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1

Regulation of the structure and activity of pyruvate carboxylase by acetyl CoA  

PubMed Central

In this review we examine the effects of the allosteric activator, acetyl CoA on both the structure and catalytic activities of pyruvate carboxylase. We describe how the binding of acetyl CoA produces gross changes to the quaternary and tertiary structures of the enzyme that are visible in the electron microscope. These changes serve to stabilize the tetrameric structure of the enzyme. The main locus of activation of the enzyme by acetyl CoA is the biotin carboxylation domain of the enzyme where ATP-cleavage and carboxylation of the biotin prosthetic group occur. As well as enhancing reaction rates, acetyl CoA also enhances the binding of some substrates, especially HCO3?, and there is also a complex interaction with the binding of the cofactor Mg2+. The activation of pyruvate carboxylase by acetyl CoA is generally a cooperative processes, although there is a large degree of variability in the degree of cooperativity exhibited by the enzyme from different organisms. The X-ray crystallographic holoenzyme structures of pyruvate carboxylases from Rhizobium etli and Staphylococcus aureus have shown the allosteric acetyl CoA binding domain to be located at the interfaces of the biotin carboxylation and carboxyl transfer and the carboxyl transfer and biotin carboxyl carrier protein domains. PMID:22120519

Adina-Zada, Abdussalam; Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Attwood, Paul V.

2011-01-01

2

Correlation of ATP Citrate Lyase and Acetyl CoA Levels with Trichothecene Production in Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Thecorrelation of ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using an inhibitor (precocene II) and an enhancer (cobalt chloride) of trichothecene production by changing carbon sources in liquid medium. When precocene II (30 µM) was added to inhibit trichothecene production in a trichothecene high-production medium containing sucrose, ACL expression was reduced and ACL mRNA level as well as acetyl CoA amount in the fungal cells were reduced to the levels observed in a trichothecene trace-production medium containing glucose or fructose. The ACL mRNA level was greatly increased by addition of cobalt chloride in the trichothecene high-production medium, but not in the trichothecene trace-production medium. Levels were reduced to those level in the trichothecene trace-production medium by addition of precocene II (300 µM) together with cobalt chloride. These results suggest that ACL expression is activated in the presence of sucrose and that acetyl CoA produced by the increased ALC level may be used for trichothecene production in the fungus. These findings also suggest that sucrose is important for the action of cobalt chloride in activating trichothecene production and that precocene II may affect a step down-stream of the target of cobalt chloride. PMID:24284828

Sakamoto, Naoko; Tsuyuki, Rie; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Usuma, Jermnak; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

2013-01-01

3

Correlation of ATP citrate lyase and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

The correlation of ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using an inhibitor (precocene II) and an enhancer (cobalt chloride) of trichothecene production by changing carbon sources in liquid medium. When precocene II (30 µM) was added to inhibit trichothecene production in a trichothecene high-production medium containing sucrose, ACL expression was reduced and ACL mRNA level as well as acetyl CoA amount in the fungal cells were reduced to the levels observed in a trichothecene trace-production medium containing glucose or fructose. The ACL mRNA level was greatly increased by addition of cobalt chloride in the trichothecene high-production medium, but not in the trichothecene trace-production medium. Levels were reduced to those level in the trichothecene trace-production medium by addition of precocene II (300 µM) together with cobalt chloride. These results suggest that ACL expression is activated in the presence of sucrose and that acetyl CoA produced by the increased ALC level may be used for trichothecene production in the fungus. These findings also suggest that sucrose is important for the action of cobalt chloride in activating trichothecene production and that precocene II may affect a step down-stream of the target of cobalt chloride. PMID:24284828

Sakamoto, Naoko; Tsuyuki, Rie; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Usuma, Jermnak; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

2013-11-01

4

Effect of acetylation of biodegradable polyrotaxanes on its supramolecular dissociation via terminal ester hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylation of biodegradable polyrotaxanes was examined to estimate the effect on its supramolecular dissociation via terminal ester hydrolysis. The biodegradable polyrotaxanes, in which many ?-cyclodextrins (?-CD) are threaded onto a poly(ethylene glycol) chain capped with L-phenylalanine via ester linkages, were acetylated using acetic anhydride; ?-CD release behavior was then characterized by in vitro hydrolysis. The degree of acetylation was changed

Junji Watanabe; Tooru Ooya; Nobuhiko Yui

1999-01-01

5

Dinuclear nickel complexes modeling the structure and function of the acetyl CoA synthase active site  

PubMed Central

A dinuclear nickel complex with methyl and thiolate ligands, Ni(dadtEt)Ni(Me)(SDmp) (2), has been synthesized as a dinuclear Nid–Nip-site model of acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) (dadtEt is N,N?-diethyl-3,7-diazanonane-1,9-dithiolate; Dmp is 2,6-dimesitylphenyl). Complex 2 was prepared via 2 methods: (i) ligand substitution of a dinuclear Ni(II)–Ni(II) cation complex [Ni(dadtEt) Ni(tmtu)2] (OTf)2(1) with MeMgBr and KSDmp (tmtu is tetramethylthiourea), (ii) methyl transfer from methylcobaloxime Co(dmgBF2)2(Me)(Py) (5) to a Ni(II)–Ni(0) complex such as [Ni(dadtEt)Ni(cod)] (3), generated in situ from Ni(dadtEt) and Ni(cod)2, followed by addition of KSDmp (cod is 1,5-cyclooctadiene; dmgBF2 is difluoroboryl-dimethylglyoximate). Method ii models the formation of Nip–Me species proposed as a plausible intermediate in ACS catalysis. The reaction of 2 with excess CO affords the acetylthioester CH3C(O)SDmp (8) with concomitant formation of Ni(dadtEt)Ni(CO)2 (9) and Ni(CO)4 plus Ni(dadtEt). When complex 2 is treated with 1 equiv of CO in the presence of excess 1,5-cyclooctadiene, the formation of 9 and Ni(CO)4 is considerably suppressed, and instead the dinuclear Ni(II)–Ni(0) complex is generated in situ, which further affords 2 upon successive treatment with Co(dmgBF2)2(Me)(Py) (5) and KSDmp. These results suggest that (i) ACS catalysis could include the Nid(II)–Nip(0) state as the active species, (ii) The Nid(II)–Nip(0) species could first react with methylcobalamin to afford Nid(II)–Nip(II)–Me, and (iii) CO insertion into the Nip–Me bond and the successive reductive elimination of acetyl-CoA occurs immediately when CoA is coordinated to the Nip site to form the active Nid(II)–Nip(0) species. PMID:19584250

Ito, Mikinao; Kotera, Mai; Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi; Tatsumi, Kazuyuki

2009-01-01

6

Impact of Cell Wall Acetylation on Corn Stover Hydrolysis by Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of variously pretreated corn stover samples showed neutral to mildly acidic pretreatments were more effective at removing xylan from corn stover and more likely to maintain the acetyl to xylopyranosyl ratios present in untreated material than were alkaline treatments. Retention of acetyl groups in the residual solids resulted in greater resistance to hydrolysis by endoxylanase alone, although the synergistic combination of endoxylanase and acetyl xylan esterase enzymes permitted higher xylan conversions to be observed. Acetyl xylan esterase alone did little to improve hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes, although a direct relationship was observed between the enzymatic removal of acetyl groups and improvements in the enzymatic conversion of xylan present in substrates. In all cases, effective xylan conversions were found to significantly improve glucan conversions achievable by cellulolytic enzymes. Additionally, acetyl and xylan removal not only enhanced the respective initial rates of xylan and glucan conversion, but also the overall extents of conversion. This work emphasizes the necessity for xylanolytic enzymes during saccharification processes and specifically for the optimization of acetyl esterase and xylanase synergies when biomass processes include milder pretreatments, such as hot water or sulfite steam explosion.

Selig, M. J.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

2009-01-01

7

An acetyl esterase of Trichoderma reesei and its role in the hydrolysis of acetyl xylans  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acetyl esterase was purified from Trichoderma reesei by cation and anion exchange chromatography. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 45 000 as determined by SDS-electrophoresis, or 67 000 as determined by gel filtration. In chromatofocusing the enzyme was shown to consist of two isoenzymes with isoelectric points of 6.8 and 6.0. The enzyme showed activity towards naphthyl acetate,

Kaisa Poutanen; Maija Sundberg

1988-01-01

8

Simvastatin Induced Neurite Outgrowth Unveils Role of Cell Surface Cholesterol and Acetyl CoA Carboxylase in SH-SY5Y Cells  

PubMed Central

Statins are known to modulate cell surface cholesterol (CSC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in non-neural cells; however no study demonstrates whether CSC and AMPK may regulate simvastatin induced neuritogenesis (SIN). We found that simvastatin (SIM) maintains CSC as shown by Fillipin III staining, Flotillin-2 protein expression / localization and phosphorylation of various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the plasma membrane. Modulation of CSC revealed that SIN is critically dependent on this CSC. Simultaneously, phospho array for mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) revealed PI3K / Akt as intracellular pathway which modulates lipid pathway by inhibiting AMPK activation. Though, SIM led to a transient increase in AMPK phosphorylation followed by a sudden decline; the effect was independent of PI3K. Strikingly, AMPK phosphorylation was regulated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity which was enhanced upon SIM treatment as evidenced by increase in threonine phosphorylation. Moreover, it was observed that addition of AMP analogue and PP2A inhibitor inhibited SIN. Bio-composition of neurites shows that lipids form a major part of neurites and AMPK is known to regulate lipid metabolism majorly through acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). AMPK activity is negative regulator of ACC activity and we found that phosphorylation of ACC started to decrease after 6 hrs which becomes more pronounced at 12 hrs. Addition of ACC inhibitor showed that SIN is dependent on ACC activity. Simultaneously, addition of Fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor confirmed that endogenous lipid pathway is important for SIN. We further investigated SREBP-1 pathway activation which controls ACC and FAS at transcriptional level. However, SIM did not affect SREBP-1 processing and transcription of its target genes likes ACC1 and FAS. In conclusion, this study highlights a distinct role of CSC and ACC in SIN which might have implication in process of neuronal differentiation induced by other agents. PMID:24040277

Raina, Varshiesh; Gupta, Sarika; Yadav, Saurabh; Surolia, Avadhesha

2013-01-01

9

Chemical Issues Addressing the Construction of the Distal Ni[Cysteine-Glycine-Cysteine]2- Site of Acetyl CoA Synthase: Why Not Copper?  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the Ni(Cysteine-Glycine-Cysteine)2-, Ni(CGC)2-, in the A-cluster active site of Acetyl CoA Synthase has prompted the synthesis of many small molecule models which employ M(N2S2) complexes as metalloligands. In vitro studies have shown that nickel incorporates into the N2S2 binding pocket even when copper is in the enzyme growth medium, while copper is preferentially taken up in the proximal site, displacing the catalytically active nickel. (Darnault, C.; Volbeda, A.; Kim, E.J.; Legrand, P.; Vernede, X.; Lindahl, P.A.; Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. Nat. Struct. Biol. 2003, 10, 271-279.) The work herein has been designed to address the chemical viability of copper(II) within the tripeptide N2S2 ligand set. To this end, a series of CuN2S2 2- complexes, the resin-bound, O-Cu(CGC)2- (A) and free Cu(CGC)2- (B) complexes, as well as Cu(ema)2- (C) and Cu(emi)2- (D) dianions, have been characterized by UV-vis, EPR, and ESI-MS spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and, where appropriate, x-ray diffraction studies, and compared to the NiII congeners. EPR spectroscopic results have indicated that, in frozen DMF solution, the copper complexes are distorted square planar structures with nitrogen and sulfur donors. This is consistent with X-ray diffraction measurements which also show copper(II) in a distorted square planar environment that is bereft of CuN2S2 2- intermolecular interactions. DFT calculations resulted in optimized structures that are consistent with crystallographic data and indicated HOMO-SOMO gaps of 5.01 eV and 4.68 eV for C and D as respectively. Optimized structures of Ni(ema)2- and Ni(emi)2- share the same basic characteristics as for the copper(II) congeners. Electrochemical characterization of C and D resulted in a reversible CuIII/II couple at -1.20 V and - 1.40 V, respectively. Reactivity studies with Rh(CO)2+ show similar donor capabilities for complexes A-D. Analysis of A shows that transmetallation does not occur. From competitive metal uptake studies on immobilized tripeptide it is concluded that the N2S2 4- ligating unit has a slight preference for Cu2+ over Ni2+ and that the biosynthetic pathway responsible for constructing the distal site of ACS must be selective for nickel insertion or copper exclusion, or both. PMID:19253985

Green, Kayla. N.; Brothers, Scott M.; Lee, Boram; Darensbourg, Marcetta. Y.; Rockcliffe, David. A.

2009-01-01

10

Reaction pathway and free energy profile for papain-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-acetyl-Phe-Gly 4-nitroanilide.  

PubMed

Possible reaction pathways for papain-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-acetyl-Phe-Gly 4-nitroanilide (APGNA) have been studied by performing pseudobond first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical-free energy (QM/MM-FE) calculations. The whole hydrolysis process includes two stages: acylation and deacylation. For the acylation stage of the catalytic reaction, we have explored three possible paths (A, B, and C) and the corresponding free energy profiles along the reaction coordinates. It has been demonstrated that the most favorable reaction path in this stage is path B consisting of two reaction steps: the first step is a proton transfer to form a zwitterionic form (i.e., Cys-S?/His-H? ion-pair), and the second step is the nucleophilic attack on the carboxyl carbon of the substrate accompanied by the dissociation of 4-nitroanilide. The deacylation stage includes the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule on the carboxyl carbon of the substrate and dissociation between the carboxyl carbon of the substrate and the sulfhydryl sulfur of Cys25 side chain. The free energy barriers calculated for the acylation and deacylation stages are 20.0 and 10.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the acylation is rate-limiting. The overall free energy barrier calculated for papain-catalyzed hydrolysis of APGNA is 20.0 kcal/mol, which is reasonably close to the experimentally derived activation free energy of 17.9 kcal/mol. PMID:23862626

Wei, Donghui; Huang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Junjun; Tang, Mingsheng; Zhan, Chang-Guo

2013-07-30

11

Transition-State Analysis of 2-O-Acetyl-ADP-Ribose Hydrolysis by Human Macrodomain 1.  

PubMed

Macrodomains, including the human macrodomain 1 (MacroD1), are erasers of the post-translational modification of monoadenosinediphospho-ribosylation and hydrolytically deacetylate the sirtuin product O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (OAADPr). OAADPr has been reported to play a role in cell signaling based on oocyte microinjection studies, and macrodomains affect an array of cell processes including transcription and response to DNA damage. Here, we investigate human MacroD1 by transition-state (TS) analysis based on kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) from isotopically labeled OAADPr substrates. Competitive radiolabeled-isotope effects and mass spectrometry were used to obtain KIE data to yield intrinsic KIE values. Intrinsic KIEs were matched to a quantum chemical structure of the TS that includes the active site residues Asp(184) and Asn(174) and a structural water molecule. Transition-state analysis supports a concerted mechanism with an early TS involving simultaneous nucleophilic water attack and leaving group bond cleavage where the breaking C-O ester bond = 1.60 Å and the C-O bond to the attacking water nucleophile = 2.30 Å. The MacroD1 TS provides mechanistic understanding of the OAADPr esterase chemistry. PMID:25051211

Hirsch, Brett M; Burgos, Emmanuel S; Schramm, Vern L

2014-10-17

12

Acid hydrolysis of chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and the N-acetyl linkage (de-N-acetylation) of partially N-acetylated chitosans were studied in dilute and concentrated HCl. The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages was found to be equal to the rate of de-N-acetylation in dilute acid, while the glycosidic linkages was hydrolysed more than 10 times faster than the N-acetyl linkage in

K. M. Vårum; M. H. Ottøy; O. Smidsrød

2001-01-01

13

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase from ox liver. Properties of its acetyl derivative.  

PubMed

Ox liver mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (EC 4.1.3.5) reacts with acetyl-CoA to form a complex in which the acetyl group is covalently bound to the enzyme. This acetyl group can be removed by addition of acetoacetyl-CoA or CoA. The extent of acetylation and release of CoA were found to be highly temperature-dependent. At temperatures above 20 degrees C, a maximum value of 0.85 mol of acetyl group bound/mol of enzyme dimer was observed. Below this temperature the extent of rapid acetylation was significantly lowered. Binding stoichiometries close to 1 mol/mol of enzyme dimer were also observed when the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity was titrated with methyl methanethiosulphonate or bromoacetyl-CoA. This is taken as evidence for a 'half-of-the-sites' reaction mechanism for the formation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase. The Keq. for the acetylation was about 10. Isolated acetyl-enzyme is stable for many hours at 0 degrees C and pH 7, but is hydrolysed at 30 degrees C with a half-life of 7 min. This hydrolysis is stimulated by acetyl-CoA and slightly by succinyl-CoA, but not by desulpho-CoA. The site of acetylation has been identified as the thiol group of a reactive cysteine residue by affinity-labelling with the substrate analogue bromo[1-14C]acetyl-CoA. PMID:2860896

Lowe, D M; Tubbs, P K

1985-04-15

14

Proton inventory of the water-catalyzed hydrolysis of 1-acetyl-1,2,4-triazole. Examination of ionic strength effects  

SciTech Connect

Proton inventories of the water-catalyzed hydrolysis of 1-acetyl-1,2-4-triazole have been completed under a variety of conditions. The solvent deuterium isotope effect, k/sub H/sub 2/O/k/sub D/sub 2/O/, determined at pH 4.7 or the equivalent point on the pD rate profile at 25/sup 0/C by using acetic acid-acetate buffers at 1 M ionic strength was 3.18. The solvent deuterium isotope effects determined at ionic strenghs of 1 and 0.5 M by using 10/sup -3/ M HCl (DCl) to control the pH(D) were 3.13 and 3.07, respectively. In all cases the proton inventories exhibit significant downward curvature and are, within experimental error, consistent with a cyclic transition state structure involving four water molecules. The equation k/sub n/ = k/sub 0/(1 - n + 0.75n) describes the proton inventories where the value of the isotope fractionation factor for the four in-flight protons is 0.75. These inventories are compared to an earlier study done with no ionic strength control, and several alternative transition states are considered in detail.

Patterson, J.F.; Huskey, W.P.; Hogg, J.L.

1980-11-07

15

Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain  

SciTech Connect

CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy {beta} and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy {alpha}. The transcript specific for CoASy {beta} was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy {beta}. In contrast to CoASy {alpha}, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy {beta} is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation.

