanase enzymes gave better yields than when only cellulase or xylanase was utilised for hydrolysis. The recombinant mannanase (Man1) provided the highest increments in soluble solids yield (17 %), even when compared with commercial preparations at the same protein concentration (0.5 mg/g SCG). The combination of Man1 with other enzyme activities revealed an additive effect on the hydrolysis yield, but not synergistic interaction, suggesting that the highest soluble solid yields was mainly due to the hydrolysis action of mannanase. PMID:23436225

  10. Acetylated histone H3 increases nucleosome dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Marek; Manohar, Mridula; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Chromatin's basic unit structure is the nucleosome, i.e. genomic DNA wrapped around a particular class of proteins -- histones -- which due to their physical hindrance, block vital biological processes, such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. Histone post-translational modifications, which are known to exist in vivo, are hypothesized to regulate these biological processes by directly altering DNA-histone interactions and thus nucleosome structure and stability. Using magnetic tweezers technique we studied the acetylation of histone H3 in the dyad region, i.e. at K115 and K122, on reconstituted arrays of nucleosomes under constant external force. Based on the measured increase in the probability of dissociation of modified nucleosomes, we infer that this double modification could facilitate histone chaperone mediated nucleosome disassembly in vivo.

  11. The effect of acetylator phenotype on the disposition of aminoglutethimide.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, A M; Rogers, H J; Amiel, S A; Rubens, R D

    1984-01-01

    Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism. PMID:6487491

  12. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats

    SciTech Connect

    Deibert, M.C.

    1992-08-28

    Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steam mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.

  13. QSAR and Molecular Docking Studies of Oxadiazole-Ligated Pyrrole Derivatives as Enoyl-ACP (CoA) Reductase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Asgaonkar, Kalyani D.; Mote, Ganesh D.; Chitre, Trupti S.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was developed on a series of compounds containing oxadiazole-ligated pyrrole pharmacophore to identify key structural fragments required for anti-tubercular activity. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) QSAR studies were performed using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis and k-nearest neighbour molecular field analysis (kNN-MFA), respectively. The developed QSAR models were found to be statistically significant with respect to training, cross-validation, and external validation. New chemical entities (NCEs) were designed based on the results of the 2D- and 3D-QSAR. NCEs were subjected to Lipinski’s screen to ensure the drug-like pharmacokinetic profile of the designed compounds in order to improve their bioavailability. Also, the binding ability of the NCEs with enoyl-ACP (CoA) reductase was assessed by docking. PMID:24634843

  14. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-10-05

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF).

  15. Isoflavone during protease hydrolysis of defatted soybean meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Wu; Alister D. Muir

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of proteases on the isoflavones during enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean flour. Protease itself did not affect the isoflavones during hydrolysis, whereas the applied conditions and contaminated ?-glucosidase in the enzyme could greatly affect the content and composition of isoflavones. Soybean flour hydrolysis by ENZECO Alkaline Protease L-FG at high pH (10) resulted in complete loss

  16. Computational Analysis of N-acetyl transferase in Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kailash; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Nath, Karabi; Rashid, Naira; Parveen, Farzana

    2013-01-01

    N-acetyl transferase (NAT) is responsible to catalyze the transfer of acetyl groups to arylamines from acetyl-CoA. Aralkylamine Nacetyl transferase (AANAT), which belongs to GCN5-related N-acetyl transferase member, is a globular 23-kDa cytosolic protein that forms a reversible regulatory complex with 14-3-3 proteins, AANAT regulates the daily cycle of melatonin biosynthesis in mammals, making it an attractive target for therapeutic control of abnormal melatonin production in mood and sleep disorders. There is no evidence available regarding ? and ? subunits, active site and their ASA value in Dopamine N-acetyl transferase. Therefore, we describe the development of Dopamine N-acetyl transferase model in Tribolium castaneum. We further document the predicted active sites in the structural model with solvent exposed ASA residues. During this study, the model was built by CPH program and validated through PROCHECK, Verify 3D, ERRAT and ProSA for reliability. The active sites were predicted in the model with further ASA analysis of active site residues. The discussed information thus provides insight to the predicted active site and ASA values of Dopamine N-acetyl transferase model in Tribolium castaneum. PMID:23976826

  17. Chitosan Molecular Structure as a Function of N-Acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Eduardo F.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2011-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to characterize the structure and solubility of chitosan nanoparticle-like structures as a function of the deacetylation level (0, 40, 60, and 100%) and the spatial distribution of the N-acetyl groups in the particles. The polysaccharide chains of highly N-deacetylated particles where the N-acetyl groups are uniformly distributed present a high flexibility and preference for the relaxed two-fold helix and five-fold helix motifs. When these groups are confined to a given region of the particle, the chains adopt preferentially a two-fold helix with f and w values close to crystalline chitin. Nanoparticles with up to 40% acetylation are moderately soluble, forming stable aggregates when the N-acetyl groups are unevenly distributed. Systems with 60% or higher N-acetylation levels are insoluble and present similar degrees of swelling regardless the distribution of their N-acetyl groups. Overall particle solvation is highly affected by electrostatic forces resulting from the degree of acetylation. The water mobility and orientation around the polysaccharide chains affects the stability of the intramolecular O3- HO3(n) ... O5(n+ 1) hydrogen bond, which in turn controls particle aggregation.

  18. Regulation of autophagy and mitophagy by nutrient availability and acetylation.

    PubMed

    Webster, Bradley R; Scott, Iain; Traba, Javier; Han, Kim; Sack, Michael N

    2014-04-01

    Normal cellular function is dependent on a number of highly regulated homeostatic mechanisms, which act in concert to maintain conditions suitable for life. During periods of nutritional deficit, cells initiate a number of recycling programs which break down complex intracellular structures, thus allowing them to utilize the energy stored within. These recycling systems, broadly named "autophagy", enable the cell to maintain the flow of nutritional substrates until they can be replenished from external sources. Recent research has shown that a number of regulatory components of the autophagy program are controlled by lysine acetylation. Lysine acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification that can alter the activity of enzymes in a number of cellular compartments. Strikingly, the main substrate for this modification is a product of cellular energy metabolism: acetyl-CoA. This suggests a direct and intricate link between fuel metabolites and the systems which regulate nutritional homeostasis. In this review, we examine how acetylation regulates the systems that control cellular autophagy, and how global protein acetylation status may act as a trigger for recycling of cellular components in a nutrient-dependent fashion. In particular, we focus on how acetylation may control the degradation and turnover of mitochondria, the major source of fuel-derived acetyl-CoA. PMID:24525425

  19. Regulation of Autophagy and Mitophagy by Nutrient Availability and Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Bradley R.; Scott, Iain; Traba, Javier; Han, Kim; Sack, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Normal cellular function is dependent on a number of highly regulated homeostatic mechanisms, which act in concert to maintain conditions suitable for life. During periods of nutritional deficit, cells initiate a number of recycling programs which break down complex intracellular structures, thus allowing them to utilize the energy stored within. These recycling systems, broadly named “autophagy”, enable the cell to maintain the flow of nutritional substrates until they can be replenished from external sources. Recent research has shown that a number of regulatory components of the autophagy program are controlled by lysine acetylation. Lysine acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification that can alter the activity of enzymes in a number of cellular compartments. Strikingly, the main substrate for this modification is a product of cellular energy metabolism: acetyl-CoA. This suggests a direct and intricate link between fuel metabolites and the systems which regulate nutritional homeostasis. In this review, we examine how acetylation regulates the systems that control cellular autophagy, and how global protein acetylation status may act as a trigger for recycling of cellular components in a nutrient-dependent fashion. In particular, we focus on how acetylation may control the degradation and turnover of mitochondria, the major source of fuel-derived acetyl-CoA. PMID:24525425

  20. Effect of lime pre-treatment on the synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by hemicellulases.

    PubMed

    Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I

    2010-06-01

    Agricultural crop wastes are typically lignocellulosic in composition and thus partially recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The recalcitrant nature of plant biomass and the inability to obtain complete enzymatic hydrolysis has led to the establishment of various pre-treatment strategies. Alkaline pre-treatments increase the accessibility of the exposed surface to enzymatic hydrolysis through the removal of acetyl and uronic acid substituents on hemicelluloses. Unlike the use of steam and acid pre-treatments, alkaline pre-treatments (e.g. lime) solubilise lignin and a small percentage of the hemicelluloses. The most common alkaline pre-treatments that are employed make use of sodium hydroxide and lime. This study compared the synergistic degradation of un-treated and lime pre-treated sugarcane bagasse using cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal hemicellulases as free enzymes. The enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA and 62.5% ManA produced the highest amount of reducing sugar of 91.834 micromol/min for the degradation of un-treated bagasse. This enzyme combination produced a degree of synergy of 1.87. The free enzymes displayed an approximately 6-fold increase in the enzyme activity, i.e. the total amount of reducing sugar released (593.65 micromol/min) with the enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA, 25% ManA and 37.5% XynA for the lime pre-treated substrate and a degree of synergy of 2.14. To conclude, this study indicated that pre-treating the sugarcane bagasse is essential, in order to increase the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis by disruption of the lignin sheath, that the lime pre-treatment did not have any dramatic effect on the synergistic relationship between the free enzymes, and that time may play an important role in the establishment of synergistic relationships between enzymes. PMID:20156678

  1. Transport of acetylated sugars into Saccharomyces cerevisiae RXII cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Stejskalová; M. Burger

    1964-01-01

    The only acetylated sugar taken up bySaccharomyces cerevisiae RXII was 2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-?, D-glucopyranose and the only cells which took it up were those which grew under aerobic\\u000a conditions and were harvested during the logarithmic phase of growth. The rate of the uptake of 2,3,4,6,-tetra-0-acetyl-?,\\u000a D-glucopyranose was considerably slower than that of galactose and its “space” was approximately half the “space” of

  2. Reduced Wall Acetylation proteins play vital and distinct roles in cell wall O-acetylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-11-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  3. Histone acetylation in replication and transcription: turnover at specific acetylation sites in histone H4 from Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Pesis, K H; Matthews, H R

    1986-12-01

    Histone H4 from growing cells is partially acetylated at lysines 5, 8, 12, and 16. The turnover rate at each of these sites was investigated by pulse-labeling plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum with [3H]acetate for 55 min in either S phase or G2 phase of the cell cycle. Labeled histone H4 was purified and digested with a protease which cleaves on the carboxyl side of arginine residues. The peptide containing the acetylation sites was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subfractions of the peptide were obtained due to differences in acetyllysine content. Each subfraction was subjected to automated Edman degradation and the radioactivity released after each cycle was determined. Histone H4 was acetylated uniformly in vitro and acetylated peptide 1-23 was used as a control. The results show a very striking preference for turnover on lysine-5 in the "low acetyl" subfraction from cells in S phase; the "high acetyl" subfraction showed turnover at all four sites. The peptides labeled in G2 phase showed turnover mainly at positions -8, -12, and -16. The data imply that the patterns of histone acetyl turnover associated with replication and transcription are nonrandom and distinct. The results have implications for nucleosome structure particularly the possible role of lysine-5 in chromosome maturation and for the design of experiments to test chromatin function in vitro. PMID:3800393

  4. Neuroprotection in rabbit retina with N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate and 2-phosphonyl-methyl pentanedioic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Henry D.; Yourick, Debra L.; Koenig, Michael K.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Meyerhoff, James L.

    1999-06-01

    Retinal tissue is subject to ischemia from diabetic retinopathy and other conditions that affect the retinal vasculature such as lupus erythematosus and temporal arteritis. There is evidence in animal models of reversible ischemia that a therapeutic window exists during early recovery when agents that reduce glutamate activity at its receptor sites can rescue neurons from injury. To model ischemia, we used sodium cyanide (NaCN), to inhibit oxidative metabolism, and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to inhibit glycolysis. Dissociated rabbit retina cells were studied to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (MAAG), which competes with glutamate as a low-potency agonist at the NMDA receptor complex. N-acetylated ?-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase; the NAAG-hydrolyzing enzyme) is responsible for the hydrolysis of NAAG into glutamate, a neurotransmitter and potent excitotoxin, and N-acetylaspartate. 2-Phosphonyl-methyl pentanedioic acid (PMPA) and ?-linked NAAG (?-NAAG), inhibitors of NAALADase, were also tested, since inhibition of NAALADase could reduce synaptic glutamate and increase the concentration of NAAG. We found that metabolic inhibition with NaCN/2-DG for 1 hour caused 50% toxicity as assessed with the MTT assay. Co-treatment with NAAG resulted in dose-dependent protection of up to 55% (p<0.005). When the non-hydrolyzable, NAALADase inhibitor ?-NAAG was employed dose-dependent protection of up to 37% was observed (p<0.001). PMPA also showed 48% protection (p<.05-.001) against these insults. These data suggest that NAAG may antagonize the effect of glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex in retina. Inhibition of NAALADase by PMPA and ?-NAAG may increase the activity of endogenous NAAG.

  5. Enhancing water resistance of welded dowel wood joints by acetylated lignin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pizzi; X. Zhou; P. Navarrete; C. Segovia; H. R. Mansouri; M. I. Placentia Pena; F. Pichelin

    2012-01-01

    Low molecular mass acetylated organosolv lignin from wheat straw and from depolymerised low sulphur organosolv wood lignin have been shown to markedly improve both the water resistance and the mechanical performance of welded dowel wood joints. The acetylated oligomers distribution and extent of acetylation of the two lignins were determined by Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Extensive acetylation

  6. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug discovery

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    Review Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug revision 2 April 2005; accepted 19 April 2005 Online First 17 June 2005 Abstract. Acetyl-coenzyme. Introduction Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) (EC 6.4.1.2) cat- alyzes the carboxylation of acetyl

  7. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...conditions: (a) N- Acetyl-L-methionine (Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 65-82-7) is the derivative of the...3) Adequate directions for use to provide a finished food meeting the limitations prescribed by paragraph (c) of this...

  8. Acetylation of banana fibre to improve oil absorbency.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Valia, Sanket P

    2013-01-30

    Oil spill leaves detrimental effects on the environment, living organisms and economy. In the present work, an attempt is made to provide an efficient, easily deployable method of cleaning up oil spills and recovering of the oil. The work reports the use of banana fibres which were acetylated for oil spill recovery. The product so formed was characterized by FT-IR, TG, SEM and its degree of acetylation was also evaluated. The extent of acetylation was measured by weight percent gain. The oil sorption capacity of the acetylated fibre was higher than that of the commercial synthetic oil sorbents such as polypropylene fibres as well as un-modified fibre. Therefore, these oil sorption-active materials which are also biodegradable can be used to substitute non-biodegradable synthetic materials in oil spill cleanup. PMID:23218302

  9. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  10. Recognition Imaging of Acetylated Chromatin Using a DNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liyun; Fu, Qiang; Williams, Berea A.R.; Azzaz, Abdelhamid M.; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A.; Chaput, John C.; Lindsay, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. A DNA aptamer generated by in vitro selection to be highly specific for histone H4 protein acetylated at lysine 16 was used as a recognition element for atomic force microscopy-based recognition imaging of synthetic nucleosomal arrays with precisely controlled acetylation. The aptamer proved to be reasonably specific at recognizing acetylated histones, with recognition efficiencies of 60% on-target and 12% off-target. Though this selectivity is much poorer than the >2000:1 equilibrium specificity of the aptamer, it is a large improvement on the performance of a ChIP-quality antibody, which is not selective at all in this application, and it should permit high-fidelity recognition with repeated imaging. The ability to image the precise location of posttranslational modifications may permit nanometer-scale investigation of their effect on chromatin structure. PMID:19751687

  11. A Non-Isotopic In Vitro Assay for Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kuninger, David; Lundblad, James; Semirale, Anthony; Rotwein, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We describe a simple, robust, and relatively inexpensive non-radioactive in vitro assay for measuring histone acetyl-transferase activity. The assay takes advantage of easy to purify recombinant E. coli-derived fusion proteins containing the NH2-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4 linked to epitope-tagged maltose binding protein (MBP), and immunoblotting with antibodies specific to acetylated H3 and H4. Here we show the specificity and dynamic range of this assay for the histone acetyl-transferases, p300 and PCAF. This assay may be adapted readily for other substrates by simply generating new fusion proteins and for other acetyl-transferases by modifying reaction conditions. PMID:17698235

  12. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  13. Hydrolysis of sulphonamides in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Bia?k-Bieli?ska, Anna; Stolte, Stefan; Matzke, Marianne; Fabia?ska, Aleksandra; Maszkowska, Joanna; Ko?odziejska, Marta; Liberek, Beata; Stepnowski, Piotr; Kumirska, Jolanta

    2012-06-30

    Hydrolysis is one of the most common reactions controlling abiotic degradation and is one of the main paths by which substances are degraded in the environment. Nevertheless, the available information on this process for many compounds, including sulphonamides (a group of antibiotic drugs widely used in veterinary medicine), is very limited. This is the first study investigating the hydrolytic stabilities of 12 sulphonamides, which were determined according to OECD guideline 111 (1st category reliability data on the basis of regulatory demands on data quality for the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals). Hydrolysis behaviour was examined at pH values normally found in the environment. This was prefaced by a discussion of the acid-base properties of sulphonamides. All the sulphonamides tested were hydrolytically stable at pH 9.0, nine (apart from sulphadiazine, sulphachloropyridazine and sulphamethoxypyridazine) were stable in this respect at pH 7.0 and two (sulphadiazine and sulphaguanidine) at pH 4.0 (hydrolysis rate?10%; t(0.5 (25°C))>1 year). The degradation products were identified, indicating two independent mechanisms of this process. Our results show that under typical environmental conditions (pH and temperature) sulphonamides are hydrolytically stable with a long half-life; they thus contribute to the on-going assessment of their environmental fate. PMID:22579461

  14. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g–1 protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1–17.5 mg g–1 SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  15. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  16. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on lentil allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Rodríguez, Julia; González, Angela; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cuadrado, Carmen; Crespo, Jesús F; Burbano, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis and further processing are commonly used to produce hypoallergenic dietary products derived from different protein sources, such as cow's milk. Lentils and chickpeas seem to be an important cause of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in the Mediterranean area and India. Some studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic treatments on the in vitro immunological reactivity of members of the Leguminosae family, such as soybean, chickpea, lentil, and lupine. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies carried out to evaluate the effect on IgE reactivity of these food-hydrolysis products with sera from patients with well-documented allergy to these foods. In this study, lentil protein extract was hydrolyzed by sequential action of an endoprotease (Alcalase) and an exoprotease (Flavourzyme). Immunoreactivity to raw and hydrolyzed lentil extract was evaluated by means of IgE immunoblotting and ELISA using sera from five patients with clinical allergy to lentil. The results indicated that sequential hydrolysis of lentil results in an important proteolytic destruction of IgE-binding epitopes shown by in vitro experiments. However, some allergenic proteins were still detected by sera from four out of five patients in the last step of sequential hydrolyzation. PMID:20306474

  17. Sirtuins deacetylate and activate mammalian acetyl-CoA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Hallows, William C.; Lee, Susan; Denu, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Silent Information Regulator 2 (Sir2) enzymes (or sirtuins) are NAD+-dependent deacetylases that modulate gene silencing, aging and energy metabolism. Previous work has implicated several transcription factors as sirtuin targets. Here, we investigated whether mammalian sirtuins could directly control the activity of metabolic enzymes. We demonstrate that mammalian Acetyl-CoA synthetases (AceCSs) are regulated by reversible acetylation and that sirtuins activate AceCSs by deacetylation. Site-specific acetylation of mouse AceCS1 on Lys-661 was identified by using mass spectrometry and a specific anti-acetyl-AceCS antibody. SIRT1 was the only member of seven human Sir2 homologues capable of deacetylating AceCS1 in cellular coexpression experiments. SIRT1 expression also led to a pronounced increase in AceCS1-dependent fatty-acid synthesis from acetate. Using purified enzymes, only SIRT1 and SIRT3 exhibited high catalytic efficiency against acetylated AceCS1. In mammals, two AceCSs have been identified: cytoplasmic AceCS1 and mitochondrial AceCS2. Because SIRT3 is localized to the mitochondria, we investigated whether AceCS2 also might be regulated by acetylation, and specifically deacetylated by mitochondrial SIRT3. AceCS2 was completely inactivated upon acetylation and was rapidly reactivated by SIRT3 deacetylation. Lys-635 of mouse AceCS2 was identified as the targeted residue. Using reversible acetylation to modulate enzyme activity, we propose a model for the control of AceCS1 by SIRT1 and of AceCS2 by SIRT3. PMID:16790548

  18. Functional characterization of two new members of the caffeoyl CoA O -methyltransferase-like gene family from Vanilla planifolia reveals a new class of plastid-localized O -methyltransferases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Widiez; Thomas G. Hartman; Nativ Dudai; Qing Yan; Michael Lawton; Daphna Havkin-Frenkel; Faith C. Belanger

    Caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferases (OMTs) have been characterized from numerous plant species and have been demonstrated to be involved in\\u000a lignin biosynthesis. Higher plant species are known to have additional caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes, which have not been well\\u000a characterized. Here, we identified two new caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes by screening a cDNA library from specialized hair cells\\u000a of pods of

  19. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis. [quantitative structure-activity relationship, complete neglect of differential overlap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of cationic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR-primeP(O)X, where R and R-prime are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrolysis rate constant.

  20. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  1. Methods to Detect NF-?B Acetylation and Methylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, JinJing; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of NF-?B, including acetylation and methylation, have emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for determining the duration and strength of NF-?B nuclear activity as well as its transcriptional output. Within the seven NF-?B family proteins, the RelA subunit of NF-?B is the most studied for its regulation by lysine acetylation and methylation. Acetylation or methylation at different lysine residues modulates distinct functions of NF-?B, including DNA-binding and transcription activity, protein stability, and its interaction with NF-?B modulators. Here, we describe the experimental methods to monitor the in vitro and in vivo acetylated or methylated forms of NF-?B. These methods include radiolabeling the acetyl or methyl groups and immunoblotting with pan- or site-specific acetyl- or methyl-lysine antibodies. Radiolabeling is useful in the initial validation of the modifications. Immunoblotting with antibodies provides a rapid and powerful approach to detect and analyze the functions of these modifications in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25736763

  2. An acetylation switch controls TDP-43 function and aggregation propensity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Todd J.; Hwang, Andrew W.; Restrepo, Clark R.; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 pathology is a disease hallmark that characterizes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). Although a critical role for TDP-43 as an RNA-binding protein has emerged, the regulation of TDP-43 function is poorly understood. Here we identify lysine acetylation as a novel post-translational modification controlling TDP-43 function and aggregation. We provide evidence that TDP-43 acetylation impairs RNA-binding and promotes accumulation of insoluble, hyper-phosphorylated TDP-43 species that largely resemble pathological inclusions in ALS and FTLD-TDP. Moreover, biochemical and cell-based assays identify oxidative stress as a signaling cue that promotes acetylated TDP-43 aggregates that are readily engaged by the cellular defense machinery. Importantly, acetylated TDP-43 lesions are found in ALS patient spinal cord, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 acetylation and loss of RNA binding are linked to TDP-43 proteinopathy. Thus, modulating TDP-43 acetylation represents a plausible strategy to fine-tune TDP-43 activity, which could provide new therapeutic avenues for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25556531

  3. Protein alpha-N-acetylation studied by N-terminomics.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Petra; Arnesen, Thomas; Gevaert, Kris

    2011-10-01

    Cotranslational protein N-terminal modifications, including proteolytic maturation such as initiator methionine excision by methionine aminopeptidases and N-terminal blocking, occur universally. Protein alpha-N-acetylation, or the transfer of the acetyl moiety of acetyl-coenzyme A to nascent protein N-termini, catalysed by multisubunit N-terminal acetyltransferase complexes, generally takes place during protein translation. Nearly all protein modifications are known to influence different protein aspects such as folding, stability, activity and localization, and several studies have indicated similar functions for protein alpha-N-acetylation. However, until recently, protein alpha-N-acetylation remained poorly explored, mainly due to the absence of targeted proteomics technologies. The recent emergence of N-terminomics technologies that allow isolation of protein N-terminal peptides, together with proteogenomics efforts combining experimental and informational content have greatly boosted the field of alpha-N-acetylation. In this review, we report on such emerging technologies as well as on breakthroughs in our understanding of protein N-terminal biology. PMID:21736701

  4. ACETYLATION AND DEACETYLATION – NOVEL FACTORS IN MUSCLE WASTING

    PubMed Central

    Alamdari, Nima; Aversa, Zaira; Castillero, Estibaliz; Hasselgren, Per-Olof

    2012-01-01

    We review recent evidence that acetylation and deacetylation of cellular proteins, including transcription factors and nuclear cofactors, may be involved in the regulation of muscle mass. The level of protein acetylation is balanced by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) and studies suggest that this balance is perturbed in muscle wasting. Hyperacetylation of transcription factors and nuclear cofactors regulating gene transcription in muscle wasting may influence muscle mass. In addition, hyperacetylation may render proteins susceptible to degradation by different mechanisms, including intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity exerted by HATs and by dissociation of proteins from cellular chaperones. In recent studies, inhibition of p300/HAT expression and activity and stimulation of SIRT1-dependent HDAC activity reduced glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in skeletal muscle, providing further evidence that hyperacetylation plays a role in muscle wasting. It should be noted, however, that although several studies advocate a role of hyperacetylation in muscle wasting, apparently contradictory results have also been reported. For example, muscle atrophy caused by denervation or immobilization may be associated with reduced, rather than increased, protein acetylation. In addition, whereas hyperacetylation results in increased degradation of certain proteins, other proteins may be stabilized by increased acetylation. Thus, the role of acetylation and deacetylation in the regulation of muscle mass may be both condition- and protein-specific. The influence of HATs and HDACs on the regulation of muscle mass as well as methods to modulate protein acetylation are important areas for continued research aimed at preventing and treating muscle wasting. PMID:22626763

  5. A Method for Genetically Installing Site-Specific Acetylation in Recombinant Histones Defines the Effects of H3 K56 Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Heinz; Hancock, Susan M.; Buning, Ruth; Routh, Andrew; Chapman, Lynda; Somers, Joanna; Owen-Hughes, Tom; van Noort, John; Rhodes, Daniela; Chin, Jason W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Lysine acetylation of histones defines the epigenetic status of human embryonic stem cells and orchestrates DNA replication, chromosome condensation, transcription, telomeric silencing, and DNA repair. A detailed mechanistic explanation of these phenomena is impeded by the limited availability of homogeneously acetylated histones. We report a general method for the production of homogeneously and site-specifically acetylated recombinant histones by genetically encoding acetyl-lysine. We reconstitute histone octamers, nucleosomes, and nucleosomal arrays bearing defined acetylated lysine residues. With these designer nucleosomes, we demonstrate that, in contrast to the prevailing dogma, acetylation of H3 K56 does not directly affect the compaction of chromatin and has modest effects on remodeling by SWI/SNF and RSC. Single-molecule FRET experiments reveal that H3 K56 acetylation increases DNA breathing 7-fold. Our results provide a molecular and mechanistic underpinning for cellular phenomena that have been linked with K56 acetylation. PMID:19818718

  6. Proteome-wide lysine acetylation profiling of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Longxiang; Wang, Xiaobo; Zeng, Jie; Zhou, Mingliang; Duan, Xiangke; Li, Qiming; Zhang, Zhen; Luo, Hongping; Pang, Lei; Li, Wu; Liao, Guojian; Yu, Xia; Li, Yunxu; Huang, Hairong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    N(?)-Acetylation of lysine residues represents a pivotal post-translational modification used by both eukaryotes and prokaryotes to modulate diverse biological processes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis, one of the most formidable public health threats. Many aspects of the biology of M. tuberculosis remain elusive, in particular the extent and function of N(?)-lysine acetylation. With a combination of anti-acetyllysine antibody-based immunoaffinity enrichment with high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 1128 acetylation sites on 658 acetylated M. tuberculosis proteins. GO analysis of the acetylome showed that acetylated proteins are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes including metabolism and protein synthesis. Six types of acetylated peptide sequence motif were revealed from the acetylome. Twenty lysine-acetylated proteins showed homology with acetylated proteins previously identified from Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces roseosporus, with several acetylation sites highly conserved among four or five bacteria, suggesting that acetylated proteins are more conserved. Notably, several proteins including isocitrate lyase involved in the persistence, virulence and antibiotic resistance are acetylated, and site-directed mutagenesis of isocitrate lyase acetylation site to glutamine led to a decrease of the enzyme activity, indicating major roles of KAc in these proteins engaged cellular processes. Our data firstly provides a global survey of M. tuberculosis acetylation, and implicates extensive regulatory role of acetylation in this pathogen. This may serve as an important basis to address the roles of lysine acetylation in M. tuberculosis metabolism, persistence and virulence. PMID:25456444