Nemazanyy, Ivan [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: nemazanyy@imbg.org.ua; Panasyuk, Ganna [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Breus, Oksana [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Zhyvoloup, Alexander [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Filonenko, Valeriy [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Gout, Ivan T. [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine) and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: i.gout@ucl.ac.uk

2006-03-24

16

Lactate reduction in Clostridium propionicum: isolation and characterization of lactyl CoA dehydratase  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of lactate to propionate by Clostridium propionicum proceeds via acrylate. In cell free extracts, lactate and acrylate are reduced to propionate and acrylate is hydrated to lactate. At no time, however, was acrylate derived from lactate detected, even when acrylate reduction was abolished. Two proteins, E1 and E2, were purified to > 90% homogeneity. Together, they catalyze the hydration of acrylyl CoA to lactyl CoA. There are not detectable intermediates. E1 and E2 form a relatively unstable complex that is catalytically active. Formation of the complex requires hydrolysis of ATP and ADP. E1 is irreversibly inactivated by O/sub 2/ with a half-life < 2 seconds. E2 contains 4 cofactors, riboflavine, FMN, a 4Fe-4S cluster and a 3Fe cluster. E1 is a single polypeptide with a molecular mass of 27,000 and E2 consists of polypeptides of molecular mass 41,000 and 48,000. The EPR properties of the 2 Fe-S clusters were characterized. The 4 Fe cluster is unusual because it has axial symmetry but with g/sub perpendicular/ > g/sub parallel/. Addition of lactyl CoA or acrylyl CoA to E2 alters the EPR spectrum of E2, indicating that they alter the environment of the Fe-S clusters. During acrylyl coA hydration, there is a (/sup 3/H)-H/sub 2/O isotope effect of 5,4, indicating that formation of a ..beta.. carbon-hydrogen bond is at least partially rate determining. Lactyl CoA dehydratase is very specific towards substrates. It does not eliminate chloride from 2-chloropropionyl CoA, and crotonyl CoA is hydrated to ..cap alpha..-hydroxybutyryl CoA < 2% as acrylyl CoA is hydrated. Finally, a mechanism for hydration of acrylyl CoA is proposed.

Kuchta, R.D.

1986-01-01

17

Recent NASA Dryden COA Experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation concerns the experience that Dryden has had with Certificate of Authorization (COA) in reference to unmanned aerial systems (UAS). It reviews recent Certificate of Authorization UAS's i.e., 2005 Altair NOAA Mission, 2006 Altair Western States Fire Mission, and 2007 Ikhana. The priorities for the safety process is reviewed, as are typical UAS hazards. Slides also review the common COA provisions, best practices and lessons learned, the 2005 NOAA/NASA Science Demonstration Flights and the use of the UAS systems during fire emergencies.

Cobleigh, Brent

2008-01-01

18

Acetate/acetyl-CoA metabolism associated with cancer fatty acid synthesis: Overview and application.  

PubMed

Understanding cancer-specific metabolism is important for identifying novel targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Induced acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism is a notable feature that is related to fatty acid synthesis supporting tumor growth. In this review, we focused on the recent findings related to cancer acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism. We also introduce [1-(11)C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET), which is a useful tool to visualize up-regulation of acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism in cancer, and discuss the utility of [1-(11)C]acetate PET in cancer diagnosis and its application to personalized medicine. PMID:24569091

Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

2015-01-28

19

Gas chromatographic analysis of monosaccharides in a forest soil profile: Analysis by gas chromatography after trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis and reduction–acetylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of sugars in soil at a molecular level may help to understand their origin and function. Gas chromatographic determination of individual sugars was applied to the litter layers and all mineral soil horizons of an acid forest soil under broad-leaved trees. Hydrolysis was carried out using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). For GC analysis, the monosaccharide units were derivatised by

Cornelia Rumpel; Marie-France Dignac

2006-01-01

20

A novel neutral xylanase with high SDS resistance from Volvariella volvacea: characterization and its synergistic hydrolysis of wheat bran with acetyl xylan esterase.  

PubMed

A neutral xylanase (XynII) from Volvariella volvacea was identified and characterized. Unlike other modular xylanases, it consists of only a single GH10 catalytic domain with a unique C-terminal sequence (W-R-W-F) and a phenylalanine and proline-rich motif (T-P-F-P-P-F) at N-terminus, indicating that it is a novel GH10 xylanase. XynII exhibited optimal activity at pH 7 and 60 °C and stability over a broad range of pH 4.0-10.0. XynII displayed extreme highly SDS resistance retaining 101.98, 92.99, and 69.84 % activity at the presence of 300 mM SDS on birchwood, soluble oat spelt, and beechwood xylan, respectively. It remained largely intact after 24 h of incubation with proteinase K at a protease to protein ratio of 1:50 at 37 °C. The kinetic constants K(m) value towards beechwood xylan was 0.548 mg ml?¹, and the k(cat)/K(m) ratio, reflecting the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme, was 126.42 ml mg?¹ s?¹ at 60 °C. XynII was a true endo-acting xylanase lacking cellulase activity. It has weak activity towards xylotriose but efficiently hydrolyzed xylans and xylooligosaccharides larger than xylotriose mainly to xylobiose. Synergistic action with acetyl xylan esterase (AXEI) from V. volvacea was observed for de-starched wheat bran. The highest degree of synergy (DS 1.42) was obtained in sequential reactions with AXEI digestion preceding XynII. The high SDS resistance and intrinsic stability suggested XynII may have potential applications in various industrial processes especially for the detergent and textile industries and animal feed industries. PMID:23903903

Zheng, Fei; Huang, Jingxuan; Yin, Yuhao; Ding, Shaojun

2013-10-01

21

SIRT4 coordinates the balance between lipid synthesis and catabolism by repressing malonyl CoA decarboxylase  

PubMed Central

Summary Lipid metabolism is tightly controlled by the nutritional state of the organism. Nutrient-rich conditions increase lipogenesis whereas nutrient deprivation promotes fat oxidation. In this study, we identify the mitochondrial sirtuin, SIRT4, as a novel regulator of lipid homeostasis. SIRT4 is active in nutrient-replete conditions to repress fatty acid oxidation while promoting lipid anabolism. SIRT4 deacetylates and inhibits malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), an enzyme that produces acetyl CoA from malonyl CoA. Malonyl CoA provides the carbon skeleton for lipogenesis and also inhibits fat oxidation. Mice lacking SIRT4 display elevated MCD activity and decreased malonyl CoA in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Consequently, SIRT4 KO mice display deregulated lipid metabolism leading to increased exercise tolerance and protection against diet-induced obesity. In sum, this work elucidates SIRT4 as an important regulator of lipid homeostasis, identifies MCD as a novel SIRT4 target, and deepens our understanding of the malonyl CoA regulatory axis. PMID:23746352

Laurent, Gaelle; German, Natalie J.; Saha, Asish K.; de Boer, Vincent C. J.; Davies, Michael; Koves, Timothy R.; Dephoure, Noah; Fischer, Frank; Boanca, Gina; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Lovitch, Scott B.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Kurland, Irwin J.; Steegborn, Clemens; Gygi, Steven P.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Ruderman, Neil B.; Haigis, Marcia C.

2013-01-01

22

Enhanced isoamyl acetate production upon manipulation of the acetyl-CoA node in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Coenzyme A (CoA) and its thioester derivative acetyl-Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) participate in over 100 different reactions in intermediary metabolism of microorganisms. Earlier results indicated that overexpression of upstream rate-limiting enzyme pantothenate kinase with simultaneous supplementation of precursor pantothenic acid to the culture media increased intracellular CoA levels significantly ( approximately 10-fold). The acetyl-CoA levels also increased ( approximately 5-fold) but not as much as that of CoA, showing that the carbon flux from the pyruvate node is rate-limiting upon an increase in CoA levels. In this study, pyruvate dehydrogenase was overexpressed under elevated CoA levels to increase carbon flux from pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. This coexpression did not increase intracellular acetyl-CoA levels but increased the accumulation of extracellular acetate. The production of isoamyl acetate, an industrially useful compound derived from acetyl-CoA, was used as a model reporter system to signify the beneficial effects of this metabolic engineering strategy. In addition, a strain was created in which the acetate production pathway was inactivated to relieve competition at the acetyl-CoA node and to efficiently channel the enhanced carbon flux to the ester production pathway. The synergistic effect of cofactor CoA manipulation and pyruvate dehydrogenase overexpression in the acetate pathway deletion mutant led to a 5-fold increase in isoamyl acetate production. Under normal growth conditions the acetate pathway deletion mutant strains accumulate intracellular pyruvate, leading to excretion of pyruvate. However, upon enhancing the carbon flux from pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, the excretion of pyruvate was significantly reduced. PMID:15176870

Vadali, Ravishankar V; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

2004-01-01

23

Antagonism of P2Y1-induced vasorelaxation by acyl CoA: a critical role for palmitate and 3?-phosphate  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Acyl derivatives of CoA have been shown to act as antagonists at human platelet and recombinant P2Y1 receptors, but little is known about their effects in the cardiovascular system. This study evaluated the effect of these endogenous nucleotide derivatives at P2Y1 receptors natively expressed in rat and porcine blood vessels. Experimental Approach Isometric tension recordings were used to evaluate the effects of CoA, acetyl CoA, palmitoyl CoA (PaCoA) and 3?-dephospho-palmitoyl-CoA on concentration relaxation–response curves to ADP and uridine triphosphate (UTP). A FlexStation monitored ADP- and UTP-evoked calcium responses in HEK293 cells. Key Results Acetyl CoA and PaCoA, but not CoA, inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxations to ADP with apparent selectivity for P2Y1 receptors (over P2Y2/4 receptors) in rat thoracic aorta; PaCoA was more potent than acetyl CoA (331-fold vs. fivefold shift of ADP response curve evoked by 10 ?M PaCoA and acetyl CoA, respectively); the apparent pA2 value for PaCoA was 6.44. 3?-dephospho-palmitoyl-CoA (10 ?M) was significantly less potent than PaCoA (20-fold shift). In porcine mesenteric arteries, PaCoA and the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 blocked ADP-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations; in contrast, they were ineffective against ADP-mediated endothelium-independent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries (which does not involve P2Y1 receptors). Calcium responses evoked by ADP activation of endogenous P2Y1 receptors in HEK293 cells were inhibited in the presence of PaCoA, which failed to alter responses to UTP (acting at endogenous P2Y2/4 receptors). Conclusions and Implications Acyl derivatives of CoA can act as endogenous selective antagonists of P2Y1 receptors in blood vessels, and this inhibitory effect critically depends on the palmitate and 3?-ribose phosphate substituents on CoA. PMID:23215951

Alefishat, E; Alexander, SPH; Ralevic, V

2013-01-01

24

Acetyl Coenzyme A-Glutamate Acetyltransferase and N2-Acetylornithine-Glutamate Acetyltransferase of Chlorella  

PubMed Central

The enzymic formation of acetylglutamate has been studied in Chlorella vulgaris extracts. Acetyl CoA and N2-acetyl-l-ornithine served as substrates for glutamate acetylation whereas acetylphosphate, N5-acetyl-l-ornithine, and N2-acetyl-2,4-diamino butyrate were ineffective. Acetyl CoA-glutamate transacetylase and acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase activities have been purified over 180-fold with no indication of any separation of activities. The acetyl CoA activity was more labile than acetylornithine activity so that preparations having acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase activity but no acetyl CoA-glutamate transacetylase activity were obtained. The two acetylating activities appear to be properties of one enzyme with one portion more easily denatured. Both acetylating activities had pH optima between 8 and 8.5. The Km value for glutamate was 3 mm for both activities. The Km values were 0.2 mm for acetylornithine and 3.2 mm for acetyl CoA. Arginine inhibited acetyl CoA-glutamate transacetylase (Ki = 0.94 mm) and acetylglutamate phosphokinase (Ki = 0.5 mm) but had no effect on acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase. The lack of an inhibitory effect of proline on any of the three enzymic activities indicates that acetylglutamate is not a normal intermediate in proline biosynthesis. Growth of Chlorella with arginine as a nitrogen source had no effect on enzyme levels, showing that end-product repression is not a control factor in arginine biosynthesis in Chlorella. In Chlorella, arginine controls its own biosynthesis by inhibiting acetylglutamate phosphokinase and controls the level of acetylated intermediates by inhibiting acetyl CoA-glutamate transacetylase. Images PMID:16659227

Morris, Clayton J.; Thompson, John F.

1975-01-01

25

Differences among Adult COAs and Adult Non-COAs on Levels of Self-Esteem, Depression, and Anxiety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined self-esteem, depression, and anxiety among 60 adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 143 adult non-COAs. Subjects completed Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Found no significant differences between COAs and…

Dodd, David T.; Roberts, Richard L.

1994-01-01

26

Structural Basis for a Bispecific NADP+ and CoA Binding Site in an Archaeal Malonyl-Coenzyme A Reductase*  

PubMed Central

Autotrophic members of the Sulfolobales (crenarchaeota) use the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle to assimilate CO2 into cell material. The product of the initial acetyl-CoA carboxylation with CO2, malonyl-CoA, is further reduced to malonic semialdehyde by an NADPH-dependent malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR); the enzyme also catalyzes the reduction of succinyl-CoA to succinic semialdehyde onwards in the cycle. Here, we present the crystal structure of Sulfolobus tokodaii malonyl-CoA reductase in the substrate-free state and in complex with NADP+ and CoA. Structural analysis revealed an unexpected reaction cycle in which NADP+ and CoA successively occupy identical binding sites. Both coenzymes are pressed into an S-shaped, nearly superimposable structure imposed by a fixed and preformed binding site. The template-governed cofactor shaping implicates the same binding site for the 3?- and 2?-ribose phosphate group of CoA and NADP+, respectively, but a different one for the common ADP part: the ?-phosphate of CoA aligns with the ?-phosphate of NADP+. Evolution from an NADP+ to a bispecific NADP+ and CoA binding site involves many amino acid exchanges within a complex process by which constraints of the CoA structure also influence NADP+ binding. Based on the paralogous aspartate-?-semialdehyde dehydrogenase structurally characterized with a covalent Cys-aspartyl adduct, a malonyl/succinyl group can be reliably modeled into MCR and discussed regarding its binding mode, the malonyl/succinyl specificity, and the catalyzed reaction. The modified polypeptide surrounding around the absent ammonium group in malonate/succinate compared with aspartate provides the structural basis for engineering a methylmalonyl-CoA reductase applied for biotechnical polyester building block synthesis. PMID:23325803

Demmer, Ulrike; Warkentin, Eberhard; Srivastava, Ankita; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Pötter, Markus; Marx, Achim; Fuchs, Georg; Ermler, Ulrich

2013-01-01

27

Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) COA and Mission Coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the science objectives of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in the Pacific region, shows examp le flight tracks, the satellite under-flight requirement, the flight planning, and the agencies coordination of the airspace required for the Certificate of Authorization (COA).

Dillon, Mark; Hall, Philip

2010-01-01

28

Molecular Bases for Sensitivity to Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Inhibitors in Black-Grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In grasses, residues homologous to residues Ile-1,781 and Ile-2,041 in the carboxyl-transferase (CT) domain of the chloroplastic acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) from the grass weed black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides (Huds.)) are critical determinants for sensitivity to two classes of ACCase inhibitors, aryloxyphenoxypropionates (APPs) and cyclohexanediones. Using natural mutants of black-grass, we demonstrated through a molecular, biological, and biochemical approach that

Christophe Delye; Xiao-Qi Zhang; Severine Michel; Annick Matejicek; Stephen B. Powles

2005-01-01

29

Restoration of Hepatic Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity and Expression with Acetyl l-carnitine Treatment in spf Mice with an Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sparse fur (spf) mutant mouse, with an X-linked ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, is a model of congenital hyperammonemia in children. Our earlier studies indicated a deficiency of hepatic carnitine, CoA-SH, acetyl CoA, and ATP in spf mice. We have now studied the effects of a 7-day treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) in the spf\\/Y mice on the activity and expression of

Yogesh R Mawal; K. V Rama Rao; Ijaz A Qureshi

1998-01-01

30

Synthesis of polyrotaxanes from acetyl-?-cyclodextrin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyrotaxanes are intermediary products in the synthesis of topological gels. They are created by inclusion complex formation of hydrophobic linear macromolecules with cyclodextrins or their derivatives. Then, pairs of cyclodextrin molecules with covalently linkage were practically forming the nodes of the semi-flexible polymer network. Such gels are called topological gels and they can absorb huge quantities of water due to the net flexibility allowing the poly(ethylene oxide) chains to slide through the cyclodextrin cavities, without being pulled out altogether. For polyrotaxane formation poly(ethylene oxide) was used like linear macromolecules. There are hydroxyl groups at poly(ethylene oxide) chains, whereby the linking of the voluminous molecules should be made. To avoid the reaction of cyclodextrin OH groups with stoppers, they should be protected by, e.g., acetylation. In this work, the acetylation of the OH groups of ?-cyclodextrin was performed by acetic acid anhydride with iodine as the catalyst. The acetylation reaction was assessed by the FTIR and HPLC method. By the HPLC analysis was found that the acetylation was completed in 20 minutes. Inserting of poly(ethylene oxide) with 4000 g/mol molecule mass into acetyl-?-cyclodextrin with 2:1 poly(ethylene oxide) monomer unit to acetyl-?-cyclodextrin ratio was also monitored by FTIR, and it was found that the process was completed in 12 h at the temperature of 10°C. If the process is performed at temperatures above 10°C, or for periods longer than 12 hours, the process of uncontrolled hydrolysis of acetate groups was initiated.

Risti?, I. S.; Nikoli?, L.; Nikoli?, V.; Ili?, D.; Budinski-Simendi?, J.

2011-12-01

31

Role of Feedback Regulation of Pantothenate Kinase (CoaA) in Control of Coenzyme A Levels in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Pantothenate kinase (CoaA) is a key regulator of coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, and its activity is controlled by feedback inhibition by CoA and its thioesters. The importance of feedback inhibition in the control of the intracellular CoA levels was tested by constructing three site-directed mutants of CoaA that were predicted to be feedback resistant based on the crystal structure of the CoaA-CoA binary complex. CoaA[R106A], CoaA[H177Q], and CoaA[F247V] were purified and shown to retain significant catalytic activity and be refractory to inhibition by CoA. CoaA[R106A] retained 50% of the catalytic activity of CoaA, whereas the CoaA[H177Q] and CoaA[F247V] mutants were less active. The importance of feedback control of CoaA to the intracellular CoA levels was assessed by expressing either CoaA or CoaA[R106A] in strain ANS3 [coaA15(Ts) panD2]. Cells expressing CoaA[R106A] had significantly higher levels of phosphorylated pantothenate-derived metabolites and CoA in vivo and excreted significantly more 4?-phosphopantetheine into the medium compared to cells expressing the wild-type protein. These data illustrate the key role of feedback regulation of pantothenate kinase in the control of intracellular CoA levels. PMID:12754240

Rock, Charles O.; Park, Hee-Won; Jackowski, Suzanne

2003-01-01

32

Migration and hydrolysis of hydrophobic polylactide plasticizer.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic plasticizer protects polylactide (PLA) against hydrolytic degradation but still migrates to aging medium and there undergoes further hydrolysis contributing to the spectrum of degradation products. PLA plasticized with hydrophobic acetyl tributyl citrate (ATC) plasticizer showed a slower degradation rate compared with pure PLA because of the increased hydrophobicity of the material. The enhanced bulk hydrophobicity also overcame the degradation enhancing effect of hydrophilic surface grafting. In addition to plasticization with ATC, some of the samples were also surface grafted with acrylic acid. The materials were subjected to hydrolysis at 37 and 60 degrees C for up to 364 days to compare the effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic bulk and surface modifications. Although considered insoluble in water, the plasticizer was detected in the water solutions immediately upon immersion of the materials, and the relative abundance of the ATC degradation products increased with hydrolysis time. PMID:19928814

Höglund, Anders; Hakkarainen, Minna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

2010-01-11

33

The extended reductive acetyl-CoA pathway: ATPases in metal cluster maturation and reductive activation.  

PubMed

The reductive acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway, also known as the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, allows reduction and condensation of two molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2) to build the acetyl-group of acetyl-CoA. Productive utilization of CO2 relies on a set of oxygen sensitive metalloenzymes exploiting the metal organic chemistry of nickel and cobalt to synthesize acetyl-CoA from activated one-carbon compounds. In addition to the central catalysts, CO dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA synthase, ATPases are needed in the pathway. This allows the coupling of ATP binding and hydrolysis to electron transfer against a redox potential gradient and metal incorporation to (re)activate one of the central players of the pathway. This review gives an overview about our current knowledge on how these ATPases achieve their tasks of maturation and reductive activation. PMID:24477517

Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Goetzl, Sebastian; Hennig, Sandra Elisabeth; Fesseler, Jochen; Wörmann, Christina; Dendra, Julia; Dobbek, Holger

2014-05-01

34

Acetylation Goes Global: The Emergence of Acetylation Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the first 30 years since its discovery, reversible protein acetylation has been studied and understood almost exclusively in the context of histone modification and gene transcription. With the discovery of non–histone acetylated proteins and acetylation-modifying enzymes in cellular compartments outside the nucleus, the regulatory potential of reversible acetylation has slowly been recognized in the last decade. However, the scope of protein acetylation involvement in complex biological processes remains uncertain. The recent development of new technology has enabled, for the first time, the identification and quantification of the acetylome, acetylation events at the whole-proteome level. These efforts have uncovered a stunning complexity of the acetylome that potentially rivals that of the phosphoproteome. The remarkably ubiquitous and conserved nature of protein acetylation revealed by these new studies suggests the regulatory power of this dynamic modification. The establishment of comprehensive acetylomes will change the landscape of protein acetylation, where an exciting research frontier awaits.

Kristi L. Norris (Duke University;Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology REV); Joo-Yong Lee (Duke University;Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology REV); Tso-Pang Yao (Duke University;Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology REV)

2009-11-17

35

Characterization and mode of action of two acetyl xylan esterases from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 active towards acetylated xylans.  

PubMed

Two novel acetyl xylan esterases, Axe2 and Axe3, from Chrysosporium lucknowense (C1), belonging to the carbohydrate esterase families 5 and 1, respectively, were purified and biochemically characterized. Axe2 and Axe3 are able to hydrolyze acetyl groups both from simple acetylated xylo-oligosaccharides and complex non-soluble acetylglucuronoxylan. Both enzymes performed optimally at pH 7.0 and 40 °C. Axe2 has a clear preference for acetylated xylo-oligosaccharides (AcXOS) with a high degree of substitution and Axe3 does not show such preference. Axe3 has a preference for large AcXOS (DP 9-12) when compared to smaller AcXOS (especially DP 4-7) while for Axe2 the size of the oligomer is irrelevant. Even though there is difference in substrate affinity towards acetylated xylooligosaccharides from Eucalyptus wood, the final hydrolysis products are the same for Axe2 and Axe3: xylo-oligosaccharides containing one acetyl group located at the non-reducing xylose residue remain as examined using MALDI-TOF MS, CE-LIF and the application of an endo-xylanase (GH 10). PMID:22112517

Pouvreau, L; Jonathan, M C; Kabel, M A; Hinz, S W A; Gruppen, H; Schols, H A

2011-08-10

36

Final report on the safety assessment of acetyl triethyl citrate, acetyl tributyl citrate, acetyl trihexyl citrate, and acetyl trioctyl citrate.  

PubMed

Acetyl Triethyl Citrate, Acetyl Tributyl Citrate, Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate, and Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate all function as plasticizers in cosmetics. Additionally, the Trihexyl and Trioctyl forms are described as skin-conditioning agents-emollients, although there are currently no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate or Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate. Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate are used in nail products at concentrations up to 7%. Recognizing that there are no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl or Trioctyl Citrate, if they were to be used in the future, their concentration of use is expected to be no higher than that reported for Acetyl Triethyl and Tributyl Citrate. These ingredients were sufficiently similar in structure that safety test data on one were considered applicable to all. Approximately 99% of orally administered Acetyl Tributyl Citrate is excreted-intermediate metabolites include acetyl citrate, monobutyl citrate, acetyl monobutyl citrate, dibutyl citrate, and acetyl dibutyl citrate. In acute, short-term, subchronic, and chronic feeding studies, these ingredients were relatively nontoxic. Differences from controls were either not statistically significant or not related to any organ toxicity. Ocular exposures produced moderate reactions that cleared by 48 hours after instillation. Dermal application was not toxic in rabbits. In a guinea pig maximization test, Acetyl Triethyl Citrate was a sensitizer whereas Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was not. Limited clinical testing of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was negative for both skin irritation and sensitization. These clinical data were considered more relevant than the guinea pig maximization data, suggesting to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel that none of these ingredients would be a sensitizer. Physiologic effects noted with intravenous delivery of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate or Acetyl Tributyl Citrate include dose-related decreases in blood pressure and intestinal muscular spasms. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial or mammalian test systems. No significant differences in tumor induction (lymphomas) were noted in rats fed Acetyl Tributyl Citrate for 2 year. Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was not a developmental or reproductive toxicant in studies in mice and rats. Based on all the available data, these ingredients were considered safe as used in cosmetics. PMID:12396673

Johnson, Wilbur

2002-01-01

37

Histone acetylation in neurodevelopment.  

PubMed

Post-translational modification of histones is a primary mechanism through which epigenetic regulation of DNA transcription does occur. Among these modifications, regulation of histone acetylation state is an important tool to influence gene expression. Epigenetic regulation of neurodevelopment contributes to the structural and functional shaping of the brain during neurogenesis and continues to impact on neural plasticity lifelong. Alterations of these mechanisms during neurodevelopment may result in later occurrence of neuropsychatric disorders. The present paper reviews and discusses available data on histone modifications, in particular histone acetylation, in neurogenesis considering results obtained in culture systems of neural progenitors as well as in in vivo studies. Possible teratogenic effects of altered histone acetylation state during development are also considered. The use during pregnancy of drugs such as valproic acid, which acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, may result during postnatal development in autistic-like symptoms. The effect of gestational administration of the drug has been, therefore, tested on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animals showing behavioral impairment as a consequence of the drug administration at a specific stage of pregnancy. These experimental results show that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is not quantitatively altered by gestational valproic acid administration. Future steps and goals of research on the role and mechanisms of histone acetylation in neurodevelopment are briefly discussed. PMID:23448460

Contestabile, Antonio; Sintoni, Silvia

2013-01-01

38

Acetylation and Nuclear Receptor Action  

PubMed Central

Acetylation is an essential post-translational modification featuring an acetyl group that is covalently conjugated to a protein substrate. Histone acetylation was first proposed nearly half a century ago by Dr. Vincent Allfrey. Subsequent studies have shown that the acetylated core histones are often associated with transcriptionally active chromatin. Acetylation at lysine residues of histone tails neutralizes the positive charge, which decreases their binding ability to DNA and increases the accessibility of transcription factors and coactivators to the chromatin template. In addition to histones, a number of non-histone substrates are acetylated. Acetylation of non-histone proteins governs biological processes, such as cellular proliferation and survival, transcriptional activity, and intracellular trafficking. We demonstrated that acetylation of transcription factors can regulate cellular growth. Furthermore, we showed that nuclear receptors (NRs) are acetylated at a phylogenetically conserved motif. Since our initial observations with the estrogen and androgen receptors, more than a dozen NRs have been shown to function as substrates for acetyltransferases with diverse functional consequences. This review focuses on the acetylation of NRs and the effect of acetylation on NR function. We discuss the potential role of acetylation in disease initiation and progression with an emphasis on tumorigenesis. PMID:21167281

Wang, Chenguang; Tian, Lifeng; Popov, Vladimir M.; Pestell, Richard G.

2011-01-01

39

Assembly of the SIR Complex and Its Regulation by O-Acetyl-ADP-Ribose, a Product of NAD-Dependent Histone Deacetylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Assembly of silent chromatin domains in budding yeast involves the deacetylation of histone tails by Sir2 and the association of the Sir3 and Sir4 proteins with hypoacetylated histone tails. Sir2 couples de- acetylation to NAD hydrolysis and the synthesis of a metabolite, O-acetyl-ADP-ribose (AAR), but the func- tional significance of NAD hydrolysis or AAR, if any, is unknown. Here

Gunn-Guang Liou; Jason C. Tanny; Ryan G. Kruger; Thomas Walz; Danesh Moazed

2005-01-01

40

Hyperthermostable acetyl xylan esterase  

PubMed Central

Summary An esterase which is encoded within a Thermotoga maritima chromosomal gene cluster for xylan degradation and utilization was characterized after heterologous expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli and purification of the enzyme. The enzyme, designated AxeA, shares amino acid sequence similarity and its broad substrate specificity with the acetyl xylan esterase from Bacillus pumilus, the cephalosporin C deacetylase from Bacillus subtilis, and other (putative) esterases, allowing its classification as a member of carbohydrate esterase family 7. The recombinant enzyme displayed activity with p?nitrophenyl?acetate as well as with various acetylated sugar substrates such as glucose penta?acetate, acetylated oat spelts xylan and DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)?extracted beechwood xylan, and with cephalosporin C. Thermotoga maritimaAxeA represents the most thermostable acetyl xylan esterase known to date. In a 10?min assay at its optimum pH?of 6.5 the enzyme's activity peaked at 90°C. The inactivation half?life of AxeA at a protein concentration of 0.3?µg?µl?1 in the absence of substrate was about 13?h at 98°C and about 67?h at 90°C. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the thermal stability of AxeA corroborated its extreme heat resistance. A multi?phasic unfolding behaviour was found, with two apparent exothermic peaks at approximately 100–104°C and 107.5°C. In accordance with the crystal structure, gel filtration analysis at ambient temperature revealed that the enzyme has as a homohexameric oligomerization state, but a dimeric form was also found. PMID:21255309

Drzewiecki, Katharina; Angelov, Angel; Ballschmiter, Meike; Tiefenbach, Klaus-Jurgen; Sterner, Reinhard; Liebl, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

41

Development and application of a model for chitosan hydrolysis by a family 18 chitinase.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of partially deacetylated chitosans by ChitinaseB (ChiBeta) from Serratia marcescens results in mixtures of oligosaccharides typically between 2 and 20 sugar residues. The amounts of different oligomer fractions depend on the degree of acetylation of the starting chitosans. We have used experimentally determined distributions of hydrolysis products to develop a model for chitosan hydrolysis by ChiB. Important elements of the model include interaction parameters for acetylated/deacetylated units in each of the six subsites in the active cleft and degree of processivity (multiple attack). The hydrolysis reaction is described as a chemical reaction with an activation barrier that depends on the substrate sequence presented to the enzyme subsites. Using a Monte Carlo approach, the interaction parameters were refined by minimizing the difference between observed and predicted amounts of hydrolysis products obtained upon degradation of chitosan with a degree of acetylation of 65%. The final model can accurately predict complex patterns of oligosaccharides produced in the hydrolysis of chitosans with various degrees of acetylation, as well as patterns observed during reactions with chito-oligosaccharides. The behavior of a ChiB mutant with a mutation in subsite +2 (Gly188Asp), which reduces the affinity for an acetylated sugar, could be predicted correctly by introducing one single change in the model parameters (the interaction energy for an acetylated unit in the +2 subsite). The proposed model may be used to explore degradation products for different enzyme-substrates combinations and to optimize conditions for preparation of specific oligosaccharides. In addition, the model provides insight into subsite interaction parameters and the degree of processivity, which complements previous experimental studies on the mode of action of ChiB. PMID:15637701

Sikorski, Pawel; Stokke, Bjørn T; Sørbotten, Audun; Vårum, Kjell M; Horn, Svein J; Eijsink, Vincent G H

2005-04-01

42

N-Acetylaspartate reductions in brain injury: impact on post-injury neuroenergetics, lipid synthesis, and protein acetylation  

PubMed Central

N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is employed as a non-invasive marker for neuronal health using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This utility is afforded by the fact that NAA is one of the most concentrated brain metabolites and that it produces the largest peak in MRS scans of the healthy human brain. NAA levels in the brain are reduced proportionately to the degree of tissue damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the reductions parallel the reductions in ATP levels. Because NAA is the most concentrated acetylated metabolite in the brain, we have hypothesized that NAA acts in part as an extensive reservoir of acetate for acetyl coenzyme A synthesis. Therefore, the loss of NAA after TBI impairs acetyl coenzyme A dependent functions including energy derivation, lipid synthesis, and protein acetylation reactions in distinct ways in different cell populations. The enzymes involved in synthesizing and metabolizing NAA are predominantly expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively, and therefore some proportion of NAA must be transferred between cell types before the acetate can be liberated, converted to acetyl coenzyme A and utilized. Studies have indicated that glucose metabolism in neurons is reduced, but that acetate metabolism in astrocytes is increased following TBI, possibly reflecting an increased role for non-glucose energy sources in response to injury. NAA can provide additional acetate for intercellular metabolite trafficking to maintain acetyl CoA levels after injury. Here we explore changes in NAA, acetate, and acetyl coenzyme A metabolism in response to brain injury. PMID:24421768

Moffett, John R.; Arun, Peethambaran; Ariyannur, Prasanth S.; Namboodiri, Aryan M. A.

2013-01-01

43

Progressing batch hydrolysis process  

DOEpatents

A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

Wright, J.D.

1985-01-10

44

University of Minnesota Center for Outdoor Adventure (COA) Health History Form  

E-print Network

1 University of Minnesota Center for Outdoor Adventure (COA) Health History Form Center for Outdoor between 10 and 60 pounds, endure drastically changing weather conditions, sleep outdoors in co-ed groups

Amin, S. Massoud

45

Trypanosomatidae Produce Acetate via a Mitochondrial Acetate:Succinate CoA Transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenosome-containing anaerobic protists, such as the trichomonads, produce large amounts of acetate by an acetate:succinate CoA transferase (ASCT)\\/succinyl CoA synthetase cycle. The notion that mitochondria and hydrogenosomes may have originated from the same alpha -proteobacterial endosymbiont has led us to look for the presence of a similar metabolic pathway in trypanosomatids because these are the earliest-branching mitochondriate eukaryotes and because

Jaap J. van Hellemond; Fred R. Opperdoes; Aloysius G. M. Tielens

1998-01-01

46

Isoenzymes of hydroxycinnamate: CoA ligase from poplar stems properties and tissue distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different forms of hydroxycinnamate: CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1-) have been separated by chromatofocusing from poplar stems. These three forms exhibit different substrate specificities and tissue distribution. A correlation was established between the monomeric composition of lignins isolated from xylem and sclerenchyma and the pattern of hydroxycinnamate: CoA ligase isoforms in these tissues. The results obtained indicate that, in poplar,

C. Grand; A. Boudet

1983-01-01

47

Structure of the p300 histone acetyltransferase bound to acetyl-coenzyme A and its analogues.  

PubMed

The p300 and CBP transcriptional coactivator paralogs (p300/CBP) regulate a variety of different cellular pathways, in part, by acetylating histones and more than 70 non-histone protein substrates. Mutation, chromosomal translocation, or other aberrant activities of p300/CBP are linked to many different diseases, including cancer. Because of its pleiotropic biological roles and connection to disease, it is important to understand the mechanism of acetyl transfer by p300/CBP, in part so that inhibitors can be more rationally developed. Toward this goal, a structure of p300 bound to a Lys-CoA bisubstrate HAT inhibitor has been previously elucidated, and the enzyme's catalytic mechanism has been investigated. Nonetheless, many questions underlying p300/CBP structure and mechanism remain. Here, we report a structural characterization of different reaction states in the p300 activity cycle. We present the structures of p300 in complex with an acetyl-CoA substrate, a CoA product, and an acetonyl-CoA inhibitor. A comparison of these structures with the previously reported p300/Lys-CoA complex demonstrates that the conformation of the enzyme active site depends on the interaction of the enzyme with the cofactor, and is not apparently influenced by protein substrate lysine binding. The p300/CoA crystals also contain two poly(ethylene glycol) moieties bound proximal to the cofactor binding site, implicating the path of protein substrate association. The structure of the p300/acetonyl-CoA complex explains the inhibitory and tight binding properties of the acetonyl-CoA toward p300. Together, these studies provide new insights into the molecular basis of acetylation by p300 and have implications for the rational development of new small molecule p300 inhibitors. PMID:24819397

Maksimoska, Jasna; Segura-Peña, Dario; Cole, Philip A; Marmorstein, Ronen

2014-06-01

48

Protein acetylation and spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Spermatogenesis refers to the developmental process of male germ cell formation from the spermatogonial stem cell to mature spermatozoa. The progression of male germ cells through the different phases of development, along with changes in cellular size and morphology, involves a coordinated change in their gene expression program at both the transcript and protein levels. It is well known that the stability, biological activity and cellular localization of proteins are regulated by post-translational modifications. In this review, we provide a brief update of current knowledge about the role of protein acetylation in mammalian spermatogenesis. Based on recent findings specific examples were cited to illustrate how these modifications are involved in controlling the different events that are important to the proper development of male germ cells. PMID:25332843

Pang, ALY; Rennert, OM

2013-01-01

49

Acid hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

Salazar, H.

1980-12-01

50

Exome Sequence Reveals Mutations in CoA Synthase as a Cause of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders with progressive extrapyramidal signs and neurological deterioration, characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Exome sequencing revealed the presence of recessive missense mutations in COASY, encoding coenzyme A (CoA) synthase in one NBIA-affected subject. A second unrelated individual carrying mutations in COASY was identified by Sanger sequence analysis. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the final steps of CoA biosynthesis by coupling phosphopantetheine with ATP to form dephospho-CoA and its subsequent phosphorylation to generate CoA. We demonstrate alterations in RNA and protein expression levels of CoA synthase, as well as CoA amount, in fibroblasts derived from the two clinical cases and in yeast. This is the second inborn error of coenzyme A biosynthesis to be implicated in NBIA. PMID:24360804

Dusi, Sabrina; Valletta, Lorella; Haack, Tobias B.; Tsuchiya, Yugo; Venco, Paola; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Goffrini, Paola; Tigano, Marco; Demchenko, Nikita; Wieland, Thomas; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Invernizzi, Federica; Garavaglia, Barbara; Gregory, Allison; Sanford, Lynn; Hamada, Jeffrey; Bettencourt, Conceicao; Houlden, Henry; Chiapparini, Luisa; Zorzi, Giovanna; Kurian, Manju A.; Nardocci, Nardo; Prokisch, Holger; Hayflick, Susan; Gout, Ivan; Tiranti, Valeria

2014-01-01

51

Histone acetylation in heterochromatin assembly  

PubMed Central

Histone acetylation is generally considered a mark involved in activating gene expression by making chromatin structures less compact. In the April 1, 2010, issue of Genes & Development, Xhemalce and Kouzarides (pp. 647–652) demonstrate that the acetylation of histone H3 at Lys 4 (H3K4) plays a role in the formation of repressive heterochromatin in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. H3K4 acetylation mediates a switch of chromodomain proteins associated with methylated H3K9 during heterochromatin assembly. PMID:20395362

Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Workman, Jerry L.

2010-01-01

52

Hydrolysis of CL-20.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energetics and Warheads Division of the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center has been involved in the development of CL-20. An aqueous hydrolysis study was performed to better understand the fate and transport of CL-20 throu...