  7. Enzymatic production of defined chitosan oligomers with a specific pattern of acetylation using a combination of chitin oligosaccharide deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Stefanie Nicole; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Biarnés, Xevi; Planas, Antoni; Waegeman, Hendrik; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria; Kolkenbrock, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan oligomers have diverse biological activities with potentially valuable applications in fields like medicine, cosmetics, or agriculture. These properties may depend not only on the degrees of polymerization and acetylation, but also on a specific pattern of acetylation (PA) that cannot be controlled when the oligomers are produced by chemical hydrolysis. To determine the influence of the PA on the biological activities, defined chitosan oligomers in sufficient amounts are needed. Chitosan oligomers with specific PA can be produced by enzymatic deacetylation of chitin oligomers, but the diversity is limited by the low number of chitin deacetylases available. We have produced specific chitosan oligomers which are deacetylated at the first two units starting from the non-reducing end by the combined use of two different chitin deacetylases, namely NodB from Rhizobium sp. GRH2 that deacetylates the first unit and COD from Vibrio cholerae that deacetylates the second unit starting from the non-reducing end. Both chitin deacetylases accept the product of each other resulting in production of chitosan oligomers with a novel and defined PA. When extended to further chitin deacetylases, this approach has the potential to yield a large range of novel chitosan oligomers with a fully defined architecture. PMID:25732514

  8. Enzymatic production of defined chitosan oligomers with a specific pattern of acetylation using a combination of chitin oligosaccharide deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Stefanie Nicole; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Biarnés, Xevi; Planas, Antoni; Waegeman, Hendrik; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria; Kolkenbrock, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan oligomers have diverse biological activities with potentially valuable applications in fields like medicine, cosmetics, or agriculture. These properties may depend not only on the degrees of polymerization and acetylation, but also on a specific pattern of acetylation (PA) that cannot be controlled when the oligomers are produced by chemical hydrolysis. To determine the influence of the PA on the biological activities, defined chitosan oligomers in sufficient amounts are needed. Chitosan oligomers with specific PA can be produced by enzymatic deacetylation of chitin oligomers, but the diversity is limited by the low number of chitin deacetylases available. We have produced specific chitosan oligomers which are deacetylated at the first two units starting from the non-reducing end by the combined use of two different chitin deacetylases, namely NodB from Rhizobium sp. GRH2 that deacetylates the first unit and COD from Vibrio cholerae that deacetylates the second unit starting from the non-reducing end. Both chitin deacetylases accept the product of each other resulting in production of chitosan oligomers with a novel and defined PA. When extended to further chitin deacetylases, this approach has the potential to yield a large range of novel chitosan oligomers with a fully defined architecture. PMID:25732514

  9. Acetate Activation in Methanosaeta thermophila: Characterization of the Key Enzymes Pyrophosphatase and Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Stefanie; Welte, Cornelia; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The thermophilic methanogen Methanosaeta thermophila uses acetate as sole substrate for methanogenesis. It was proposed that the acetate activation reaction that is needed to feed acetate into the methanogenic pathway requires the hydrolysis of two ATP, whereas the acetate activation reaction in Methanosarcina sp. is known to require only one ATP. As these organisms live at the thermodynamic limit that sustains life, the acetate activation reaction in Mt. thermophila seems too costly and was thus reevaluated. It was found that of the putative acetate activation enzymes one gene encoding an AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase was highly expressed. The corresponding enzyme was purified and characterized in detail. It catalyzed the ATP-dependent formation of acetyl-CoA, AMP, and pyrophosphate (PPi) and was only moderately inhibited by PPi. The breakdown of PPi was performed by a soluble pyrophosphatase. This enzyme was also purified and characterized. The pyrophosphatase hydrolyzed the major part of PPi (KM = 0.27 ± 0.05?mM) that was produced in the acetate activation reaction. Activity was not inhibited by nucleotides or PPi. However, it cannot be excluded that other PPi-dependent enzymes take advantage of the remaining PPi and contribute to the energy balance of the cell. PMID:22927778

  10. Conformational preferences of chondroitin sulfate oligomers using partially oriented NMR spectroscopy of 13C-labeled acetyl groups.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wolff, Jeremy J; Amster, I Jonathan; Prestegard, James H

    2007-10-31

    A new method is presented for the retrieval of information on the conformation of glycosaminoglycan oligomers in solution. The method relies on the replacement of acetyl groups in isolated native oligomers with 13C labeled acetyl groups and the extraction of orientational constraints from residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) offsets observed in NMR spectra of partially oriented samples. A novel method for assignment of resonances based on the correlation of resonance intensities with isotope ratios determined from mass spectrometric analysis is also presented. The combined methods are used in conjunction with more traditional NMR structural data to determine the solution structure of a pentasaccharide, GalNAc6S(beta1-4)GlcA(beta1-3)GalNAc4S(beta1-4)GlcA(beta1-3)GalNAc4S-ol, derived by enzymatic hydrolysis of chondroitin sulfate. The geometry derived is compared to that for similar molecules that have been reported in the literature, and prospects for use of the new types of data in the study of protein-bound oligosaccharides are discussed. PMID:17924631

  11. Enzymatic production of defined chitosan oligomers with a specific pattern of acetylation using a combination of chitin oligosaccharide deacetylases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamer, Stefanie Nicole; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Biarnés, Xevi; Planas, Antoni; Waegeman, Hendrik; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria; Kolkenbrock, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Chitin and chitosan oligomers have diverse biological activities with potentially valuable applications in fields like medicine, cosmetics, or agriculture. These properties may depend not only on the degrees of polymerization and acetylation, but also on a specific pattern of acetylation (PA) that cannot be controlled when the oligomers are produced by chemical hydrolysis. To determine the influence of the PA on the biological activities, defined chitosan oligomers in sufficient amounts are needed. Chitosan oligomers with specific PA can be produced by enzymatic deacetylation of chitin oligomers, but the diversity is limited by the low number of chitin deacetylases available. We have produced specific chitosan oligomers which are deacetylated at the first two units starting from the non-reducing end by the combined use of two different chitin deacetylases, namely NodB from Rhizobium sp. GRH2 that deacetylates the first unit and COD from Vibrio cholerae that deacetylates the second unit starting from the non-reducing end. Both chitin deacetylases accept the product of each other resulting in production of chitosan oligomers with a novel and defined PA. When extended to further chitin deacetylases, this approach has the potential to yield a large range of novel chitosan oligomers with a fully defined architecture.

  12. Genetic Construction of Truncated and Chimeric Metalloproteins Derived from the Alpha Subunit of Acetyl-CoA Synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Huay-Keng Loke; Xiangshi Tan; Paul A. Lindahl

    2002-06-28

    In this study, a genetics-based method is used to truncate acetyl-coenzyme A synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum (ACS), an alpha2beta2 tetrameric 310 kda bifunctional enzyme. ACS catalyzes the reversible reduction of CO2 to CO and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CO (or CO2 in the presence of low-potential reductants), CoA, and a methyl group bound to a corrinoid-iron sulfur protein (CoFeSP). ACS contains 7 metal-sulfur clusters of 4 different types called A, B, C, and D. The B, C, and D clusters are located in the 72 kda beta subunit while the A-cluster, a Ni-X-Fe4S4 cluster that serves as the active site for acetyl-CoA synthase activity, is located in the 82 kda alpha subunit. The extent to which the essential properties of the cluster, including catalytic, redox, spectroscopic, and substrate-binding properties, were retained as ACS was progressively truncated was determined. Acetyl-CoA synthase catalytic activity remained when the entire alpha subunit was removed, as long as CO, rather than CO2 and a low-potential reductant, was used as a substrate. Truncating an {approx} 30 kda region from the N-terminus of the alpha subunit yielded a 49 kda protein that lacked catalytic activity but exhibited A-cluster-like spectroscopic, redox, and CO binding properties. Further truncation afforded a 23 kda protein that lacked recognizable A-cluster properties except for UV-vis spectra typical of [Fe4S4]2+ clusters. Two chimeric proteins were constructed by fusing the gene encoding a ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum to genes encoding the 49 kda and 82 kda fragments of the alpha subunit. The chimeric proteins exhibited EPR signals that were not the simple sum of the signals from the separate proteins, suggesting magnetic interactions between clusters. This study highlights the potential for using genetics to simplify the study of complex multi-centered metalloenzymes and to generate new complex metalloenzymes with interesting properties.

  13. Design and parametric evaluation of an enzymatic hydrolysis process (separate hydrolysis and fermentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.D.; Power, A.J.; Douglas, L.J.

    1986-08-01

    A separate fungal enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation process for converting lignocellulose to ethanol was evaluated. Although the current state-of-the-art process is expensive, research now under way has the potential to reduce projected selling prices by a factor of three. While the cost of pretreatment can have a major effect on the performance of hydrolysis and enzymen production. Increases in the beta-glucosidase component of the enzyme mixture have led to greatly improved performance, and continued improvement is possible. Other important improvements include reductions in enzyme loadings, reduced agitation requirements in hydrolysis, higher productivity in enzyme manufacture, fermentation of xylose to ethanol, and better utilization of the lignin fraction. 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Effect of hydrolysis time on the physicochemical and functional properties of corn glutelin by Protamex hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi-qun; Wang, Jun-tong; Liu, Xiao-lan; Sun, Ying; Zheng, Yong-jie; Wang, Xiao-jie; Liu, Yue

    2015-04-01

    The physicochemical and functional properties, such as surface hydrophobicity, disulphide bond content, thermal properties, molecular weight distribution, antioxidant properties, of corn glutelin hydrolysates catalysed by Protamex at different hydrolysis times were evaluated. The hydrolysis influenced the properties of corn glutelin significantly, and not only decreased its molecular weight and disulphide bond content, but also eventually transformed its insoluble native aggregates to soluble aggregates during the hydrolysis process. Corn glutelin hydrolysates were found to have a higher solubility, which was associated with their relatively higher foaming and emulsifying properties compared to the original glutelin. Corn glutelin and its hydrolysates maintained a high thermal stability. In addition, the hydrolysates exhibited excellent antioxidant properties measured through in vitro assays, namely DPPH and OH radical scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating capacity and reducing power; the values were 58.86%, 82.64%, 29.92% and 0.236% at 2.0mg/mL, respectively. PMID:25442571

  15. Purification and properties of an O-acetyl-transferase from Escherichia coli that can O-acetylate polysialic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Higa, H.; Varki, A.

    1986-05-01

    Certain strains of bacteria synthesize an outer polysialic acid (K1) capsule. Some strains of K1/sup +/ E.coli are also capable of adding O-acetyl-esters to the exocyclic hydroxyl groups of the sialic acid residues. Both the capsule and the O-acetyl modification have been correlated with differences in antigenicity and pathogenicity. The authors have developed an assay for an O-acetyl-transferase in E.coli that transfers O-(/sup 3/H)acetyl groups from (/sup 3/H)acetyl-Coenzyme A to colominic acid (fragments of the polysialic acid capsule). Using this assay, the enzyme was solubilized, and purified approx. 600-fold using a single affinity chromatography step with Procion Red-A Agarose. The enzyme also binds to Coenzyme A Sepharose, and can be eluted with high salt or Coenzyme A. The partially purified enzyme has a pH optimum of 7.0 - 7.5, is unaffected by divalent cations, is inhibited by high salt concentrations, is inhibited by Coenzyme A (50% inhibition at 100 ..mu..M), and shows an apparent Km for colominic acid of 3.7 mM (sialic acid concentration). This enzyme could be involved in the O-acetyl +/- form variation seen in some strains of K1/sup +/ E.coli.

  16. [The different notions about beta-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes, peroxisomes and ketonic bodies. The diabetic, acidotic coma as an acute deficiency of acetyl-CoA and ATP].

    PubMed

    Kotkina, T I; Titov, V N; Parkhimovich, R M

    2014-03-01

    The mechanisms of beta-oxidation of fatty acids developed more than a century before have no compliance with actual physical chemical data. The oxidation of long-chain C 16:0 palmitic saturated fatty acid occurs not by sequential formation of eight molecules of acetyl-KoA but by force of formation of double bond and its hydrolysis on two short-chain C 8:0 fatty acids. Only short-chain fatty acids can become shorter under "chipping" of C 2-acetate with formation of C 4-butyric acid (butyrate) and its metabolites (beta-hidroxibutirate, acetoacetate, acetone). The critical moment of oxidation is a hydrolysis of acetoacetyl-KoA on two molecules of acetyl-KoA. The molecule of ATP is to be expended on hydrolysis. The foundation of nonspecific biological reaction of stress--ketoacidosis,--is a decrease in mitochondrions of acetyl-KoA pool formed both from glycogen and glucose and fatty acids. The oxalate acetate inputs into Krebs cycle inadequate amount of acetyl-KoA which limits synthesis of ATP. The insulin has no direct involvement into development of ketoacidosis but prepares conditions to facilitate nonspecific etiological factor to initiate diabetic ketoacidosis. These are the pooling of small amount of glycogen in cytozol and the predominance in cytozol of cells and adipocytes of palmitic triglycerides which are slowly hydrolyzed by hormone-dependent lipase to release non-esterified fatty acids into intercellular medium. The increase of their concentration in blood plasma precedes ketoacidosis which is developing in patients without diabetes mellitus too. When cells begin to oxidize unsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids with large number of double binds instead of medium-chain fatty acids, oleinic and palmitic fatty acids to support beta-oxidation in mitochondrions and synthesis of ATP the amount of butyric acid, beta-hidroxibutiryl-KoA and acetoacetyl-KoA increases and of acetyl-KoA decreases. The cause of fatal outcome is the development of metabolic acidosis, hyperhydration of cerebral cells with development of edema and a physiologic respiratory compensation of metabolic acidosis. The decarboxylation of acetoacetate and formation of acetone--initial stage of gluconeogenesis--formation of glucose from fatty acids--is manifested poorly both in primates and humans. From theoretical positions, to arrest ketoacidosis and to restore synthesis of AFT, it is reasonable to apply the infusion of optimal amount of acetyl-KoA which as nonpolar tioester can get over hematoencephalic barrier, plasma membrane and inner membrane of mitochondrions. It is supposed that diabetes mellitus is to be considered primarily as pathology of metabolism of fatty acids and only secondly as pathology of glucose. PMID:25080783

  17. Nonthermal rotational distribution of CO/A 1Pi/ fragments produced by dissociative excitation of CO2 by electron impact. [in Mars atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.; Stone, E. J.; Zipf, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made of the rotational profiles of specific bands of the CO fourth-positive group (4PG). The CO 4PG bands were excited by electron impact dissociative excitation of CO2. The results are applicable to analysis of the Mariner observations of the CO 4PG in the dayglow of Mars. The results indicate that dissociative excitation of CO2 by electron impact leads to CO(A 1Pi) fragments with a rotational distribution that is highly nonthermal. The parent CO2 temperature was about 300 K in the experiment, while the fragment CO(A 1Pi) showed emission band profiles consistent with a rotational temperature greater than about 1500 K. Laboratory measurement of the reduced transmission of the hot bands by thermal CO appears to be the most direct way of determining the column density responsible for the CO(v',0) absorption of Mars.

  18. Isoenzymes of serum N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in the I cell disease heterozygote.

    PubMed

    Van Elsen, A F; Leroy, J G; VanneuvilleFJ; Vercruyssen, A L

    1976-01-28

    Serum N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase is compared quantitatively and qualitatively in 14 obligate heterozygotes for the mutant gene causing I cell disease (ICD) or mucolipidosis II and in 31 normal controls. The average specific activity in either group is significantly different but reliable heterozygote detection cannot be achieved because of some overlapping of the ranges of individual results. Fractionation of the enzyme either by DEAE cellulose column chromatography, or by heat inactivation, yields a typical average result for each genotype. Also, mere expression of the various components as percentages of the total activity is not useful for certain identification of the ICD heterozygote. There is considerable overlapping of the percents hexosaminidase I1 and A in both groups of sera. If enzymatic hydrolysis by any component is expressed as a partial activity, a much better though not absolute distinction between the ICD heterozygote and the normal control becomes possible. Only the latter way of expression of hexosaminidase results makes distinction between the ICD heterozygote and the Tay-Sachs heterozygote very probable. PMID:174996

  19. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  20. Identification and preliminary characterization of acsF, a Putative Ni-insertase used in the biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Huay-Keng Loke; Paul A. Lindahl

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The acsABCDE genes in the Clostridium thermoaceticum genome are used for autotrophic acetyl-CoA synthesis using the Wood/Ljungdahl pathway. A 2.8 kb region between acsC and acsD was cloned and sequenced. Two open reading frames, orf7 ({approx} 1.9 kb) and acsF ({approx} 0.7 kb) were identified. orf7 appears to encode an Fe-S protein, in that it contains 5 conserved cysteine residues, 3 of which are present in a motif (CXXXXXCXXC) commonly used to coordinate Fe-S clusters. However, Orf7 is probably not involved in autotrophic acetyl-CoA synthesis, as homologous genes are present in organisms that do not utilize this pathway and are absent in many that do. In contrast, acsF is probably involved in this pathway. Sequence alignment of AcsF and 11 homologs reveals a number of conserved regions, including a P-loop that binds nucleoside triphosphates and catalyzes their hydrolysis. One homolog is CooC, an ATPase/GTPase that inserts Ni into a precursor form of the C-cluster of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum. Purified AcsF lacked Ni and Fe, and slowly catalyzed the hydrolysis of ATP. Such similarities to CooC suggest that AcsF may function to insert Ni into a Ni-deficient form of the bifunctional acetyl-CoA synthase/CODH from C. thermoaceticum (ACSCt). However, this could not be established, as expression of acsF did not effect activation of recombinant AcsAB expressed in E. coli. Also, E. coli cells defective in hypB retained the ability to synthesize active recombinant AcsAB. Rather, the concentration of extracellular Ni2+ ions was critical to activation.

  1. Development of complete hydrolysis of pectins from apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzy?ska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bo?ena

    2015-04-01

    Enzymatically extracted pectins have a more complex structure than those obtained by conventional methods. As a result, they are less susceptible to hydrolysis, which makes the precise determination of their composition difficult. The aim of the study was to develop a method of complete hydrolysis of enzymatically extracted apple pectins. Substrates were pectins isolated from apple pomace by the use of xylanase and multicatalytic preparation Celluclast and apple pomace. Hydrolysis was performed by a chemical method with 2M TFA at 100 °C and 120 °C and a combined acidic/enzymatic method. After hydrolysis, the contents of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars were measured by HPLC. Complete hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid occurred after 2.5h incubation with 2M TFA at 120 °C. The efficient hydrolysis of neutral sugars in pectins was performed with 2M TFA at 100 °C for 2.5h. Monomers most susceptible to concentrated acid were rhamnose, mannose and arabinose. PMID:25442606

  2. The Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide at Low Temperature: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shunzheng; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Shanxue; Gao, Fengyu; Zhang, Bowen; Zuo, Yanran; Wang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic hydrolysis technology of carbonyl sulfide (COS) at low temperature was reviewed, including the development of catalysts, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanism of COS hydrolysis. It was indicated that the catalysts are mainly involved metal oxide and activated carbon. The active ingredients which can load on COS hydrolysis catalyst include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal oxides, rare earth metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, and nanometal oxides. The catalytic hydrolysis of COS is a first-order reaction with respect to carbonyl sulfide, while the reaction order of water changes as the reaction conditions change. The controlling steps are also different because the reaction conditions such as concentration of carbonyl sulfide, reaction temperature, water-air ratio, and reaction atmosphere are different. The hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide is base-catalyzed reaction, and the force of the base site has an important effect on the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide. PMID:23956697

  3. Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal ?-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie (Nankai) [Nankai; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2012-10-15

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via ?-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial ?-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the C? hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (?50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process. Up to 72% of hexose yield and 94% of pentose yield were obtained using "modified" steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140°C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase (15 FPU/g cellulose) and beta-glucosidase (50 CBU/g cellulose).

  5. Hydrolysis of polyesters by serine proteases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-A Lim; Takao Raku; Yutaka Tokiwa

    2005-01-01

    The substrate specificity of a-chymotrypsin and other serine proteases, trypsin, elastase, proteinase K and subtilisin, towards hydrolysis of various polyesters was examined using poly(L-lactide) (PLA), poly(ß-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(ethylene adipate) (PEA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBS\\/A), poly[oligo(tetramethylene succinate)-co-(tetramethylane carbonate)] (PBS\\/C), and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL). a-Chymotrypsin could degrade PLA and PEA with a lower activity on PBS\\/A. Proteinase K

  6. Regioselective analysis of triacylglycerols by lipase hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Foglia; Edith J. Conkerton; Philip E. Sonnet

    1995-01-01

    A modified procedure for the regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) with a 1,3-specific lipase is described. After\\u000a partial lipase hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol, the released free fatty acids (FFA) and 1,2(2,3)-diacylglycerols (DAG) were\\u000a isolated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The FAME were analyzed by gas-liquid\\u000a chromatography (GLC). The 1,3-specific lipases used in this

  7. Rodent models of the human acetylation polymorphism: comparisons of recombinant acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Hein, D W; Doll, M A; Fretland, A J; Gray, K; Deitz, A C; Feng, Y; Jiang, W; Rustan, T D; Satran, S L; Wilkie, T R

    1997-05-12

    The acetylation polymorphism is associated with differential susceptibility to drug toxicity and cancers related to aromatic and heterocyclic amine exposures. N-Acetylation is catalyzed by two cytosolic N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2) which detoxify many carcinogenic aromatic amines. NAT1 and NAT2 also activate (via O-acetylation) the N-hydroxy metabolites of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens to electrophilic intermediates which form DNA adducts and initiate cancer. The classical N-acetylation polymorphism is regulated at the NAT2 locus, which segregates individuals into rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylator phenotypes. Some human epidemiological studies associate slow acetylator and rapid acetylator phenotypes with increased susceptibility to urinary bladder and colorectal cancers, respectively. The acetylation polymorphism has been characterized in three rodent species (mouse, Syrian hamster, and rat) to test associations between NAT2 acetylator phenotype and susceptibility to aromatic and heterocyclic amine-induced cancers in various tumor target organs. NAT1 and NAT2 from rapid and slow acetylator mouse, Syrian hamster, and rat each have been cloned and sequenced. Recombinant NAT1 and NAT2 enzymes enzymes encoded by these genes have been characterized with respect to their catalytic activities for both activation (O-acetylation) and deactivation (N-acetylation) of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens. The acetylation polymorphisms in mouse, Syrian hamster, and rat are herein reviewed and compared as models of the human acetylation polymorphism. PMID:9202744

  8. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Lambert, D.P.

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for tetraphenylborate precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92-737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The program was in conjunction with reducing the nitrite ion level in DWPF feed.

  9. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Lambert, D.P.

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for tetraphenylborate precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92-737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The program was in conjunction with reducing the nitrite ion level in DWPF feed.

  10. The prenyltransferase UBIAD1 is the target of geranylgeraniol in degradation of HMG CoA reductase

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Marc M; Elsabrouty, Rania; Seemann, Joachim; Jo, Youngah; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is an autosomal dominant disorder in humans characterized by abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in the cornea. SCD-associated mutations have been identified in the gene encoding UBIAD1, a prenyltransferase that synthesizes vitamin K2. Here, we show that sterols stimulate binding of UBIAD1 to the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase, which is subject to sterol-accelerated, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation augmented by the nonsterol isoprenoid geranylgeraniol through an unknown mechanism. Geranylgeraniol inhibits binding of UBIAD1 to reductase, allowing its degradation and promoting transport of UBIAD1 from the ER to the Golgi. CRISPR-CAS9-mediated knockout of UBIAD1 relieves the geranylgeraniol requirement for reductase degradation. SCD-associated mutations in UBIAD1 block its displacement from reductase in the presence of geranylgeraniol, thereby preventing degradation of reductase. The current results identify UBIAD1 as the elusive target of geranylgeraniol in reductase degradation, the inhibition of which may contribute to accumulation of cholesterol in SCD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05560.001 PMID:25742604

  11. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  12. Microbial acetyl-CoA metabolism and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Zhang, Yiming; Siewers, Verena; Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Recent concerns over the sustainability of petrochemical-based processes for production of desired chemicals have fueled research into alternative modes of production. Metabolic engineering of microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli offers a sustainable and flexible alternative for the production of various molecules. Acetyl-CoA is a key molecule in microbial central carbon metabolism and is involved in a variety of cellular processes. In addition, it functions as a precursor for many molecules of biotechnological relevance. Therefore, much interest exists in engineering the metabolism around the acetyl-CoA pools in cells in order to increase product titers. Here we provide an overview of the acetyl-CoA metabolism in eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes (with a focus on S. cerevisiae and E. coli), with an emphasis on reactions involved in the production and consumption of acetyl-CoA. In addition, we review various strategies that have been used to increase acetyl-CoA production in these microbes. PMID:25485951

  13. Distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin in Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The expression and cytological distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin was investigated in Physarum polycephalum. A monoclonal antibody specific for acetylated alpha-tubulin, 6-11B-1 (Piperno, G., and M. T. Fuller, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 101:2085-2094), was used to screen for this protein during three different stages of the Physarum life cycle-- the amoeba, the flagellate, and the plasmodium. Western blots of two- dimensional gels of amoebal and flagellate proteins reveal that this antibody recognizes the alpha 3 tubulin isotype, which was previously shown to be formed by posttranslational modification (Green, L. L., and W. F. Dove, 1984, Mol. Cell. Biol., 4:1706-1711). Double-label immunofluorescence demonstrates that, in the flagellate, acetylated alpha-tubulin is localized in the flagella and flagellar cone. Similar experiments with amoebae interestingly reveal that only within the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) are there detectable amounts of acetylated alpha-tubulin. In contrast, the plasmodial stage gives no evidence for acetylated alpha-tubulin by Western blotting or by immunofluorescence. PMID:3543025

  14. Histones of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Synthesis, acetylation, and methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Waterborg, J H; Robertson, A J; Tatar, D L; Borza, C M; Davie, J R

    1995-01-01

    Histones of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were prepared by a new method and fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Acid-urea-Triton gel analysis and tritiated acetate labeling demonstrated high levels of steady-state acetylation for the single histone H3 protein, in contrast to low levels on histones H4 and H2B. Twenty percent of histone H3 is subject to dynamic acetylation with, on average, three acetylated lysine residues per protein molecule. Histone synthesis in light-dark-synchronized cultures was biphasic with pattern differences between two histone H1 variants, between two H2A variants, and between H2B and ubiquitinated H2B. Automated protein sequence analysis of histone H3 demonstrated a site-specific pattern of steady-state acetylation between 7 and 17% at five of the six amino-terminal lysines and of monomethylation between 5 and 81% at five of the eight amino-terminal lysines in a pattern that may limit dynamic acetylation. An algal histone H3 sequence was confirmed by protein sequencing with a single threonine as residue 28 instead of the serine28-alanine29 sequence, present in all other known plant and animal H3 histones. PMID:7480339

  15. Distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin in Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Diggins, M A; Dove, W F

    1987-02-01

    The expression and cytological distribution of acetylated alpha-tubulin was investigated in Physarum polycephalum. A monoclonal antibody specific for acetylated alpha-tubulin, 6-11B-1 (Piperno, G., and M. T. Fuller, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 101:2085-2094), was used to screen for this protein during three different stages of the Physarum life cycle--the amoeba, the flagellate, and the plasmodium. Western blots of two-dimensional gels of amoebal and flagellate proteins reveal that this antibody recognizes the alpha 3 tubulin isotype, which was previously shown to be formed by posttranslational modification (Green, L. L., and W. F. Dove, 1984, Mol. Cell. Biol., 4:1706-1711). Double-label immunofluorescence demonstrates that, in the flagellate, acetylated alpha-tubulin is localized in the flagella and flagellar cone. Similar experiments with amoebae interestingly reveal that only within the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) are there detectable amounts of acetylated alpha-tubulin. In contrast, the plasmodial stage gives no evidence for acetylated alpha-tubulin by Western blotting or by immunofluorescence. PMID:3543025

  16. Mass preparation of oligosaccharides by the hydrolysis of chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides with a subcritical water microreaction system.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shuhei; Matsushima, Keiichiro; Ura, Haruo; Miyamoto, Nobuyuki; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-19

    The biological functions of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are executed by the interaction of specific oligosaccharide sequences in the polysaccharide chain with effective proteins. Thus, CS oligosaccharides are expected to have pharmacological applications. Furthermore, the demand for CS in health food supplements and medication is growing. However, the absorbency of CS polysaccharides in the digestive system is very low. Since the activity of orally administered CS is expected to increase by depolymerization, industrial production of CS oligosaccharides is required. In this study, hydrolysis with subcritical and super-critical water was applied to the depolymerization of CS for the first time, and hydrolytic conditions for oligosaccharide production were examined. CS oligosaccharides principally containing an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue at their reducing ends were successfully obtained. No significant desulfation was found in CS oligosaccharides prepared under optimized conditions. The production of CS oligosaccharides by this method will have a strong influence on the CS-related materials market. PMID:23454651

  17. Hydrolysis of lignocelluloses by penicillium funiculosum cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.; Rao, M.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Deshpande, V.

    1984-04-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is a promising method for the conversion of waste cellulose to glucose. During the past few years, the development of this technology has proceeded rapidly, with significant advances made in enzyme production, pretreatment, and hydrolysis. A variety of fungi are reported to produce cellulases but among these Trichoderma reesei and its mutants are powerful producers of cellulases. However, the search for new and possibly better sources of cellulase is continued due to the low levels of beta-glucosidase of T. reesei. Penicillium funiculosum produces a complete cellulase having endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (15-20 U/mL), exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (1.5-2.0 U/mL), and high beta-glucosidase (8-10 U/mL). The saccharification of alkali-treated cotton and bagasse by P. funiculosum enzyme was 70 and 63%, respectively. It was possible to obtain glucose concentration as high as 30% using 50% bagasse. It is of interest that the percent saccharification of cellulosic substrates with the Penicillium enzyme is comparable to that of T. reesei cellulase when the same amount of filter paper activity is used, although the endo-glucanase activity of the latter is two to three times higher. This communication reports the studies on saccharification of lignocelluloses by P. funiculosum cellulase and certain studies on the kinetic aspects. (Refs. 15).

  18. Multiple Mass Isotopomer Tracing of Acetyl-CoA Metabolism in Langendorff-perfused Rat Hearts: CHANNELING OF ACETYL-CoA FROM PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE TO CARNITINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingling; Deng, Shuang; Ibarra, Rafael A; Anderson, Vernon E; Brunengraber, Henri; Zhang, Guo-Fang

    2015-03-27

    We developed an isotopic technique to assess mitochondrial acetyl-CoA turnover (?citric acid flux) in perfused rat hearts. Hearts are perfused with buffer containing tracer [(13)C2,(2)H3]acetate, which forms M5 + M4 + M3 acetyl-CoA. The buffer may also contain one or two labeled substrates, which generate M2 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [(13)C6]glucose or [1,2-(13)C2]palmitate) or/and M1 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [1-(13)C]octanoate). The total acetyl-CoA turnover and the contributions of fuels to acetyl-CoA are calculated from the uptake of the acetate tracer and the mass isotopomer distribution of acetyl-CoA. The method was applied to measurements of acetyl-CoA turnover under different conditions (glucose ± palmitate ± insulin ± dichloroacetate). The data revealed (i) substrate cycling between glycogen and glucose-6-P and between glucose-6-P and triose phosphates, (ii) the release of small excess acetyl groups as acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies, and (iii) the channeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA from pyruvate dehydrogenase to carnitine acetyltransferase. Because of this channeling, the labeling of acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies released by the heart are not proxies of the labeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:25645937

  19. Histone acetylation and its role in embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Naiara Z; Oliveira, Clara S; Garcia, Joaquim M

    2010-12-26

    The understanding of mechanisms leading to cellular differentiation is the main aim of numerous studies. Accessibility of DNA to transcription factors depends on local chromatin structure and chromatin compaction inhibits gene transcription. Histone acetylation correlates with an open chromatin structure and increased gene expression. Gene transcription levels are changed in early embryonic stem cells differentiation in a tissue-specific manner and epigenetic marks are modified, including increased global acetylation levels. Manipulation of histone deacetylases activity might be an interesting tool to generate populations of specific cell types for transplantation purposes. Thus, this review aims to show recent findings on histone acetylation, a post translational modification and its manipulation in embryonic stem cells differentiation. PMID:21607129

  20. Small molecule inhibitors of bromodomain-acetyl-lysine interactions.

    PubMed

    Brand, Michael; Measures, Angelina M; Wilson, Brian G; Cortopassi, Wilian A; Alexander, Rikki; Höss, Matthias; Hewings, David S; Rooney, Timothy P C; Paton, Robert S; Conway, Stuart J

    2015-01-16

    Bromodomains are protein modules that bind to acetylated lysine residues. Their interaction with histone proteins suggests that they function as "readers" of histone lysine acetylation, a component of the proposed "histone code". Bromodomain-containing proteins are often found as components of larger protein complexes with roles in fundamental cellular process including transcription. The publication of two potent ligands for the BET bromodomains in 2010 demonstrated that small molecules can inhibit the bromodomain-acetyl-lysine protein-protein interaction. These molecules display strong phenotypic effects in a number of cell lines and affect a range of cancers in vivo. This work stimulated intense interest in developing further ligands for the BET bromodomains and the design of ligands for non-BET bromodomains. Here we review the recent progress in the field with particular attention paid to ligand design, the assays employed in early ligand discovery, and the use of computational approaches to inform ligand design. PMID:25549280

  1. Dynamic changes in histone acetylation regulate origins of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Ashwin; Gafken, Philip R.; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    While histone modifications have been implicated in many DNA-dependent processes, their precise role in DNA replication remains largely unknown. Here, we describe a very efficient, single-step method to specifically purify histones located around an origin of replication from S. cerevisiae. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we have obtained a comprehensive view of the histone modifications surrounding the origin of replication throughout the cell cycle. We have discovered that histone H3 and H4 acetylation is dynamically regulated around an origin of replication, at the level of multiply-acetylated histones. Furthermore, we find that this acetylation is required for efficient origin activation during S-phase. PMID:20228802

  2. ADP-ribosylation of core histones and their acetylated subspecies.

    PubMed Central

    Golderer, G; Gröbner, P

    1991-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation of core histones was investigated in isolated nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. Core histone species differed in the mode of modification. Whereas ADP-ribosylation of H2A and H2B is sensitive to inhibition by 3-methoxybenzamide, as with most other nuclear acceptor proteins, the modification of H3 and H4 is not inhibited. Cleavage experiments with hydroxylamine indicate a carboxylate ester type ADP-ribose-protein bond for H2A and H2B and arginine-linked ADP-ribose residues for H3 and H4. ADP-ribosylation preferentially occurs on acetylated histone subspecies, as shown for H4. These data are substantiated by the use of n-butyrate, which induces hyperacetylation of core histones; the butyrate-induced shift towards more acetylated H4 subspecies is accompanied by an increase of ADP-ribose incorporation into highly acetylated H4 subspecies. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1872796

  3. ADP-ribosylation of core histones and their acetylated subspecies.

    PubMed

    Golderer, G; Gröbner, P

    1991-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation of core histones was investigated in isolated nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. Core histone species differed in the mode of modification. Whereas ADP-ribosylation of H2A and H2B is sensitive to inhibition by 3-methoxybenzamide, as with most other nuclear acceptor proteins, the modification of H3 and H4 is not inhibited. Cleavage experiments with hydroxylamine indicate a carboxylate ester type ADP-ribose-protein bond for H2A and H2B and arginine-linked ADP-ribose residues for H3 and H4. ADP-ribosylation preferentially occurs on acetylated histone subspecies, as shown for H4. These data are substantiated by the use of n-butyrate, which induces hyperacetylation of core histones; the butyrate-induced shift towards more acetylated H4 subspecies is accompanied by an increase of ADP-ribose incorporation into highly acetylated H4 subspecies. PMID:1872796

  4. Synthetic Biology for Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

  5. Glycolysis-Mediated Changes in Acetyl-CoA and Histone Acetylation Control the Early Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Rouleau, Matthieu; Kitsberg, Daniel; Cohen, Merav; Levy, Gahl; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Shen-Orr, Shai; Laevsky, Ilana; Amit, Michal; Bomze, David; Elena-Herrmann, Bénédicte; Scherf, Tali; Nissim-Rafinia, Malka; Kempa, Stefan; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Meshorer, Eran; Aberdam, Daniel; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-03-01

    Loss of pluripotency is a gradual event whose initiating factors are largely unknown. Here we report the earliest metabolic changes induced during the first hours of differentiation. High-resolution NMR identified 44 metabolites and a distinct metabolic transition occurring during early differentiation. Metabolic and transcriptional analyses showed that pluripotent cells produced acetyl-CoA through glycolysis and rapidly lost this function during differentiation. Importantly, modulation of glycolysis blocked histone deacetylation and differentiation in human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Acetate, a precursor of acetyl-CoA, delayed differentiation and blocked early histone deacetylation in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors upstream of acetyl-CoA caused differentiation of pluripotent cells, while those downstream delayed differentiation. Our results show a metabolic switch causing a loss of histone acetylation and pluripotent state during the first hours of differentiation. Our data highlight the important role metabolism plays in pluripotency and suggest that a glycolytic switch controlling histone acetylation can release stem cells from pluripotency. PMID:25738455

  6. Complex N-Acetylation of TriethylenetetramineS?

    PubMed Central

    Cerrada-Gimenez, Marc; Weisell, Janne; Hyvönen, Mervi T.; Hee Park, Myung; Alhonen, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    Triethylenetetramine (TETA) is an efficient copper chelator that has versatile clinical potential. We have recently shown that spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT1), the key polyamine catabolic enzyme, acetylates TETA in vitro. Here, we studied the metabolism of TETA in three different mouse lines: syngenic, SSAT1-overexpressing, and SSAT1-deficient (SSAT1-KO) mice. The mice were sacrificed at 1, 2, or 4 h after TETA injection (300 mg/kg i.p.). We found only N1-acetyltriethylenetetramine (N1AcTETA) and/or TETA in the liver, kidney, and plasma samples. As expected, SSAT1-overexpressing mice acetylated TETA at an accelerated rate compared with syngenic and SSAT1-KO mice. It is noteworthy that SSAT1-KO mice metabolized TETA as syngenic mice did, probably by thialysine acetyltransferase, which had a Km value of 2.5 ± 0.3 mM and a kcat value of 1.3 s?1 for TETA when tested in vitro with the human recombinant enzyme. Thus, the present results suggest that there are at least two N-acetylases potentially metabolizing TETA. However, their physiological significance for TETA acetylation requires further studies. Furthermore, we detected chemical intramolecular N-acetyl migration from the N1 to N3 position of N1AcTETA and N1,N8-diacetyltriethylenetetramine in an acidified high-performance liquid chromatography sample matrix. The complex metabolism of TETA together with the intramolecular N-acetyl migration may explain the huge individual variations in the acetylation rate of TETA reported earlier. PMID:21878558

  7. HDAC6 mediates the acetylation of TRIM50.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Carmela; Micale, Lucia; Augello, Bartolomeo; Mandriani, Barbara; Pellico, Maria Teresa; De Nittis, Pasquelena; Calcagnì, Alessia; Monti, Maria; Cozzolino, Flora; Pucci, Piero; Merla, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    The E3 Ubiquitin ligase TRIM50 promotes the formation and clearance of aggresome-associated polyubiquitinated proteins through HDAC6 interaction, a tubulin specific deacetylase that regulates microtubule-dependent aggresome formation. In this report we showed that TRIM50 is a target of HDAC6 with Lys-372 as a critical residue for acetylation. We identified p300 and PCAF as two TRIM50 acetyltransferases and we further showed that a balance between ubiquitination and acetylation regulates TRIM50 degradation. PMID:24308962

  8. Interaction of RNA polymerase II with acetylated nucleosomal core particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pineiro, M.; Gonzalez, P.J.; Hernandez, F.; Palacian, E. (Centro de Biologia Molecular, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain))

    1991-05-31

    Chemical acetylation of nucleosomal cores is accompanied by an increase in their efficiency as in vitro transcription templates. Low amounts of acetic anhydride cause preferential modification of the amino-terminal tails of core histones. Modification of these domains, which causes moderate structural effects, is apparently correlated with the observed stimulation of RNA synthesis. In contrast, extensive modification of the globular regions of core histones, which is accompanied by a large structural relaxation of the particle, causes little additional effect on transcription. Acetylation of the amino-terminal domains of histones might stimulate transcription by changing the interaction of the histone tails with components of the transcriptional machinery.

  9. Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

    Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

  10. Involvement of S1P1 receptor pathway in angiogenic effects of a novel adenosine-like nucleic acid analog COA-Cl in cultured human vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Junsuke; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Kubota, Yasuo; Shoji, Kazuyo; Maruyama, Tokumi; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Takuwa, Yoh; Ujihara, Yoshihiro; Katanosaka, Yuki; Mohri, Satoshi; Naruse, Keiji; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Ryuji; Hirano, Katsuya; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Takata, Maki; Konishi, Ryoji; Tsukamoto, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    COA-Cl (2Cl-C.OXT-A) is a recently developed adenosine-like nucleic acid analog that promotes angiogenesis via the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK1/2. Endothelial S1P1 receptor plays indispensable roles in developmental angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the functions of S1P1 in COA-Cl-induced angiogenic responses. Antagonists for S1P1, W146, and VPC23019, substantially but still partly inhibited the effects of COA-Cl with regard to ERK1/2 activation and tube formation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Antagonists for adenosine A1 receptor and purinergic P2Y1 receptor were without effect. Genetic knockdown of S1P1 with siRNA, but not that of S1P3, attenuated COA-Cl-elicited ERK1/2 responses. The signaling properties of COA-Cl showed significant similarities to those of sphingosine 1-phosphate, an endogenous S1P1 ligand, in that both induced responses sensitive to pertussis toxin (G? i/o inhibitor), 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA-AM), (calcium chelator), and PP2 (c-Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor). COA-Cl elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration and induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas, a substrate of c-Src, in HUVEC. COA-Cl displaced [3H]S1P in a radioligand-binding competition assay in chem-1 cells overexpressing S1P1. However, COA-Cl activated ERK1/2 in CHO-K1 cells that lack functional S1P1 receptor, suggesting the presence of additional yet-to-be-defined COA-Cl target in these cells. The results thus suggest the major contribution of S1P1 in the angiogenic effects of COA-Cl. However, other mechanism such as that seen in CHO-K1 cells may also be partly involved. Collectively, these findings may lead to refinement of the design of this nucleic acid analog and ultimately to development of small molecule-based therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:25505610

  11. Unconventional Relationshipsfor Hemicellulose Hydrolysis and Subsequent Cellulose Digestion

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    be pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid to recover high yields of sugars directly from hemicellulose of organizations favor hemicellulose hydrolysis by dilute sulfuric acid for pretreatment because high sugar yields hydrolysis of the solid residue (11,12,13,14,15,16,17). Compared to water-only processes, sulfuric acid

  12. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Regulates Hydrolysis of Vasoactive Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Yu; Fengyun Xu; Linn M. Huse; Christophe Morisseau; Alison J. Draper; John W. Newman; Carol Parker; LeRae Graham; Marguerite M. Engler; Bruce D. Hammock; Darryl C. Zeldin; Deanna L. Kroetz

    2010-01-01

    The cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have potent effects on renal vascular reactivity and tubular sodium and water transport; however, the role of these eicosanoids in the pathogenesis of hypertension is controversial. The current study examined the hydrolysis of the EETs to the corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) as a mechanism for regulation of EET activity and blood pressure. EET hydrolysis

  13. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007

    E-print Network

    Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Model calculations and cost "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet.DK under the PSO-F&U projects having National Laboratory, Rambøll, the Estate of Overgaard and SamRas. The wastewater treatment plant Esbjerg

  14. Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hydrolysis of Aspirin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrs, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    An exercise that provides a hands-on demonstration of the hydrolysis of aspirin is presented. The key to understanding the hydrolysis is recognizing that all six process may occur simultaneously and that the observed rate constant is the sum of the rate constants that one rate constant dominates the overall process.

  15. Enhanced functional properties of tannic acid after thermal hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal hydrolysis processing of fresh tannic acid was carried out in a closed reactor at four different temperatures (65, 100, 150 and 200°C). Pressures reached in the system were 1.3 and 4.8 MPa at 150 and 200°C, respectively. Hydrolysis products (gallic acid and pyrogallol) were separated and qua...

  16. Mechanism of surfactant effect in enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torny Eriksson; Johan Börjesson; Folke Tjerneld

    2002-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a potential substrate for ethanol production. However, high cellulose conversion requires high enzyme loading, which makes the process less economically feasible. Addition of surfactants to enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose increases the conversion of cellulose into soluble sugars. The mechanism is not known for the increase of lignocellulose hydrolysis by surfactant addition, therefore, experiments were designed to explore mechanisms

  17. Acid hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose of low degree of substitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Borsa; I. Tánczos; I. Rusznák

    1990-01-01

    Cotton cellulose was swollen in a sodium hydroxide solution and carboxymethylated by a two-bath method for different periods of time for each process. The kinetics of acid hydrolysis and the crystallinity of the swollen and carboxymethylated samples were measured. The proportion of broken bonds, rate constants for hydrolysis, and permeability of cellulose to hydrolyzing agents were calculated. The susceptibility of

  18. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008

    E-print Network

    selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system . The Esbjerg system is based on the fact, that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment enhances digester technology .l'he plant treats combined household and industrial wastewater with a considerable

  19. Mutation analysis of methylmalonyl CoA mutase gene exon 2 in Egyptian families: Identification of 25 novel allelic variants.

    PubMed

    Ghoraba, Dina A; Mohammed, Magdy M; Zaki, Osama K

    2015-02-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of methylmalonate and cobalamin (cbl; vitamin B12) metabolism. It is an inborn error of organic acid metabolism which commonly results from a defect in the gene encoding the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) apoenzyme. Here we report the results of mutation study of exon 2 of the methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MUT) gene, coding MCM residues from 1 to 128, in ten unrelated Egyptian families affected with methylmalonic aciduria. Patients were presented with a wide-anion gap metabolic acidosis. The diagnosis has established by the measurement of C3 (propionylcarnitine) and C3:C2 (propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine) in blood by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) and was confirmed by the detection of an abnormally elevated level of methylmalonic acid in urine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and isocratic cation exchange high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC). Direct sequencing of gDNA of the MUT gene exon 2 has revealed a total of 26 allelic variants: ten of which were intronic, eight were located upstream to the exon 2 coding region, four were novel modifications predicted to affect the splicing region, three were novel mutations within the coding region: c.15G > A (p.K5K), c.165C > A (p.N55K) and c.7del (p.R3EfsX14), as well as the previously reported mutation c.323G > A (p.R108H). PMID:25750861

  20. Mutation analysis of methylmalonyl CoA mutase gene exon 2 in Egyptian families: Identification of 25 novel allelic variants

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Dina A.; Mohammed, Magdy M.; Zaki, Osama K.

    2015-01-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of methylmalonate and cobalamin (cbl; vitamin B12) metabolism. It is an inborn error of organic acid metabolism which commonly results from a defect in the gene encoding the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) apoenzyme. Here we report the results of mutation study of exon 2 of the methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MUT) gene, coding MCM residues from 1 to 128, in ten unrelated Egyptian families affected with methylmalonic aciduria. Patients were presented with a wide-anion gap metabolic acidosis. The diagnosis has established by the measurement of C3 (propionylcarnitine) and C3:C2 (propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine) in blood by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS–MS) and was confirmed by the detection of an abnormally elevated level of methylmalonic acid in urine by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and isocratic cation exchange high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC). Direct sequencing of gDNA of the MUT gene exon 2 has revealed a total of 26 allelic variants: ten of which were intronic, eight were located upstream to the exon 2 coding region, four were novel modifications predicted to affect the splicing region, three were novel mutations within the coding region: c.15G > A (p.K5K), c.165C > A (p.N55K) and c.7del (p.R3EfsX14), as well as the previously reported mutation c.323G > A (p.R108H).

  1. Metabolic Regulation of Protein N-Alpha-Acetylation by Bcl-xL Promotes Cell Survival

    E-print Network

    Yi, Caroline H.

    Previous experiments suggest a connection between the N-alpha-acetylation of proteins and sensitivity of cells to apoptotic signals. Here, we describe a biochemical assay to detect the acetylation status of proteins and ...

  2. One-pot acetalation–acetylation of sugar derivatives employing perchloric acid immobilised on silica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balaram Mukhopadhyay; David A. Russell; Robert A. Field

    2005-01-01

    Perchloric acid immobilised on silica gel has been used as an efficient promoter for per-O-acetylation, and acetalation and subsequent O-acetylation of glycosides and thioglycosides in one-pot using stoichiometric reagents.

  3. Per-O-acetylation of sugars catalysed by montmorillonite K-10

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pallooru Muni Bhaskar; Duraikkannu Loganathan

    1998-01-01

    The inexpensive solid acid, montmorillonite K-10, is shown to be an efficient catalyst for the per-O-acetylation of several mono -, di - and trisaccharides. The pyranose forms accounted for 75–100% of the acetylated products.

  4. Reduction and Methyl Transfer Kinetics of the r Subunit from Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthase

    E-print Network

    Salisbury, Kenneth

    Reduction and Methyl Transfer Kinetics of the r Subunit from Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthase Xiangshi-mail: lindahl@mail.chem.tamu.edu Acetyl-coenzyme A synthase is a bifunctional enzyme found in anaerobic archaea

  5. nanoparticles fabricated by modified hydrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Munsif, Sajida; Rashid, Umer; Imad-ud-Din

    2014-06-01

    We have tested modified hydrolysis method for the preparation of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The particles after synthesis were applied for a series of physicochemical techniques. Iron chloride was used as a precursor material. The particle size distribution was determined using zeta sizer and scanning electron microscopy. The surface area and the morphology of the particles vary by changing the concentration of the precursor material. The size of nanoparticles varies from 10 to 90 nm. The particles having size of 23 ± 1 nm were separated out from the solution and their size remains almost the same even after one month. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) of Fe2O3 nanoparticles confirms the purity of the desired material. The weight loss of the particles with respect to the temperature was studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been employed to study the crystallinity of the particles.

  6. Catalytic Zinc Complexes for Phosphate Diester Hydrolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Tirel, Emmanuel Y; Bellamy, Zoë; Adams, Harry; Lebrun, Vincent; Duarte, Fernanda; Williams, Nicholas H

    2014-01-01

    Creating efficient artificial catalysts that can compete with biocatalysis has been an enduring challenge which has yet to be met. Reported herein is the synthesis and characterization of a series of zinc complexes designed to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters. By introducing a hydrated aldehyde into the ligand we achieve turnover for DNA-like substrates which, combined with ligand methylation, increases reactivity by two orders of magnitude. In contrast to current orthodoxy and mechanistic explanations, we propose a mechanism where the nucleophile is not coordinated to the metal ion, but involves a tautomer with a more effective Lewis acid and more reactive nucleophile. This data suggests a new strategy for creating more efficient metal ion based catalysts, and highlights a possible mode of action for metalloenzymes. PMID:24919567

  7. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K. [USDA Citrus and Subtropical Products Research Labs., Winter Haven, CT (United States); Bothast, R.J. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  8. Transport and hydrolysis of peptides by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Payne, J W

    1977-01-01

    The structural specificities of the dipeptide and oligopeptide permeases of E. coli are briefly reviewed and related to the requirements found for other microorganisms. New, quick, sensitive methods for studying peptide transport are described, based on the following: (i) peptide-dependent incorporation of free radioactive amino acid into newly synthesized protein by a double amino acid auxotroph, (ii) colorimetric assay of peptide-dependent enzyme synthesis by an amino acid auxotroph, (iii) dansyl fingerprint technique. These approaches provide information on peptide binding affinity to a permease and rates of peptide uptake and amino acid efflux. Among current and future research areas considered are: the influence of the pKb of the N-terminal amino group on transport, generality of peptide transport in microorganisms, energy coupling and regulation, involvement of binding proteins, and the 'smugglin' concept. Peptide hydrolysis, and nutritional ultilization of peptides, by microorganisms are briefly discussed. PMID:340177

  9. Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

    2014-09-01

    The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809

  10. Epidemic based modeling of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao; Arellano, Maria G; Keshwani, Deepak R

    2014-01-01

    An epidemic based model was developed to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover. The process of substrate getting adsorbed and digested by enzyme was simulated as susceptibles getting infected by viruses and becoming removed and recovered. This model simplified the dynamic enzyme "infection" process and the catalysis of cellulose into a two-parameter controlled, enzyme behavior guided mechanism. Furthermore, the model incorporates the adsorption block by lignin and inhibition effects on cellulose catalysis. The model satisfactorily predicted the enzyme adsorption and hydrolysis, negative role of lignin, and inhibition effects over hydrolysis for a broad range of substrate and enzyme loadings. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the incorporation of lignin and other inhibition effects. Our model will be a useful tool for evaluating the effects of parameters during hydrolysis and guide a design strategy for continuous hydrolysis and the associated process control. PMID:25079785

  11. The high CO 2solubility of per-acetylated ?-, ?-, and ?-cyclodextrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay K Potluri; Andrew D Hamilton; Christos F Karanikas; Steven E Bane; Jianhang Xu; Eric J Beckman; Robert M Enick

    2003-01-01

    Per-acetylated cyclic hexa-, hepta-, and octa-saccharide, (?-cyclodextrin octadecaacetate, ?-cyclodextrin heneiicosaacetate and ?-cyclodextrin tetracosaacetate, respectively) exhibit melting point reduction and high solubility in dense CO2. Two-phase boundaries of the CO2-acetylated sugar mixtures were determined for per-acetylated cyclodextrin concentrations of 2–30wt.%. The dew-point locus of the CO2 per-acetylated cyclodextrin binary systems shifted to higher pressures as the number of saccharides in the

  12. Potassium acetate-catalyzed acetylation of wood: reaction rates at low temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Obataya; Kazuya Minato

    2009-01-01

    Spruce wood blocks were acetylated in the presence of potassium acetate (KAc) at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 120°C. At 20°C, the weight\\u000a percent gain (WPG) due to the KAc-catalyzed acetylation reached 20% in 18 days, whereas that due to pyridine-catalyzed acetylation\\u000a did not exceed 8%. The hygroscopicity and dimensional stability of the KAc-acetylated wood were the same as those of

  13. Cyclohexanecarboxyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and Cyclohex-1-ene-1-Carboxyl-CoA Dehydrogenases, Two Enzymes Involved in the Fermentation of Benzoate and Crotonate in Syntrophus aciditrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Johannes W.; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The strictly anaerobic Syntrophus aciditrophicus is a fermenting deltaproteobacterium that is able to degrade benzoate or crotonate in the presence and in the absence of a hydrogen-consuming partner. During growth in pure culture, both substrates are dismutated to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate. In this work, the unknown enzymes involved in the late steps of cyclohexane carboxylate formation were studied. Using enzyme assays monitoring the oxidative direction, a cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (Ch1CoA)-forming cyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA (ChCoA) dehydrogenase was purified and characterized from S. aciditrophicus and after heterologous expression of its gene in Escherichia coli. In addition, a cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA (Ch1,5CoA)-forming Ch1CoA dehydrogenase was characterized after purification of the heterologously expressed gene. Both enzymes had a native molecular mass of 150 kDa and were composed of a single, 40- to 45-kDa subunit; both contained flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor. While the ChCoA dehydrogenase was competitively inhibited by Ch1CoA in the oxidative direction, Ch1CoA dehydrogenase further converted the product Ch1,5CoA to benzoyl-CoA. The results obtained suggest that Ch1,5CoA is a common intermediate in benzoate and crotonate fermentation that serves as an electron-accepting substrate for the two consecutively operating acyl-CoA dehydrogenases characterized in this work. In the case of benzoate fermentation, Ch1,5CoA is formed by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase; in the case of crotonate fermentation, Ch1,5CoA is formed by reversing the reactions of the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway that are also employed during the oxidative (degradative) branch of benzoate fermentation. PMID:23667239

  14. Cyclohexanecarboxyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA dehydrogenases, two enzymes involved in the fermentation of benzoate and crotonate in Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

    PubMed

    Kung, Johannes W; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Boll, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    The strictly anaerobic Syntrophus aciditrophicus is a fermenting deltaproteobacterium that is able to degrade benzoate or crotonate in the presence and in the absence of a hydrogen-consuming partner. During growth in pure culture, both substrates are dismutated to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate. In this work, the unknown enzymes involved in the late steps of cyclohexane carboxylate formation were studied. Using enzyme assays monitoring the oxidative direction, a cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (Ch1CoA)-forming cyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA (ChCoA) dehydrogenase was purified and characterized from S. aciditrophicus and after heterologous expression of its gene in Escherichia coli. In addition, a cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA (Ch1,5CoA)-forming Ch1CoA dehydrogenase was characterized after purification of the heterologously expressed gene. Both enzymes had a native molecular mass of 150 kDa and were composed of a single, 40- to 45-kDa subunit; both contained flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor. While the ChCoA dehydrogenase was competitively inhibited by Ch1CoA in the oxidative direction, Ch1CoA dehydrogenase further converted the product Ch1,5CoA to benzoyl-CoA. The results obtained suggest that Ch1,5CoA is a common intermediate in benzoate and crotonate fermentation that serves as an electron-accepting substrate for the two consecutively operating acyl-CoA dehydrogenases characterized in this work. In the case of benzoate fermentation, Ch1,5CoA is formed by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase; in the case of crotonate fermentation, Ch1,5CoA is formed by reversing the reactions of the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway that are also employed during the oxidative (degradative) branch of benzoate fermentation. PMID:23667239

  15. Fully acetylated carbamate and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa oleifera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaheen Faizi; Bina Shaheen Siddiqui; Rubeena Saleem; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Khalid Aftab; Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani

    1995-01-01

    Six new and three synthetically known glycosides have been isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera, employing a bioassay-directed isolation method on the ethanolic extract. Most of these compounds, bearing thiocarbamate, carbamate or nitrile groups, are fully acetylated glycosides, which are very rare in nature. Elucidation of the structures was made using chemical and spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques.