J. Pavlov, M. Sidhoum, C. Christodoulatos, W. Balas, S. Nicolich

2005-01-01

53

Acetyl-L-carnitine: from a biological curiosity to a drug for the peripheral nervous system and beyond.  

PubMed

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria. Carnitine acetylation enables the function of CoA and facilitates elimination of oxidative products. Beyond this metabolic activity, ALC provides acetyl groups for acetylcholine synthesis, exerts a cholinergic effect and optimizes the balance of energy processes. Acetylcarnitine supplementation induces neuroprotective, neurotrophic and analgesic effects in the peripheral nervous system. In the recent studies, ALC, by acting as a donor of acetyl groups to NF-kb p65/RelA, enhanced the transcription of the GRM2 gene encoding the mGLU2 receptors, inducing long-term upregulation of the mGluR2, evidencing therefore that its long-term analgesic effects are dependent on epigenetic modifications. Several studies, including double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group studies and few open studies showed the effect of ALC in diseases characterized by neuropathies and neuropathic pain: the studies included diabetic neuropathy, HIV and antiretroviral therapy-induced neuropathies, neuropathies due to compression and chemotherapeutic agents. Double-blinded studies involved 1773 patients. Statistical evaluations evidenced reduction of pain, improvements of nerve function and trophism. In conclusion, ALC represents a consistent therapeutic option for peripheral neuropathies, and its complex effects, neurotrophic and analgesic, based on epigenetic mechanism, open new pathways in the study of peripheral nerve disease management. PMID:23965166

Onofrj, Marco; Ciccocioppo, Fausta; Varanese, Sara; di Muzio, Antonio; Calvani, Menotti; Chiechio, Santina; Osio, Maurizio; Thomas, Astrid

2013-08-01

54

Cohesin's ATPase Activity Couples Cohesin Loading onto DNA with Smc3 Acetylation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by topologically entrapping sister DNA molecules inside its ring structure. Cohesin is loaded onto DNA by the Scc2/NIPBL-Scc4/MAU2-loading complex in a manner that depends on the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of cohesin’s Smc1 and Smc3 subunits. Subsequent cohesion establishment during DNA replication depends on Smc3 acetylation by Esco1 and Esco2 and on recruitment of sororin, which “locks” cohesin on DNA by inactivating the cohesin release factor Wapl. Results Human cohesin ATPase mutants associate transiently with DNA in a manner that depends on the loading complex but cannot be stabilized on chromatin by depletion of Wapl. These mutants cannot be acetylated, fail to interact with sororin, and do not mediate cohesion. The absence of Smc3 acetylation in the ATPase mutants is not a consequence of their transient association with DNA but is directly caused by their inability to hydrolyze ATP because acetylation of wild-type cohesin also depends on ATP hydrolysis. Conclusions Our data indicate that cohesion establishment involves the following steps. First, cohesin transiently associates with DNA in a manner that depends on the loading complex. Subsequently, ATP hydrolysis by cohesin leads to entrapment of DNA and converts Smc3 into a state that can be acetylated. Finally, Smc3 acetylation leads to recruitment of sororin, inhibition of Wapl, and stabilization of cohesin on DNA. Our finding that cohesin’s ATPase activity is required for both cohesin loading and Smc3 acetylation raises the possibility that cohesion establishment is directly coupled to the reaction in which cohesin entraps DNA. PMID:25220052

Ladurner, Rene; Bhaskara, Venugopal; Huis in 't Veld, Pim J.; Davidson, Iain F.; Kreidl, Emanuel; Petzold, Georg; Peters, Jan-Michael

2014-01-01

55

Progressing Batch Hydrolysis Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In all dilute acid hydrolysis processes for glucose production, conditions severe enough to hydrolyze crystalline cellulose to glucose are also severe enough to degrade the glucose into undesirable compounds such as hydroxy-methylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid, and formic acid. One way to minimize the sugar degradation is to remove the sugars from the reaction zone before substantial degradation occurs. Sugars are most efficiently removed by a reactor system that uses countercurrent flow of liquids and solids, which allows simultaneous achievement of high yields and high sugar concentrations. The progressing batch hydrolysis process, invented and now under development at SERI, uses several percolation reactors in series to simulate countercurrent flow of liquids and solids. In this way, the advantages of countercurrent flow are achieved, and the mechanical and operational simplicity of the percolation reactor is retained. This paper describes the theory and operation of the progressing batch hydrolysis reactor and presents the results of our mathematical modeling of the system. 25 refs., 7 figs.

Wright, J.D.; Bergeron, P.W.; Werdene, P.J.

1985-09-01

56

The emission of corrosive vapours by wood. Sweet-chestnut (Castanea sativa) and wychelm (Ulmus glabrau) O-acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylans extracted with dimethyl sulphoxide  

PubMed Central

1. O-Acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans were isolated from sweet chestnut and wych elm, either green or incubated at 48° and 100% relative humidity for 36 weeks. 2. The chlorine–ethanolamine method of delignification resulted in a 50% loss of O-acetyl groups from green wych elm compared with an 18% loss from green sweet chestnut. 3. The acid–chlorite method gave an acceptable loss of O-acetyl groups in three cases, but incubated sweet chestnut showed a 44·6% loss. However, it is believed that this is due to the loss of simple O-acetylated xylose sugars resulting from glycosidic hydrolysis, rather than removal of O-acetyl groups by direct hydrolysis. Assuming that this occurs in a random manner, it is unlikely to have much structural significance. 4. Dimethyl sulphoxide extraction of chestnut holocellulose and elm holocellulose, green and incubated, yielded O-acetyl glucuronoxylans containing 10·2, 3·8, 13·1 and 7·7% O-acetyl groups respectively. 5. The location of these O-acetyl groups was determined by Bouveng's method in which phenyl isocyanate is used as a blocking group. PMID:5808312

Cochrane, G. C.; Gray, J. D.; Arni, P. C.

1969-01-01

57

Hydrolytic stability of water-soluble spruce O-acetyl galactoglucomannans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble native O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) from spruce is a polysaccharide that can be produced in an industrial scale. To develop GGM applications, information is needed on its stability, particularly under acidic conditions. Therefore, acid hydrolysis of spruce GGM was investigated at various pH levels and temperatures. The results allow an estimation of the stability of GGM under food processing conditions

Chunlin Xu; Andrey Pranovich; J. Hemmimg; Bjarne Holmbom; Simone Albrecht; Henk A. Schols; S. Willfor

2009-01-01

58

The Logic Linking Protein Acetylation and Metabolism  

E-print Network

Protein acetylation now rivals phosphorylation in frequency of occurrence but is incompletely understood. A picture is presented in which protein acetylation is linked to available energy via the NAD-dependent deacetylases. ...

Guarente, Leonard Pershing

59

Peripheral Effects of FAAH Deficiency on Fuel and Energy Homeostasis: Role of Dysregulated Lysine Acetylation  

PubMed Central

Background FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase), primarily expressed in the liver, hydrolyzes the endocannabinoids fatty acid ethanolamides (FAA). Human FAAH gene mutations are associated with increased body weight and obesity. In our present study, using targeted metabolite and lipid profiling, and new global acetylome profiling methodologies, we examined the role of the liver on fuel and energy homeostasis in whole body FAAH?/? mice. Methodology/Principal Findings FAAH?/? mice exhibit altered energy homeostasis demonstrated by decreased oxygen consumption (Indirect calorimetry). FAAH?/? mice are hyperinsulinemic and have adipose, skeletal and hepatic insulin resistance as indicated by stable isotope phenotyping (SIPHEN). Fed state skeletal muscle and liver triglyceride levels was increased 2–3 fold, while glycogen was decreased 42% and 57% respectively. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was decreased 22% in FAAH?/? mice. Dysregulated hepatic FAAH?/? lysine acetylation was consistent with their metabolite profiling. Fasted to fed increases in hepatic FAAH?/? acetyl-CoA (85%, p<0.01) corresponded to similar increases in citrate levels (45%). Altered FAAH?/? mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2) acetylation, which can affect the malate aspartate shuttle, was consistent with our observation of a 25% decrease in fed malate and aspartate levels. Decreased fasted but not fed dihydroxyacetone-P and glycerol-3-P levels in FAAH?/? mice was consistent with a compensating contribution from decreased acetylation of fed FAAH?/? aldolase B. Fed FAAH?/? alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acetylation was also decreased. Conclusions/Significance Whole body FAAH deletion contributes to a pre-diabetic phenotype by mechanisms resulting in impairment of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. FAAH?/? mice had altered hepatic lysine acetylation, the pattern sharing similarities with acetylation changes reported with chronic alcohol treatment. Dysregulated hepatic lysine acetylation seen with impaired FAA hydrolysis could support the liver's role in fostering the pre-diabetic state, and may reflect part of the mechanism underlying the hepatic effects of endocannabinoids in alcoholic liver disease mouse models. PMID:22442717

Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Yang, Li; Hartil, Kirsten; Glaser, Sherrye; Yazulla, Stephen; Bruce, James E.; Kurland, Irwin J.

2012-01-01

60

Specific interaction between S6K1 and CoA synthase: a potential link between the mTOR/S6K pathway, CoA biosynthesis and energy metabolism.  

PubMed

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) is a key regulator of cell size and growth. It is regulated via phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. We demonstrate for the first time that CoA synthase associates specifically with S6K1. The association was observed between native and transiently overexpressed proteins in vivo, as well as by BIAcore analysis in vitro. The sites of interaction were mapped to the C-terminal regions of both CoA synthase and S6K1. In vitro studies indicated that the interaction does not affect their enzymatic activities and that CoA synthase is not a substrate for S6 kinase. This study uncovers a potential link between mTor/S6K signaling pathway and energy metabolism through CoA and its thioester derivatives, but its physiological relevance should be further elucidated. PMID:15589845

Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Panayotou, George; Gout, Ivan T; Filonenko, Valeriy

2004-12-17

61

Kinetic studies on two isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from maize leaves.  

PubMed Central

The steady-state kinetics of two multifunctional isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) from maize leaves (a major isoform, ACCase1 and a minor isoform, ACCase2) have been investigated with respect to reaction mechanism, inhibition by two graminicides of the aryloxyphenoxypropionate class (quizalofop and fluazifop) and some cellular metabolites. Substrate interaction and product inhibition patterns indicated that ADP and P(i) products from the first partial reaction were not released before acetyl-CoA bound to the enzymes. Product inhibition patterns did not match exactly those predicted for an ordered Ter Ter or a random Ter Ter mechanism, but were close to those postulated for an ordered mechanism. ACCase2 was about 1/2000 as sensitive as ACCase1 to quizalofop but only about 1/150 as sensitive to fluazifop. Fitting inhibition data to the Hill equation indicated that binding of quizalofop or fluazifop to ACCase1 was non-cooperative, as shown by the Hill constant (n(app)) values of 0.86 and 1.16 for quizalofop and fluazifop respectively. Apparent inhibition constant values (K' from the Hill equation) for ACCase1 were 0.054 microM for quizalofop and 21.8 microM for fluazifop. On the other hand, binding of quizalofop or fluazifop to ACCase2 exhibited positive co-operativity, as shown by the (napp) values of 1.85 and 1.59 for quizalofop and fluazifop respectively. K' values for ACCase2 were 1.7 mM for quizalofop and 140 mM for fluazifop. Kinetic parameters for the co-operative binding of quizalofop to maize ACCase2 were close to those of another multifunctional ACCase of limited sensitivity to graminicide, ACC220 from pea. Inhibition of ACCase1 by quizalofop was mixed-type with respect to acetyl-CoA or ATP, but the concentration of acetyl-CoA had the greater effect on the level of inhibition. Neither ACCase1 nor ACCase2 was appreciably sensitive to CoA esters of palmitic acid (16:0) or oleic acid (18:1). Approximate IC50 values were 10 microM (ACCase2) and 50 microM (ACCase1) for both CoA esters. Citrate concentrations up to 1 mM had no effect on ACCase1 activity. Above this concentration, citrate was inhibitory. ACCase2 activity was slightly stimulated by citrate over a broad concentration range (0.25-10 mM). The significance of possible effects of acyl-CoAs or citrate in vivo is discussed. PMID:8836149

Herbert, D; Price, L J; Alban, C; Dehaye, L; Job, D; Cole, D J; Pallett, K E; Harwood, J L

1996-01-01

62

Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids  

E-print Network

To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

2005-01-01

63

Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase by HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) causes endothelial dysfunction in part by decreasing the availability of endothelial nitric oxide (NO). Although HMG CoA reductase inhibitors restore endothelial function by reducing serum cholesterol levels, it is not known whether they can also directly upregulate endothelial NO synthase (ecNOS) activity. Methods and Results—Human saphenous vein endothelial cells were treated with ox-LDL (50 mg\\/mL thiobarbituric

Ulrich Laufs; Vito La Fata; Jorge Plutzky; James K. Liao

64

Down-regulation of autoreactive T-cells by HMG CoA reductase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitors of HMG CoA reductase (statins) are widely used as cholesterol-lowering drugs with excellent safety records in hypercholesterolemic patients. Statins exert pleiotropic effects on a variety of cells, and they were recently described as a new class of immune modulators. Depending on their structure, dose, and route of administration, statins regulate the function of both the antigen-presenting cells and

Teodor-D. Brumeanu; Robert Goldstein; Sofia Casares

2006-01-01

65

Regulation of schistosome egg production by HMG CoA reductase  

SciTech Connect

Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) catalyzes the conversion of HMG CoA to mevalonate in the synthesis of steroids, isoprenoids and terpenes. Mevinolin, an inhibitor of this enzyme, decreased egg production in Schistosoma mansoni during in vitro incubations. This was associated with a reduction in the incorporation of /sup 14/C-acetate into polyisoprenoids and a reduction in the formation of a lipid-linked oligosaccharide. In vivo, mevinolin in daily doses of 50 mg/kg (p.o., from days 30-48 post-infection) caused no change in gross liver pathology in S. mansoni infected mice. However, when parasites exposed to mevinolin or its vehicle in vivo were cultured in vitro, worms from mevinolin-treated mice produced six times more eggs than control parasites. When infected mice were dosed with 250 mg/kg mevinolin daily (p.o., from days 35-45 post-infection), liver pathology was reduced in comparison to control mice. Thus, during in vivo exposure to a high dose of the drug egg production is decreased, while at a lower dose it appears unaffected until the parasites are cultured in a drug-free in vitro system wherein egg production is stimulated to extraordinarily high levels. It may be that at low doses mevinolin, by inhibiting the enzyme, is blocking the formation of a product (such as an isoprenoid) which normally acts to down-regulate enzyme synthesis, resulting in enzyme induction. Induction of HMG CoA reductase is then expressed as increased egg production when the worms are removed from the drug. These data suggest that HMG CoA reductase plays a role in schistosome egg production.

VandeWaa, E.A.; Bennett, J.L.

1986-03-05

66

Germline Deletion of Pantothenate Kinases 1 and 2 Reveals the Key Roles for CoA in Postnatal Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Pantothenate kinase (PanK) phosphorylates pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and controls the overall rate of coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. Pank1 gene deletion in mice results in a metabolic phenotype where fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis are impaired in the fasted state, leading to mild hypoglycemia. Inactivating mutations in the human PANK2 gene lead to childhood neurodegeneration, but Pank2 gene inactivation in mice does not elicit a phenotype indicative of the neuromuscular symptoms or brain iron accumulation that accompany the human disease. Pank1/Pank2 double knockout (dKO) mice were derived to determine if the mild phenotypes of the single knockout mice are due to the ability of the two isoforms to compensate for each other in CoA biosynthesis. Postnatal development was severely affected in the dKO mice. The dKO pups developed progressively severe hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia by postnatal day 10 leading to death by day 17. Hyperketonemia arose from impaired whole-body ketone utilization illustrating the requirement for CoA in energy generation from ketones. dKO pups had reduced CoA and decreased fatty acid oxidation coupled with triglyceride accumulation in liver. dKO hepatocytes could not maintain the NADH levels compared to wild-type hepatocytes. These results revealed an important link between CoA and NADH levels, which was reflected by deficiencies in hepatic oleate synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The data indicate that PanK1 and PanK2 can compensate for each other to supply tissue CoA, but PanK1 is more important to CoA levels in liver whereas PanK2 contributes more to CoA synthesis in the brain. PMID:22815849

Garcia, Matthew; Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rehg, Jerold E.; Jackowski, Suzanne

2012-01-01

67

Germline deletion of pantothenate kinases 1 and 2 reveals the key roles for CoA in postnatal metabolism.  

PubMed

Pantothenate kinase (PanK) phosphorylates pantothenic acid (vitamin B(5)) and controls the overall rate of coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. Pank1 gene deletion in mice results in a metabolic phenotype where fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis are impaired in the fasted state, leading to mild hypoglycemia. Inactivating mutations in the human PANK2 gene lead to childhood neurodegeneration, but Pank2 gene inactivation in mice does not elicit a phenotype indicative of the neuromuscular symptoms or brain iron accumulation that accompany the human disease. Pank1/Pank2 double knockout (dKO) mice were derived to determine if the mild phenotypes of the single knockout mice are due to the ability of the two isoforms to compensate for each other in CoA biosynthesis. Postnatal development was severely affected in the dKO mice. The dKO pups developed progressively severe hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia by postnatal day 10 leading to death by day 17. Hyperketonemia arose from impaired whole-body ketone utilization illustrating the requirement for CoA in energy generation from ketones. dKO pups had reduced CoA and decreased fatty acid oxidation coupled with triglyceride accumulation in liver. dKO hepatocytes could not maintain the NADH levels compared to wild-type hepatocytes. These results revealed an important link between CoA and NADH levels, which was reflected by deficiencies in hepatic oleate synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The data indicate that PanK1 and PanK2 can compensate for each other to supply tissue CoA, but PanK1 is more important to CoA levels in liver whereas PanK2 contributes more to CoA synthesis in the brain. PMID:22815849

Garcia, Matthew; Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rehg, Jerold E; Jackowski, Suzanne

2012-01-01

68

ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

69

ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

70

Regulation of synapse composition by protein acetylation: the role of acetylated cortactin.  

PubMed

Protein acetylation affects synaptic plasticity and memory, but its effects on synapse composition have not been addressed. We found that protein acetylation promotes the dendritic clustering of the excitatory postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD95 in hippocampal neurons, without affecting the total levels of this protein. Cortactin, an F-actin-binding protein enriched in dendritic spines, is a substrate for acetylation and has a role in spine morphogenesis. Recent studies showed that cortactin acetylation changes its ability to bind F-actin and regulates cellular motility, but the function of cortactin acetylation in neuronal cells is so far unknown. We tested whether acetylation of cortactin influences its morphogenic function by overexpressing wild-type cortactin, or the mimetic mutants for acetylated or deacetylated cortactin, in hippocampal neurons, and found that cortactin acetylation has an impact on PSD95 clustering, independent from its function as actin dynamics regulator. Moreover, acetylated cortactin can rescue the reduction in PSD95 clustering mediated by knockdown of cortactin. We also found that acetylation of cortactin is correlated with decreased cortactin interaction with p140Cap and Shank1, and with lower cortactin phosphorylation at tyrosine 421. The neurotrophin BDNF promoted the acetylation of cortactin in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that BDNF may regulate excitatory synapses and PSD95 dendritic clustering at least in part by changing the acetylation level of cortactin. Our findings unravel an unsuspected role for cortactin acetylation in the regulation of PSD95 dendritic clustering, which may work in concert with cortactin's role in spine development. PMID:23038781

Catarino, Tatiana; Ribeiro, Luís; Santos, Sandra D; Carvalho, Ana Luísa

2013-01-01

71

ACID HYDROLYSIS OF AZIRIDINYL PHOSPHORAMIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid hydrolysis of two model aziridinyl phosphoramides, l-aziridinylbis(dimethylamino)phosphine oxide (11) and bis(l-aziridinyl) (dimethylamino)phosphine oxide (16), in aqueous acetic acid proceeded by an initial aziridine ring opening to give 2-hydroxyethyl phosphoramides 12 and 17, respectively. These intermediates rapidly cyclized to an oxazaphospholidine ring structure 13 or 18, with the subsequent loss of dimethylamine or aziridine. Analysis of ongoing hydrolysis showed

Jerry B. Stokes; Charles W. Woods; Alexej B. Borkovec

1981-01-01

72

Acetylation regulates Jun protein turnover in Drosophila.  