  16. Histone acetylation and heterochromatin content of cultured Peromyscus cells

    SciTech Connect

    Halleck, M.S.; Carley, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between unacetylated arginine-rich histones and condensed chromatin structure, the extent of histone acetylation was examined in cultured cell lines derived from three species of deer mice. These species differ considerably in their genomic content of heterochromatin but contain essentially the same euchromatin content. Cells of Peromyscus eremicus, containing 34-36% more constitutive heterochromatin than Peromyscus boylii or Peromyscus crinitus cells were found to contain 28-35% more unacetylated histone H4, 22-29% more unacetylated histone H3, and 18-22% more unacetylated histone H2B. This relationship between unacetylated histone and heterochromatin content was further explored by inducing hyperacetylation of P. eremicus and P. boylli histones through treatment of cells with 15 mM sodium butyrate for 24 h. It was found that the percentages of unacetylated histones H3 and H4 remaining after butyrate treatment were proportional to the amount of constitutive heterochromatin in the genome. These data support the concept that a small core of histones in constitutive heterochromatin is inaccessible to acetylation. It was also found that the acetylated state of isolated histones was senstitive to the method of histone extraction. Thus concern must be given to preparative procedures when studying histone acetylation in order to minimize these acetate losses.

  17. MICROBIOLOGY: Bacteria Seize Control by Acetylating Host Proteins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carolyn A. Worby (University of California; Departments of Pharmacology, Cellular and Molecular Medicine, and Chemistry and Biochemistry)

    2006-05-24

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis injects toxic proteins into its hosts' cells. One of these interferes with the host's secretion of a protective factor by adding acetyl groups to a signaling kinase, blocking its activation.

  18. 68 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Variability in Starch Acetylation Efficiency

    E-print Network

    68 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Variability in Starch Acetylation Efficiency from Commercial Waxy Corn Hybrids. Six waxy corn (maize) hybrids from 1998 and five waxy corn hybrids from 1999 were wet, and reduced retro- gradation upon cooling (Rutenberg and Solarek 1984). Corn (maize) starch obtained by wet

  19. Molecular Cell SAGA and ATAC Histone Acetyl Transferase

    E-print Network

    Molecular Cell Article SAGA and ATAC Histone Acetyl Transferase Complexes Regulate Distinct Sets of Genes and ATAC Defines a Class of p300-Independent Enhancers Arnaud R. Krebs,1,3 Krishanpal Karmodiya,1.08.037 SUMMARY Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes are coactivators that are important for transcriptional

  20. Mass spectrometry-based detection of protein acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Silva, Jeffrey C.; Skinner, Mary E.; Lombard, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Improved sample preparation techniques and increasingly sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis have revolutionized the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). Here, we describe a general approach for immunopurification and MS-based identification of acetylated proteins in biological samples. This approach is useful characterizing changes in the acetylome in response to biological interventions (1). PMID:24014401

  1. Properties of Acetylated Wood Prepared at Low Temperature in the Presence of Catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Zhang Li; Takeshi Furuno; Wen-Rui Zhou; Qian Ren; Xiu-Zhi Han; Jin-Ping Zhao

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of catalysts such as sodium acetate, zinc chloride, magnesium perchlorate, and magnesium chloride hexahydrate, acetylation of wood at 75°C was investigated. The results showed that it was possible to endow wood with high dimensional stability at low temperature by a catalyzed acetylation method. In particular, the magnesium chloride–catalyzed acetylation of wood showed very little or no effect

  2. Cohesin Acetylation Promotes Sister Chromatid Cohesion Only in Association with the Replication Machinery*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jianhua; Lafont, Andrea; Chen, Jingrong; Wu, Frank M.; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Rankin, Susannah

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation of the Smc3 subunit of cohesin is essential to establish functional cohesion between sister chromatids. Smc3 acetylation is catalyzed by members of the Eco family of acetyltransferases, although the mechanism by which acetylation is regulated and how it promotes cohesion are largely unknown. In vertebrates, the cohesin complex binds to chromatin during mitotic exit and is converted to a functional form during or shortly after DNA replication. The conserved proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting protein box motif in yeast Eco1 is required for function, and cohesin is acetylated during the S phase. This has led to the notion that acetylation of cohesin is stimulated by interaction of Eco1 with the replication machinery. Here we show that in vertebrates Smc3 acetylation occurs independently of DNA replication. Smc3 is readily acetylated before replication is initiated and after DNA replication is complete. However, we also show that functional acetylation occurs only in association with the replication machinery: disruption of the interaction between XEco2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen prevents cohesion establishment while having little impact on the overall levels of Smc3 acetylation. These results demonstrate that Smc3 acetylation can occur throughout interphase but that only acetylation in association with the replication fork promotes sister chromatid cohesion. These data reveal how the generation of cohesion is limited to the appropriate time and place during the cell cycle and provide insight into the mechanism by which acetylation ensures cohesion. PMID:22896698

  3. Special HATs for special occasions: linking histone acetylation to chromatin assembly and gene activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E Brownell; C David Allis

    1996-01-01

    Post-translational acetylation of the core histone amino-terminal tails has long been associated with both chromatin assembly and the regulation of gene expression. The recent identification and cloning of histone acetyltransferase genes represents a significant breakthrough in our understanding of how specific acetylation states are established. Ongoing characterization of these enzymes and their molecular cohorts supports a direct role for acetylation

  4. Human acetylator polymorphism: estimate of allele frequency in Libya and details of global distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Karim, A K; Elfellah, M S; Evans, D A

    1981-01-01

    Acetylator phenotyping by means of a sulphadimidine tests revealed 65% of Libyan Arabs to be slow acetylators. Hence the frequency of the allele controlling slow acetylation (As) is estimated as q = 0.81 +/- 0.05. This estimate is similar to those previously recorded in European and adjacent Middle Eastern populations. PMID:7328611

  5. Mdm20 protein functions with Nat3 protein to acetylate Tpm1 protein and regulate

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Janet M.

    Mdm20 protein functions with Nat3 protein to acetylate Tpm1 protein and regulate tropomyosin-terminally acetylate Tpm1p, an abundant form of tropomyosin that binds and stabilizes actin filaments and cables. The F-actin-binding activity of unacety- lated Tpm1p is reduced severely relative to the acetylated form. These results

  6. Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases accumulating during infection.

    PubMed

    van den Burg, Harrold A; Harrison, Stuart J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Vervoort, Jacques; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2006-12-01

    Resistance against the leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum is mediated by the tomato Cf proteins which belong to the class of receptor-like proteins and indirectly recognize extracellular avirulence proteins (Avrs) of the fungus. Apart from triggering disease resistance, Avrs are believed to play a role in pathogenicity or virulence of C. fulvum. Here, we report on the avirulence protein Avr4, which is a chitin-binding lectin containing an invertebrate chitin-binding domain (CBM14). This domain is found in many eukaryotes, but has not yet been described in fungal or plant genomes. We found that interaction of Avr4 with chitin is specific, because it does not interact with other cell wall polysaccharides. Avr4 binds to chitin oligomers with a minimal length of three N-acetyl glucosamine residues. In vitro, Avr4 protects chitin against hydrolysis by plant chitinases. Avr4 also binds to chitin in cell walls of the fungi Trichoderma viride and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and protects these fungi against normally deleterious concentrations of plant chitinases. In situ fluorescence studies showed that Avr4 also binds to cell walls of C. fulvum during infection of tomato, where it most likely protects the fungus against tomato chitinases, suggesting that Avr4 is a counter-defensive virulence factor. PMID:17153926

  7. Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Teresa R.; Barnes, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8?,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide reference standards. Limits of quantification ranged from 10 to 15 ng/g, and calibration curves were linear to 500 ng/g. Bias and intra-day and inter-day imprecision were <12.3%. Hydrolysis efficiencies were analyte-dependent; THC-glucuronide was effectively cleaved by enzyme, but not base. Conversely, THCCOOH-glucuronide was most sensitive to alkaline hydrolysis. Enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis maximized efficiency for both glucuronides. Identification of cannabinoid-positive meconium specimens nearly doubled following alkaline and enzyme–alkaline hydrolysis. Although no 11-OH-THC glucuronide standard is available, enzymatic hydrolysis improved 11-OH-THC detection in authentic specimens. Maximal identification of cannabis-exposed neonates and the widest range of cannabis biomarkers are achieved with enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis. PMID:20517601

  8. Hydrolysis kinetics characteristic of recycled fiber in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Huang, Mingzhi

    2012-02-01

    Recycled fiber hydrolysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of reducing sugar accumulation for biofuel products during hydrolysis in subcritical water. The hydrolysis conversion of recycled fiber was reaching to approximate 90% within 3 min at 280-320 °C, while the glucose decomposed simultaneously within 0.5 min. The FTIR wave variation and the crystalline index of hydrolysis residue indicated that the intermolecular, intramolecular hydrogen bond and the crystalline was a constraint for recycled fiber hydrolysis. The kinetics analysis demonstrated the cylindrical shape model is proper at low temperature for recycled fiber hydrolysis, while sphere shape model is suitable at high temperature. The apparent activation energies of recycled fiber on both kinetics models were 58.19 kJ mol(-1) and 53.18 kJ mol(-1), which were lower than that the glucose with 79.59 kJ mol(-1). Therefore, the conclusion is drawn that the high yield of glucose during recycled fiber hydrolysis is achievable by reducing the cellulose crystalline through proper indispensible pretreatments. PMID:22178492

  9. Role of Carnitine Acetyltransferases in Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans ?

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.; Andrianopoulos, Alex; Davis, Meryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The flow of carbon metabolites between cellular compartments is an essential feature of fungal metabolism. During growth on ethanol, acetate, or fatty acids, acetyl units must enter the mitochondrion for metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the cytoplasm is essential for the biosynthetic reactions and for protein acetylation. Acetyl-CoA is produced in the cytoplasm by acetyl-CoA synthetase during growth on acetate and ethanol while ?-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-CoA in peroxisomes. The acetyl-carnitine shuttle in which acetyl-CoA is reversibly converted to acetyl-carnitine by carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT) enzymes is important for intracellular transport of acetyl units. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, a cytoplasmic CAT, encoded by facC, is essential for growth on sources of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA while a second CAT, encoded by the acuJ gene, is essential for growth on fatty acids as well as acetate. We have shown that AcuJ contains an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS) and is localized to both peroxisomes and mitochondria, independent of the carbon source. Mislocalization of AcuJ to the cytoplasm does not result in loss of growth on acetate but prevents growth on fatty acids. Therefore, while mitochondrial AcuJ is essential for the transfer of acetyl units to mitochondria, peroxisomal localization is required only for transfer from peroxisomes to mitochondria. Peroxisomal AcuJ was not required for the import of acetyl-CoA into peroxisomes for conversion to malate by malate synthase (MLS), and export of acetyl-CoA from peroxisomes to the cytoplasm was found to be independent of FacC when MLS was mislocalized to the cytoplasm. PMID:21296915

  10. Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase is acetylated on multiple lysine residues by a protein acetyltransferase with a single Gcn5-type N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    You, Di; Yao, Li-Li; Huang, Dan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2014-09-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) is used by cells of all domains of life to modulate protein function. To date, bacterial acetylation/deacetylation systems have been studied in a few bacteria (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia amylovora, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Geobacillus kaustophilus), but little is known about RLA in antibiotic-producing actinomycetes. Here, we identify the Gcn5-like protein acetyltransferase AcuA of Saccharopolyspora erythraea (SacAcuA, SACE_5148) as the enzyme responsible for the acetylation of the AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (SacAcsA, SACE_2375). Acetylated SacAcsA was deacetylated by a sirtuin-type NAD(+)-dependent consuming deacetylase (SacSrtN, SACE_3798). In vitro acetylation/deacetylation of SacAcsA enzyme was studied by Western blotting, and acetylation of lysine residues Lys(237), Lys(380), Lys(611), and Lys(628) was confirmed by mass spectrometry. In a strain devoid of SacAcuA, none of the above-mentioned Lys residues of SacAcsA was acetylated. To our knowledge, the ability of SacAcuA to acetylate multiple Lys residues is unique among AcuA-type acetyltransferases. Results from site-specific mutagenesis experiments showed that the activity of SacAcsA was controlled by lysine acetylation. Lastly, immunoprecipitation data showed that in vivo acetylation of SacAcsA was influenced by glucose and acetate availability. These results suggested that reversible acetylation may also be a conserved regulatory posttranslational modification strategy in antibiotic-producing actinomycetes. PMID:24957627

  11. Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthetase Is Acetylated on Multiple Lysine Residues by a Protein Acetyltransferase with a Single Gcn5-Type N-Acetyltransferase (GNAT) Domain in Saccharopolyspora erythraea

    PubMed Central

    You, Di; Yao, Li-li; Huang, Dan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2014-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) is used by cells of all domains of life to modulate protein function. To date, bacterial acetylation/deacetylation systems have been studied in a few bacteria (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia amylovora, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Geobacillus kaustophilus), but little is known about RLA in antibiotic-producing actinomycetes. Here, we identify the Gcn5-like protein acetyltransferase AcuA of Saccharopolyspora erythraea (SacAcuA, SACE_5148) as the enzyme responsible for the acetylation of the AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (SacAcsA, SACE_2375). Acetylated SacAcsA was deacetylated by a sirtuin-type NAD+-dependent consuming deacetylase (SacSrtN, SACE_3798). In vitro acetylation/deacetylation of SacAcsA enzyme was studied by Western blotting, and acetylation of lysine residues Lys237, Lys380, Lys611, and Lys628 was confirmed by mass spectrometry. In a strain devoid of SacAcuA, none of the above-mentioned Lys residues of SacAcsA was acetylated. To our knowledge, the ability of SacAcuA to acetylate multiple Lys residues is unique among AcuA-type acetyltransferases. Results from site-specific mutagenesis experiments showed that the activity of SacAcsA was controlled by lysine acetylation. Lastly, immunoprecipitation data showed that in vivo acetylation of SacAcsA was influenced by glucose and acetate availability. These results suggested that reversible acetylation may also be a conserved regulatory posttranslational modification strategy in antibiotic-producing actinomycetes. PMID:24957627

  12. Ultrafast hydrolysis of a lewis photoacid.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Joseph D; Suchyta, Scott; Kohler, Bern

    2015-02-12

    This study explores the concept that electronic excitation can dramatically enhance Lewis acidity. Specifically, it is shown that photoexcitation transforms an electron-deficient organic compound of negligible Lewis acidity in its electronic ground state into a potent excited-state Lewis acid that releases a proton from a nearby water molecule in 3.1 ps. It was shown previously (Peon et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2001, 105, 5768) that the excited state of methyl viologen (MV(2+)) is quenched rapidly in aqueous solution with the formation of an unidentified photoproduct. In this study, the quenching mechanism and the identity of the photoproduct were investigated by the femtosecond transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion techniques. Transient absorption signals at UV probe wavelengths reveal a long-lived species with a pH-dependent lifetime due to reaction with hydronium ions at a bimolecular rate of 3.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). This species is revealed to be a charge-transfer complex consisting of a ground-state MV(2+) ion and a hydroxide ion formed when a water molecule transfers a proton to the bulk solvent. Formation of a contact ion pair between MV(2+) and hydroxide shifts the absorption spectrum of the former ion by a few nm to longer wavelengths, yielding a transient absorption spectrum with a distinctive triangle wave appearance. The slight shift of this spectrum, which is in excellent agreement with steady-state difference spectra recorded for MV(2+) at high pH, is consistent with an ion pair but not with a covalent adduct (pseudobase). The long lifetime of the ion pair at neutral pH indicates that dissociation occurs many orders of magnitude more slowly than predicted by the Smoluchowski-Debye equation. Remarkably, there is no evidence of geminate recombination, suggesting that the proton that is transferred to the solvent is conducted at least several water shells away. Although the hydrolysis mechanism has yet to be fully established, evidence suggests that the strongly oxidizing excited state of MV(2+) triggers the proton-coupled oxidation of a water molecule. The observed kinetic isotope effect of 1.7 seen in D2O vs H2O is of the magnitude expected for an ultrafast concerted proton-electron transfer reaction. The ultrafast hydrolysis seen here may be a general excited-state quenching mechanism for electronically excited Lewis acids and other powerful photooxidants in aqueous solution. PMID:25510461

  13. Hydrolysis and Partial Recycling of a Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming-Hong; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Hydrolysis of the ionic liquid Et3NHCl-2AlCl3 and a process for recycling the triethylamine were studied. When the hydrolysis was carried out at a relatively high temperature, the released HCl could be absorbed more easily. With addition of sodium hydroxide to the aqueous hydrolysis solution, a feasible process for recycling triethylamine was developed, involving first distillation of triethylamine, followed by filtration of the aluminium hydroxide. The yield of recovered triethylamine was about 95%. The triethylhydrogenammonium chloride prepared from the recycled triethylamine was of good purity and could be reused to synthesize new chloroaluminate ionic liquids.

  14. Effect of Ultrasonic Frequency on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Kato, Daiki; Xu, Zheng; Sakka, Makiko; Sakka, Kazuo

    2010-07-01

    The effect of ultrasonic frequency on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was examined. As the cellulose and enzyme, needle unbleached kraft pulp and cellulase were used. In the cases of the horn-type transducer at 20 kHz and the plate-type transducer at 28 kHz, the enzymatic hydrolysis was accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation. Total sugar concentration linearly increased with ultrasonic intensity. On the other hand, in the case of the plate-type transducer at 500 kHz, the enzymatic hydrolysis was inhibited. Total sugar concentration decreased with increasing ultrasonic intensity.

  15. Hydrolysis of mefenpyrdiethyl: an analytical and DFT investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amina Chnirheb; Mourad Harir; Basem Kanawati; Agnes Fekete; Mohammed El Azzouzi; Norbert Hertkorn; Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin

    2010-01-01

    The hydrolysis of the herbicide safener mefenpyrdiethyl (1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4, 5-dihydro-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester) was investigated in aqueous solutions in the pH range from 2 to 9 and the temperature\\u000a range from 298 to 323 K. The kinetics of hydrolysis were pseudo first order and were found to be strongly pH and temperature\\u000a dependent. While near-constant in acidic medium, the hydrolysis rates

  16. COA User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, B.; Pautz, J.; Sellers, C.

    1999-01-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  17. [Changes in chemistry component structure and microstructure characterization of acetylated wood before and after UV radiation].

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhan; Liu, Yi; Xing, Fang-Ru; Guo, Hong-Wu

    2014-11-01

    The poplar powder was acetylated with different duration as sample, processed ray radiation by using ultraviolet test box, contrasting the influences to lightfastness of wood with different acetylation degree, analyzing changing rules of characteristic peaks' intensity which belonged to the chemistry components of samples based on FTIR spectra, and the relationship between duration of acetylation and changes of chemistry components was established, The results showed that: Before UV radiation, the characteristic peaks' intensity of acetylated poplar powder at 1 739 cm(-1) which belonged to C = O in saturated esters compounds and 1 385 cm(-1) which belonged to C-H in acetate were higher than untreated ones', the poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation has the highest characteristic peaks' intensity, highest weight gain rate, remarkable acetylation effect; After UV radiation, characteristic peaks' intensity of Benzene at 1 504 cm(-1) which belonged to lignin of poplar powder was obviously higher than untreated ones', and characteristic peaks' intensity of poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation was the highest, this showed that acetylation could effectively reduce the light degradation of wood chemistry components, in order to improve the lightfastness, especially the poplar powder with 40 min's acetylation; SEM photos showed that, the fibrous surface of acetylated poplar powder was more smooth and had more narrow particle size than untreated ones', so acetylation can effectively improve the stability of wood. PMID:25752036

  18. General lysosomal hydrolysis can process prorenin accurately.

    PubMed

    Xa, Lucie K; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Mercure, Chantal; Lazure, Claude; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2014-09-01

    Renin, an aspartyl protease that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin system, is first synthesized as an inactive precursor, prorenin. Prorenin is activated by the proteolytic removal of an amino terminal prosegment in the dense granules of the juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of the kidney by one or more proteases whose identity is uncertain but commonly referred to as the prorenin-processing enzyme (PPE). Because several extrarenal tissues secrete only prorenin, we tested the hypothesis that the unique ability of JG cells to produce active renin might be explained by the existence of a PPE whose expression is restricted to JG cells. We found that inducing renin production by the mouse kidney by up to 20-fold was not associated with the concomitant induction of candidate PPEs. Because the renin-containing granules of JG cells also contain several lysosomal hydrolases, we engineered mouse Ren1 prorenin to be targeted to the classical vesicular lysosomes of cultured HEK-293 cells, where it was accurately processed and stored. Furthermore, we found that HEK cell lysosomes hydrolyzed any artificial extensions placed on the protein and that active renin was extraordinarily resistant to proteolytic degradation. Altogether, our results demonstrate that accurate processing of prorenin is not restricted to JG cells but can occur in classical vesicular lysosomes of heterologous cells. The implication is that renin production may not require a specific PPE but rather can be achieved by general hydrolysis in the lysosome-like granules of JG cells. PMID:24965790

  19. N-Terminal Acetylation Acts as an Avidity Enhancer Within an Interconnected Multiprotein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Daniel C.; Monda, Julie K.; Bennett, Eric J.; Harper, J. Wade; Schulman, Brenda A. (Harvard-Med); (SJCH)

    2012-10-25

    Although many eukaryotic proteins are amino (N)-terminally acetylated, structural mechanisms by which N-terminal acetylation mediates protein interactions are largely unknown. Here, we found that N-terminal acetylation of the E2 enzyme, Ubc12, dictates distinctive E3-dependent ligation of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to Cul1. Structural, biochemical, biophysical, and genetic analyses revealed how complete burial of Ubc12's N-acetyl-methionine in a hydrophobic pocket in the E3, Dcn1, promotes cullin neddylation. The results suggest that the N-terminal acetyl both directs Ubc12's interactions with Dcn1 and prevents repulsion of a charged N terminus. Our data provide a link between acetylation and ubiquitin-like protein conjugation and define a mechanism for N-terminal acetylation-dependent recognition.

  20. [Effect of acetylation and oxidation on some properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) seed starch].

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Aragoza, Luis E; Padilla, Fanny

    2007-09-01

    Starch extracted from seeds of Artocarpus altilis (Breadfruit) was chemically modified by acetylation and oxidation, and its functional properties were evaluated and compared with these of native starch. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that moisture content was higher for modified starches. Ash, protein, crude fiber and amylose contents were reduced by the modifications, but did not alter the native starch granules' irregularity, oval shape and smooth surface. Acetylation produced changes in water absorption, swelling power and soluble solids, these values were higher for acetylated starch, while values for native and oxidized starches were similar. Both modifications reduced pasting temperature; oxidation reduced maximum peak viscosity but it was increased by acetylation. Hot paste viscosity was reduced by both modifications, whereas cold paste viscosity was lower in the oxidized starch and higher in the acetylated starch. Breakdown was increased by acetylation and reduced with oxidation. Setback value was reduced after acetylation, indicating it could minimize retrogradation of the starch. PMID:18271408

  1. Infrared and 13C MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of acetylation of cotton.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Moses O; Frost, Ray L

    2004-01-01

    The acetylation of commercial cotton samples with acetic anhydride without solvents in the presence of about 5% 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalyst was followed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. This preliminary investigation was conducted in an effort to develop hydrophobic, biodegradable, cellulosic materials for subsequent application in oil spill cleanup. The FTIR results provide clear evidence for successful acetylation though the NMR results indicate that the level of acetylation is low. Nevertheless, the overall results indicate that cotton fibres are potential candidates suitable for further development via acetylation into hydrophobic sorbent materials for subsequent oil spill cleanup application. The results also indicate that de-acetylation, the reverse of the equilibrium acetylation reaction, occurred when the acetylation reaction was prolonged beyond 3 h. PMID:14670512

  2. Infrared and 13C MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of acetylation of cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebajo, Moses O.; Frost, Ray L.

    2004-01-01

    The acetylation of commercial cotton samples with acetic anhydride without solvents in the presence of about 5% 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalyst was followed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. This preliminary investigation was conducted in an effort to develop hydrophobic, biodegradable, cellulosic materials for subsequent application in oil spill cleanup. The FTIR results provide clear evidence for successful acetylation though the NMR results indicate that the level of acetylation is low. Nevertheless, the overall results indicate that cotton fibres are potential candidates suitable for further development via acetylation into hydrophobic sorbent materials for subsequent oil spill cleanup application. The results also indicate that de-acetylation, the reverse of the equilibrium acetylation reaction, occurred when the acetylation reaction was prolonged beyond 3 h.

  3. N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine-Mediated Regulation of Extracellular Protease in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Bidochka, Michael J.; Khachatourians, George G.

    1988-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana GK2016 grown in a liquid medium incorporating gelatin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source produced an extracellular serine protease (molecular weight, 35,000; pI ca. 10). Without gelatin, B. bassiana could utilize N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc; 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, and GlcNAc availability increased the storage carbohydrate content in mycelia. Synthesis of protease was repressed in gelatin medium containing GlcNAc at levels of >1.07 ?mol mg of fungal dry weight?1. At levels below this, protease synthesis was initiated; subsequently, free amino nitrogen appeared in the medium and diauxic growth was observed. Slow feeding with GlcNAc (35.34 ?g ml?1 h?1) did not repress protease synthesis nor did GlcNAc accumulate in the medium above 0.5 mg ml?1. Increasing the rate of release of GlcNAc (83.51 ?g ml?1 h?1) resulted in the accumulation of GlcNAc in the medium to 2.0 mg ml?1, a 45% increase in growth and a decrease in protease synthesis by about 81%. Free amino acids generated from the hydrolysis of gelatin did not repress protease synthesis. These data are interpreted in terms of known interaction of B. bassiana with insect cuticular components. We suggest that the action of extracellular chitinases synthesized by B. bassiana on insect cuticle, and pursuant release of GlcNAc, may have important consequences on the regulation of other extracellular catabolic enzymes such as the protease. Images PMID:16347772

  4. Quantitative analysis of N-sulfated, N-acetylated, and unsubstituted glucosamine amino groups in heparin and related polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Riesenfeld, J; Rodén, L

    1990-08-01

    A colorimetric procedure for quantitative determination of free and substituted glucosamine amino groups in heparin and related polysaccharides has been developed. The total content of hexosamine amino groups is determined by a modification of the method of Tsuji et al. (1969, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 17, 1505-1510); this method involves acid hydrolysis under conditions effecting complete removal of N-acetyl and N-sulfate groups, deaminative cleavage with nitrous acid, and colorimetric analysis of the resultant anhydromannose residues by reaction with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH). N-sulfated glucosamine residues are cleaved selectively by treatment with nitrous acid at pH approximately 1.5 (J. E. Shively, and H.E. Conrad, 1976, Biochemistry 15, 3932-3942) and quantitated by the MBTH reaction. Under carefully controlled conditions, deamination at pH approximately 1.5 is highly specific for N-sulfated glucosamine residues, but an excess of reagent causes some cleavage of residues with unsubstituted amino groups as well. Deaminative cleavage at pH approximately 4.5 results in preferential degradation of unsubstituted glucosamine residues, but some cleavage (5-8%) of N-sulfated residues also occurs. However, analysis of the content of N-sulfated residues by the specific pH 1.5 procedure allows appropriate corrections to be made. From the value for total hexosamine content and the sum of N-sulfated and unsubstituted residues, the content of N-acetylated residues is calculated by difference. The modified deamination procedures, in combination with product analysis by the MBTH reaction, have been applied to several problems commonly encountered in the analysis and characterization of heparin. PMID:2221389

  5. Kinetics of the hydrolysis of guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1986-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) in aqueous buffered solutions of various pH's was studied at 75 and 37 C, using spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques. The hydrolysis was found to be very slow even at low pH. At 75 C and pH at or below l.0, two kinetic processes were observed: the more rapid one was attributed to the hydrolysis of the phosphoimidazolide P-N bond; the second, much slower one, was attributed to the cleavage of the glycosidic bond. It is noted that the P-N hydrolysis in phosphoimidazolides is very slow compared to other phosphoramidates, and that this might be one of the reasons why the phosphoimidazolides showed an extraordinary ability to form long oligomers under template-directed conditions.

  6. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  7. A General Approach for Teaching Hydrolysis of Salts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Ode, Fernando

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a general approach and equation for teaching the hydrolysis of salts. This general equation covers many more sets of conditions than those currently in textbooks. The simplifying assumptions leading to the known limiting equations are straightforward. (RH)

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glycosides for their analysis in foods.