PubMed

C-Jun is a major transcription factor belonging to the activating protein 1 (AP-1) family. Phosphorylation has been shown to be critical for c-Jun activation and stability. Here, we report that Jra, the Drosophila Jun protein, is acetylated in vivo. We demonstrate that the acetylation of Jra leads to its rapid degradation in response to osmotic stress. Intriguingly, we also found that Jra phosphorylation antagonized its acetylation, indicating the opposite roles of acetylation and phosphorylation in Jra degradation process under osmotic stress. Our results provide new insights into how c-Jun proteins are precisely regulated by the interplay of different posttranslational modifications. PMID:23891849

Zhang, Daoyong; Suganuma, Tamaki; Workman, Jerry L

2013-11-01

73

Small molecule modulators of histone acetylation and methylation: a disease perspective.  

PubMed

Chromatin modifications have gained immense significance in the past few decades as key regulators of gene expression. The enzymes responsible for these modifications along with the other non-histone proteins, remodeling factors and small RNAs modulate the chromatin dynamicity, which in turn directs the chromatin function. A concerted action of different modifying enzymes catalyzes these modifications, which are read by effector modules and converted to functional outcomes by various protein complexes. Several small molecules in the physiological system such as acetyl CoA, NAD(+), and ATP are actively involved in regulating these functional outcomes. Recent understanding in the field of epigenetics indicate the possibility of the existence of a network, 'the epigenetic language' involving cross talk among different modifications that could regulate cellular processes like transcription, replication and repair. Hence, these modifications are essential for the cellular homeostasis, and any alteration in this balance leads to a pathophysiological condition or disease manifestation. Therefore, it is becoming more evident that modulators of these modifying enzymes could be an attractive therapeutic strategy, popularly referred to as 'Epigenetic therapy.' Although this field is currently monopolized by DNA methylation and histone deacetylase inhibitors, this review highlights the modulators of the other modifications namely histone acetylation, lysine methylation and arginine methylation and argues in favor of their therapeutic potential. PMID:20888936

Selvi, B Ruthrotha; Mohankrishna, D V; Ostwal, Yogesh B; Kundu, Tapas K

2010-01-01

74

Characterization and Prediction of Lysine (K)-Acetyl-Transferase Specific Acetylation Sites*  

PubMed Central

Lysine acetylation is a well-studied post-translational modification on both histone and nonhistone proteins. More than 2000 acetylated proteins and 4000 lysine acetylation sites have been identified by large scale mass spectrometry or traditional experimental methods. Although over 20 lysine (K)-acetyl-transferases (KATs) have been characterized, which KAT is responsible for a given protein or lysine site acetylation is mostly unknown. In this work, we collected KAT-specific acetylation sites manually and analyzed sequence features surrounding the acetylated lysine of substrates from three main KAT families (CBP/p300, GCN5/PCAF, and the MYST family). We found that each of the three KAT families acetylates lysines with different sequence features. Based on these differences, we developed a computer program, Acetylation Set Enrichment Based method to predict which KAT-families are responsible for acetylation of a given protein or lysine site. Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of our method, and experimentally detected four proteins that were predicted to be acetylated by two KAT families when one representative member of the KAT family is over expressed. We conclude that our approach, combined with more traditional experimental methods, may be useful for identifying KAT families responsible for acetylated substrates proteome-wide. PMID:21964354

Li, Tingting; Du, Yipeng; Wang, Likun; Huang, Lei; Li, Wenlin; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Xuegong; Zhu, Wei-Guo

2012-01-01

75

Are long chain acyl CoAs responsible for suppression of mitochondrial metabolism in hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels?  

PubMed

Hibernation in 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) is associated with a substantial suppression of whole-animal metabolism. We compared the metabolism of liver mitochondria isolated from torpid ground squirrels with those from interbout euthermic (IBE; recently aroused from torpor) and summer euthermic conspecifics. Succinate-fuelled state 3 respiration, calculated relative to mitochondrial protein, was suppressed in torpor by 48% and 44% compared with IBE and summer, respectively. This suppression remains when respiration is expressed relative to cytochrome c oxidase activity. We hypothesized that this suppression was caused by inhibition of succinate transport at the dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) by long-chain fatty acyl CoAs that may accumulate during torpor. We predicted, therefore, that exogenous palmitoyl CoA would inhibit respiration in IBE more than in torpor. Palmitoyl CoA inhibited respiration ~70%, in both torpor and IBE. The addition of carnitine, predicted to reverse palmitoyl CoA suppression by facilitating its transport into the mitochondrial matrix, did not rescue the respiration rates in IBE or torpor. Liver mitochondrial activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase did not differ among IBE, torpor and summer animals. Although palmitoyl CoA inhibits succinate-fuelled respiration, this suppression is likely not related exclusively to inhibition of the DCT, and may involve additional mitochondrial transporters such as the adenine-nucleotide transporter. PMID:24561259

Cooper, Alex N; Brown, Jason C L; Staples, James F

2014-04-01

76

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

2011-08-22

77

Access to tetra-N-acetyl-chitopentaose by chemical N-acetylation of glucosamine pentamer.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the easy access of tetra-N-acetyl-chitopentaose and its counterparts is highly interesting since such chemical compounds are precursors of biological signal molecules with a strong agro-economic impact. The chemical synthesis of tetra-N-acetyl-chitopentaose by controlled N-acetylation of the glucosamine pentamer hydrochloride under mild conditions is described herein. A systematic study on the influence of the different parameters involved in this reaction, such as the solvent, the acetylating agent, and the base used for the deprotonation of ammonium groups of the starting material was carried out. The characterization of final reaction products by HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed that each of these parameters affects differently the acetylation reaction. Whereas the solvent plays an important role in the N- or O-acetylation selectivity, the acetylating agent and the base were found to influence both the degree of N-acetylation and the distribution of the partially N-acetylated derivatives in the product mixtures. Based on these results, optimized reaction conditions have been established allowing tetra-N-acetyl-chitopentaose to be synthesized in a one-pot deprotonation/N-acetylation of the glucosamine pentamer hydrochloride in a moderate yield (ca 30%). PMID:23987411

Abla, Maher; Marmuse, Laurence; Delolme, Frédéric; Vors, Jean-Pierre; Ladavière, Catherine; Trombotto, Stéphane

2013-10-15

78

Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants  

PubMed Central

Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

2014-01-01

79

Depolymerization and de-N-acetylation of chitin oligomers in hydrochloric acid.  

PubMed

The monosaccharide 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (glucosamine, GlcN) has recently drawn much attention in relation to its use to treat or prevent osteoarthritis in humans. Glucosamine is prepared from chitin, a process that is performed in concentrated acid, such as hydrochloric acid. This process involves two acid-catalyzed processes, that is, the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and of the N-acetyl linkages (de-N-acetylation). The depolymerization reaction has previously been found to be much faster compared to the deacetylation, with the consequence that the chitin chain will first be hydrolyzed to the monomer 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc) which is subsequently deacetylated. We have found that the chitin disaccharide GlcNAc(1-->4)GlcNAc could be completely hydrolyzed to the monosaccharide GlcNAc with negligible concomitant de-N-acetylation, and the chitin disaccharide and monosaccharide were further used to study the depolymerization reaction and the de-N-acetylation reaction, respectively. The reactions were performed in hydrochloric acid as a function of acid concentration (3-12 M) and temperature (20-35 degrees C), and 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the reaction rates. The 1H NMR spectrum of GlcNAc in concentrated (12 M) and deuterated hydrochloric acid at 25 degrees C was assigned. The glucofuranosyl oxazolinium (3) ion was found to exist in equilibrium with the alpha- and beta-anomers of the pyranose form of GlcNAc, where 3 was present in half the total molar concentrations of the two anomeric forms of GlcNAc. At lower acid concentration (3-6 M), only trace concentrations of 3 could be detected. The rate of de-N-acetylation of GlcNAc was determined as a function of hydrochloric acid concentration, showing a maximum at 6 M and decreasing by a factor of 2 upon decreasing or increasing the acid concentration to 3 or 12 M. The activation energy for hydrolysis of the N-acetyl linkage of GlcNAc was determined to be 102 +/- 7, 116 +/- 8, and 110 +/- 8 kJ mol(-1) at 3, 6, and 12 M hydrochloric acid concentration, respectively. The results are in accordance with the proposed SN2 reaction mechanism of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the N-acetyl linkage where the rate-limiting step is the addition of water to the carbonium ion. The 1H NMR spectrum of the dimer GlcNAc-GlcNAc in concentrated (12 M) and deuterated hydrochloric acid at 25 degrees C was assigned. The rate of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of the glycosidic linkage of the dimer was determined as a function of hydrochloric acid concentration, showing a 6-fold increase from 3 to 6 M HCl concentration and a further 6-fold increase from 6 to 12 M HCl concentration, in contrast to the much smaller effect of acid concentration on the deacetylation reaction. Activation energy for hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage of GlcNAc-GlcNAc was determined to be 110 +/- 6, 111 +/- 6, and 112 +/- 4 kJ mol(-1) at 3, 6 and 12 M hydrochloric acid concentration, respectively, that is, very similar to the activation energies determined for the deacetylation reaction. The results are in accordance with the proposed SN1 reaction mechanism of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage, where the rate-limiting step is the formation of the carbonium ion. PMID:17206822

Einbu, Aslak; Vårum, Kjell M

2007-01-01

80

The Cardiac Acetyl-Lysine Proteome  

PubMed Central

In the heart, lysine acetylation has been implicated in processes ranging from transcriptional control of pathological remodeling, to cardioprotection arising from caloric restriction. Given the emerging importance of this post-translational modification, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the broader role of lysine acetylation in the heart using a guinea pig model. Briefly, hearts were fractionated into myofilament-, mitochondrial- and cytosol-enriched fractions prior to proteolysis and affinity-enrichment of acetylated peptides. LC-MS/MS analysis identified 1075 acetylated peptides, harboring 994 acetylation sites that map to 240 proteins with a global protein false discovery rate <0.8%. Mitochondrial targets account for 59% of identified proteins and 64% of sites. The majority of the acetyl-proteins are enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation or the TCA cycle. Within the cytosolic fraction, the enzymes of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and lipid binding are prominent. Nuclear targets included histones and the transcriptional regulators E1A(p300) and CREB binding protein. Comparison of our dataset with three previous global acetylomic studies uniquely revealed 53 lysine-acetylated proteins. Specifically, newly-identified acetyl-proteins include Ca2+-handling proteins, RyR2 and SERCA2, and the myofilament proteins, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chains and subunits of the Troponin complex, among others. These observations were confirmed by anti-acetyl-lysine immunoblotting. In summary, cardiac lysine acetylation may play a role in cardiac substrate selection, bioenergetic performance, and maintenance of redox balance. New sites suggest a host of potential mechanisms by which excitation-contraction coupling may also be modulated. PMID:23844019

Foster, D. Brian; Liu, Ting; Rucker, Jasma; O'Meally, Robert N.; Devine, Lauren R.; Cole, Robert N.; O'Rourke, Brian

2013-01-01

81

Ab initio QM/MM modelling of acetyl-CoA deprotonation in the enzyme citrate synthase.  

PubMed

The first step of the reaction catalysed by the enzyme citrate synthase is studied here with high level combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods (up to the MP2/6-31+G(d)//6-31G(d)/CHARMM level). In the first step of the reaction, acetyl-CoA is deprotonated by Asp375, producing an intermediate, which is the nucleophile for attack on the second substrate, oxaloacetate, prior to hydrolysis of the thioester bond of acetyl-CoA and release of the products. A central question has been whether the nucleophilic intermediate is the enolate of acetyl-CoA, the enol, or an 'enolic' intermediate stabilized by a 'low-barrier' hydrogen bond with His274 at the active site. The imidazole sidechain of His274 is neutral, and donates a hydrogen bond to the carbonyl oxygen of acetyl-CoA in substrate complexes. We have investigated the identity of the nucleophilic intermediate by QM/MM calculations on the substrate (keto), enolate, enol and enolic forms of acetyl-CoA at the active site of citrate synthase. The transition states for proton abstraction from acetyl-CoA by Asp375, and for transfer of the hydrogen bonded proton between His274 and acetyl-CoA have been modelled approximately. The effects of electron correlation are included by MP2/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31+G(d) calculations on active site geometries produced by QM/MM energy minimization. The results do not support the hypothesis that a low-barrier hydrogen bond is involved in catalysis in citrate synthase, in agreement with earlier calculations. The acetyl-CoA enolate is identified as the only intermediate consistent with the experimental barrier for condensation, stabilized by conventional hydrogen bonds from His274 and a water molecule. PMID:17493853

van der Kamp, Marc W; Perruccio, Francesca; Mulholland, Adrian J

2007-10-01

82

Insulin Signaling Regulates Fatty Acid Catabolism at the Level of CoA Activation  

PubMed Central

The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG) catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS). We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis. PMID:22275878

Xu, Xiaojun; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Ruskeepaa, Anna-Liisa; Aye, Cho Cho; Carson, Brian P.; Mora, Silvia; Oresic, Matej; Teleman, Aurelio A.

2012-01-01

83

Reverse genetic characterization of two paralogous acetoacetyl CoA thiolase genes in Arabidopsis reveals their importance in plant growth and development  

SciTech Connect

Acetoacetyl CoA thiolase (AACT, EC 2.3.1.9) catalyzes the condensation of two acetyl?CoA molecules to form acetoacetyl?CoA. Two AACT?encoding genes, At5g47720 (AACT1) and At5g48230 (AACT2), were functionally identified in the Arabidopsis genome by direct enzymological assays and functional expression in yeast. Promoter::GUS fusion experiments indicated that AACT1 is primarily expressed in the vascular system and AACT2 is highly expressed in root tips, young leaves, top stems and anthers. Characterization of T?DNA insertion mutant alleles at each AACT locus established that AACT2 function is required for embryogenesis and for normal male gamete transmission. In contrast, plants lacking AACT1 function are completely viable and show no apparent growth phenotypes, indicating that AACT1 is functionally redundant with respect to AACT2 function. RNAi lines that express reduced levels of AACT2 show pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduced apical dominance, elongated life span and flowering duration, sterility, dwarfing, reduced seed yield and shorter root length. Microscopic analysis reveals that the reduced stature is caused by a reduction in cell size and fewer cells, and male sterility is caused by loss of the pollen coat and premature degeneration of the tapetal cells. Biochemical analyses established that the roots of AACT2 RNAi plants show quantitative and qualitative alterations in phytosterol profiles. These phenotypes and biochemical alterations are reversed when AACT2 RNAi plants are grown in the presence of mevalonate, which is consistent with the role of AACT2 in generating the bulk of the acetoacetyl?CoA precursor required for the cytosol?localized, mevalonate?derived isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway.

Jin, Huanan; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.

2012-03-31

84

Mitochondrial protein acetylation is driven by acetyl-CoA from fatty acid oxidation.  

PubMed

Mitochondria integrate metabolic networks for maintaining bioenergetic requirements. Deregulation of mitochondrial metabolic networks can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is a common hallmark of many diseases. Reversible post-translational protein acetylation modifications are emerging as critical regulators of mitochondrial function and form a direct link between metabolism and protein function, via the metabolic intermediate acetyl-CoA. Sirtuins catalyze protein deacetylation, but how mitochondrial acetylation is determined is unclear. We report here a mechanism that explains mitochondrial protein acetylation dynamics in vivo. Food withdrawal in mice induces a rapid increase in hepatic protein acetylation. Furthermore, using a novel LC-MS/MS method, we were able to quantify protein acetylation in human fibroblasts. We demonstrate that inducing fatty acid oxidation in fibroblasts increases protein acetylation. Furthermore, we show by using radioactively labeled palmitate that fatty acids are a direct source for mitochondrial protein acetylation. Intriguingly, in a mouse model that resembles human very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency, we demonstrate that upon food-withdrawal, hepatic protein hyperacetylation is absent. This indicates that functional fatty acid oxidation is necessary for protein acetylation to occur in the liver upon food withdrawal. Furthermore, we now demonstrate that protein acetylation is abundant in human liver peroxisomes, an organelle where acetyl-CoA is solely generated by fatty acid oxidation. Our findings provide a mechanism for metabolic control of protein acetylation, which provides insight into the pathophysiogical role of protein acetylation dynamics in fatty acid oxidation disorders and other metabolic diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24516071

Pougovkina, Olga; te Brinke, Heleen; Ofman, Rob; van Cruchten, Arno G; Kulik, Wim; Wanders, Ronald J A; Houten, Sander M; de Boer, Vincent C J

2014-07-01

85

Alkaline Hydrolysis of CL-20.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energetics and Warheads Division of the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center has been involved in the development of CL-20. An alkaline hydrolysis study was performed to better understand the fate and transport of CL-2O thro...

P. Karakaya, M. Sidhourn, C. Christodoulatos, W. Balas, S. Nicolich

2005-01-01

86

Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT): human cDNA cloning, human chromosomal mapping to 5p13, and mutation detection in a SCOT-deficient patient.  

PubMed Central

Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; E.C.2.8.3.5) mediates the rate-determining step of ketolysis in extrahepatic tissues, the esterification of acetoacetate to CoA for use in energy production. Hereditary SCOT deficiency in humans causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We obtained human-heart SCOT cDNA clones spanning the entire 1,560-nt coding sequence. Sequence alignment of the human SCOT peptides with other known CoA transferases revealed several conserved regions of potential functional importance. A single approximately 3.2-kb SCOT mRNA is present in human tissues (heart > leukocytes >> fibroblasts), but no signal is detectable in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. We mapped the human SCOT locus (OXCT) to the cytogenetic band 5p13 by in situ hybridization. From fibroblasts of a patient with hereditary SCOT deficiency, we amplified and cloned cDNA fragments containing the entire SCOT coding sequence. We found a homozygous C-to-G transversion at nt 848, which changes the Ser 283 codon to a stop codon. This mutation (S283X) is incompatible with normal enzyme function and represents the first documentation of a pathogenic mutation in SCOT deficiency. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:8751852

Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Fukao, T.; Song, X. Q.; Duncan, A. M.; Chen, H. S.; Robert, M. F.; Perez-Cerda, C.; Ugarte, M.; Chartrand, C.; Vobecky, S.; Kondo, N.; Mitchell, G. A.

1996-01-01

87

Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase in complex with the feedback inhibitor CoA reveals only one active-site conformation.  

PubMed

Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) catalyzes the penultimate step in the coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway, reversibly transferring an adenylyl group from ATP to 4'-phosphopantetheine to form dephosphocoenzyme A (dPCoA). To complement recent biochemical and structural studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPAT (MtPPAT) and to provide further insight into the feedback regulation of MtPPAT by CoA, the X-ray crystal structure of the MtPPAT enzyme in complex with CoA was determined to 2.11 Å resolution. Unlike previous X-ray crystal structures of PPAT-CoA complexes from other bacteria, which showed two distinct CoA conformations bound to the active site, only one conformation of CoA is observed in the MtPPAT-CoA complex. PMID:21543857

Wubben, T; Mesecar, A D

2011-05-01

88

Structural insights into rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water in relation to enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Pretreatment-induced structural alteration is critical in influencing the rate and extent of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. The present work has investigated structural features of rice straw pretreated by hot-compressed water (HCW) from 140 to 240 °C for 10 or 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis profiles of pretreated rice straw. Compositional profiles of pretreated rice straw were examined to offer the basis for structural changes. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis revealed possible modification in crystalline microstructure of cellulose and the severity-dependent variation of crystallinity. The specific surface area (SSA) of pretreated samples was able to achieve more than 10-fold of that of the raw material and was in linear relationship with the removal of acetyl groups and xylan. The glucose yield by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated materials correlated linearly with the SSA increase and the dissolution of acetyl and xylan. A quantitatively intrinsic relationship was suggested to exist between enzymatic hydrolysis and the extraction of hemicellulose components in hydrothermally treated rice straw, and SSA was considered one important structural parameter signaling the efficiency of enzymatic digestibility in HCW-treated materials in which hemicellulose removal and lignin redistribution happened. PMID:25178420

Yu, Guoce; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Seiichi; Wang, Jianlong; Endo, Takashi

2014-11-01

89

OUTCROP-BASED HIGH RESOLUTION GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA). CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The COA supplies drinking water to a number of municipalities in central Oklahoma. Two major stratigraphic units in the COA, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, contain naturally occurring arsenic that exceeds government mandated drinking-water standards (EPA, 2001). ...

90

Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal -Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty  

E-print Network

Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal -Oxidation of Unsaturated for the differences in activity between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial DCRs are unknown. Results: Structure-function studies on peroxisomal DCR (pDCR) and comparison with its mitochondrial counterpart reveal differences

Zhijie, Liu

91

Identification and Characterization of a Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA):Benzoate CoA Transferase in Geobacter metallireducens  

PubMed Central

Geobacter metallireducens is a Fe(III)-respiring deltaproteobacterium and serves as a model organism for aromatic compound-degrading, obligately anaerobic bacteria. In this study, a genetic system was established for G. metallireducens using nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor. Surprisingly, disruption of the benzoate-induced bamY gene, encoding a benzoate coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, reproducibly showed an increased biomass yield in comparison to the wild type during growth with benzoate but not during growth with acetate. Complementation of bamY in trans converted the biomass yield back to the wild-type level. Growth of the bamY mutant with benzoate can be rationalized by the identification of a previously unknown succinyl-CoA:benzoate CoA transferase activity; it represents an additional, energetically less demanding mode of benzoate activation. The activity was highly enriched from extracts of cells grown on benzoate, yielding a 50-kDa protein band; mass spectrometric analysis identified the corresponding benzoate-induced gene annotated as a CoA transferase. It was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized as a specific succinyl-CoA:benzoate CoA transferase. The newly identified enzyme in conjunction with a benzoate-induced succinyl-CoA synthetase links the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the upper benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway during growth on aromatic growth substrates. PMID:22408161

Oberender, Jana; Kung, Johannes W.; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin

2012-01-01

92

Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.  

PubMed

Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

2011-08-12

93

Reversible Acetylation Of Non Histone Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational modifications of nonhistone proteins play a significant role in regulating the chromatin structure, dynamics\\u000a and thereby gene regulation. Among the different posttranslational modifications, reversible acetylation of non-histone proteins\\u000a has profound functional implications on wide range of cellular processes. The acetylation status of these proteins is regulated\\u000a by several cellular and non-cellular factors like viruses, physiological stresses, DNA damaging agents

Kiran Batta; Chandrima Das; Shrikanth Gadad; Jayasha Shandilya; Tapas Kundu

94

N-Acetyl-?-glucosaminidases in human spleen  

PubMed Central

1. The N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase of human spleen has been separated by gel electrophoresis into two components, an acidic form A and a basic form B. 2. The two forms are readily separated on DEAE-cellulose and have been concentrated 50-fold and sevenfold respectively. 3. They show similar Km values towards 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminide, and have the same pH optima when compared in citrate, phosphate or acetate buffers. They are inhibited to a similar extent by acetate, heparin, N-acetylgalactosaminolactone, N-acetyl-?-d-galactosamine and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosamine. Specificity for C-4 orientation is not absolute and p-nitrophenyl ?-galactosaminide is also hydrolysed but at a rate only 11·6% of that for the corresponding glucosaminide. 4. N-Acetyl-?-glucosaminidase B is stable over a wider pH range than is N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase A, and is less easily denatured by heat. 5. Tissue fractionation indicates that both the A and B forms are present in the lysosomal fraction, whereas the supernatant contains the A form only. 6. Evidence is presented to indicate that the A form contains a number of sialic acid residues. PMID:5650361

Robinson, D.; Stirling, J. L.

1968-01-01

95

Cellulase hydrolysis of unsorted MSW.  

PubMed

A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition of surfactant. Concurrently, the enzyme performance was analysed on pure cellulose in a solution of MSW wastewater. Results showed no effect of surfactant addition to the hydrolysis media as measured by viscosity and particle size distribution. MSW treatment wastewater was found to contain a high amount of calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride and others that may affect cellulolytic enzymes. Cellulase performance showed no effect of adding the metal ion-chelating agent EDTA to the solution. The cellulases were stable, tolerated and functioned in the presence of several contaminants. PMID:21989799

Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

2011-12-01

96

Hydrolysis of esters by staphylococci.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to characterize the hydrolysis of esters by staphylococci in order to understand if they could contribute to the release of free fatty acids in sausage. Cell-free extracts and extracellular concentrates of staphylococci were examined for esterase activities against p-nitrophenyl esters and for lipolytic activities against triolein. Staphylococci showed intracellular and extracellular esterase activities with different esterase electrophoretic patterns. Cell-free extracts of S. xylosus, S. warneri and S. saprophyticus preferentially hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl butyrate whereas their extracellular concentrates were mainly active against p-nitrophenyl butyrate, p-nitrophenyl caproate and p-nitrophenyl caprylate. In addition their extracellular concentrates hydrolysed triolein. The two strains of S. carnosus differed as they did not show pronounced p-nitrophenyl substrate specificity and did not hydrolyse triolein. Staphylococci hydrolysed esters at a high rate between 15 and 25 degrees C; acidic conditions inhibited the hydrolysis. The hydrolysis was also reduced when the water activity was decreased by addition of polyethylene glycol or glycerol. PMID:9217110

Talon, R; Montel, M C

1997-05-20

97

Yeast Phospholipase C Is Required for Normal Acetyl-CoA Homeostasis and Global Histone Acetylation*  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase C (Plc1p) is required for the initial step of inositol polyphosphate (InsP) synthesis, and yeast cells with deletion of the PLC1 gene are completely devoid of any InsPs and display aberrations in transcriptional regulation. Here we show that Plc1p is required for a normal level of histone acetylation; plc1? cells that do not synthesize any InsPs display decreased acetylation of bulk histones and global hypoacetylation of chromatin histones. In accordance with the role of Plc1p in supporting histone acetylation, plc1? mutation is synthetically lethal with mutations in several subunits of SAGA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. Conversely, the growth rate, sensitivity to multiple stresses, and the transcriptional defects of plc1? cells are partially suppressed by deletion of histone deacetylase HDA1. The histone hypoacetylation in plc1? cells is due to the defect in degradation of repressor Mth1p, and consequently lower expression of HXT genes and reduced conversion of glucose to acetyl-CoA, a substrate for HATs. The histone acetylation and transcriptional defects can be partially suppressed and the overall fitness improved in plc1? cells by increasing the cellular concentration of acetyl-CoA. Together, our data indicate that Plc1p and InsPs are required for normal acetyl-CoA homeostasis, which, in turn, regulates global histone acetylation. PMID:23913687

Galdieri, Luciano; Chang, Jennifer; Mehrotra, Swati; Vancura, Ales

2013-01-01

98

Molecular Characterization of a Heteromeric ATP-Citrate Lyase That Generates Cytosolic Acetyl-Coenzyme A in Arabidopsis1[w  

PubMed Central

Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is used in the cytosol of plant cells for the synthesis of a diverse set of phytochemicals including waxes, isoprenoids, stilbenes, and flavonoids. The source of cytosolic acetyl-CoA is unclear. We identified two Arabidopsis cDNAs that encode proteins similar to the amino and carboxy portions of human ATP-citrate lyase (ACL). Coexpression of these cDNAs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) confers ACL activity, indicating that both the Arabidopsis genes are required for ACL activity. Arabidopsis ACL is a heteromeric enzyme composed of two distinct subunits, ACLA (45 kD) and ACLB (65 kD). The holoprotein has a molecular mass of 500 kD, which corresponds to a heterooctomer with an A4B4 configuration. ACL activity and the ACLA and ACLB polypeptides are located in the cytosol, consistent with the lack of targeting peptides in the ACLA and ACLB sequences. In the Arabidopsis genome, three genes encode for the ACLA subunit (ACLA-1, At1g10670; ACLA-2, At1g60810; and ACLA-3, At1g09430), and two genes encode the ACLB subunit (ACLB-1, At3g06650 and ACLB-2, At5g49460). The ACLA and ACLB mRNAs accumulate in coordinated spatial and temporal patterns during plant development. This complex accumulation pattern is consistent with the predicted physiological needs for cytosolic acetyl-CoA, and is closely coordinated with the accumulation pattern of cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, an enzyme using cytosolic acetyl-CoA as a substrate. Taken together, these results indicate that ACL, encoded by the ACLA and ACLB genes of Arabidopsis, generates cytosolic acetyl-CoA. The heteromeric organization of this enzyme is common to green plants (including Chlorophyceae, Marchantimorpha, Bryopsida, Pinaceae, monocotyledons, and eudicots), species of fungi, Glaucophytes, Chlamydomonas, and prokaryotes. In contrast, all known animal ACL enzymes have a homomeric structure, indicating that a evolutionary fusion of the ACLA and ACLB genes probably occurred early in the evolutionary history of this kingdom. PMID:12376641

Fatland, Beth L.; Ke, Jinshan; Anderson, Marc D.; Mentzen, Wieslawa I.; Cui, Li Wei; Allred, C. Christy; Johnston, Jerry L.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

2002-01-01

99

HYDROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrolytic processes provide the baseline loss rate for any chemical in an aqueous envi- ronment. Although various hydrolytic pathways account for significant degradation of certain classes of organic chemicals, other organic structures are completely inert. Strictly speaking, hy...

100

Structural, Kinetic and Proteomic Characterization of Acetyl Phosphate-Dependent Bacterial Protein Acetylation  

PubMed Central

The emerging view of N?-lysine acetylation in eukaryotes is of a relatively abundant post-translational modification (PTM) that has a major impact on the function, structure, stability and/or location of thousands of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. This PTM is typically considered to arise by the donation of the acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (acCoA) to the ?-amino group of a lysine residue that is reversibly catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we provide genetic, mass spectrometric, biochemical and structural evidence that N?-lysine acetylation is an equally abundant and important PTM in bacteria. Applying a recently developed, label-free and global mass spectrometric approach to an isogenic set of mutants, we detected acetylation of thousands of lysine residues on hundreds of Escherichia coli proteins that participate in diverse and often essential cellular processes, including translation, transcription and central metabolism. Many of these acetylations were regulated in an acetyl phosphate (acP)-dependent manner, providing compelling evidence for a recently reported mechanism of bacterial N?-lysine acetylation. These mass spectrometric data, coupled with observations made by crystallography, biochemistry, and additional mass spectrometry showed that this acP-dependent acetylation is both non-enzymatic and specific, with specificity determined by the accessibility, reactivity and three-dimensional microenvironment of the target lysine. Crystallographic evidence shows acP can bind to proteins in active sites and cofactor binding sites, but also potentially anywhere molecules with a phosphate moiety could bind. Finally, we provide evidence that acP-dependent acetylation can impact the function of critical enzymes, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and RNA polymerase. PMID:24756028

Sahu, Alexandria; Sorensen, Dylan; Minasov, George; Lima, Bruno P.; Scholle, Michael; Mrksich, Milan; Anderson, Wayne F.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit; Wolfe, Alan J.

2014-01-01

101

Repression of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase by Unsaturated Fatty Acids: Relationship to Coenzyme Repression  

PubMed Central

It has been reported that the level of d-biotin in the growth medium of Lactobacillus plantarum regulates the synthesis of apoacetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase; high levels cause repression, and deficient levels effect derepression. In this study, evidence has been obtained which suggests that coenzyme repression by biotin is an indirect effect; i.e., biotin regulates the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids which are the true repressors of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase. This was observed in an experiment in which long-chain unsaturated fatty acids were added to media containing deficient, sufficient, or excess levels of d-biotin. In every case, independently of the biotin concentration for growth, the unsaturated fatty acids caused a severe repression of the carboxylase. Saturated fatty acids were without effect. The level of oleic acid required to give maximal repression was 50 ?g/ml. The free fatty acids had no adverse effect on the activity of the cell-free extracts nor on the permeation of d-biotin into the cell. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids decreased the rate of holocarboxylase formation from d-biotin and the apoacetyl-CoA carboxylase in the extracts. It is concluded that there are at least three mechanisms that control the acetyl-CoA carboxylase in this organism: (i) indirect coenzyme repression by d-biotin, (ii) repression by unsaturated fatty acids, and (iii) regulation of the activity of the holocarboxylase synthetase by both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:5473885

Birnbaum, Jerome

1970-01-01

102

Acetyl-L-carnitine in hepatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis. The clinical diagnosis is based on two concurrent types of symptoms: impaired mental status and impaired neuromotor function. Impaired mental status is characterized by deterioration in mental status with psychomotor dysfunction, impaired memory, and increased reaction time, sensory abnormalities, poor concentration, disorientation and coma. Impaired neuromotor function include hyperreflexia, rigidity, myoclonus and asterixis. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy has not been clearly defined. The general consensus is that elevated levels of ammonia and an inflammatory response work in synergy to cause astrocyte to swell and fluid to accumulate in the brain which is thought to explain the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy. Acetyl-L-carnitine, the short-chain ester of carnitine is endogenously produced within mitochondria and peroxisomes and is involved in the transport of acetyl-moieties across the membranes of these organelles. Acetyl-L-carnitine administration has shown the recovery of neuropsychological activities related to attention/concentration, visual scanning and tracking, psychomotor speed and mental flexibility, language short-term memory, attention, and computing ability. In fact, Acetyl-L-carnitine induces ureagenesis leading to decreased blood and brain ammonia levels. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment decreases the severity of mental and physical fatigue, depression cognitive impairment and improves health-related quality of life. The aim of this review was to provide an explanation on the possible toxic effects of ammonia in HE and evaluate the potential clinical benefits of ALC. PMID:23389620

Malaguarnera, Michele

2013-06-01

103

Tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of Candida bombicola sophorolipids and product formed on hydrolysis by cutinase.  

PubMed

Natural mixtures of sophorolipids produced by the yeast Candida bombicola have been analyzed by fast atom bombardment (FAB)-MS and collision-induced dissociation (CID)-MS. Some pure components have been analysed by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The presence of acidic, lactonic, and O-acetylated forms and the position of double bonds in the fatty acid part of these glycolipids can be easily inferred from positive and negative ion FAB-mass spectra. Details about position of O-acetylation can be obtained from CID mass spectra of [M+H]+ and [M-H]- ions and from the NMR spectra. Differences in CID fragmentation between protonated and sodiated molecular ions are discussed in detail. Enzymatic hydrolysis of 6',6"-di-O-acetyl sophorolipid lactone by cutinase from Fusarium solani results specifically in the removal of the 6'-O-acetyl group, whereas the 6"-O-acetyl and lactone group are resistant. This specificity is explained from a three-dimensional model of the sophorolipid generated on the basis of the short 1H,1H distances as inferred from the NMR (ROESY) spectra. PMID:8585609

de Koster, C G; Heerma, W; Pepermans, H A; Groenewegen, A; Peters, H; Haverkamp, J

1995-09-01

104

Enhancement of lysine acetylation accelerates wound repair  

PubMed Central

In physiopathological conditions, such as diabetes, wound healing is significantly compromised and chronic complications, including ulcers, may occur. In a mouse model of skin repair, we recently reported that wound treatment with Sirtuin activators and class I HDAC inhibitors induced keratinocyte proliferation and enhanced healing via a nitric oxide (NO) dependent mechanism. We observed an increase in total protein acetylation in the wound area, as determined by acetylation of ?-tubulin and histone H3 Lysine 9. We reasoned that this process activated cell function as well as regulated gene expression to foster tissue repair. We report here that the direct activation of P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) by the histone acetylase activator pentadecylidenemalonate 1b (SPV-106) induced Lysine acetylation in the wound area. This intervention was sufficient to enhance repair process by a NO-independent mechanism. Hence, an impairment of PCAF and/or other GCN5 family acetylases may delay skin repair in physiopathological conditions. PMID:24265859

Spallotta, Francesco; Cencioni, Chiara; Straino, Stefania; Sbardella, Gianluca; Castellano, Sabrina; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Martelli, Fabio; Gaetano, Carlo

2013-01-01

105

Restricted mitochondrial protein acetylation initiates mitochondrial autophagy.  

PubMed

Because nutrient-sensing nuclear and cytosolic acetylation mediates cellular autophagy, we investigated whether mitochondrial acetylation modulates mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). Knockdown of GCN5L1, a component of the mitochondrial acetyltransferase machinery, diminished mitochondrial protein acetylation and augmented mitochondrial enrichment of autophagy mediators. This program was disrupted by SIRT3 knockdown. Chronic GCN5L1 depletion increased mitochondrial turnover and reduced mitochondrial protein content and/or mass. In parallel, mitochondria showed blunted respiration and enhanced 'stress-resilience'. Genetic disruption of autophagy mediators Atg5 and p62 (also known as SQSTM1), as well as GCN5L1 reconstitution, abolished deacetylation-induced mitochondrial autophagy. Interestingly, this program is independent of the mitophagy E3-ligase Parkin (also known as PARK2). Taken together, these data suggest that deacetylation of mitochondrial proteins initiates mitochondrial autophagy in a canonical autophagy-mediator-dependent program and shows that modulation of this regulatory program has ameliorative mitochondrial homeostatic effects. PMID:24006259

Webster, Bradley R; Scott, Iain; Han, Kim; Li, Jian H; Lu, Zhongping; Stevens, Mark V; Malide, Daniela; Chen, Yong; Samsel, Leigh; Connelly, Patricia S; Daniels, Mathew P; McCoy, J Philip; Combs, Christian A; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N

2013-11-01

106

Purification and some properties of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase from rabbit mammary gland.  