    PubMed

    Münger, Linda H; Nyström, Laura

    2014-11-15

    Steryl glycosides (SG) contribute significantly to the total intake of phytosterols. The standard analytical procedure involving acid hydrolysis fails to reflect the correct sterol profile of SG due to isomerization of some of the labile sterols. Therefore, various glycosylases were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse SG under milder conditions. Using a pure SG mixture in aqueous solution, the highest glycolytic activity, as demonstrated by the decrease in SG and increase in free sterols was achieved using inulinase preparations (decrease of >95%). High glycolytic activity was also demonstrated using hemicellulase (63%). The applicability of enzymatic hydrolysis using inulinase preparations was further verified on SG extracted from foods. For example in potato peel ?(5)-avenasteryl glucoside, a labile SG, was well preserved and contributed 26.9% of the total SG. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is suitable for replacing acid hydrolysis of SG in food lipid extracts to accurately determine the sterol profile of SG. PMID:24912717

  9. Energetic approach of biomass hydrolysis in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Cantero, Danilo A; Vaquerizo, Luis; Mato, Fidel; Bermejo, M Dolores; Cocero, M José

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose hydrolysis can be performed in supercritical water with a high selectivity of soluble sugars. The process produces high-pressure steam that can be integrated, from an energy point of view, with the whole biomass treating process. This work investigates the integration of biomass hydrolysis reactors with commercial combined heat and power (CHP) schemes, with special attention to reactor outlet streams. The innovation developed in this work allows adequate energy integration possibilities for heating and compression by using high temperature of the flue gases and direct shaft work from the turbine. The integration of biomass hydrolysis with a CHP process allows the selective conversion of biomass into sugars with low heat requirements. Integrating these two processes, the CHP scheme yield is enhanced around 10% by injecting water in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the hydrolysis reactor can be held at 400°C and 23 MPa using only the gas turbine outlet streams. PMID:25536511

  10. Raman spectrometric determination of tribasic sodium phosphate hydrolysis quotient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan G. Miller; John W. Macklin

    1983-01-01

    The hydrolysis quotient of tribasic sodium phosphate has been determined over the 0.001 to 0.4 M phosphate concentration range in order to establish hydroxide concentration limits for the quantitative determination of POâ\\/sup 3 -\\/ in aqueous solutions by laser Raman spectrometry. Concentrations of phosphate species in the hydrolysis equilibrium were measured by laser Raman spectrometry and hydroxide concentrations were determined

  11. Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils

    E-print Network

    Stewart, William M.

    1983-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING HYDROLYSIS OF CONDENSED PHOSPHATES IV SOILS A Thesis by WILLIAM MICHEAL STEWART Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1983 Major Subject: Soil Science FACTORS AFFECTING HYDROLYSIS OF CONDENSED PHOSPHATES IN SOILS A Thesis by WILLIAM MICHEAL STEWART Approved as to style and content by: Frank M. Hone (Chairman of Committee) Lloyd R. Hossner (Member...

  12. Alkaline Hydrolysis of Nitroglycerin and Activation of Luminol Chemiluminescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. B. Tsaplev

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis of nitroglycerin (G) was studied using the chemiluminescent reaction of the hydrolysis products with 4-dimethylaminophthalhydrazide (L). The chemiluminescence kinetics follows the pseudo-unimolecular law, with the rate constant k1 proportional to [OH–]. The apparent bimolecular constant k2 = k1\\/[OH–] is equal to 0.021 l mol–1 s–1. The chemiluminescence quantum yield per one nitroglycerin molecule ?G = (1.3 ± 0.3)

  13. Hydrolysis of methyl parathion in a flooded soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sharmila; K. Ramanand; N. Sethunathan

    1989-01-01

    Methyl parathion (O, O-dimethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate ) (MP) is used widely for controlling insect pests and vectors of diseases in agriculture and public health. MP, like ethyl parathion (Sethunathan et al. 1977), may undergo degradation in soil and water environments by hydrolysis, nitro group reduction or both.Hydrolysis is the major pathway in nonflooded soil while MP is degraded essentially by

  14. PCAF acetylates Runx2 and promotes osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Yang; Yang, Shu-Feng; Wang, Zhong; Tan, Jun-Ming; Xing, Shun-Min; Chen, De-Chun; Xu, Sheng-Ming; Yuan, Wen

    2013-07-01

    Osteoblasts play a crucial role in bone formation. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in osteoblast differentiation remain largely unclear. Runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) is a master transcriptional factor for osteoblast differentiation. Here we reported that p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) directly binds to Runx2 and acetylates Runx2, leading to an increase in its transcriptional activity. Upregulation of PCAF in MC3T3-E1 cells increases the expression of osteogenic marker genes including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (Ocn), and Osteopontin (Opn), and ALP activity was stimulated as well. Consequently, the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells was remarkably improved by PCAF. In contrast, PCAF knockdown decreases the mRNA levels of ALP, Ocn, and Opn. ALP activity and the mineralized area were attenuated under PCAF knockdown conditions. These results indicate that PCAF is an important regulator for promoting osteoblast differentiation via acetylation modification of Runx2. PMID:23468178

  15. Hydrolysis of mefenpyrdiethyl: an analytical and DFT investigation.

    PubMed

    Chnirheb, Amina; Harir, Mourad; Kanawati, Basem; Fekete, Agnes; El Azzouzi, Mohammed; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    The hydrolysis of the herbicide safener mefenpyrdiethyl (1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4, 5-dihydro-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester) was investigated in aqueous solutions in the pH range from 2 to 9 and the temperature range from 298 to 323 K. The kinetics of hydrolysis were pseudo first order and were found to be strongly pH and temperature dependent. While near-constant in acidic medium, the hydrolysis rates strongly increased in alkaline pH, and total hydrolysis was observed at pH 11. Two main hydrolysis products, mefenpyrethyl (monoester) and mefenpyr (dicarboxylic acid) were isolated by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and characterized using high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy (ICR-FT/MS) as well as (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR analyses. Additionally, a density functional theory (DFT) investigation explained the stability of the pesticide at pH 7 and the high reactivity of the pesticide in alkaline medium. The key nucleophilic reaction partner is hydroxyl ions instead of neutral water molecules. Furthermore, the calculated activation barrier for hydrolysis in alkaline medium is in agreement with the extrapolated and experimentally determined activation barrier at pH 14. PMID:20835868

  16. Evaluation of abalone ?-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.

    PubMed

    Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the potential of abalone ?-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia ?-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase. Abalone ?-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia ?-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) ?-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone ?-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli ?-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone ?-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone ?-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone ?-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:24488113

  17. Histone acetylation modifiers in the pathogenesis of malignant disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, U.; Hoelzer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Chromatin structure is gaining increasing attention as a potential target in the treatment of cancer. Relaxation of the chromatin fiber facilitates transcription and is regulated by two competing enzymatic activities, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which modify the acetylation state of histone proteins and other promoter-bound transcription factors. While HATs, which are frequently part of multisubunit coactivator complexes, lead to the relaxation of chromatin structure and transcriptional activation, HDACs tend to associate with multisubunit core-pressor complexes, which result in chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression of specific target genes. HATs and HDACs are known to be involved both in the pathogenesis as well as in the suppression of cancer. Some of the genes encoding these enzymes have been shown to be rearranged in the context of chromosomal translocations in human acute leukemias and solid tumors, where fusions of regulatory and coding regions of a variety of transcription factor genes result in completely new gene products that may interfere with regulatory cascades controlling cell growth and differentiation. On the other hand, some histone acetylation-modifying enzymes have been located within chromosomal regions that are particularly prone to chromosomal breaks. In these cases gains and losses of chromosomal material may affect the availability of functionally active HATs and HDACs, which in turn disturbs the tightly controlled equilibrium of histone acetylation. We review herein the recent achievements, which further help to elucidate the biological role of histone acetylation modifying enzymes and their potential impact on our current understanding of the molecular changes involved in the development of solid tumors and leukemias. PMID:11055583

  18. Photodecomposition of acetyl chloride on the excited singlet state surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sumathi; A. K. Chandra

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the plausible mechanism of fast decomposition of acetyl chloride upon 1n?* (CO) excitation through the selective C–Cl bond-fission on the lowest excited singlet state surface using abinitio quantum chemical methods. Effects of zero point energy corrections and of electron correlation have been considered. The pathway involves dissociation, via a ?Cl?*CO and a ?Cl?*C–Cl configurations where ?’s stand for

  19. Anomeric O-Alkylation of O-Acetyl-Protected Sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Klotz; Richard R. Schmidt

    1994-01-01

    Anomeric O-alkylation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-protected glucose, galactose, and mannose (1a-c) and of hepta-O-acetyllactose 5 with decyl triflate (2) in the presence of NaH as the base and in DME or DEE as solvents afforded directly decyl glycosides 3a-c and 5, respectively, in good yields. The anomeric diastereo control is temperature dependent, furnishing at room temperature preferentially the ?-anomers. Similarly, reaction of

  20. Selected properties of acetylated adipate of retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Zi?ba, T; Gryszkin, A; Kapelko, M

    2014-01-01

    Native potato starch (NS) and retrograded starch (R - obtained via freezing and defrosting of a starch paste) were used to prepare starch acetates: NS-A and R-A, and then acetylated distarch adipates: NS-ADA and R-ADA. The chemically-modified preparations produced from retrograded starch (R-A; R-ADA) were characterized by a higher degree of esterification compared to the modified preparations produced under the same conditions from native potato starch (NS-A; NS-ADA). Starch resistance to amylolysis was observed to increase (to 30-40 g/100 g) as a result of starch retrogradation and acetylation. Starch cross-linking had a significant impact on the increased viscosity of the paste in the entire course of pasting characteristics and on the increased values of rheological coefficients determined from the equations describing flow curves. The produced preparation of acetylated retrograded starch cross-linked with adipic acid (R-ADA) may be deemed an RS3/4 preparation to be used as a food thickening agent. PMID:24274559

  1. Histone Acylation beyond Acetylation: Terra Incognita in Chromatin Biology

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, Sophie; Khochbin, Saadi

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation, one of the first and best studied histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), as well as the factors involved in its deposition (writers), binding (readers) and removal (erasers), have been shown to act at the heart of regulatory circuits controlling essential cellular functions. The identification of a variety of competing histone lysine-modifying acyl groups including propionyl, butyryl, 2-hydroxyisobutyryl, crotonyl, malonyl, succinyl and glutaryl, raises numerous questions on their functional significance, the molecular systems that manage their establishment, removal and interplay with the well-known acetylation-based mechanisms. Detailed and large-scale investigations of two of these new histone PTMs, crotonylation and 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, along with histone acetylation, in the context of male genome programming, where stage-specific gene expression programs are switched on and off in turn, have shed light on their functional contribution to the epigenome for the first time. These initial investigations fired many additional questions, which remain to be explored. This review surveys the major results taken from these two new histone acylations and discusses the new biology that is emerging based on the diversity of histone lysine acylations. PMID:25870829

  2. Regulation of bacterial physiology by lysine acetylation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Vicente; Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Gallego-Jara, Julia; Écija-Conesa, Ana; de Diego, Teresa; Iborra, José Luis; Cánovas, Manuel

    2014-12-25

    Post-translational modification of proteins is a reversible mechanism of cellular adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In eukaryotes, the physiological relevance of N-?-lysine protein acetylation is well demonstrated. In recent times, important roles in the regulation of metabolic processes in bacteria are being uncovered, adding complexity to cellular regulatory networks. The aim of this mini-review is to sum up the current state-of-the-art in the regulation of bacterial physiology by protein acetylation. Current knowledge on the molecular biology aspects of known bacterial protein acetyltransferases and deacetylases will be summarized. Protein acetylation in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, will be explained in the light of their physiological relevance. Progress in the elucidation of bacterial acetylomes and the emerging understanding of chemical acylation mechanisms will be discussed together with their regulatory and evolutionary implications. Fundamental molecular studies detailing this recently discovered regulatory mechanism pave the way for their prospective application for the construction of synthetic regulation networks. PMID:24636882

  3. Inert and oxidative subcritical water hydrolysis of insoluble egg yolk granular protein, functional properties, and comparison to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ismael; Alvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2014-08-13

    The use of enzymes to recover soluble peptides with functional properties from insoluble proteins could prove to be very expensive, implying high reaction times and low yields. In this study, the insoluble granular protein, previously delipidated, was hydrolyzed using enzymes (trypsin) as a comparison to the proposed alternative method: subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) using both nitrogen and oxygen streams. The result of the hydrolysis was characterized in terms of the yield and peptide size distribution as well as different functional properties. The SWH of the delipidated granules resulted in a higher recovery yield than that obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in half of the time. The foaming capacity of the peptides obtained by SWH was higher than that obtained by trypsin hydrolysis, although the foam stability was lower. Slight differences were detected between these peptides in terms of their emulsifying properties. PMID:25033007

  4. [Effect of a biostimulant formed by yeastlike fungi on the dynamics of the accumulation of CoA, biotin and levorin in the process of growth of S. levoris].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, O S; Iakovleva, E P; Tsyganov, V A

    1983-03-01

    Regularities of the effect of a biostimulator produced by years-like fungi on accumulation of CoA, biotin and levorin in a developing culture of S. levoris were studied. It was shown that addition of the biostimulator to the fermentation medium resulted in increased accumulation of CoA and biotin in the mycelium of the levorin-producing culture within the first 48 hours of the growth and in their more intensive consumption at the final stages of the fermentation process. The rate of the levorin synthesis in the medium with the biostimulator markedly exceeded that in the control. PMID:6859822

  5. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K

    2014-08-01

    Loss of Werner syndrome protein function causes Werner syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN's DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor HU. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  6. Crystal structure of tabtoxin resistance protein complexed with acetyl coenzyme A reveals the mechanism for {beta}-lactam acetylation.

    SciTech Connect

    He, H.; Ding, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Sun, F.; Le, Y.; Qin, X.; Tang, H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Liu, J.; Zhao, N.; Rao, Z.; Biosciences Division; Tsinghua Univ.; Chinese Academy of Science

    2003-01-31

    Tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) is an enzyme that renders tabtoxin-producing pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, tolerant to their own phytotoxins. Here, we report the crystal structure of TTR complexed with its natural cofactor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to 1.55 {angstrom} resolution. The binary complex forms a characteristic 'V' shape for substrate binding and contains the four motifs conserved in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, which also includes the histone acetyltransferases (HATs). A single-step mechanism is proposed to explain the function of three conserved residues, Glu92, Asp130 and Tyr141, in catalyzing the acetyl group transfer to its substrate. We also report that TTR possesses HAT activity and suggest an evolutionary relationship between TTR and other GNAT members.

  7. Impacts of microalgae pre-treatments for improved anaerobic digestion: thermal treatment, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Francesco; Quiroga, Gerardo; Pšeni?ka, Pavel; Whitton, Rachel; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

    2014-11-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. Adoption of pre-treatments such as thermal, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to remove these inhibitory compounds and enhance biogas yields by degrading the cell wall, and releasing the intracellular algogenic organic matter (AOM). This work investigated the effect of four pre-treatments on three microalgae species, and their impact on the quantity of soluble biomass released in the media and thus on the digestion process yields. The analysis of the composition of the soluble COD released and of the TEM images of the cells showed two main degradation actions associated with the processes: (1) cell wall damage with the release of intracellular AOM (thermal, thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound) and (2) degradation of the cell wall constituents with the release of intracellular AOM and the solubilisation of the cell wall biopolymers (enzymatic hydrolysis). As a result of this, enzymatic hydrolysis showed the greatest biogas yield increments (>270%) followed by thermal hydrolysis (60-100%) and ultrasounds (30-60%). PMID:25150520

  8. Hydrolysis of cisplatin--a first-principles metadynamics study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Justin Kai-Chi; Ensing, Bernd

    2010-09-21

    Cisplatin, or cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2)Cl(2)], was the first member of a new revolutionary class of anticancer drugs that is still used today for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. The mode of action of cisplatin starts inside the cell with the hydrolysis of Pt-Cl bonds to form a Pt-aqua complex. The solvent environment plays an essential role in many biochemical processes in general, and is expected to have a particular strong effect on the activation (hydrolysis) of cisplatin and cisplatin derivatives. To investigate these solvent effects, we have studied the explicit solvent structures during cisplatin hydrolysis by means of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Since hydrolysis is an activated process, and thus a rare event on the simulation timescale, we have applied the metadynamics sampling technique to map out the free energy landscape from which the reaction mechanism and activation free energy are obtained. Our simulations show that hydrogen bonding between solvent water molecules and metal complexes in the hydrolyzed product systems is stronger than that in the reactant cisplatin system. In addition, the free energy profiles from our metadynamics simulations for the cisplatin hydrolysis shows that the second hydrolysis of cisplatin is thermodynamically favourable, which is in good agreement with experimental results and previous static density functional theory calculations. The reactant channels for both hydrolysis steps are rather wide and flat, indicative of a continuous spectrum of allowed mechanisms with no strong preference for either concerted dissociative or concerted associative pathways. Three or five coordinated metastable intermediates do not exist in aqueous solution. PMID:20582358

  9. Identification of Carboxylesterase-Dependent Dabigatran Etexilate Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Robert B.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Hu, Zhe-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Dabigatran etexilate (DABE) is an oral prodrug that is rapidly converted to the active thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran (DAB), by serine esterases. The aims of the present study were to investigate the in vitro kinetics and pathway of DABE hydrolysis by human carboxylesterase enzymes, and the effect of alcohol on these transformations. The kinetics of DABE hydrolysis in two human recombinant carboxylesterase enzymes (CES1 and CES2) and in human intestinal microsomes and human liver S9 fractions were determined. The effects of alcohol (a known CES1 inhibitor) on the formation of DABE metabolites in carboxylesterase enzymes and human liver S9 fractions were also examined. The inhibitory effect of bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate on the carboxylesterase-mediated metabolism of DABE and the effect of alcohol on the hydrolysis of a classic carboxylesterase substrate (cocaine) were studied to validate the in vitro model. The ethyl ester of DABE was hydrolyzed exclusively by CES1 to M1 (Km 24.9 ± 2.9 ?M, Vmax 676 ± 26 pmol/min per milligram protein) and the carbamate ester of DABE was exclusively hydrolyzed by CES2 to M2 (Km 5.5 ± 0.8 ?M; Vmax 71.1 ± 2.4 pmol/min per milligram protein). Sequential hydrolysis of DABE in human intestinal microsomes followed by hydrolysis in human liver S9 fractions resulted in complete conversion to DAB. These results suggest that after oral administration of DABE to humans, DABE is hydrolyzed by intestinal CES2 to the intermediate M2 metabolite followed by hydrolysis of M2 to DAB in the liver by CES1. Carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis of DABE was not inhibited by alcohol. PMID:24212379

  10. Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOEpatents

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

  11. Distinct and Predictive Histone Lysine Acetylation Patterns at Promoters, Enhancers, and Gene Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Nisha; Ernst, Jason; Ray, Pradipta; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Michael; Kellis, Manolis; Ren, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, histone lysines are frequently acetylated. However, unlike modifications such as methylations, histone acetylation modifications are often considered redundant. As such, the functional roles of distinct histone acetylations are largely unexplored. We previously developed an algorithm RFECS to discover the most informative modifications associated with the classification or prediction of mammalian enhancers. Here, we used this tool to identify the modifications most predictive of promoters, enhancers, and gene bodies. Unexpectedly, we found that histone acetylation alone performs well in distinguishing these unique genomic regions. Further, we found the association of characteristic acetylation patterns with genic regions and association of chromatin state with splicing. Taken together, our work underscores the diverse functional roles of histone acetylation in gene regulation and provides several testable hypotheses to dissect these roles. PMID:25122670

  12. A random sequential mechanism of aminoglycoside acetylation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Eis protein.

    PubMed

    Tsodikov, Oleg V; Green, Keith D; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    An important cause of bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is the enzymatic acetylation of their amino groups by acetyltransferases, which abolishes their binding to and inhibition of the bacterial ribosome. Enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) is one of such acetyltransferases, whose upregulation was recently established as a cause of resistance to aminoglycosides in clinical cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The mechanism of aminoglycoside acetylation by MtEis is not completely understood. A systematic analysis of steady-state kinetics of acetylation of kanamycin A and neomycin B by Eis as a function of concentrations of these aminoglycosides and the acetyl donor, acetyl coenzyme A, reveals that MtEis employs a random-sequential bisubstrate mechanism of acetylation and yields the values of the kinetic parameters of this mechanism. The implications of these mechanistic properties for the design of inhibitors of Eis and other aminoglycoside acetyltransferases are discussed. PMID:24699000

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the acetylation pattern of the neuronal Tau protein.

    PubMed

    Kamah, Amina; Huvent, Isabelle; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Qi, Haoling; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle; Smet-Nocca, Caroline

    2014-05-13

    Lysine acetylation of the neuronal Tau protein was described as a novel mechanism of posttranslational regulation of Tau functions with important outcomes in microtubule binding and aggregation processes related to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we unravel at a per-residue resolution the acetylation pattern of full-length Tau by the Creb-binding protein (CBP) acetyltransferase using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our study gives a quantitative overview of CBP-mediated acetylation and examines the catalytic proficiency because the nonenzymatic reaction with acetyl-coenzyme A occurs in vitro. Furthermore, we have investigated with this characterized acetylated Tau the effect of acetylation on Tau fibrillization in a heparin-induced aggregation assay and on heparin binding. PMID:24708343

  14. Intranuclear localization of histone acetylation in Physarum polycephalum and the structure of functionally active chromatin.

    PubMed

    Waterborg, J H; Matthews, H R

    1983-12-01

    Based on studies of histone acetylation in vivo in Physarum polycephalum, we present the following hypotheses: (1) Transcription-specific histone acetylation on histones H3 and H4 is a localized process at the nuclear matrix; (2) Histone acetylation in the S phase, which is specific for newly synthesized histones, occurs in an intranuclear nonlocalized process. These hypotheses can explain: (1) the histone specificity of histone acetylation that is dependent on the functional state of the chromatin; (2) the apparent absence of turnover of histone acetylation in the bulk of the chromatin despite a definite low level of steady-state acetylation of all four core histones in bulk chromatin; (3) the pattern of butyrate-induced hyperacetylation observed for active and inactive chromatin. PMID:6202412

  15. Autoimmune regulator is acetylated by transcription coactivator CBP/p300

    SciTech Connect

    Saare, Mario, E-mail: mario.saare@ut.ee [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia)] [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia); Rebane, Ana [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia) [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia); SIAF, Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, University of Zuerich, Davos (Switzerland); Rajashekar, Balaji; Vilo, Jaak [BIIT, Bioinformatics, Algorithmics and Data Mining group, Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia)] [BIIT, Bioinformatics, Algorithmics and Data Mining group, Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Peterson, Paert [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia)] [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia)

    2012-08-15

    The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is a regulator of transcription in the thymic medulla, where it controls the expression of a large set of peripheral-tissue specific genes. AIRE interacts with the transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase CBP and synergistically cooperates with it in transcriptional activation. Here, we aimed to study a possible role of AIRE acetylation in the modulation of its activity. We found that AIRE is acetylated in tissue culture cells and this acetylation is enhanced by overexpression of CBP and the CBP paralog p300. The acetylated lysines were located within nuclear localization signal and SAND domain. AIRE with mutations that mimicked acetylated K243 and K253 in the SAND domain had reduced transactivation activity and accumulated into fewer and larger nuclear bodies, whereas mutations that mimicked the unacetylated lysines were functionally similar to wild-type AIRE. Analogously to CBP, p300 localized to AIRE-containing nuclear bodies, however, the overexpression of p300 did not enhance the transcriptional activation of AIRE-regulated genes. Further studies showed that overexpression of p300 stabilized the AIRE protein. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that AIRE, with mutations mimicking K243/K253 acetylation in SAND, was able to activate gene expression, although the affected genes were different and the activation level was lower from those regulated by wild-type AIRE. Our results suggest that the AIRE acetylation can influence the selection of AIRE activated genes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE is acetylated by the acetyltransferases p300 and CBP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation occurs between CARD and SAND domains and within the SAND domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases the size of AIRE nuclear dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases AIRE protein stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE acetylation mimic regulates a different set of AIRE target genes.

  16. Acetylation of non-histone proteins modulates cellular signalling at multiple levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Spange; Tobias Wagner; Thorsten Heinzel; Oliver H. Krämer

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the posttranslational acetylation of non-histone proteins, which determines vital regulatory processes. The recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases to the transcriptional machinery is a key element in the dynamic regulation of genes controlling cellular proliferation and differentiation. A steadily growing number of identified acetylated non-histone proteins demonstrate that reversible lysine acetylation affects mRNA stability, and

  17. N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase in Human Serum and Erythrocyte Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young S. Kim; Jose Perdomo; Agustin Bella; Judith Nordberg

    1971-01-01

    This study demonstrates the presence of an N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase in human serum and in erythrocyte membranes. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine from UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine to a mucin receptor and 2'-fucosyllactose that have blood group H activity and may be responsible, therefore, for blood group A antigenicity. It was present in the serum of individuals with blood group A or AB

  18. The laccase-catalyzed modification of lignin for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Ulla; Kellock, Miriam; Galkin, Sari; Viikari, Liisa

    2011-12-10

    The efficient use of cellulases in the hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is limited due to the presence of lignin. Lignin is known to bind hydrolytic enzymes nonspecifically, thereby reducing their action on carbohydrate substrates. The composition and location of residual lignin therefore seem to be important for optimizing the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates. The use of lignin-modifying enzymes such as laccase may have potential in the modification or partial removal of lignin from the biomass. In this study, the effect of lignin modification by laccase on the hydrolysis of pretreated spruce (Picea abies) and giant reed (Arundo donax) was evaluated. The substrates were first treated with laccase and then hydrolyzed with commercial cellulases. Laccase modification improved the hydrolysis yield of spruce by 12%, but surprisingly had an adverse effect on giant reed, reducing the hydrolysis yield by 17%. The binding properties of cellulases on the untreated and laccase-treated lignins were further studied using isolated lignins. The laccase treatment reduced the binding of enzymes on modified spruce lignin, whereas with giant reed, the amount of bound proteins increased after laccase treatment. Further understanding of the reactions of laccase on lignin will help to control the unspecific-binding of cellulases on lignocellulosic substrates. PMID:22142723

  19. Hydrolysis and acidification of grass silage in leaching bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Xie, S; Lawlor, P G; Frost, J P; Wu, G; Zhan, X

    2012-06-01

    Hydrolysis and acidification of grass silage (GS) was examined in leaching bed reactors (LBRs) under organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3)/day. The LBRs were run in duplicate over five consecutive batch tests (Batch tests 1-5) to examine the effects of pH, leachate dilution and addition of inoculum on the process of hydrolysis and acidification. The highest GS hydrolysis yields of 52-58%, acidification yields of 57-60% and VS removals of 62-66% were obtained in Batch test 4. Increasing OLRs affected the hydrolysis yield negatively. In Batch test 4, the reduction of lignocellulosic materials was up to 74.4% of hemicellulose, 30.1% of cellulose and 9.3% of lignin within 32 days. Cellulase activity can be used as an indicator for the hydrolysis process. Methane production from the LBRs only accounted for 10.0-13.8% of the biological methane potential of GS. PMID:22459960

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and various pretreated wood fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Saddler, J.N.; Brownell, H.H.; Clermont, L.P.; Levitin, N.

    1982-06-01

    Three strains of Trichoderma-Trichoderma reesei C30, Trichoderma reesei QM9414, and Trichoderma species E58-were used to study the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wood substrates. Each of the culture filtrates was incubated with a variety of commercially prepared cellulose substrates and pretreated wood substrates. Solka floc was the most easily degraded commercial cellulose. The enzyme accessibility of steam-exploded samples which has been alkali extracted and then stored wet decreased with the duration of the steam treatment. Air drying reduced the extent of hydrolysis of all the samples but had a greater effect on the samples which had previously shown the greatest hydrolysis. Mild pulping using 2% chlorite increased the enzymatic hydrolysis of all the samples. Steam explosion was shown to be an excellent pretreatment method for aspen wood and was much superior to dilute nitric acid pretreatment. The results indicate that the distribution of the lignin as well as the surface area of the cellulosic substrate are important features in enzymatic hydrolysis. (Refs 17).

  1. Fluoride incorporation into apatite crystals delays amelogenin hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    DenBesten, Pamela; Zhu, Li; Li, Wu; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Liu, Haichuan; Witkowska, Halina Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis has been related to an increase in the amount of amelogenin in fluorosed enamel as compared to normal enamel in the maturation stage. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fluoride incorporated into carbonated apatite alters amelogenin hydrolysis. Recombinant human amelogenin (rh174) was allowed to bind to 0.15 mg of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) or fluoride-containing carbonated hydroxyapatite (F-CAP) synthesized to contain 100, 1000 or 4000 ppm F-. After 3 h digestion with recombinant human MMP20 or KLK4, bound protein was characterized by reverse-phase HPLC. Proteolytic fragments formed after 24 h digestion of amelogenin, were identified by LC tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). The hydrolysis of amelogenin bound to F100-CAP by both MMP20 and KLK4 was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner as compared to CAP. After 24 h hydrolysis, the number of cleavage sites in bound amelogenin by MMP20 were similar in CAP and F100-CAP, whereas there were 24 fewer cleavage sites identified for the KLK4 hydrolysis on F100-CAP as compared to CAP. These results suggest that the reduced hydrolysis of amelogenins in fluorosed enamel may be partially due to the increased fluoride content in fluoride containing apatite, contributing to the hypomineralized enamel matrix phenotype observed in fluorosed enamel. PMID:22243219

  2. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2012-03-30

    A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 ?m. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation. PMID:22326245

  3. Infrared and EPR Spectroscopic Characterization of a Ni(I) Species Formed by Photolysis of a Catalytically Competent Ni(I)-CO Intermediate in the Acetyl-CoA Synthase Reaction†

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Güne?; Stich, Troy A.; Yan, Lifen; Britt, R. David; Cramer, Stephen P.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CO, coenzyme A (CoA), and a methyl-group from the CH3-Co3+ site in the corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CFeSP). These are the key steps in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO and CO2 fixation. The active site of ACS is the A-cluster, which is an unusual nickel-iron-sulfur cluster. There is significant evidence for the catalytic intermediacy of a CO-bound paramagnetic Ni species, with an electronic configuration of [Fe4S4]2+-(Nip1+–CO)-(Nid2+), where Nip and Nid represent the Ni centers in the A-cluster that are proximal and distal to the [Fe4S4]2+ cluster. This well-characterized Nip1+–CO intermediate is often called NiFeC species. Photolysis of the Nip1+–CO state generates a novel Nip1+ species (Ared*) with a rhombic electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum (g-values of 2.56, 2.10, 2.01) and an extremely low (1 kJ/mol) barrier for recombination with CO. We suggest that the photolytically generated Ared* species is (or is similar to) the Nip1+ species that binds CO (to form the Nip1+–CO species) and the methyl group (to form Nip-CH3) in the ACS catalytic mechanism. The results provide support for a binding site (an “alcove”) for CO near Nip, indicated by X-ray crystallographic studies of the Xe-incubated enzyme. We propose that, during catalysis, a resting Nip2+ state predominates over the active Nip1+ species (Ared*) that is trapped by the coupling of a one-electron transfer step to the binding of CO, which pulls the equilibrium toward Nip1+-CO formation. PMID:20669901

  4. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  5. Histone Acetylation and CREB Binding Protein Are Required for Neuronal Resistance against Ischemic Injury

    E-print Network

    Yildirim, Ferah

    Epigenetic transcriptional regulation by histone acetylation depends on the balance between histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase activities (HDAC). Inhibition of HDAC activity provides neuroprotection, indicating ...

  6. Targeted Quantitation of Acetylated Lysine Peptides by Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rardin, Matthew J.; Held, Jason M.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the large-scale identification of multiple peptide analytes in complex mixtures. However, the low abundance of acetylated peptides in the overall mixture requires an enrichment step. After enrichment, the resulting acetylated peptides of interest can be quantitated using selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS with stable isotope dilution. Here, we describe the enrichment of lysine acetylated peptides from typsin digested mouse liver mitochondria, and the targeted quantitation of a known lysine acetylation site in succinate dehydrogenase A using SRM-MS on a triple quadrupole instrument. PMID:24014403

  7. Aurora B is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation during mitosis in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fadri-Moskwik, Maria; Weiderhold, Kimberly N.; Deeraksa, Arpaporn; Chuang, Carol; Pan, Jing; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Protein acetylation has been implicated in playing an important role during mitotic progression. Aurora B kinase is known to play a critical role in mitosis. However, whether Aurora B is regulated by acetylation is not known. Using IP with an anti-acetyl lysine antibody, we identified Aurora B as an acetylated protein in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of HDAC3 or inhibiting HDAC3 deacetylase activity led to a significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) in Aurora B acetylation as compared to siLuc or vehicle-treated controls. Increased Aurora B acetylation is correlated with a 30% reduction in Aurora B kinase activity in vitro and resulted in significant defects in Aurora B-dependent mitotic processes, including kinetochore-microtubule attachment and chromosome congression. Furthermore, Aurora B transiently interacts with HDAC3 at the kinetochore-microtubule interface of congressing chromosomes during prometaphase. This window of interaction corresponded with a transient but significant reduction (P=0.02) in Aurora B acetylation during early mitosis. Together, these results indicate that Aurora B is more active in its deacetylated state and further suggest a new mechanism by which dynamic acetylation/deacetylation acts as a rheostat to fine-tune Aurora B activity during mitotic progression.—Fadri-Moskwik, M., Weiderhold, K. N., Deeraksa, A., Chuang, C., Pan, J., Lin, S.-H., Yu-Lee, L.-Y. Aurora B is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation during mitosis in prostate cancer cells. PMID:22751009

  8. Statistical assessment of the global regulatory role of histone acetylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Cheng Yuan; Ping Ma; Wenxuan Zhong; Jun S Liu

    2006-01-01

    Background  Histone acetylation plays important but incompletely understood roles in gene regulation. A comprehensive understanding of\\u000a the regulatory role of histone acetylation is difficult because many different histone acetylation patterns exist and their\\u000a effects are confounded by other factors, such as the transcription factor binding sequence motif information and nucleosome\\u000a occupancy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We analyzed recent genomewide histone acetylation data using a few

  9. Involvement of Protein Acetylation in Glucose-induced Transcription of a Stress-Responsive Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Bruno P.; Antelmann, Haike; Gronau, Katrin; Chi, Bui Khanh; Becher, Dörte; Brinsmade, Shaun R.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary In eukaryotes, lysine acetylation is a well-established posttranslational modification that has been implicated in virtually all aspects of eukaryotic physiology. Although homologs of the enzymes that catalyze protein acetylation are widely conserved and distributed amongst bacterial species, not much is known about the impact of protein acetylation on bacterial physiology. Here, we present evidence that the Gcn5-like acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin deacetylase CobB play crucial roles in the transcription regulation of the periplasmic stress-responsive promoter cpxP when cells of Escherichia coli grow in the presence of glucose, an environment that induces protein acetylation. Under this growth condition, several acetylation sites were detected on three of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) subunits: ?, ?’ and ?. We focused on acetylations of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of ? because of its relative small size and its limited acetylation. We determined that K298 of ? is acetylated in a glucose and YfiQ-dependent manner and that K298 is specifically required for glucose-induced cpxP transcription. Since the ?CTD aids in promoter recognition by RNA polymerase, we propose its acetylation may influence bacterial physiology through effects on gene expression. PMID:21696463

  10. Histone acetylation facilitates RNA polymerase II transcription of the Drosophila hsp26 gene in chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, K P; Wellinger, R E; Sogo, J M; Becker, P B

    1998-01-01

    A number of activators are known to increase transcription by RNA polymerase (pol) II through protein acetylation. While the physiological substrates for those acetylases are poorly defined, possible targets include general transcription factors, activator proteins and histones. Using a cell-free system to reconstitute chromatin with increased histone acetylation levels, we directly tested for a causal role of histone acetylation in transcription by RNA pol II. Chromatin, containing either control or acetylated histones, was reconstituted to comparable nucleosome densities and characterized by electron microscopy after psoralen cross-linking as well as by in vitro transcription. While H1-containing control chromatin severely repressed transcription of our model hsp26 gene, highly acetylated chromatin was significantly less repressive. Acetylation of histones, and particularly of histone H4, affected transcription at the level of initiation. Monitoring the ability of the transcription machinery to associate with the promoter in chromatin, we found that heat shock factor, a crucial regulator of heat shock gene transcription, profited most from histone acetylation. These experiments demonstrate that histone acetylation can modulate activator access to their target sites in chromatin, and provide a causal link between histone acetylation and enhanced transcription initiation of RNA pol II in chromatin. PMID:9582280

  11. in Silico mutagenesis and docking studies of active site residues suggest altered substrate specificity and possible physiological role of Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1)

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Prashant; Patel, Krunal; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Singh, Somesh; Khan, Bashir Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) carries out the first committed step in monolignol biosynthesis and acts as a first regulatory point in lignin formation. CCR shows multiple substrate specificity towards various cinnamoyl CoA esters. Here, in Silico mutagenesis studies of active site residues of Ll-CCRH1 were carried out. Homology modeling based modeled 3D structure of Ll-CCRH1 was used as template for in Silico mutant preparations. Docking simulations of Ll-CCRH1 mutants with CoA esters by AutoDock Vina tools showed altered substrate specificity as compared to wild type. The study evidences that conformational changes, and change in geometry or architecture of active site pocket occurred following mutations. The altered substrate specificity for active site mutants suggests the possible physiological role of CCR either in lignin formation or in defense system in plants. Abbreviations Ll-CCRH1 - Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1, OPLS - Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations, RMSD - Root Mean Square Deviation. PMID:23515358

  12. The polymerization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Beaty, N B; Lane, M D

    1983-11-10

    Citrate, an allosteric activator of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, induces polymerization of an inactive protomeric form of the enzyme into an active filamentous form composed of 10-20 protomers. The light-scattering properties of the carboxylase were used to study the kinetics of its polymerization and depolymerization. From stopped flow kinetic studies, we have established that polymerization is a second order process, with a second order rate constant of 597,000 M-1 s-1. There appear to be two steps which limit polymerization of the inactive carboxylase protomer: 1) a rapid citrate-induced conformational change which is independent of enzyme concentration and leads to an active protomeric form of the enzyme (Beaty, N. B., and Lane, M. D. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 13043-13050, preceding paper) and 2) the dimerization of the active protomer, which constitutes the first step of polymerization and is enzyme concentration-dependent. Dimerization is the rate-limiting step of acetyl-CoA carboxylase polymerization. Depolymerization of fully polymerized acetyl-CoA carboxylase is caused by malonyl-CoA, ATP X Mg, and Mg2+. Both malonyl-CoA and ATP X Mg (and HCO-3) compete with citrate in the maintenance of a given state of the protomer-polymer equilibrium apparently by carboxylating the enzyme to form enzyme-biotin-CO-2 which destablizes the polymeric form. Free citrate is the species responsible for polymerizing the enzyme and Mg2+ causes depolymerization of the enzyme by lowering the concentration of free citrate. PMID:6138356

  13. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (?48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (?90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea addition were evaluated in the dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process). Addition of proteases resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (15.2 to 18.0% v/v) and lower (DDGS) yields (32.9 to 45.8% db) compared to the control (no protease addition). As level of proteases and GSHE increased, ethanol concentrations increased and DDGS yields decreased. Proteases addition reduced required GSHE dose. Ethanol concentrations with protease addition alone were higher than with urea or with addition of both protease and urea. Corn endosperm consists of soft and hard endosperm. More exposed starch granules and rough surfaces produced from soft endosperm compared to hard endosperm will create more surface area which will benefit the solid phase hydrolysis as used in GSH process. In this study, the effects of protease, urea, endosperm hardness and GSHE levels on the GSH process were evaluated. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from dry milling pilot plant. Soft endosperm resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) for soft and hard endosperm. The effect of protease addition on increasing ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was more predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm and least for ground corn. The GSH process with protease resulted in higher ethanol concentration than that with urea. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm due to the presence of inherent nutrients which enhanced yeast growth.

  14. Fundamental Reaction Pathway and Free Energy Profile for Butyrylcholinesterase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yan; Han, Keli; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological function of heroin requires an activation process which transforms heroin into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which is the most active form. The primary enzyme responsible for this activation process in human plasma is butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The detailed reaction pathway of the activation process via BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis has been explored computationally, for the first time, in the present study by performing molecular dynamics simulation and first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy calculations. It has been demonstrated that the whole reaction process includes acylation and deacylation stages. The acylation consists of two reaction steps, i.e. the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of 3-acetyl group of heroin by the hydroxyl oxygen of Ser198 side chain and the dissociation of 6-MAM. The deacylation also consists of two reaction steps, i.e. the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the acyl-enzyme intermediate by a water molecule and the dissociation of the acetic acid from Ser198. The calculated free energy profile reveals that the second transition state (TS2) should be rate-determining. The structural analysis reveals that the oxyanion hole of BChE plays an important role in the stabilization of the rate-determining transition state TS2. The free energy barrier (15.9±0.2 or 16.1±0.2 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is in good agreement with the experimentally-derived activation free energy (~16.2 kcal/mol), suggesting that the mechanistic insights obtained from the present computational study are reliable. The obtained structural and mechanistic insights could be valuable for use in future rational design of a novel therapeutic treatment of heroin abuse. PMID:23992153

  15. Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin.

    PubMed

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Rosenberg, Erwin; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-08-26

    The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins. PMID:25170180

  16. Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin?

    PubMed Central

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Rosenberg, Erwin; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins. PMID:25170180

  17. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of acetylated depsidones from Lobaria pulmonaria.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Iodice, Carmine; Tesevic, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing project of new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from lower marine and terrestrial species, a phytochemical investigation was conducted on a foliose lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (Lobariaceae), from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study led to the isolation of a mixture of acetylated depsidones which showed a moderate activity (0.5?µg) in the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test on Thin-layer chromatography plate. Our results indicate for the first time the significance of depsidones, highly specific metabolites from lichen species, in searching for these inhibitors which still represent the best drugs currently available for the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21985528

  18. Characteristics of enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose under static condition.

    PubMed

    Taneda, Daisuke; Ueno, Yoshiki; Ikeo, Makoto; Okino, Shohei

    2012-10-01

    The effect of enzyme loading under static and agitated conditions was investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of 10 w/v% de-lignified cellulose slurry such as filter paper, avicel and pulp was conducted under agitated (120 rpm) and static condition, and the enzyme loading ranging from 1.2 to 120 mg-protein/g-dry substrate. Under the agitated condition, the final sugar concentration decreased with the decreasing enzyme loading. Under the static condition, the final sugar concentration was maintained even if the enzyme loading was decreased. The above phenomenon was caused by a rapid precipitation of cellobiohydrolase 2 (CBH2) under the agitated condition, which was not observed under the static condition. The hydrolysis experiments using enzymes containing different ratios of cellobiohydrolase 1 (CBH1) and CBH2 under the static condition suggested that preservation of CBH2 and its synergism with CBH1 is essential for static condition's characteristics, and for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:22858480

  19. Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, we examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. We also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

  20. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenqiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan is not soluble in water, which limits its wide application particularly in the medicine and food industry. In the present study, water soluble chitosan (WSC) was prepared by hydrolyzing chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid in homogeneous phase. Factors affecting hydrolysis were investigated and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. The WSC structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products were composed of chitooligosaccharides of DP 2-9. The WSC content of the product and the yield were 94.7% and 92.3% (w/w), respectively. The results indicate that WSC can be effectively prepared by hydrolysis of chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. PMID:23603076

  1. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of rapid and slow acetylator polymorphic N-acetyl-transferase encoding genes of the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, R J; Doll, M A; Rustan, T D; Hein, D W

    1996-02-01

    Syrian hamster acetylation capacity is catalysed by two N-acetyltransferase isozymes (NAT1 and NAT2). Hamster NAT2 (polymorphic) displays acetylator-genotype dependent activity resulting in high, intermediate, and low activity levels in homozygous rapid, heterozygous and homozygous slow acetylators, respectively. A lambda gt10 size-selected genomic library was constructed from Eco RI-digested homozygous slow acetylator Bio. 82.73/H-Pats congenic hamster DNA and screened with a hamster NAT1 probe. A 4.2 kb Eco RI insert from a positive clone was subcloned into pUC18 and the intron-free NAT2 coding region was sequenced. The NAT2 coding regions from genomic templates of other homozygous rapid and slow acetylator congenic and inbred hamster lines were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. Two NAT2 alleles were found, one (NAT2*15) from each homozygous rapid acetylator line and one (NAT2*16A) from each homozygous slow acetylator line. NAT2*15 contained an 870 bp open reading frame encoding a 290 amino acid protein. NAT2*16A was similar except for two silent (T36C and A633G) and one nonsense (C727T) substitutions yielding a 242 amino acid open reading frame. The NAT2*15 and NAT2*16A alleles were expressed in Escherichia coli JM105 and the recombinant proteins were characterized. Electrophoretic mobilities of the NAT2 15 and NAT2 16A recombinant hamster proteins differed and correlated with the theoretical molecular weights calculated from their respective open reading frames. NAT2 16A exhibited 500-to 1000-fold lower maximum velocities compared to NAT2 15 for N-acetylation of all arylamine and hydrazine substrates tested. NAT2 16A also catalysed the metabolic activation of N-hydroxyarylamines and N-hydroxyarylamides at rates 33- and 23-fold lower than NAT2 15. Intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) calculations suggest that N-acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid and 2-aminofluorene in Syrian hamsters is catalysed primarily by NAT2 (NAT2 15) in rapid acetylators but by NAT1 (NAT1 9) in slow acetylators. These results provide a molecular basis for rapid and slow acetylator phenotype in the Syrian hamster. PMID:8845861

  2. Hydrolysis and photolysis of oxytetracycline in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Richeng; Arisi, Lestley; Wang, Qiquan; Yates, Scott R; Biswas, Keka C

    2010-01-01

    Oxytetracycline ((2Z,4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6S,12aS)-2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene-1,3,12-trione) is a member of tetracycline antibiotics family and is widely administered to farm animals for the purpose of therapeutical treatment and health protection. Increasing attention has been paid to the environmental fate of oxytetracycline and other veterinary antibiotics with the occurrence of these antibiotics in the environment. The hydrolysis and photolysis degradation of oxytetracycline was investigated in this study. Oxytetracycline hydrolysis was found to obey the first-order model and similar rate constant values ranging from 0.094 +/- 0.001 to 0.106 +/- 0.003 day(-1) were obtained at different initial concentration ranging from 10 to 230 microM. Solution pH and temperature were shown to have remarked effects on oxytetracycline hydrolysis. The hydrolysis in pH neutral solution appeared to be much faster than in both acidic and alkaline solutions. Oxytetracycline half-life decreased from 1.2 x 10(2) to 0.15 day with the increasing temperature from 4 +/- 0.8 to 60 +/- 1 degrees C. The presence of Ca(2+) made oxytetracycline hydrolytic degradation kinetics deviate from the simple first-order model to the availability-adjusted first-order model and greatly slowed down the hydrolysis. Oxytetracycline photolysis was found to be very fast with a degradation rate constant at 3.61 +/- 0.06 day(-1), which is comparable to that of hydrolysis at 60 degrees C. The presence of Ca(2+) accelerated oxytetracycline photolysis, implying that oxytetracycline become more vulnerable to sunlight irradiation after chelating with Ca(2+). The photolysis may be the dominant degradation pathway of oxytetracycline in shallow transparent water environment. PMID:20390934

  3. Bacterial hydrolysis and methane fermentation of lignocellulosic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, X.

    1992-01-01

    In order for methane fermentation of lignocellulosic materials to be an effective method for providing both a renewable energy source and a means to reduce the volume of municipal solids wastes, a better understanding of the fermentation process is required, because this process has been generally observed to be a slow and incomplete one. This dissertation focused on understanding of the rate-limiting mechanisms of methane fermentation, including the influence of the type of lignocellulosic materials, bacterial culture characteristics, bacterial concentration, pH, and temperature. Lignocellulosic materials selected for this study were: corn stover, wheat straw, napier grass, wood grass, newspaper, and white fir. Four methanogenic cultures grown on monosaccharides, purified holocellulose, wheat straw, and mixed municipal sludge, respectively, were developed at 35[degrees]C and neutral pH. Each of the four bacterial cultures developed a glucose and cellobiose consumption potential higher than the methanogenic potential, which in turn was higher than the lignocellulosic hydrolysis potential. Further examination of lignocellulosic hydrolysis revealed that it is the step in which bacteria and enzymes can have access to holocellulosic polymers that limits the hydrolysis rate. Microscopic examination revealed that hydrolysis appears to have occurred only at the points of physical contact between the hydrolytic bacteria and the particle surface. Both fermentation rate and extent were greatly influenced by the lignocellulosic material used and by pH and temperature, but they were much less affected by the bacterial culture employed. Lignocellulosic hydrolysis reached a maximum rate at relatively low bacterial concentrations. Both hydrolysis and fermentation processes can be adequately modeled by a first-order rate equation. Linear correlations between lignin content and biodegradability or methane conversion rate were very poor.

  4. Soluble epoxide hydrolase regulates hydrolysis of vasoactive epoxyeicosatrienoic acids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Xu, F; Huse, L M; Morisseau, C; Draper, A J; Newman, J W; Parker, C; Graham, L; Engler, M M; Hammock, B D; Zeldin, D C; Kroetz, D L

    2000-11-24

    The cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have potent effects on renal vascular reactivity and tubular sodium and water transport; however, the role of these eicosanoids in the pathogenesis of hypertension is controversial. The current study examined the hydrolysis of the EETs to the corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) as a mechanism for regulation of EET activity and blood pressure. EET hydrolysis was increased 5- to 54-fold in renal cortical S9 fractions from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) relative to the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. This increase was most significant for the 14,15-EET regioisomer, and there was a clear preference for hydrolysis of 14, 15-EET over the 8,9- and 11,12-EETs. Increased EET hydrolysis was consistent with increased expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in the SHR renal microsomes and cytosol relative to the WKY samples. The urinary excretion of 14,15-DHET was 2.6-fold higher in the SHR than in the WKY rat, confirming increased EET hydrolysis in the SHR in vivo. Blood pressure was decreased 22+/-4 mm Hg (P:<0.01) 6 hours after treatment of SHRs with the selective sEH inhibitor N:, N:'-dicyclohexylurea; this treatment had no effect on blood pressure in the WKY rat. These studies identify sEH as a novel therapeutic target for control of blood pressure. The identification of a potent and selective inhibitor of EET hydrolysis will be invaluable in separating the vascular effects of the EET and DHET eicosanoids. PMID:11090543

  5. Benzene/nitrous oxide flammability in the precipitate hydrolysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R A [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.

    1989-09-18

    The HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process for destruction of nitrite in precipitate hydrolysis produces nitrous oxide (N2O) gas as one of the products. N2O can form flammable mixtures with benzene which is also present due to radiolysis and hydrolysis of tetraphenylborate. Extensive flame modeling and explosion testing was undertaken to define the minimum oxidant for combustion of N2O/benzene using both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The attached memorandum interprets and documents the results of the studies.

  6. Hydrolysis of the chlorophosphazenes: cyclic trimer and linear polymer

    E-print Network

    Gabler, Douglas G

    1991-01-01

    -linking of poly(dichlorophosphazene). Hydrolysis of the trimer in THF solutions has been followed through the first three equivalents of water using 31 P NMR as the primary analytical tool. A total of seven products were identified, at least one of which has...(dichlorophosphazene) was carried out in solutions of THF. The hydrolysis reaction was monitored with P NMR 31 until gel formation occured which is observed when 7% of the phosphorus have been hydrolyzed. Evidence also suggests that gel formation is the result of hydrogen...

  7. Hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by mycelial biomass of Penicillium funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Deshpande, V.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Mishra, C.

    1985-07-01

    Cellulose bioconversion has great promise for producing unlimited quantities of fermentable feedstocks and liquid fuels. Extensive studies on the production of extracellular cellulase and on the saccharification of various cellulosic substrates using cellulases have been reported. Use of mycelial biomass having cell bound cellulase for saccharification of cellulose was studied in Aspergillus terreus by Miller and Srinivasan. Extracellular cellulase production by P. funiculosum and its application for cellulose hydrolysis have been reported earlier by the authors. The present communication reports the hydrolysis of lignocellulose using mycelial biomass of P. funiculosum cultivated on cellulose and its reuse potential. 10 references.

  8. The mechanisms of plant cell wall deconstruction during enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Thybring, Emil E; Johansen, Katja S; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble plant biomass at high dry matter contents is indispensable for the initial liquefaction step in biorefining. It is known that particle size reduction is an important part of liquefaction, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we put forward a simple model based on mechanical principles capable of capturing the result of the interaction between mechanical forces and cell wall weakening via hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds. This study illustrates that basic material science insights are relevant also within biochemistry, particularly when it comes to up-scaling of processes based on insoluble feed stocks. PMID:25232741

  9. The Mechanisms of Plant Cell Wall Deconstruction during Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Thygesen, Lisbeth G.; Thybring, Emil E.; Johansen, Katja S.; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble plant biomass at high dry matter contents is indispensable for the initial liquefaction step in biorefining. It is known that particle size reduction is an important part of liquefaction, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we put forward a simple model based on mechanical principles capable of capturing the result of the interaction between mechanical forces and cell wall weakening via hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds. This study illustrates that basic material science insights are relevant also within biochemistry, particularly when it comes to up-scaling of processes based on insoluble feed stocks. PMID:25232741

  10. Acetylation of Gly1 and Lys2 promotes aggregation of human ?D-crystallin.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Michael A; Nandi, Sandip K; Raghavan, Cibin T; Kar, Rajiv Kumar; Wang, Benlian; Bhunia, Anirban; Nagaraj, Ram H; Biswas, Ashis

    2014-11-25

    The human lens contains three major protein families: ?-, ?-, and ?-crystallin. Among the several variants of ?-crystallin in the human lens, ?D-crystallin is a major form. ?D-Crystallin is primarily present in the nuclear region of the lens and contains a single lysine residue at the second position (K2). In this study, we investigated the acetylation of K2 in ?D-crystallin in aging and cataractous human lenses. Our results indicated that K2 is acetylated at an early age and that the amount of K2-acetylated ?D-crystallin increased with age. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that in addition to K2, glycine 1 (G1) was acetylated in ?D-crystallin from human lenses and in ?D-crystallin acetylated in vitro. The chaperone ability of ?-crystallin for acetylated ?D-crystallin was lower than that for the nonacetylated protein. The tertiary structure and the microenvironment of the cysteine residues were significantly altered by acetylation. The acetylated protein exhibited higher surface hydrophobicity, was unstable against thermal and chemical denaturation, and exhibited a higher propensity to aggregate at 80 °C in comparison to the nonacetylated protein. Acetylation enhanced the GdnHCl-induced unfolding and slowed the subsequent refolding of ?D-crystallin. Theoretical analysis indicated that the acetylation of K2 and G1 reduced the structural stability of the protein and brought the distal cysteine residues (C18 and C78) into close proximity. Collectively, these results indicate that the acetylation of G1 and K2 residues in ?D-crystallin likely induced a molten globule-like structure, predisposing it to aggregation, which may account for the high content of aggregated proteins in the nucleus of aged and cataractous human lenses. PMID:25393041

  11. Acetylation of loofa (Luffa cylindrica) sponge as immobilization carrier for bioprocesses involving cellulase.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Ogbonna, James C; Aoyagi, Hideki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2007-04-01

    The feasibility of using loofa sponge for immobilization of cellulase-producing microorganisms was investigated by acetylating loofa sponge. Acetylation was achieved by autoclaving process of loofa sponge immersed in acetic anhydride at various temperatures for various times. The degree of acetylation, as inferred by the weight percentage gain (WPG), was enhanced by increasing both temperature and the duration of acetylation. The acetylation of a piece of loofa sponge in an autoclave at 120 degrees C for 20 min resulted in a WPG of about 8%, which was sufficient to protect the loofa sponge against cellulose degradation. The acetylated loofa sponge prepared under this condition was not decomposed by commercial cellulase and its structure was maintained for more than 720 h during repeated-batch treatments with commercial cellulase. A flocculating yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2) and a fungus (Trichoderma reesei QM9414) were successfully immobilized in the acetylated loofa sponge. In each case, the percentage of immobilized cells was as high as that obtained using nonacetylated loofa sponge. Acetylation had no adverse effects on cell growth and immobilization of T. reesei QM9414, as well as on cell growth and ethanol production by S. cerevisiae IR-2. T. reesei QM9414 immobilized on an acetylated loofa sponge was successfully used for repeated-batch cellulase production from commercial cellulose powder. Although the acetylated loofa sponge showed a slight weight loss, it was not disintegrated by activated sludge. The results obtained in this study showed that acetylated loofa sponge is suitable as an immobilization carrier for bioprocesses involving cellulase. PMID:17502271

  12. Characterization of Semisynthetic and Naturally N?-Acetylated ?-Synuclein in Vitro and in Intact Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fauvet, Bruno; Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Samuel, Filsy; Dikiy, Igor; Tandon, Anurag; Eliezer, David; Lashuel, Hilal A.