PubMed Central

1. Acetyl-Coa carboxylase from lactating-rabbit mammary gland was purified to homogeneity by the criterion of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 2. Use of phosphate buffer throughout the purification gave low recovery of enzyme. Consequently, Tris buffers were used in the extraction and in selected stages of the purification procedure. 3. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 5.15 +/- 0.3 mumol of bicarbonate incorporated/min per mg of protein (mean +/- S.E.M. of five preparations). This represents a purification of 257 +/- 16-fold and a yield of 4.3 +/- 0.13%. 4. The kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme were similar to those reported for the enzyme from other tissue sources. 5. The enzyme was assayed by a spectrophotometric assay and by a [14C]bicarbonate-fixation assay. Short incubation were used in the radio-chemical assay to avoid substantial loss of [14C]bicarbonate. PMID:6012

Manning, R; Dils, R; Mayer, R J

1976-01-01

107

Beating the acetyl coenzyme A-pathway to the origin of life.  

PubMed

Attempts to draft plausible scenarios for the origin of life have in the past mainly built upon palaeogeochemical boundary conditions while, as detailed in a companion article in this issue, frequently neglecting to comply with fundamental thermodynamic laws. Even if demands from both palaeogeochemistry and thermodynamics are respected, then a plethora of strongly differing models are still conceivable. Although we have no guarantee that life at its origin necessarily resembled biology in extant organisms, we consider that the only empirical way to deduce how life may have emerged is by taking the stance of assuming continuity of biology from its inception to the present day. Building upon this conviction, we have assessed extant types of energy and carbon metabolism for their appropriateness to conditions probably pertaining in those settings of the Hadean planet that fulfil the thermodynamic requirements for life to come into being. Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathways leading to acetyl CoA formation are excellent candidates for such primordial metabolism. Based on a review of our present understanding of the biochemistry and biophysics of acetogenic, methanogenic and methanotrophic pathways and on a phylogenetic analysis of involved enzymes, we propose that a variant of modern methanotrophy is more likely than traditional WL systems to date back to the origin of life. The proposed model furthermore better fits basic thermodynamic demands and palaeogeochemical conditions suggested by recent results from extant alkaline hydrothermal seeps. PMID:23754811

Nitschke, Wolfgang; Russell, Michael J

2013-07-19

108

Beating the acetyl coenzyme A-pathway to the origin of life  

PubMed Central

Attempts to draft plausible scenarios for the origin of life have in the past mainly built upon palaeogeochemical boundary conditions while, as detailed in a companion article in this issue, frequently neglecting to comply with fundamental thermodynamic laws. Even if demands from both palaeogeochemistry and thermodynamics are respected, then a plethora of strongly differing models are still conceivable. Although we have no guarantee that life at its origin necessarily resembled biology in extant organisms, we consider that the only empirical way to deduce how life may have emerged is by taking the stance of assuming continuity of biology from its inception to the present day. Building upon this conviction, we have assessed extant types of energy and carbon metabolism for their appropriateness to conditions probably pertaining in those settings of the Hadean planet that fulfil the thermodynamic requirements for life to come into being. Wood–Ljungdahl (WL) pathways leading to acetyl CoA formation are excellent candidates for such primordial metabolism. Based on a review of our present understanding of the biochemistry and biophysics of acetogenic, methanogenic and methanotrophic pathways and on a phylogenetic analysis of involved enzymes, we propose that a variant of modern methanotrophy is more likely than traditional WL systems to date back to the origin of life. The proposed model furthermore better fits basic thermodynamic demands and palaeogeochemical conditions suggested by recent results from extant alkaline hydrothermal seeps. PMID:23754811

Nitschke, Wolfgang; Russell, Michael J.

2013-01-01

109

Sequence variation in two lignin biosynthesis genes, cinnamoyl CoA reductase ( CCR ) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 2 ( CAD2 )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (CAD2) are genes which may influence variation in lignin content and composition within plants. Sequence variation within these genes may be responsible for changes in enzyme activity and\\/or specificity, which could cause variation in lignin content or composition. This study examines sequence variation within these two genes in Eucalyptus globulus, an

Fiona S. Poke; René E. Vaillancourt; Robert C. Elliott; James B. Reid

2003-01-01

110

Synthesis of acyl-CoAs by isolated spinach chloroplasts in relation to added CoA and ATP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of incorporation of [2-14C] acetate into lipids and acyl-CoAs in relation to added CoA and ATP by isolated spinach chloroplasts have been examined. The effect of the concentration of these cofactors on lipid and acyl-CoA synthesis was also studied. In the absence of cofactors, or when only one was present, the incorporation was very low and went mainly

J. Sanchez; M. Mancha

1981-01-01

111

Anther-specific coumarate CoA ligase-like gene from Nicotiana sylvestris expressed during uninucleate microspore development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anther-specific cDNA clone from Nicotiana sylvestris \\/NsCL-lk\\/, showing similarity to coumarate CoA ligases, was isolated and characterized. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated transcript accumulation in tapetal cells during short period of anther development correlated with tetrad dissolution and uninucleate microspore development. An Arabidopsis cDNA clone \\/AtCL-lk\\/ homologous to NsCL-lk was isolated after screening of Arabidopsis flower

Marina P. Varbanova; Atanas I. Atanassov; Ivan I. Atanassov

2003-01-01

112

Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Supply: Functional Expression of a Bacterial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in the Cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1?, E1?, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs+ reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. PMID:25336454

Kozak, Barbara U.; van Rossum, Harmen M.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R.; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T.

2014-01-01

113

SUBSURFACE WELL-LOG CORRELATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING LITHOFACIES IN THE PERMIAN GARBER SANDSTONE AND WELLINGTON FORMATION, CENTRAL OKLAHOMA AQUIFER (COA), CLEVELAND COUNTY, OKLAHOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The fluvial Garber Sandstone and the underlying Wellington Formation are important sources of drinking water in central Oklahoma. These formations, which make up much of the COA, consist of amalgamated sandstones with some interbedded mudstones, siltstones, and local mudstone- a...

114

4-Acetyl-pyridinium hydrogen sulfate  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H8NO+·HSO4 ?, consists of O—H?Ohydrogen-bonded extended chains of hydrogen sulfate anions. Each hydrogen sulfate anion is furthermore connected to one 4-acetyl­pyridinium cation via a hydrogen bond of the N—H?O type. PMID:21577849

Fu, Xue-qun

2009-01-01

115

Molecular Cell Expression Noise and Acetylation Profiles  

E-print Network

Molecular Cell Article Expression Noise and Acetylation Profiles Distinguish HDAC Functions Leehee.05.008 SUMMARY Gene expression shows a significant variation (noise) between genetically identical cells. Noise depends on the gene expression process regulated by the chromatin environment. We screened for chromatin

Barkai, Naama

116

Transcription: Gene control by targeted histone acetylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transcriptional regulator in yeast, Gcn5p, activates transcription by targeted acetylation of specific lysine residues in the amino-terminal tails of histones. This targete modification is restricted to nucleosomes assembled on the promoters of Gcn5p-responsive genes.

Axel Imhof; Alan P Wolffe

1998-01-01

117

Identification of 9?-Hydroxy-17-Oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-Hexanorandrostan-5-Oic Acid in Steroid Degradation by Comamonas testosteroni TA441 and Its Conversion to the Corresponding 6-En-5-Oyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Involving Open Reading Frame 28 (ORF28)- and ORF30-Encoded Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Comamonas testosteroni TA441 degrades steroids via aromatization and meta-cleavage of the A ring, followed by hydrolysis, and produces 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid as an intermediate compound. Herein, we identify a new intermediate compound, 9?-hydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid. Open reading frame 28 (ORF28)- and ORF30-encoded acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase was shown to convert the CoA ester of 9?-hydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid to the CoA ester of 9?-hydroxy-17-oxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrost-6-en-5-oic acid. A homology search of the deduced amino acid sequences suggested that the ORF30-encoded protein is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase_fadE6_17_26 family, whereas the deduced amino acid sequence of ORF28 showed no significant similarity to specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family proteins. Possible steroid degradation gene clusters similar to the cluster of TA441 appear in bacterial genome analysis data. In these clusters, ORFs similar to ORFs 28 and 30 are often found side by side and ordered in the same manner as ORFs 28 and 30. PMID:25092028

Horinouchi, Masae; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Malon, Michal; Hirota, Hiroshi; Kudo, Toshiaki

2014-10-15

118

Akt-dependent metabolic reprogramming regulates tumor cell histone acetylation.  

PubMed

Histone acetylation plays important roles in gene regulation, DNA replication, and the response to DNA damage, and it is frequently deregulated in tumors. We postulated that tumor cell histone acetylation levels are determined in part by changes in acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) availability mediated by oncogenic metabolic reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that acetyl-CoA is dynamically regulated by glucose availability in cancer cells and that the ratio of acetyl-CoA:coenzyme A within the nucleus modulates global histone acetylation levels. In vivo, expression of oncogenic Kras or Akt stimulates histone acetylation changes that precede tumor development. Furthermore, we show that Akt's effects on histone acetylation are mediated through the metabolic enzyme ATP-citrate lyase and that pAkt(Ser473) levels correlate significantly with histone acetylation marks in human gliomas and prostate tumors. The data implicate acetyl-CoA metabolism as a key determinant of histone acetylation levels in cancer cells. PMID:24998913

Lee, Joyce V; Carrer, Alessandro; Shah, Supriya; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Wei, Shuanzeng; Venneti, Sriram; Worth, Andrew J; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Lim, Hee-Woong; Liu, Shichong; Jackson, Ellen; Aiello, Nicole M; Haas, Naomi B; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Judkins, Alexander; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Chodosh, Lewis A; Garcia, Benjamin A; Stanger, Ben Z; Feldman, Michael D; Blair, Ian A; Wellen, Kathryn E

2014-08-01

119

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE

E. Yu. Vlasenko; H. Ding; J. M. Labavitch; S. P. Shoemaker

1997-01-01

120

PHTHALATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS: LINEAR FREE ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Alkaline hydrolysis rate constants were measured for dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-butyl, di-iso-butyl, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate esters in water. A linear free energy relationship (LFER) was established for estimating alkaline hydrolysis rate constants for other phthalate esters...

121

Formation of the N(2)-acetyl-2,6-diaminopurine oligonucleotide impurity caused by acetyl capping.  

PubMed

The acetyl 'capping' reaction routinely employed during phosphorothioate oligonucleotide synthesis has been implicated in the formation of an impurity species with a mass 41 amu greater than the expected oligonucleotide molecule. The impurity has been found to arise by conversion of a protected guanine nucleobase to N(2)-acetyl-2,6-diaminopurine. A two-part mechanism is proposed consisting of transamidation of the protecting group on guanine and substitution of guanine's O(6) atom. PMID:24980055

Rodriguez, Andrew A; Cedillo, Isaiah; Mowery, Brendan P; Gaus, Hans J; Krishnamoorthy, Seetha S; McPherson, Andrew K

2014-08-01

122

The Crystal Structure of N-Acetyl-L-glutamate Synthase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae Provides Insights into Mechanisms of Catalysis and Regulation  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structures of N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) in the arginine biosynthetic pathway of Neisseria gonorrhoeae complexed with acetyl-CoA and with CoA plus N-acetylglutamate have been determined at 2.5- and 2.6-A resolution, respectively. The monomer consists of two separately folded domains, an amino acid kinase (AAK) domain and an N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain connected through a 10-A linker. The monomers assemble into a hexameric ring that consists of a trimer of dimers with 32-point symmetry, inner and outer ring diameters of 20 and 100A, respectively, and a height of 110A(.) Each AAK domain interacts with the cognate domains of two adjacent monomers across two 2-fold symmetry axes and with the NAT domain from a second monomer of the adjacent dimer in the ring. The catalytic sites are located within the NAT domains. Three active site residues, Arg316, Arg425, and Ser427, anchor N-acetylglutamate in a position at the active site to form hydrogen bond interactions to the main chain nitrogen atoms of Cys356 and Leu314, and hydrophobic interactions to the side chains of Leu313 and Leu314. The mode of binding of acetyl-CoA and CoA is similar to other NAT family proteins. The AAK domain, although catalytically inactive, appears to bind arginine. This is the first reported crystal structure of any NAGS, and it provides insights into the catalytic function and arginine regulation of NAGS enzymes.

Shi, Dashuang; Sagar, Vatsala; Jin, Zhongmin; Yu, Xiaolin; Caldovic, Ljubica; Morizono, Hiroki; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel (Maryland); (GWU); (Georgia)

2010-01-07

123

Acetyl l -carnitine as a precursor of acetylcholine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of [3H]acetylcholine from [3H]acetyl-l-carnitine was demonstrated in vitro by coupling the enzyme systems choline acetyltransferase and carnitine acetyltransferase. Likewise, both [3H] and [14C] labeled acetylcholine were produced when [3H]acetyl-l-carnitine andd-[U-14C] glucose were incubated with synaptosomal membrane preparations from rat brain. Transfer of the acetyl moiety from acetyl-l-carnitine to acetylcholine was dependent on concentration of acetyl-l-carnitine and required the presence

Helen L. White; Philip W. Scates

1990-01-01

124

Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1?, E1?, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs(+) reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. Importance: Genetically engineered microorganisms are intensively investigated and applied for production of biofuels and chemicals from renewable sugars. To make such processes economically and environmentally sustainable, the energy (ATP) costs for product formation from sugar must be minimized. Here, we focus on an important ATP-requiring process in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae): synthesis of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A, a key precursor for many industrially important products, ranging from biofuels to fragrances. We demonstrate that pyruvate dehydrogenase from the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, a huge enzyme complex with a size similar to that of a ribosome, can be functionally expressed and assembled in the cytosol of baker's yeast. Moreover, we show that this ATP-independent mechanism for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis can entirely replace the ATP-costly native yeast pathway. This work provides metabolic engineers with a new option to optimize the performance of baker's yeast as a "cell factory" for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:25336454

Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Luttik, Marijke A H; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

2014-01-01

125

Crystal Structure of DmdD, a Crotonase Superfamily Enzyme That Catalyzes the Hydration and Hydrolysis of Methylthioacryloyl-CoA  

PubMed Central

Dimethyl-sulphoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced in abundance by marine phytoplankton, and the catabolism of this compound is an important source of carbon and reduced sulfur for marine bacteria and other organisms. The enzyme DmdD catalyzes the last step in the methanethiol (MeSH) pathway of DMSP catabolism. DmdD is a member of the crotonase superfamily of enzymes, and it catalyzes both the hydration and the hydrolysis of methylthioacryloyl-CoA (MTA-CoA), converting it to acetaldehyde, CO2, MeSH, and CoA. We report here the crystal structure of Ruegeria pomeroyi DmdD free enzyme at 1.5 Å resolution and the structures of the E121A mutant in complex with MTA-CoA and 3-methylmercaptopropionate-CoA (MMPA-CoA) at 1.8 Å resolution. DmdD is a hexamer, composed of a dimer of trimers where the three monomers of each trimer are related by a crystallographic 3-fold axis. The overall structure of this hexamer is similar to those of canonical crotonases. However, the C-terminal loops of DmdD in one of the trimers assume a different conformation and contribute to CoA binding in the active site of a neighboring monomer of the trimer, while these loops in the second trimer are disordered. MTA-CoA is bound deep in the active site in the first trimer, but shows a 1.5 Å shift in its position in the second trimer. MMPA-CoA has a similar binding mode to MTA-CoA in the first trimer. MMPA-CoA cannot be hydrated and is only hydrolyzed slowly by DmdD. Replacement of the sulfur atom in MMPA-CoA with a methylene group abolishes hydrolysis, suggesting that the unique property of the substrate is a major determinant of the hydrolysis activity of DmdD. PMID:23704947

Tan, Dazhi; Crabb, Warren M.; Whitman, William B.; Tong, Liang

2013-01-01

126

Restricted mitochondrial protein acetylation initiates mitochondrial autophagy  

PubMed Central

Summary Because nutrient-sensing nuclear and cytosolic acetylation mediates cellular autophagy, we investigated whether mitochondrial acetylation modulates mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). Knockdown of GCN5L1, a component of the mitochondrial acetyltransferase machinery, diminished mitochondrial protein acetylation and augmented mitochondrial enrichment of autophagy mediators. This program was disrupted by SIRT3 knockdown. Chronic GCN5L1 depletion increased mitochondrial turnover and reduced mitochondrial protein content and/or mass. In parallel, mitochondria showed blunted respiration and enhanced ‘stress-resilience’. Genetic disruption of autophagy mediators Atg5 and p62 (also known as SQSTM1), as well as GCN5L1 reconstitution, abolished deacetylation-induced mitochondrial autophagy. Interestingly, this program is independent of the mitophagy E3-ligase Parkin (also known as PARK2). Taken together, these data suggest that deacetylation of mitochondrial proteins initiates mitochondrial autophagy in a canonical autophagy-mediator-dependent program and shows that modulation of this regulatory program has ameliorative mitochondrial homeostatic effects. PMID:24006259

Webster, Bradley R.; Scott, Iain; Han, Kim; Li, Jian H.; Lu, Zhongping; Stevens, Mark V.; Malide, Daniela; Chen, Yong; Samsel, Leigh; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P.; McCoy, J. Philip; Combs, Christian A.; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N.

2013-01-01

127

Fragrance material review on acetyl carene.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of acetyl carene when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Acetyl carene is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for acetyl carene were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013A Toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. (submitted for publication).) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. PMID:23911801

Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2013-12-01

128

O-acetylated gangliosides in bovine buttermilk. Characterization of 7-O-acetyl, 9-O-acetyl, and 7,9-di-O-acetyl GD3.  

PubMed

Three O-acetylated gangliosides, G1, G2, and G3, were purified from bovine buttermilk by using chloroform/methanol extraction, Folch partitioning, chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25, and Iatrobeads columns. The final yields of gangliosides G1, G2, and G3 were 2 mg, 37 mg, and 40 mg per 1.7 kg of the buttermilk powder, respectively. On the basis of immunostaining on high performance thin layer chromatography with specific monoclonal antibodies, mild alkaline treatment, gas-liquid chromatographic analysis, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies, G1 and G2 are characterized as O-acetylated GD3 and G3 as O-acetylated GT3, and the structures of these gangliosides are as follows: [formula: see text] The major fatty acids of these gangliosides were C18:0, C22:0, C23:0, and C24:0, and the long chain base was C18-sphingosine. PMID:1618769

Ren, S; Scarsdale, J N; Ariga, T; Zhang, Y; Klein, R A; Hartmann, R; Kushi, Y; Egge, H; Yu, R K

1992-06-25

129

Pds5 promotes and protects cohesin acetylation  

PubMed Central

Cohesin’s Smc1 and Smc3 subunits form V-shaped heterodimers, the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of which bind the C- and N-terminal domains, respectively, of the ?-kleisin subunit, forming a large tripartite ring within in which sister DNAs are entrapped, and thereby held together (sister chromatid cohesion). During replication, establishment of stable cohesion is dependent on Eco1-mediated acetylation of Smc3’s NBD, which is thought to prevent dissociation of ?-kleisin from Smc3, thereby locking shut a “DNA exit gate.” How Scc3 and Pds5, regulatory subunits bound to ?-kleisin, regulate cohesion establishment and maintenance is poorly understood. We show here that by binding to ?-kleisin adjacent to its Smc3 nucleotide binding N-terminal domain, Pds5 not only promotes cohesin’s release from chromatin but also mediates de novo acetylation of Smc3 by Eco1 during S phase and subsequently prevents de-acetylation by the deacetylase Hos1/HDAC8. By first promoting cohesin’s release from chromosomes and subsequently creating and guarding the chemical modification responsible for blocking release, Pds5 enables chromosomal cohesin to switch during S phase from a state of high turnover to one capable of tenaciously holding sister chromatids together for extended periods of time, a duality that has hitherto complicated analysis of this versatile cohesin subunit. PMID:23878248

Chan, Kok-Lung; Gligoris, Thomas; Upcher, William; Kato, Yuki; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Nasmyth, Kim; Beckouet, Frederic

2013-01-01

130

Plant histone acetylation: in the beginning ...  