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a very common post-translational modification, although its role in regulating protein physical properties and function remains poorly understood. ?-Synuclein (?-syn), a protein that has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, is constitutively N?-acetylated in vivo. Nevertheless, most of the biochemical and biophysical studies on the structure, aggregation, and function of ?-syn in vitro utilize recombinant ?-syn from Escherichia coli, which is not N-terminally acetylated. To elucidate the effect of N?-acetylation on the biophysical and biological properties of ?-syn, we produced N?-acetylated ?-syn first using a semisynthetic methodology based on expressed protein ligation (Berrade, L., and Camarero, J. A. (2009) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 66, 3909–3922) and then a recombinant expression strategy, to compare its properties to unacetylated ?-syn. We demonstrate that both WT and N?-acetylated ?-syn share a similar secondary structure and oligomeric state using both purified protein preparations and in-cell NMR on E. coli overexpressing N?-acetylated ?-syn. The two proteins have very close aggregation propensities as shown by thioflavin T binding and sedimentation assays. Furthermore, both N?-acetylated and WT ?-syn exhibited similar ability to bind synaptosomal membranes in vitro and in HeLa cells, where both internalized proteins exhibited prominent cytosolic subcellular distribution. We then determined the effect of attenuating N?-acetylation in living cells, first by using a nonacetylable mutant and then by silencing the enzyme responsible for ?-syn N?-acetylation. Both approaches revealed similar subcellular distribution and membrane binding for both the nonacetylable mutant and WT ?-syn, suggesting that N-terminal acetylation does not significantly affect its structure in vitro and in intact cells. PMID:22718772

  13. Acetylation of MKP-1 and the Control of Inflammation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hongbo Chi (Department of Immunology; REV)

    2008-10-14

    Innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a class of pattern-recognition receptors, play a critical role in the defense against microbial pathogens. However, excessive TLR-mediated responses result in sepsis, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammation. To prevent deleterious activation of TLRs, cells have evolved multiple mechanisms that inhibit innate immune reactions. Stimulation of TLRs induces the expression of the gene encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a nuclear-localized dual-specificity phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in the attenuation of TLR-triggered production of proinflammatory cytokines. MKP-1 is posttranslationally modified by multiple mechanisms, including phosphorylation. A study now demonstrates that MKP-1 is also acetylated on a key lysine residue following stimulation of TLRs. Acetylation of MKP-1 promotes the interaction of MKP-1 with its substrate p38 MAPK, which results in dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK and the inhibition of innate immunity.

  14. Protein acetylation sites mediated by Schistosoma mansoni GCN5

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Furtado Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Meirelles Bastosde Oliveira, Francisco; Rumjanek, Franklin David [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil)], E-mail: fantappie@bioqmed.ufrj.br

    2008-05-23

    The transcriptional co-activator GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcription activation. As in other eukaryotes, the DNA from the parasite Schistosome mansoni is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Using a series of synthetic peptides we determined that Lys-14 of histone H3 was acetylated by the recombinant SmGCN5-HAT domain. SmGCN5 was also able to acetylate schistosome non-histone proteins, such as the nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1, and the co-activator SmNCoA-62. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of SmGCN5 protein in the nuclei of vitelline cells. Within the nucleus, SmGCN5 was found to be located in interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs), which are transcriptionally active structures. The data suggest that SmGCN5 is involved in transcription activation.

  15. Histone H4 lysine-16 acetylation regulates cellular lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Weiwei; Steffen, Kristan K.; Perry, Rocco; Dorsey, Jean A.; Johnson, F. Brad; Shilatifard, Ali; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K.; Berger, Shelley L.

    2009-01-01

    Cells undergoing developmental processes are characterized by persistent non-genetic alterations in chromatin, termed epigenetic changes, represented by distinct patterns of DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. Sirtuins, a group of conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylases or ADP-ribosylases, promote longevity in diverse organisms; however, their molecular mechanisms in aging regulation remain poorly understood. Yeast Sir2, the founding member of the family, establishes and maintains chromatin silencing by removing H4 lysine 16 acetylation and bringing in other silencing proteins. Here we show an age-associated decrease in Sir2 protein abundance accompanied by an increase in H4 lysine 16 acetylation and loss of histones at specific subtelomeric regions in replicatively old yeast cells, which results in compromised transcriptional silencing at these loci. Antagonizing activities of Sir2 and Sas2, a histone acetyltransferase, regulate the replicative lifespan through histone H4 lysine 16 at subtelomeric regions. This pathway, distinct from existing aging models for yeast, may represent an evolutionarily conserved function of Sirtuins in regulation of replicative aging by maintenance of intact telomeric chromatin. PMID:19516333

  16. Transport of N-acetyl- D-mannosamine and N-acetyl- D-glucosamine in Escherichia coli K1: effect on capsular polysialic acid production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Revilla-Nuin; Ángel Reglero; Honorina Mart??nez-Blanco; Ignacio G Bravo; Miguel A Ferrero; Leandro B Rodr??guez-Aparicio

    2002-01-01

    N-Acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) are the essential precursors of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), the specific monomer of polysialic acid (PA), a bacterial pathogenic determinant. Escherichia coli K1 uses both amino sugars as carbon sources and uptake takes place through the mannose phosphotransferase system transporter, a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system that shows a broad range of specificity. Glucose, mannose, fructose, and glucosamine

  17. The Role of Histone Acetylation in Cocaine-Induced Neural Plasticity and Behavior

    E-print Network

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    The Role of Histone Acetylation in Cocaine-Induced Neural Plasticity and Behavior George A Rogge1 of abuse, such as cocaine, cause stable changes in neural plasticity that in turn drive long-term changes regulation via histone acetylation in cocaine action. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews advance online

  18. Histone acetylation at the human ?-globin locus changes with developmental age

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wenxuan; Barkess, Gráinne; Fang, Xiangdong; Xiang, Ping; Cao, Hua; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2007-01-01

    To delineate the relationship between epigenetic modifications and hemoglobin switching, we compared the pattern of histone acetylation and pol II binding across the ?-globin locus at fetal and adult stages of human development. To make this comparison possible, we introduced an external control into experimental samples in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Using this common standard, we found that the locus control region (LCR) was acetylated to the same level at all stages, whereas acetylation levels at the individual gene regions correlated with the state of transcription. In the active genes, the promoters were less acetylated compared with the coding regions. Furthermore, all globin promoters were acetylated to a similar level irrespective of the state of transcription. However, after correction for the loss of nucleosomes, the level of acetylation per histone at the active ? and ? promoters was 5- to 7-fold greater than that at the inactive ? promoter. Although the histone acetylation level within the LCR was developmentally stable, pol II binding in fetal erythroblasts was 2- to 3-fold greater than that in adult erythroblasts. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in histone acetylation and pol II take place as the human ?-globin gene region undergoes its developmental switches. PMID:17881636

  19. RAPID TEST FOR CHITINASE ACTIVITY THAT USES 4-METHYLUMBELLIFERYL-NU-ACETYL-BETA-D-GLUCOSAMINIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    One hundred and one strains of bacteria from environmental and clinical sources, most of which were Gram negative, were tested for n-acetyl-Beta-D-glucosaminidase activity using a filter paper spot test with 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-Beta-D-glucosaminide (4-MNABetaG) as subst...

  20. Total Levels of Hippocampal Histone Acetylation Predict Normal Variability in Mouse Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Addie May I.; McCurdy, Richard D.; Bryant, Sharell M.; Alter, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic, pharmacological, and environmental interventions that alter total levels of histone acetylation in specific brain regions can modulate behaviors and treatment responses. Efforts have been made to identify specific genes that are affected by alterations in total histone acetylation and to propose that such gene specific modulation could explain the effects of total histone acetylation levels on behavior — the implication being that under naturalistic conditions variability in histone acetylation occurs primarily around the promoters of specific genes. Methods/Results Here we challenge this hypothesis by demonstrating with a novel flow cytometry based technique that normal variability in open field exploration, a hippocampus-related behavior, was associated with total levels of histone acetylation in the hippocampus but not in other brain regions. Conclusions Results suggest that modulation of total levels of histone acetylation may play a role in regulating biological processes. We speculate in the discussion that endogenous regulation of total levels of histone acetylation may be a mechanism through which organisms regulate cellular plasticity. Flow cytometry provides a useful approach to measure total levels of histone acetylation at the single cell level. Relating such information to behavioral measures and treatment responses could inform drug delivery strategies to target histone deacetylase inhibitors and other chromatin modulators to places where they may be of benefit while avoiding areas where correction is not needed and could be harmful. PMID:24788142

  1. The Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Administration on Persons with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    2006-01-01

    Since previous investigations reported improvements in cognition of patients with dementia after acetyl-L-carnitine therapy and since there is an increased risk for persons with Down syndrome to develop Alzheimer disease, this study was designed to investigate the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine administration on neurological, intellectual, and…

  2. Protein acetylation affects acetate metabolism, motility and acid stress response in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal, Vicente; Post, Harm; Fuhrer, Tobias; Cappadona, Salvatore; Sánchez-Díaz, Nerea C; Sauer, Uwe; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Cánovas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Although protein acetylation is widely observed, it has been associated with few specific regulatory functions making it poorly understood. To interrogate its functionality, we analyzed the acetylome in Escherichia coli knockout mutants of cobB, the only known sirtuin-like deacetylase, and patZ, the best-known protein acetyltransferase. For four growth conditions, more than 2,000 unique acetylated peptides, belonging to 809 proteins, were identified and differentially quantified. Nearly 65% of these proteins are related to metabolism. The global activity of CobB contributes to the deacetylation of a large number of substrates and has a major impact on physiology. Apart from the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase, we found that CobB-controlled acetylation of isocitrate lyase contributes to the fine-tuning of the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylation of the transcription factor RcsB prevents DNA binding, activating flagella biosynthesis and motility, and increases acid stress susceptibility. Surprisingly, deletion of patZ increased acetylation in acetate cultures, which suggests that it regulates the levels of acetylating agents. The results presented offer new insights into functional roles of protein acetylation in metabolic fitness and global cell regulation. PMID:25518064

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity of acetylated and benzoylated derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huimin Qi; Quanbin Zhang; Tingting Zhao; Rugui Hu; Kun Zhang; Zhien Li

    2006-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of natural ulvan and its derivatives (acetylated and benzoylated ulvans) in vitro was determined, including scavenging activity against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability. Obvious differences in antioxidant activity between natural ulvan and its derivatives were observed, moreover, the antioxidant activity of acetylated and benzoylated ulvans was stronger than that of natural ulvan.

  4. A Simplified Procedure for the Acetylation of Hardwood and Softwood Flaxes for Flakeboard Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger M. Rowell; Anne-Marie Tillman; Rune Simonson

    1986-01-01

    Southern pine and aspen flakes were acetylated with acetic anhydride alone without cosolvent or catalyst by a simple dip procedure. The new procedure greatly shortens reaction time and simplifies chemical recovery. Acetylation weight gains of 15% to 20% can be achieved in 1 to 3 hours with southern pine flakes and in 2 to 4 hours with aspen flakes.Flakeboards made

  5. Polymorphic acetylation of the antibacterials, sulfamethazine and dapsone, in South Indian subjects.

    PubMed

    Peters, J H; Gordon, G R; Karat, A B

    1975-07-01

    A group of South Indian subjects was studied for their capacities to acetylate sulfamethazine (SMZ) and dapsone (DDS) and to clear DDS from the circulation. An apparent trimodal distribution of acetylator phenotypes was found in 49 subjects (51% slow, 12% intermediate, and 37% rapid acetylators) from measurements of the percentage acetylation of SMZ in 6-hour plasma samples after administration of 10 mg SMZ/kg. The intermediate phenotype was not discernible from either the percentage acetylation of SMZ in urine (collected concurrently with the plasma after SMZ) or that of DDS in plasma after the ingestion of 50 mg DDS by the same subjects. The latter two measurements yielded a bimodal distribution of 59% slow and 41% rapid acetylators, nearly identical to earlier reported distributions of isoniazid inactivator phenotypes in larger numbers of South Indian tuberculosis patients. In the current group, acetylation of DDS and SMZ was positively correlated. The half-time of disappearance (T 1/2) of DDS, an expression of the rate of clearance from the plasma, ranged from 13 to 40 hours. No correlation was found between the subject's capacity to acetylate DDS and the T 1/2 value for DDS. These results were generally consistent with earlier observations made during similar studies of American and Filipino subjects. PMID:1155699

  6. Microtubule acetylation amplifies p38 kinase signaling and anti-inflammatory IL-10 production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Rao, Yan-Hua; Inoue, Makoto; Hao, Rui; Lai, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, David; McDonald, Stacey. L; Choi, Moon-Chang; Wang, Qiu; Shinohara, Mari; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Reversible acetylation of ?-tubulin is an evolutionarily conserved modification in microtubule networks. Despite its prevalence, the physiological function and regulation of microtubule acetylation remains poorly understood. Here we report that macrophages challenged by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) undergo extensive microtubule acetylation. Suppression of LPS-induced microtubule acetylation by inactivating the tubulin acetyltransferase, MEC17, profoundly inhibits the induction of anti-inflammatory interlukin-10 (IL-10), a phenotype effectively reversed by an acetylation-mimicking ?-tubulin mutant. Conversely, elevating microtubule acetylation by inhibiting the tubulin deacetylase, HDAC6, or stabilizing microtubules via Taxol, stimulates IL-10 hyper-induction. Supporting the anti-inflammatory function of microtubule acetylation, HDAC6 inhibition significantly protects mice from LPS toxicity. In HDAC6-deficient macrophages challenged by LPS, p38 kinase signaling becomes selectively amplified, leading to SP1-dependent IL-10 transcription. Remarkably, the augmented p38 signaling is suppressed by MEC17 inactivation. Our findings identify reversible microtubule acetylation as a kinase signaling modulator and a key component in the inflammatory response. PMID:24632940

  7. Role of Alginate O Acetylation in Resistance of Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Opsonic Phagocytosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERALD B. PIER; FADIE COLEMAN; MARTHA GROUT; MICHAEL FRANKLIN; DENNIS E. OHMAN

    2001-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of chronic lung infections with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) require that the bacteria avoid host defenses. Elaboration of the extracellular, O-acetylated mucoid exopolysaccharide, or alginate, is a major microbial factor in resistance to immune effectors. Here we show that O acetylation of alginate maximizes the resistance of mucoid P. aeruginosa to antibody-independent

  8. Acetylation of RNA Processing Proteins and Cell Cycle Proteins in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Carol; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Huang, Feilei; Pan, Jing; Josic, Djuro; Yu-Lee, Li-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Mitosis is a highly regulated process in which errors can lead to genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. During this phase of the cell cycle, transcription is silent and RNA translation is inhibited. Thus, mitosis is largely driven by posttranslational modification of proteins, including phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation. Here, we show that protein acetylation is prevalent during mitosis. To identify proteins that are acetylated, we synchronized HeLa cells in early prometaphase and immunoprecipitated lysine-acetylated proteins with anti-acetyl-lysine antibody. The immunoprecipitated proteins were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These include proteins involved in RNA translation, RNA processing, cell cycle regulation, transcription, chaperone function, DNA damage repair, metabolism, immune response and cell structure. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analyses confirmed that two RNA processing proteins, eIF4G and RNA helicase A, and several cell cycle proteins, including APC1, anillin and NudC, were acetylated in mitosis. We further showed that acetylation of APC1 and NudC was enhanced by apicidin treatment, suggesting that their acetylation was regulated by histone deacetylase. Moreover, treating mitotic cells with apicidin or trichostatin A induced spindle abnormalities and cytokinesis failure. These studies suggest that protein acetylation/deacetylation is likely an important regulatory mechanism in mitosis. PMID:20812760

  9. Histone Acetylation is Recruited in Consolidation as a Molecular Feature of Stronger Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federman, Noel; Fustinana, Maria Sol; Romano, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression is a key process for memory consolidation. Recently, the participation of epigenetic mechanisms like histone acetylation was evidenced in long-term memories. However, until now the training strength required and the persistence of the chromatin acetylation recruited are not well characterized. Here we studied whether histone…

  10. Acetylation of proteins as novel target for antitumor therapy: Review article

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Di Gennaro; F. Bruzzese; M. Caraglia; A. Abruzzese; A. Budillon

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Imbalance in histone acetylation can lead to changes in chromatin structure and transcriptional dysregulation of genes that are involved in the control of proliferation, cell-cycle progression, differentiation and\\/or apoptosis. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), are two classes of enzymes regulating histone acetylation and whose altered activity has been identified in several cancers. HATs and HDACs enzymes also

  11. Ku70 acetylation mediates neuroblastoma cell death induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitra Subramanian; Anthony W. Opipari Jr.; Xin Bian; Valerie P. Castle; Roland P. S. Kwok

    2005-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are therapeutic drugs that inhibit deacetylase activity, thereby increasing acetylation of many proteins, including histones. HDACIs have antineoplastic effects in preclinical and clinical trials and are being considered for cancers with unmet therapeutic need, including neuroblastoma (NB). Uncertainty of how HDACI-induced protein acetylation leads to cell death, however, makes it difficult to determine which tumors are

  12. Developmentally dynamic histone acetylation pattern of a tissue-specific chromatin domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Camilla Forsberg; Karen M. Downs; Heather M. Christensen; Hogune Im; Paul A. Nuzzi; Emery H. Bresnick

    2000-01-01

    We have defined the histone acetylation pattern of the endogenous murine -globin domain, which contains the erythroidspecific -globin genes. The -globin locus control region (LCR) and transcriptionally active promoters were enriched in acetylated histones in fetal liver relative to fetal brain, whereas the inactive promoters were hypoacetylated. In contrast, the LCR and both active and inactive promoters were hyperacetylated in

  13. Post-TATA Binding Protein Recruitment Clearance of Gcn5Dependent Histone Acetylation within Promoter Nucleosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irini Topalidou; Manolis Papamichos-Chronakis; George Thireos

    2003-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of eukaryotic genes often requires the function of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which is expected to result in the hyperacetylation of histones within promoter nucleosomes. In this study we show that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the steady-state levels of Gcn5-dependent histone acetylation within a number of transcriptionally active promoters are inversely related to the rate of transcription. High acetylation levels

  14. A bioinformatics-based overview of protein Lys-Ne-acetylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among posttranslational modifications, there are some conceptual similarities between Lys-N'-acetylation and Ser/Thr/Tyr O-phosphorylation. Herein we present a bioinformatics-based overview of reversible protein Lys-acetylation, including some comparisons with reversible protein phosphorylation. T...

  15. Acetylation of HIV1 integrase by p300 regulates viral integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Cereseto; Lara Manganaro; Maria Ines Gutierrez; Mariaelena Terreni; Antonio Fittipaldi; Marina Lusic; Alessandro Marcello; Mauro Giacca

    2005-01-01

    Integration of HIV-1 into the human genome, which is catalyzed by the viral protein integrase (IN), preferentially occurs near transcriptionally active genes. Here we show that p300, a cellular acetyltransferase that regulates chro- matin conformation through the acetylation of histones, also acetylates IN and controls its activity. We have found that p300 directly binds IN both in vitro and in

  16. Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms Anne genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results-L, Nagarajan M, Veyrieras J-B, Bottin H, Steinmetz LM, et al. (2012) Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation

  17. Per-O-acetylation of cellulose in dimethyl sulfoxide with catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-04-16

    Cellulose acetylation was investigated in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with isopropenyl acetate (IPA) as acetylating reagent and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as catalyst at 70-130 °C for 3-12 h. The degree of substitution (DS) of acetylated cellulose was comparatively determined by titration and ¹H NMR and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The results indicated that per-O-acetylation was achieved at >90 °C for a relatively long duration. The three well-resolved peaks of carbonyl carbons in ¹³C NMR spectra also provided evidence of per-O-acetylation. The solubility of cellulose acetates in common organic solvents was examined, and the result showed that chloroform can be an alternative choice as a solvent for fully acetylated cellulose formed in this study besides DMSO. The intrinsic viscosity of acetylated cellulose solution implied almost no degradation of cellulose during acetylation in DMSO except at higher temperature (130 °C) for a long time. PMID:24678805

  18. Reversible low temperature phase change and twinning in lithium acetyl acetonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin A. Austin; Brian D. Leskiw; Matthias Zeller

    2009-01-01

    Lithium acetyl acetonate undergoes a perfectly reversible phase change from orthorhombic to non-merohedrally twinned monoclinic between 195 and 200 K. The phase transfer is associated with a sudden slight deviation of the orthorhombic ?-angle from 90°, with the initial coordinate changes following the phase transfer being very subtle. The connectivity within the lithium acetyl acetonate chains and the basic structural

  19. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  20. Protein acetylation in prokaryotes increases stress resistance Qun Ma, Thomas K. Wood

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Protein acetylation in prokaryotes increases stress resistance Qun Ma, Thomas K. Wood Department of lysine residues is conserved in all three kingdoms; however, its role in prokaryotes is unknown. Here we of a specific environmental role of acetylation in prokaryotes. Ã? 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1

  1. Novel Family of Carbohydrate Esterases, Based on Identification of the Hypocrea jecorina Acetyl Esterase Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cell walls have been shown to contain acetyl groups in hemicelluloses and pectin. The gene, ae1, encoding the acetyl esterase (Ae1) of Hypocrea jecorina was identified by amino terminal sequencing, peptide mass spectrometry, and genomic sequence analyses. The coded polypeptide had 348 amino ...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica,...

  3. Structural modifications of lignocellulosics by pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Gharpuray; Yong-Hyun Lee; L. T. Fan

    1983-01-01

    In this work an evaluation was made of a wide variety of single and multiple pretreatment methods for enhancing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. A multiple pretreatment consisted of a physical pretreatment followed by a chemical pretreatment. The structural features of wheat straw, including the specific surface area, crystallinity index, and lignin content, were measured to understand

  4. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  5. Evaluation of Cation Hydrolysis Schemes with a Pocket Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clare, Brian W.

    1979-01-01

    Described is the use of two models of pocket calculators. The Hewlett-Packard HP67 and the Texas Instruments TI59, to solve problems arising in connection with ionic equilibria in solution. A three-parameter regression program is described and listed as a specific example, the hydrolysis of hexavalent uranium, is provided. (BT)

  6. HYDROLYSIS OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN AQUEOUS AND COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos [o,o-diethyl o-(3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate] to TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) is an important degradation process influencing the fate of chlorpyrifos in aquatic environments. The effects of water chemistry and suspended colloids (smectites, humic ac...

  7. Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins is Retained Following Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...

  8. Single Molecule Study of Cellulase Hydrolysis of Crystalline Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.-S.; Luo, Y.; Baker, J. O.; Zeng, Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Smith, S.; Ding, S.-Y.

    2009-12-01

    This report seeks to elucidate the role of cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I) in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A single-molecule approach uses various imaging techniques to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBH I.

  9. Release of bound procyanidins from cranberry pomace by alkaline hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procyanidins in plant products are present as extractable or unextractable/bound forms. We optimized alkaline hydrolysis conditions to liberate bound procyanidins from dried cranberry pomace. Five mL of sodium hydroxide (2, 4, or 6N) was added to 0.5 g of cranberry pomace in screw top glass tubes,...

  10. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Sun; Jiayang Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars, and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies,

  11. Penicillin Hydrolysis: A Kinetic Study of a Multistep, Multiproduct Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Thomas A.; McLafferty, Fred W.

    1984-01-01

    Background, procedures used, and typical results are provided for an experiment in which students carry out the necessary measurements on the acid-catalysis of penicillin in two hours. By applying kinetic theory to the data obtained, the reaction pathways for the hydrolysis of potassium benzyl penicillin are elucidated. (JN)

  12. Characterization of soil organic carbon pools by acid hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Silveira; N. B. Comerford; K. R. Reddy; H. El-Rifai

    2008-01-01

    Chemically stable fractions of the soil organic carbon (SOC) contribute to the soil C sequestration and may have an important role for the global C budget. Soil organic carbon characterization was studied using acid hydrolysis methods with 1 M and 6 M HCl and hot-water extraction in two coastal plain soils collected from different landscape positions. The residues after the chemical treatments

  13. Designer xylanosomes: protein nanostructures for enhanced xylan hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work is the first report of the successful design, construction, and application of multi-functional, self-assembling biocatalysts for targeted xylan hydrolysis, termed xylanosomes. Using the architecture of cellulosomes found in some anaerobic cellulolytic microbes, four different xylanosomes...

  14. DFT STUDY OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF SOME S-TRIAZINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of atrazine and related 2-chloro-s-triazines to the corresponding 2-hydroxy-s-triazines was investigated using the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory method. Gas-phase calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G* level of ...

  15. Hydrolysis of hemicellulose to produce fermentable monosaccharides by plasma acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yuan, Bo; Ji, Yingchao; Li, Hong

    2013-09-12

    In this paper, plasma acid was obtained by treating distilled water with dielectric barrier discharge to hydrolyze hemicellulose. The orthogonal experiment L??(5(6)) was used to optimize such hydrolysis conditions. The total reducing sugar (TRS) was measured by the DNS method. To determine whether the oligosaccharide existed in the hydrolysis products, it was hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid for a second time following the same procedure as reported earlier. The monosaccharide compositions of the hydrolyzed sample were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that pH 2.81 of plasma acid, 100 °C and 50 min were assigned as an optimal hydrolysis condition by plasma acid. Under this condition, the hemicellulose was hydrolyzed completely to produce monosaccharides including xylose, glucose, and galactose with the mole ratio being 17:3:1. The yields of xylose, glucose, and galactose were 38.67%, 9.28% and 3.09%, respectively. Compared with the hemicellulose hydrolysis results by sulfuric acid, it is concluded that plasma acid is an environmental-friendly and efficient method to explore and hydrolyze the hemicellulose existed in biomass. PMID:23911479

  16. Atmospheric Plasma-Enhanced Soft Hydrolysis of Southern Pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of fermentable sugars from southern pine using atmospheric plasma (AP) was studied. AP processing in the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration was coupled with acid hydrolysis in an effort to determine how AP can impact a standard conversion technique. The effects of plas...

  17. The Preparation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Library of Esters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Traci L.

    2008-01-01

    An investigative case study involving the preparation of a library of esters using Fischer esterification and alcoholysis of acid chlorides and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by pig liver esterase and orange peel esterase is described. Students work collaboratively to prepare and characterize the library of esters and complete and evaluate…

  18. Total Energy Production and Phosphocreatine Hydrolysis in the Isotonic Twitch

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Francis D.; Hardy, Donna J.; Wilkie, Douglas R.

    1963-01-01

    Using frog's sartorius muscles we have found no correlation between phosphocreatine hydrolysis and shortening under conditions (iodoacetate poisoning and anoxia) where this reaction was the only expected source of energy. Phosphocreatine hydrolysis did, however, show a constant term corresponding to the activation heat of A.V. Hill, and a linear term with work. It was concluded that shortening heat comes from some other chemical reaction, or else Hill's equation (E = A + W + ax) fails to describe correctly the energy output in a complete cycle of contraction and relaxation. To decide between these possibilities direct measurements of heat and work during a complete cycle were made. Also, experiments were performed in which heat, work, and phosphocreatine breakdown were measured simultaneously on the same muscles. The total energy output in a complete twitch could be most simply represented by a fixed "activation" heat, plus the work. There was no term corresponding to the shortening heat. Hill's equation must, therefore, be held as invalid for the complete isotonic twitch. A value of 9.8 ± 0.5 (sE) kcal/mole was obtained for the in vivo heat of hydrolysis of phosphocreatine. This quantity showed no significant dependence on load, and it is in good agreement with the value obtained from thermochemical data. It is concluded that phosphocreatine hydrolysis and its associated buffer reactions can account quantitatively for the total energy output of isometric and isotonic twitches. PMID:14018693

  19. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  20. Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  1. Oxygen-17 NMR studies on uranium (VI) hydrolysis and gelation

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); King, C.M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Garber, A.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    Hydrolysis and gelation processes in uranyl solutions are observed using the strong sharp uranyl oxygen-17 resonance. The ability to follow the hydrolysis of uranyl salts by observation of the sharp uranyl oxygen-17 resonance provides a clear indication of the dependence of uranyl hydrolysis on the counteranion (nitrate versus chloride) but not on the means of introducing hydroxide into the solution (Me{sub 4}NOH versus R{sub 3}N extraction). In addition, two different pathways for gelation are suggested. In the first pathway the uranyl hydrolysis is conducted with a base (HMTA in these studies) which preferentially forms trimeric (UO{sub 2}){sub 3} ({mu}{sub 3}-O) units which can then condense into the polymeric UO{sub 2}O{sub 6/3} layers of a gel based on the hexagonal structure of {proportional to}UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}. In the second gelation pathway a uranyl derivative is treated with excess hydroxide in the absence of a metal or hydrogen-bonding ammonium cations which form insoluble solids uranates. Consensation of the resulting solution of soluble UO{sub 2}(OH)n{sup 2-n} anions can then lead to a similar polymer UO{sub 2}O{sub 4/2} or UO{sub 2}O{sub 6/3} structure of a gel. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Hydrolysis and Decomposition of Hectorite in Dilute Salt Solutions1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Kreit; I. SHAINBERG; A. J. HERBILLON

    1982-01-01

    The hydrolysis and decomposition of M-hectorite (M being Na, Li, Mg, or Ca) in dilute solutions of M-chlorides were studied by recording the changes in electrical conductivity (EC) of the clay suspensions with time, and by chemical analyses of the interclay solutions and resulting solid phases. The rate of hy- drolysis of the hectorites in suspension, as evaluated by the

  3. Effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particle size reduction is a crucial factor in transportation logistics as well as cellulosic conversion. The effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus x giganteus was determined. Miscanthus was ground using a hammer mill equipped with screens having 0.08, 2.0 or 6.0...

  4. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-01

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PMID:25129733

  5. DETERMINATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN URINE: THE IMPORTANCE OF HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gas chromatographic method for more reliable determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in urine has been developed. After hydrolysis and extraction the sample was reacted with diazomethane to produce the methyl ether of PCP prior to analysis by electron-capture gas chromatograph...

  6. Stopped-Flow Kinetics of Methyl Group Transfer between the Corrinoid-Iron-Sulfur Protein and Acetyl-Coenzyme A

    E-print Network

    Salisbury, Kenneth

    Stopped-Flow Kinetics of Methyl Group Transfer between the Corrinoid-Iron-Sulfur Protein and Acetyl-Coenzyme and acceptor involves acetyl-coenzyme A synthases (ACS's).7 These {Ni,Fe,Co,S}-enzymes are involved

  7. A kinetic study of hydrolysis of polyester elastomer in magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Watanabe, H.

    1994-01-01

    A useful method for kinetic study of the hydrolysis of polyester elastomer is established which uses the number-average molecular weight. The reasonableness of this method is confirmed and the effect of magnetic particles on hydrolysis is considered.

  8. Ruminal hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in dairy cows fed lipid-supplemented diets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ruminal hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in dairy cows fed lipid-supplemented diets D Bauchart1. Materials and Methods ― Triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis was determined by ruminal balance in 10 dairy

  9. Non-ionic surfactants do not consistently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Chen, Hongmei; Qi, Feng; Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

    2015-04-01

    Non-ionic surfactants have been frequently reported to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass and pure cellulose. However, how the hydrolysis condition, substrate structure and cellulase formulation affect the beneficial action of surfactants has not been well elucidated. In this work, it was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose was not consistently improved by surfactants. Contrarily, high surfactant concentration, e.g. 5g/L, which greatly improved the hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated substrates, actually showed notable inhibition to pure cellulose conversion in the late phase of hydrolysis. Under an optimal hydrolysis condition, the improvement by surfactant was limited, but under harsh conditions surfactant indeed could enhance cellulose conversion. It was proposed that non-ionic surfactants could interact with substrates and cellulases to impact the adsorption behaviors of cellulases. Therefore, the beneficial action of surfactants on pure cellulose hydrolysis is influenced by hydrolysis condition, cellulose structural features and cellulase formulation. PMID:25689307

  10. Acetylation of RNA Polymerase II Regulates Growth-Factor-Induced Gene Transcription in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sebastian; Herker, Eva; Itzen, Friederike; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Kaehlcke, Katrin; Cho, Sungyoo; Pollard, Katherine S.; Capra, John A.; Schnölzer, Martina; Cole, Philip A.; Geyer, Matthias; Bruneau, Benoit G.; Adelman, Karen; Ott, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine acetylation regulates transcription by targeting histones and nonhistone proteins. Here we report that the central regulator of transcription, RNA polymerase II, is subject to acetylation in mammalian cells. Acetylation occurs at eight lysines within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest polymerase subunit and is mediated by p300/KAT3B. CTD acetylation is specifically enriched downstream of the transcription start sites of polymerase-occupied genes genome-wide, indicating a role in early stages of transcription initiation or elongation. Mutation of lysines or p300 inhibitor treatment causes the loss of epidermal growth-factor-induced expression of c-Fos and Egr2, immediate-early genes with promoter-proximally paused polymerases, but does not affect expression or polymerase occupancy at housekeeping genes. Our studies identify acetylation as a new modification of the mammalian RNA polymerase II required for the induction of growth factor response genes. PMID:24207025

  11. Investigation of acetylated kapok fibers on the sorption of oil in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jintao; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

    2013-02-01

    Kapok fibers have been acetylated for oil spill cleanup in the aqueous environment. The structures of raw and acetylated kapok fiber were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Without severe damage to the lumen structures, the kapok fibers were successfully acetylated and the resulting fibers exhibited a better oil sorption capacity than raw fibers for diesel and soybean oil. Compared with high viscosity soybean oil, low viscosity diesel shows a better affinity to the surface of acetylated fibers. Sorption kinetics is fitted well by the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium data can be described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The results implied that acetylated kapok fiber can be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials. PMID:23596942

  12. Fluoride incorporation into apatite crystals delays amelogenin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    DenBesten, Pamela K; Zhu, Li; Li, Wu; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Liu, Haichuan; Witkowska, Halina E

    2011-12-01

    Enamel fluorosis has been related to an increase in the amount of amelogenin in fluorosed enamel compared with normal enamel in the maturation stage. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fluoride incorporated into carbonated apatite alters amelogenin hydrolysis. Recombinant human amelogenin (rh174) was allowed to bind to 0.15 mg of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) or to fluoride-containing carbonated hydroxyapatite (F-CAP) synthesized to contain 100, 1,000, or 4,000 ppm F(-). After 3 h of digestion with recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) or kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4), bound protein was characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Proteolytic fragments of amelogenin formed after 24h of digestion with MMP20 of KLK 4 were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The hydrolysis, by both MMP20 and KLK4, of amelogenin bound to F100-CAP was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner compared with the hydrolysis of amelogenin bound to CAP. After 24 h of hydrolysis, a similar number of MMP20 cleavage sites was found for amelogenin bound to CAP and amelogenin bound to F100-CAP; however, 24 fewer KLK4 cleavage sites were identified for amelogenin bound to F100-CAP than for amelogenin bound to CAP. These results suggest that the reduced hydrolysis of amelogenins in fluorosed enamel may be partially caused by the increased fluoride content in fluoride-containing apatite, contributing to the hypomineralized enamel matrix phenotype observed in fluorosed enamel. PMID:22243219

  13. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deibert, M.C.

    1992-08-28

    Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steam mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.

  14. Hydrolysis of the energetic materials present in a composite modified double base solid rocket propellant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis F. Cannizzo; Glenn L. Mower; Lewis R. Hunstman; Walter R. Achatz; W. Wayne Edwards

    1995-01-01

    The aqueous hydrolysis of the nitroglycerin (NG), nitrocellulose (NC), and HMX present in CYH, a composite modified double base solid propellant, was successfully performed using either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or ammonia (NH3) as hydrolyzing agents. The rate of hydrolysis was faster for NaOH compared to NH3. For both hydrolysis agents the rate of hydrolysis of NG was the fastest, followed

  15. The Transcriptional Enhancer of the Pea Plastocyanin Gene Associates with the Nuclear Matrix and Regulates Gene Expression through Histone Acetylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yii Leng Chua; Lucy A. Watson; John C. Gray

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the transcriptional enhancer of the pea plastocyanin gene ( PetE ) on the acetylation of histones was exam- ined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments using antibodies that recognize acetylated or nonacetylated histones H3 and H4. In transgenic tobacco plants containing the pea PetE promoter fused to uidA , both acetylated and non- acetylated histones H3 and H4

  16. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveals Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Heidi A [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein acetylation is widespread in prokaryotes. Results: Six new acyl-CoA synthetases whose activities are controlled by acetylation were identified, and their substrate preference established. A new protein acetyltransferase was also identified and its substrate specificity determined. Conclusion: Protein acetyltransferases acetylate a conserved lysine residue in protein substrates. Significance: The R. palustris Pat enzyme specifically acetylates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases and regulates fatty acid metabolism.

  17. Alterations of the degree of xylan acetylation in Arabidopsis xylan mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanhui; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide in secondary walls of dicot plants and one of its structural features is the high degree of acetylation of xylosyl residues. In Arabidopsis, about 60% of xylosyl residues in xylan are acetylated and the biochemical mechanisms controlling xylan acetylation are largely unknown. A recent report by Yuan et al. (2013) revealed the essential role of a DUF231 domain-containing protein, ESKIMO1 (ESK1), in xylan acetylation in Arabidopsis as the esk1 mutation caused specific reductions in the degree of xylan 2-O or 3-O-monoacetylation and in the activity of xylan acetyltransferase. Interestingly, the esk1 mutation also resulted in an elevation of glucuronic acid (GlcA) substitutions in xylan. Since GlcA substitutions in xylan occur at the O-2 position of xylosyl residues, it is plausible that the increase in GlcA substitutions in the esk1 mutant is attributed to the reduction in acetylation at O-2 of xylosyl residues, which renders more O-2 positions available for GlcA substitutions. Here, we investigated the effect of removal of GlcA substitutions on the degree of xylan acetylation. We found that a complete loss of GlcA substitutions in the xylan of the gux1/2/3 triple mutant led to a significant increase in the degree of xylan acetylation, indicating that xylan acetyltransferases and glucuronyltransferases compete with each other for xylosyl residues for their acetylation or GlcA substitutions in planta. In addition, detailed structure analysis of xylan from the rwa1/2/3/4 quadruple mutant revealed that it had a uniform reduction of acetyl substitutions at different positions of the xylosyl residues, which is consistent with the proposed role of RWAs as acetyl coenzyme A transporters. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:24518588

  18. Toward an aggregated understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: Noncomplexed cellulase systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Heng Percival Zhang; Lee R. Lynd

    2004-01-01

    Information pertaining to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by noncomplexed cellulase enzyme systems is reviewed with a particular emphasis on development of aggregated understanding incorporating substrate features in addition to concentration and multiple cellulase compo- nents. Topics considered include properties of cellulose, adsorption, cellulose hydrolysis, and quantitative models. A classification scheme is proposed for quantitative models for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

  19. 40 CFR 180.1089 - Poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine; exemption from the requirement of tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine; exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1089 Poly-N -acetyl-D -glucosamine; exemption...for residues of the biochemical nematicide poly-N -acetyl-D -glucosamine...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1089 - Poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine; exemption from the requirement of tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine; exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1089 Poly-N -acetyl-D -glucosamine; exemption...for residues of the biochemical nematicide poly-N -acetyl-D -glucosamine...

  1. The influence of GABA on the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin, melatonin, O-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptophol and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The influence of GABA on the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin, melatonin, O-acetyl-5-acetylserotonin, melatonin, O-acetyl-5- hydroxytryptophol and 0-acetyl-5-methoxytryptophol has been investigated using be a regulator of melatonin synthesis. As melatonin is implicated in the regulation of reproduction it may

  2. Synthesized oversulphated, acetylated and benzoylated derivatives of fucoidan extracted from Laminaria japonica and their potential antioxidant activity in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; Li Liu; Quanbin Zhang; Zhongshan Zhang; Huimin Qi; Pengcheng Li

    2009-01-01

    Three sulphated polysaccharide derivatives (oversulphated, acetylated and benzoylated fucoidan) were successfully synthesized, and their antioxidant activities were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. A novel catalyst N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) was used in acetylation and benzoylation reaction, and the degree of acetylation was evaluated using IR and NMR spectra. Both fucoidan derivatives possessed considerable antioxidant activity, and had stronger antioxidant ability

  3. Extensive lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways and parasite-specific functions during Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jun; Lawrence, Matthew; Jeffers, Victoria; Zhao, Fangqing; Parker, Daniel; Ge, Ying; Sullivan, William J.; Cui, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Lysine acetylation has emerged as a major posttranslational modification involved in diverse cellular functions. Using a combination of immunoisolation and liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry, we determined the first acetylome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during its active proliferation in erythrocytes with 421 acetylation sites identified in 230 proteins. Lysine-acetylated proteins are distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, and apicoplast. Whereas occurrence of lysine acetylation in a similarly wide range of cellular functions suggests conservation of lysine acetylation through evolution, the Plasmodium acetylome also revealed significant divergence from those of other eukaryotes and even the closely-related parasite Toxoplasma. This divergence is reflected in the acetylation of a large number of Plasmodium-specific proteins and different acetylation sites in evolutionarily conserved acetylated proteins. A prominent example is the abundant acetylation of proteins in the glycolysis pathway but relatively deficient acetylation of enzymes in the citrate cycle. Using specific transgenic lines and inhibitors, we determined that the acetyltransferase PfMYST and lysine deacetylases play important roles in regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic protein acetylation. The Plasmodium acetylome provides an exciting start point for further exploration of functions of acetylation in the biology of malaria parasites. PMID:23796209

  4. Lecitase ® ultra as regioselective biocatalyst in the hydrolysis of fully protected carbohydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Fernandez-Lorente; Marco Filice; Marco Terreni; Jose M. Guisan; Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente; Jose M. Palomo

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that Lecitase Ultra is an enzyme preparation with a great interest as regioselective biocatalyst in the deprotection of 4 different peracetylated sugars: 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-acetyl-?-d-galactopyranose (1), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-glucopyranose (4), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-acetyl-?-d-mannopyranose (7) and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-galacto pyranosyl-(1?4)-1,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (9). The enzyme properties (specificity, preference for the per-acetylated sugar and regio-selectivity) were strongly modulated by the immobilization conditions, for example the octyl-LECI preparation was 10

  5. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. PMID:22975252

  6. Acetylated Hyaluronic Acid: Enhanced Bioavailability and Biological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Saturnino, Carmela; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Puoci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a macropolysaccharidic component of the extracellular matrix, is common to most species and it is found in many sites of the human body, including skin and soft tissue. Not only does HA play a variety of roles in physiologic and in pathologic events, but it also has been extensively employed in cosmetic and skin-care products as drug delivery agent or for several biomedical applications. The most important limitations of HA are due to its short half-life and quick degradation in vivo and its consequently poor bioavailability. In the aim to overcome these difficulties, HA is generally subjected to several chemical changes. In this paper we obtained an acetylated form of HA with increased bioavailability with respect to the HA free form. Furthermore, an improved radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity has been evidenced, respectively, on ABTS radical cation and murine monocyte/macrophage cell lines (J774.A1). PMID:25114930

  7. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine. PMID:25704707

  8. Writers and readers of histone acetylation: structure, mechanism, and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Ronen; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Histone acetylation marks are written by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and read by bromodomains (BrDs), and less commonly by other protein modules. These proteins regulate many transcription-mediated biological processes, and their aberrant activities are correlated with several human diseases. Consequently, small molecule HAT and BrD inhibitors with therapeutic potential have been developed. Structural and biochemical studies of HATs and BrDs have revealed that HATs fall into distinct subfamilies containing a structurally related core for cofactor binding, but divergent flanking regions for substrate-specific binding, catalysis, and autoregulation. BrDs adopt a conserved left-handed four-helix bundle to recognize acetyllysine; divergent loop residues contribute to substrate-specific acetyllysine recognition. PMID:24984779

  9. Toxoplasma histone acetylation remodelers as novel drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Laura; Jeffers, Victoria; Bogado, Silvina S; Dalmasso, Maria C; Sullivan, William J; Angel, Sergio O

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of neurological birth defects and a serious opportunistic pathogen. The authors and others have found that Toxoplasma uses a unique nucleosome composition supporting a fine gene regulation together with other factors. Post-translational modifications in histones facilitate the establishment of a global chromatin environment and orchestrate DNA-related biological processes. Histone acetylation is one of the most prominent post-translational modifications influencing gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases have been intensively studied as potential drug targets. In particular, histone deacetylase inhibitors have activity against apicomplexan parasites, underscoring their potential as a new class of antiparasitic compounds. In this review, we summarize what is known about Toxoplasma histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases, and discuss the inhibitors studied to date. Finally, the authors discuss the distinct possibility that the unique nucleosome composition of Toxoplasma, which harbors a nonconserved H2Bv variant histone, might be targeted in novel therapeutics directed against this parasite. PMID:23199404

  10. Developmental and tissue-specific expression of 2-methyl branched-chain enoyl CoA reductase isoforms in the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Duran, E; Walker, D J; Johnson, K R; Komuniecki, P R; Komuniecki, R W

    1998-03-15

    The 2-methyl branched-chain enoyl CoA reductase (ECR) plays a pivotal role in the reversal of beta-oxidation operating in anaerobic mitochondria of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the purified ECR yielded multiple spots, with two distinct but overlapping N-terminal sequences. These multiple isoforms were not the result of population effects, as the pattern observed on 2-D gels of the purified ECR was identical to those on immunoblots of muscle homogenates isolated from individual worms. A full-length cDNA coding for the major ECR isoform (ECRI) has been cloned and sequenced and compared with that of the minor isoform (ECRII) which has been described previously (Duran et al. J Biol Chem 1993;268:22391-22396). ECRI contained the 22-nucleotide trans-spliced leader sequence characteristic of many nematode mRNAs, a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 13 nucleotides, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1257 nucleotides, a 3'-UTR of 110 nucleotides that included the polyadenylation signal AATAAA downstream of the termination codon and a short poly(A) tail. The ORF predicted a 16 amino acid leader sequence not found in the native protein and a mature protein of 403 amino acids with a molecular weight of 43 698 and a predicted pI of 6.2. ECRI and ECRII were 73% identical at the predicted amino acid level and their mRNAs exhibited significant structural similarity even though they were products of separate genes. Comparison of ECRI and ECRII with the sequences of acyl CoA dehydrogenases from a variety of different sources revealed a high degree of interspecies sequence identity, suggesting that these enzymes may have evolved from a common ancestral gene. This result is surprising since the ascarid enzymes function as reductases, not as dehydrogenases. Both ECRs were tissue-specific and developmentally regulated and were found in transitional third-stage larvae (L3) and adult muscle, but not in early, aerobic larval stages or adult testis, ovary, or intestine. The ratio of ECRII to ECRI was greater in L3 than in adult muscle. Interestingly, both ECRs also appeared to be expressed in pharyngeal muscle, suggesting that branched-chain fatty acid synthesis may not be confined exclusively to body wall muscle. PMID:9566523

  11. Reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, Kazeem Bode

    The uncertainties in the continuous supply of fossil fuels from the crisis-ridden oil-rich region of the world is fast shifting focus on the need to utilize cellulosic biomass and develop more efficient technologies for its conversion to fuels and chemicals. One such technology is the rapid degradation of cellulose in supercritical water without the need for an enzyme or inorganic catalyst such as acid. This project focused on the study of reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water. Cellulose reactions at hydrothermal conditions can proceed via the homogeneous route involving dissolution and hydrolysis or the heterogeneous path of surface hydrolysis. The work is divided into three main parts. First, the detailed kinetic analysis of cellulose reactions in micro- and tubular reactors was conducted. Reaction kinetics models were applied, and kinetics parameters at both subcritical and supercritical conditions were evaluated. The second major task was the evaluation of yields of water soluble hydrolysates obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulose and starch in hydrothermal reactors. Lastly, changes in molecular weight distribution due to hydrothermolytic degradation of cellulose were investigated. These changes were also simulated based on different modes of scission, and the pattern generated from simulation was compared with the distribution pattern from experiments. For a better understanding of the reaction kinetics of cellulose in subcritical and supercritical water, a series of reactions was conducted in the microreactor. Hydrolysis of cellulose was performed at subcritical temperatures ranging from 270 to 340 °C (tau = 0.40--0.88 s). For the dissolution of cellulose, the reaction was conducted at supercritical temperatures ranging from 375 to 395 °C (tau = 0.27--0.44 s). The operating pressure for the reactions at both subcritical and supercritical conditions was 5000 psig. The results show that the rate-limiting step in converting cellulose to fermentable sugars in subcritical and supercritical water differs because of the difference in their activation energies. Cellulose and starch were both hydrolyzed in micro- and tubular reactors and at subcritical and supercritical conditions. Due to the difficulty involved in generating an aqueous based dissolved cellulose and having it reacted in subcritical water, dissolved starch was used instead. Better yield of water soluble hydrolysates, especially fermentable sugars, were observed from the hydrolysis of cellulose and dissolved starch in subcritical water than at supercritical conditions. The concluding phase of this project focuses on establishing the mode of scission of cellulose chains in the hydrothermal reactor. This was achieved by using the simulated degradation pattern generated based on different scission modes to fingerprint the degradation pattern obtained from experiment.

  12. Switching Catalysis from Hydrolysis to Perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, D.; Bernhardt, P; Morley, K; Jiang, Y; Cheeseman, J; Purpero, V; Schrag, J; Kazlauskas, R

    2010-01-01

    Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k{sub cat}, but K{sub m} also increased so the specificity constant, k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties but binds {var_epsilon}-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones.

  13. Switching catalysis from hydrolysis to perhydrolysis in P. fluorescens esterase

    PubMed Central

    Yin, De Lu (Tyler); Bernhardt, Peter; Morley, Krista L.; Jiang, Yun; Cheeseman, Jeremy D.; Purpero, Vincent; Schrag, Joseph D.; Kazlauskas, Romas J.

    2010-01-01

    Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis – the reversible formation of per-acids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket - L29P - in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. 2005, 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two x-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active-site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of ?-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction – hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide – occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed two fold higher kcat, but Km also increased so the specificity constant, kcat/Km, remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate), but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of ?-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties, but binds ?-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones. PMID:20112920

  14. Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ghanta, Sirisha; Grossmann, Ruth E.; Brenner, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Hormone systems evolved over 500 million years of animal evolution to motivate feeding behavior and convert excess calories to fat. These systems produced vertebrates, including humans, who are famine-resistant but sensitive to obesity in environments of persistent overnutrition. We looked for cell-intrinsic metabolic features, which might have been subject to an evolutionary drive favoring lipogenesis. Mitochondrial protein acetylation appears to be such a system. Because mitochondrial acetyl-coA is the central mediator of fuel oxidation and is saturable, this metabolite is postulated to be the fundamental indicator of energy excess, which imprints a memory of nutritional imbalances by covalent modification. Fungal and invertebrate mitochondria have highly acetylated mitochondrial proteomes without an apparent mitochondrially-targeted protein lysine acetyltransferase. Thus, mitochondrial acetylation is hypothesized to have evolved as a nonenzymatic phenomenon. Because the pKa of a nonperturbed Lys is 10.4 and linkage of a carbonyl carbon to an ? amino group cannot be formed with a protonated Lys, we hypothesize that acetylation occurs on residues with depressed pKa values, accounting for the propensity of acetylation to hit active sites and suggesting that regulatory Lys residues may have been under selective pressure to avoid or attract acetylation throughout animal evolution. In addition, a shortage of mitochondrial oxaloacetate under ketotic conditions can explain why macronutrient insufficiency also produces mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Reduced mitochondrial activity during times of overnutrition and undernutrition would improve fitness by virtue of resource conservation. Micronutrient insufficiency is predicted to exacerbate mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Nicotinamide riboside and Sirt3 activity are predicted to relieve mitochondrial inhibition. PMID:24050258

  15. Physicochemical and release characteristics of acetylated Indian palmyrah retrograded shoot starch.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Jayaram; Varma, Ch Ashok Kumar; Panpalia, S G

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the influence of serial modifications, including retrogradation followed by acetylation on morphological, physicochemical and drug release properties of retrograded Indian palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L.) shoot starch. The acetylated retrograded starches prepared by using different concentrations of acetic anhydride were shown a degree of substitution (DS) in the range of 0.16-0.55. Acetylation of retrograded starch produced significant morphological changes from rough to smooth surface. The amylose content, water holding capacity, swelling and solubility power tend to increase with increase in DS. A strong peak at 1751 and 1032cm(-1) confirms the formation of acetylated retrograded starch. The TGA data reveal that with increase in DS there is an increased thermal stability and decreased bound water of starch. The elemental analysis also confirms the addition of acetyl groups because of increased carbon and hydrogen content. The matrix tablets of acetylated retrograded starch with high DS showed a delayed release in gastric pH and sustained release in simulated intestinal fluid. Overall, this result suggested that acetylated retrograded starch with high DS are thermally stable and can be used for formulating protein and peptide drugs for colon targeting. PMID:24857875

  16. Proteomic analysis of lysine acetylation sites in rat tissues reveals organ specificity and subcellular patterns.

    PubMed

    Lundby, Alicia; Lage, Kasper; Weinert, Brian T; Bekker-Jensen, Dorte B; Secher, Anna; Skovgaard, Tine; Kelstrup, Christian D; Dmytriyev, Anatoliy; Choudhary, Chunaram; Lundby, Carsten; Olsen, Jesper V

    2012-08-30

    Lysine acetylation is a major posttranslational modification involved in a broad array of physiological functions. Here, we provide an organ-wide map of lysine acetylation sites from 16 rat tissues analyzed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. We quantify 15,474 modification sites on 4,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle contraction. Furthermore, we illustrate that acetylation of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a cellular mechanism to switch off enzymatic activity. PMID:22902405

  17. Paraquat Induces Epigenetic Changes by Promoting Histone Acetylation in Cell Culture Models of Dopaminergic Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Song, C.; Kanthasamy, A.; Jin, H.; Anantharam, V.; Kanthasamy, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental neurotoxic exposure to agrochemicals has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The widely used herbicide paraquat is among the few environmental chemicals potentially linked with PD. Since epigenetic changes are beginning to emerge as key mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases, herein we examined the effects of paraquat on histone acetylation, a major epigenetic change in chromatin that can regulate gene expression, chromatin remodeling, cell survival and cell death. Exposure of N27 dopaminergic cells to paraquat induced histone H3 acetylation in a time-dependent manner. However, paraquat did not alter acetylation of another core histone H4. Paraquat-induced histone acetylation was associated with decreased total histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and HDAC4 and 7 protein expression levels. To determine if histone acetylation plays a role in paraquat-induced apoptosis, the novel HAT inhibitor anacardic acid was used. Anacardic acid treatment significantly attenuated paraquat-induced caspase-3 enzyme activity, suppressed proteolytic activation and kinase activity of protein kinase C delta (PKC?) and also blocked paraquat-induced cytotoxicity. Together, these results demonstrate that the neurotoxic agent paraquat induced acetylation of core histones in cell culture models of PD and that inhibition of HAT activity by anacardic acid protects against apoptotic cell death, indicating that histone acetylation may represent key epigenetic changes in dopaminergic neuronal cells during neurotoxic insults. PMID:21777615

  18. Active chromatin domains are defined by acetylation islands revealed by genome-wide mapping.

    PubMed

    Roh, Tae-Young; Cuddapah, Suresh; Zhao, Keji

    2005-03-01

    The identity and developmental potential of a human cell is specified by its epigenome that is largely defined by patterns of chromatin modifications including histone acetylation. Here we report high-resolution genome-wide mapping of diacetylation of histone H3 at Lys 9 and Lys 14 in resting and activated human T cells by genome-wide mapping technique (GMAT). Our data show that high levels of the H3 acetylation are detected in gene-rich regions. The chromatin accessibility and gene expression of a genetic domain is correlated with hyperacetylation of promoters and other regulatory elements but not with generally elevated acetylation of the entire domain. Islands of acetylation are identified in the intergenic and transcribed regions. The locations of the 46,813 acetylation islands identified in this study are significantly correlated with conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) and many of them are colocalized with known regulatory elements in T cells. TCR signaling induces 4045 new acetylation loci that may mediate the global chromatin remodeling and gene activation. We propose that the acetylation islands are epigenetic marks that allow prediction of functional regulatory elements. PMID:15706033

  19. New findings about the lipase acetylation of nanofibrillated cellulose using acetic anhydride as acyl donor.

    PubMed

    Boži?, Mojca; Vivod, Vera; Kav?i?, Sabina; Leitgeb, Maja; Kokol, Vanja

    2015-07-10

    The acetylation efficiency of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with acetic anhydride as acetyl donor was studied using lipase from Aspergillus niger in a mixture of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and phosphate buffer solution at ambient conditions and in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The chemical acetylation of NFC with comparable ester content was carried out for comparison. The ATR-FTIR, solid-state CP/MAS (13)C NMR and DSC analyses revealed that, besides the enzyme-catalysed acetylation, predominantly appearing at the C-6 position of cellulose hydroxyls, a strong and stable acyl-enzyme intermediate attachment also occurred on the NFC via Maillard reaction. Enzymatic acetylation via attached acyl-enzyme complex on NFC yielded high hydophobicity (contact angle of 84±9°), whereas the chemical acetylation with comparable ester content resulted in a much lower hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 33±3°. Finally, the adsorption capacity profiles of lysozyme and BSA proteins on native, chemically and enzymatically acetylated NFC as a function of the pH medium were determined. PMID:25857991

  20. FANCJ/BACH1 acetylation at lysine 1249 regulates the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jenny; Peng, Min; Guillemette, Shawna; Quan, Steven; Maniatis, Stephanie; Wu, Yuliang; Venkatesh, Aditya; Shaffer, Scott A; Brosh, Robert M; Cantor, Sharon B

    2012-07-01

    BRCA1 promotes DNA repair through interactions with multiple proteins, including CtIP and FANCJ (also known as BRIP1/BACH1). While CtIP facilitates DNA end resection when de-acetylated, the function of FANCJ in repair processing is less well defined. Here, we report that FANCJ is also acetylated. Preventing FANCJ acetylation at lysine 1249 does not interfere with the ability of cells to survive DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). However, resistance is achieved with reduced reliance on recombination. Mechanistically, FANCJ acetylation facilitates DNA end processing required for repair and checkpoint signaling. This conclusion was based on the finding that FANCJ and its acetylation were required for robust RPA foci formation, RPA phosphorylation, and Rad51 foci formation in response to camptothecin (CPT). Furthermore, both preventing and mimicking FANCJ acetylation at lysine 1249 disrupts FANCJ function in checkpoint maintenance. Thus, we propose that the dynamic regulation of FANCJ acetylation is critical for robust DNA damage response, recombination-based processing, and ultimately checkpoint maintenance. PMID:22792074