PubMed

The study of histone acetylation in plants started with protein purification and sequencing, with gel analysis and the use of radioactive tracers. In alfalfa, acid urea Triton gel electrophoresis and in vivo labeling with tritated acetate and lysine quantified dynamic acetylation of core histones and identified the replication-coupled and -independent expression patterns of the histone H3.1 and H3.2 variants. Pulse-chase analyses demonstrated protein turnover of newly synthesized histone H3.2 and thereby identified the replacement H3 histones of plants which maintain the nucleosome density of transcribed chromatin. Sequence analysis of histone H4 revealed acetylation of lysine 20, a site typically methylated in animals and yeasts. Histone deacetylase inhibitors butyrate and trichostatin A are metabolized in alfalfa, but loss of TSA is slow, allowing its use to induce transient hyperacetylation of histones H2B, H4 and H3. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Epigenetic Control of cellular and developmental processes in plants. PMID:21371578

Waterborg, Jakob H

2011-08-01

131

O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production. PMID:22639638

Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

2011-01-01

132

Modeling cellobiose hydrolysis with integrated kinetic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme cellobiase Novozym 188, which is used for improving hydrolysis of bagasse with cellulase, was characterized in\\u000a its commercial available form and integrated kinetic models were applied to the hydrolysis of cellobiose. The specific activity\\u000a of this enzyme was determined for pH values from 3.0–7.0, and temperatures from 40–75°C, with cellobiose at 2 g\\/L. Thermal\\u000a stability was measured at

Luiza P. V. Calsavara; Flávio F. De Moraes; Gisella M. Zanin

1999-01-01

133

Catalysts for the hydrolysis of thiophosphate triesters  

E-print Network

-bound IBA. 11 1.4 Related nucleophiles 1.4.1 ? effect nucleophiles Other supernucleophiles have also been successfully used as nucleophilic catalysts for the hydrolysis of organophosphorus esters. Just like iodine carboxylates, PNPDPP...-bound IBA. 11 1.4 Related nucleophiles 1.4.1 ? effect nucleophiles Other supernucleophiles have also been successfully used as nucleophilic catalysts for the hydrolysis of organophosphorus esters. Just like iodine carboxylates, PNPDPP...

Picot, Alexandre

2005-02-17

134

Inhibitory kinetics of phenol on the enzyme activity of beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase from green crab (Scylla serrata).  

PubMed

Chemical pollution such as chromium and phenol in the sea water has been increasing in recent years in China sea. At the same time, marine shellfish such as prawn and crab are sensitive to this pollution. beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase, EC.3.2.1.52) catalyzes the cleavage the oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) into the monomer. In this paper, the effects of phenol on the enzyme activity from green crab (Scylla serrata) for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide (pNP-NAG) have been studied. The results showed that appropriate concentrations of phenol could lead to reversible inhibition on the enzyme and the inhibitor concentration leading to 50% activity lost, IC(50), was estimated to be 75.0+/-2.0 mM. The inhibitory kinetics of phenol on the enzyme in the appropriate concentrations of phenol has been studied using the kinetic method of substrate reaction. The time course of the enzyme for the hydrolysis of pNP-NAG in the presence of different concentrations of phenol showed that at each phenol concentration, the rate decreased with increasing time until a straight line was approached. The results show that the inhibition of the enzyme by phenol is a slow, reversible reaction with fractional remaining activity. The microscopic rate constants are determined for the reaction on phenol with the enzyme. PMID:17161862

Zhang, Ji-Ping; Yan, Ya-Wen; Xie, Jin-Jin; Wang, Qin; Chen, Qing-Xi

2007-01-30

135

Interaction of acetyl phosphate and carbamyl phosphate with plant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.  

PubMed Central

Acetyl phosphate produced an increase in the maximum velocity (Vmax. for the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate catalysed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The limiting Vmax. was 22.2 mumol X min-1 X mg-1 (185% of the value without acetyl phosphate). This compound also decreased the Km for phosphoenolpyruvate to 0.18 mM. The apparent activation constants for acetyl phosphate were 1.6 mM and 0.62 mM in the presence of 0.5 and 4 mM-phosphoenolpyruvate respectively. Carbamyl phosphate produced an increase in Vmax. and Km for phosphoenolpyruvate. The variation of Vmax./Km with carbamyl phosphate concentration could be described by a model in which this compound interacts with the carboxylase at two different types of sites: an allosteric activator site(s) and the substrate-binding site(s). Carbamyl phosphate was hydrolysed by the action of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The hydrolysis produced Pi and NH4+ in a 1:1 relationship. Values of Vmax. and Km were 0.11 +/- 0.01 mumol of Pi X min-1 X mg-1 and 1.4 +/- 0.1 mM, respectively, in the presence of 10 mM-NaHCO3. If HCO3- was not added, these values were 0.075 +/- 0.014 mumol of Pi X min-1 X mg-1 and 0.76 +/- 0.06 mM. Vmax./Km showed no variation between pH 6.5 and 8.5. The reaction required Mg2+; the activation constants were 0.77 and 0.31 mM at pH 6.5 and 8.5 respectively. Presumably, carbamyl phosphate is hydrolysed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by a reaction the mechanism of which is related to that of the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. PMID:3036067

Gonzalez, D H; Iglesias, A A; Andreo, C S

1987-01-01

136

Synthesis, biodistribution, and imaging of PEGylated-acetylated polyamidoamine dendrimers.  

PubMed

Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been widely used as drug carriers, non-viral gene vectors and imaging agents. However, the use of dendrimers in biological system is constrained because of inherent toxicity and organ accumulation. In this study, the strategy of acetylation and PEGylation-acetylation was used to minimize PAMAM dendrimers toxicities and to improve their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics for medical application. PEGylated-acetylated PAMAM (G4-Ac-PEG) dendrimers were synthesized by PEGylation of acetylated PAMAM dendrimer of generation 4 (G4) with acetic anhydride and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3.4 k. To investigate the cytotoxicity and in vivo biodistribution of the conjugates, in vitro cell viability analysis, Iodine-125 (125I) imaging, tissue distribution and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining were performed. We find that acetylation and PEGylation-acetylation essentially eliminates the inherent dendrimer cytotoxicity in vitro. Planar gamma (gamma) camera imaging revealed that all the conjugates were slowly eliminated from the body, and higher abdominal accumulation of acetylation PAMAM dendrimer was observed. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PEGylated-acetylated dendrimers have longer blood retention and lower accumulation in organs such as the kidney and liver than the non-PEGylated-acetylated dendrimers, but acetylation only can significantly increase the accumulation of G4 in the kidney and decrease the concentration in blood. Histology results reveal that no obvious damage was observed in all groups after high dose administration. This study indicates that PEGylation-acetylation could improve the blood retention, decrease organ accumulation, and improve pharmacokinetic profile, which suggests that PEGylation-acetylation provides an alternative method for PAMAM dendrimers modification. PMID:24734545

Liu, Jianfeng; Liu, Jinjian; Chu, Liping; Tong, Lingling; Gao, Hongjun; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Dezhi; Shi, Linqi; Kong, Deling; Li, Zongjin

2014-05-01

137

Selective Acetylation of per-O-TMS-Protected Monosaccharides  

PubMed Central

Selective acetylation of various per-O-TMS-protected carbohydrates has been accomplished. Using a protecting group exchange strategy and microwave assistance, monosaccharides (glucose, galactose and mannose) can be selectively acetylated producing either the 6-O-monoacetate or 1,6-O-diacetylated species. This new class of molecules can be deprotected without migration of the acetyl groups providing useful synthetic intermediates. To demonstrate the scope of the reaction, the methodology was successfully extended to TMS-protected ceramide. PMID:20799705

Witschi, Mark A.

2010-01-01

138

Molecular Bases for Sensitivity to Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Inhibitors in Black-Grass1  

PubMed Central

In grasses, residues homologous to residues Ile-1,781 and Ile-2,041 in the carboxyl-transferase (CT) domain of the chloroplastic acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) from the grass weed black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides [Huds.]) are critical determinants for sensitivity to two classes of ACCase inhibitors, aryloxyphenoxypropionates (APPs) and cyclohexanediones. Using natural mutants of black-grass, we demonstrated through a molecular, biological, and biochemical approach that residues Trp-2,027, Asp-2,078, and Gly-2,096 are also involved in sensitivity to ACCase inhibitors. In addition, residues Trp-2,027 and Asp-2,078 are very likely involved in CT activity. Using three-dimensional modeling, we found that the side chains of the five residues are adjacent, located at the surface of the inside of the cavity of the CT active site, in the vicinity of the binding site for APPs. Residues 1,781 and 2,078 are involved in sensitivity to both APPs and cyclohexanediones, whereas residues 2,027, 2,041, and 2,096 are involved in sensitivity to APPs only. This suggests that the binding sites for these two classes of compounds are overlapping, although distinct. Comparison of three-dimensional models for black-grass wild-type and mutant CTs and for CTs from organisms with contrasted sensitivity to ACCase inhibitors suggested that inhibitors fitting into the cavity of the CT active site of the chloroplastic ACCase from grasses to reach their active sites may be tight. The three-dimensional shape of this cavity is thus likely of high importance for the efficacy of ACCase inhibitors. PMID:15579665

Delye, Christophe; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Michel, Severine; Matejicek, Annick; Powles, Stephen B.

2005-01-01

139

Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.  

PubMed

Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

2015-02-01

140

Acetylation of Stat1 modulates NF-?B activity  

PubMed Central

Acetylation of signaling molecules can lead to apoptosis or differentiation of carcinoma cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes and the biological role of enzymes mediating the transfer or removal of an acetyl-group are currently under intense investigation. Our study shows that Stat1 is an acetylated protein. Stat1 acetylation depends on the balance between Stat1-associated histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) such as CBP. Remarkably both inhibitors of HDACs and the cytokine interferon ? alter this equilibrium and induce Stat1 acetylation. The analysis of Stat1 mutants reveals Lys 410 and Lys 413 as acetylation sites. Experiments with Stat1 mutants mimicking either constitutively acetylated or nonacetylated states show that only acetylated Stat1 is able to interact with NF-?B p65. As a consequence, p65 DNA binding, nuclear localization, and expression of anti-apoptotic NF-?B target genes decrease. These findings show how the acetylation of Stat1 regulates NF-?B activity and thus ultimately apoptosis. PMID:16481475

Krämer, Oliver H.; Baus, Daniela; Knauer, Shirley K.; Stein, Stefan; Jäger, Elke; Stauber, Roland H.; Grez, Manuel; Pfitzner, Edith; Heinzel, Thorsten

2006-01-01

141

Effect of dietary di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate on oxidation of 14 C-palmitoyl CoA by mitochondria from mammalian heart and liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of [1-14C] palmitoyl CoA by heart and liver mitochondria from rats fed dietary di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was investigated in\\u000a vitro. Oxidation of14C-palmitoyl CoA to14CO2 increased two- to threefold in hepatic mitochondria from rats fed 0.1% DEHP for 2 to 3 days; this increase appeared to be\\u000a a maximum response since similar data were obtained using hepatic mitochondria from rats

Frank P. Bell; Peter J. Gillies

1977-01-01

142

Cross sections for production of the CO(A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma) fourth positive band system and O(3 S) by photodissociation of CO2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CO(A 1 Pi) cross sections reported here, along with previously determined electron impact results, establish the basis for calculating CO fourth positive system volume emission rates in the Martian dayglow. Calculated volume emission rates in turn determine relative distribution of photon vs. electron impact as mechanisms for producing CO(A 1 Pi) in the Mars atmosphere. The smallness of the O(1304) cross section confirms previous indirect evidence that photodissociative excitation of CO2 is not an important source of O(3 S) in the upper atmosphere of Mars.

Gentieu, E. P.; Mentall, J. E.

1972-01-01

143

Measurement of acetylation turnover at distinct lysines in human histones identifies long-lived acetylation sites  

PubMed Central

Histone acetylation has long been determined as a highly dynamic modification associated with open chromatin and transcriptional activation. Here we develop a metabolic labeling scheme using stable isotopes to study the kinetics of acetylation turnover at 19 distinct lysines on histones H3, H4, and H2A. Using human HeLa S3 cells, the analysis reveals 12 sites of histone acetylation with fast turnover and 7 sites stable over a 30 hour experiment. The sites showing fast turnover (anticipated from classical radioactive measurements of whole histones) have half-lives between ~1–2 hours. To support this finding, we use a broad-spectrum deacetylase inhibitor to verify that only fast turnover sites display 2–10 fold increases in acetylation whereas long-lived sites clearly do not. Most of these stable sites lack extensive functional studies or localization within global chromatin, and their role in non-genetic mechanisms of inheritance is as yet unknown. PMID:23892279

Zheng, Yupeng; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.

2013-01-01

144

Enzymatic hydrolysis, adsorption, and recycling during hydrolysis of bagasse sulfite pulp.  

PubMed

The high costs of enzymatic hydrolysis along with the high enzyme dosage are often considered as the major bottlenecks in lignocellulosic bioconversion. This study investigated the hydrolysis efficiency, cellulase adsorption and enzyme recycling during the hydrolysis of bagasse sulfite pulp (BSP). After 48 h of hydrolysis, more than 70% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed, while the protein concentration and cellulase activity in solution remained 31% and 17% of the initial value, respectively. The cellulase adsorption on the fresh BSP was better fitted by a Sips model, suggesting the occurrence of a multilayer adsorption at low cellulase concentration and monolayer adsorption at high concentration on the BSP surfaces. Desorption profile studies showed that the optimum desorption condition was at pH 4.8 and 40 °C. Moreover, considering the limited ability to desorption, directly empolying the bound enzyme with residual substrate is more effective method to recover cellulase during the hydrolysis of BSP. PMID:23948265

Ouyang, Jia; Liu, Baotian; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Yu, Heng

2013-10-01

145

Importance of product inhibition in the kinetics of the acylase hydrolysis reaction by differential stopped flow microcalorimetry.  

PubMed

The hydrolysis of N-acetyl-L-methionine, N-acetylglycine, N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine, and N-acetyl-L-alanine at 298.35K by porcine kidney acylase I (EC 3.5.1.14) was monitored by the heat released upon mixing of the substrate and enzyme in a differential stopped flow microcalorimeter. Values for the Michaelis constant (K(m)) and the catalytic constant (k(cat)) were determined from the progress of the reaction curve employing the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation for each reaction mixture. When neglecting acetate product inhibition of the acylase, values for k(cat) were up to a factor of 2.3 larger than those values determined from reciprocal initial velocity-initial substrate concentration plots for at least four different reaction mixtures. In addition, values for K(m) were observed to increase linearly with an increase in the initial substrate concentration. When an acetate product inhibition constant of 600+/-31M(-1), determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, was used in the progress curve analysis, values for K(m) and k(cat) were in closer agreement with their values determined from the reciprocal initial velocity versus initial substrate concentration plots. The reaction enthalpies, Delta(r)H(cal), which were determined from the integrated heat pulse per amount of substrate in the reaction mixture, ranged from -4.69+/-0.09kJmol(-1) for N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine to -1.87+/-0.23kJmol(-1) for N-acetyl-L-methionine. PMID:12419341

Stödeman, Magnus; Schwarz, Frederick P

2002-09-15

146

The Mechanism of Boron Mobility in Wheat and Canola Phloem1[C][OA  

PubMed Central

Low-molecular-weight borate complexes were isolated from canola (Brassica napus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) phloem exudates, as well as the cytoplasm of the fresh-water alga Chara corallina, and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Phloem exudate was collected from field-grown canola inflorescence stalks by shallow incision, while wheat phloem exudate was collected by aphid stylectomy. Chara cytoplasm was collected by careful manual separation of the cell wall, vacuole, and cytosolic compartments. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed the presence of isotopic borate complexes, at mass-to-charge ratio of 690.22/691.22 in the canola and wheat phloem and at 300.11/301.11 in canola phloem and Chara cytoplasm. Using reference compounds, the borate complexes with mass-to-charge ratio 690.22/691.22 was identified as a bis-sucrose (Suc) borate complex in which the 4,6-hydroxyl pairs from the two ?-glucopyranoside moieties formed an [L2B]?1 complex. Further investigation using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of the bis-Suc borate complex in wheat phloem with a concentration up to 220 ?m. The 300.11/301.11 complex was putatively identified as a bis-N-acetyl-serine borate complex but its concentration was below the detection limits of the liquid chromatography electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometer so could not be quantified. The presence of borate complexes in the phloem provides a mechanistic explanation for the observed phloem boron mobility in canola and wheat and other species that transport Suc as their primary photoassimilate. PMID:20413647

Stangoulis, James; Tate, Max; Graham, Robin; Bucknall, Martin; Palmer, Lachlan; Boughton, Berin; Reid, Robert

2010-01-01

147

Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid effects on tumour mitochondrial metabolism, acyl CoA metabolism and cell proliferation.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of high-fat diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Wistar rats bearing subcutaneous implants of the Walker 256 tumour were fed pelleted chow containing low DHA/EPA or high DHA/EPA. The presence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) led to a marked suppression (35-46%) of tumour growth over a 12 day period. Both the whole tumour homogenate and the Percoll-purified mitochondrial fraction presented significant changes in fatty acid composition. The levels of EPA increased in both n-3 dietary groups while the levels of DHA increased only in the high DHA/EPA group, in comparison with the control chow-fed group. The presence of n-3 PUFAs led to an increase in mitochondrial acyl CoA synthetase activity, but neither the cytoplasmic acyl CoA content nor the n-3 fatty acid composition of the cytoplasmic acyl CoAs was altered by the diet. The content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was increased in the low DHA/EPA group but was unchanged in the high DHA/EPA group. In vitro studies with the Walker 256 cell line showed a 46% decrease in cell growth in the presence of either EPA or DHA which was accompanied by a large decrease in the measured mitochondrial membrane potential. The TBARS content was increased only in the EPA-exposed cells. Cell cycle analysis identified a decrease in G0-G1 phase cells and an increase in G2-M phase cells and apoptotic cells, for both EPA and DHA-exposed cells. The data show that the presence of n-3 PUFAs in the diet is able to significantly after the growth rate of the Walker 256 tumour. The involvement of changes in mitochondrial membrane composition and membrane potential have been indicated for both EPA and DHA, while changes in lipid peroxidation have been identified in the presence of EPA but not of DHA. PMID:11335934

Colquhoun, A; Ramos, K L; Schumacher, R I

2001-06-01

148

The role of methylglyoxal in the non-enzymatic conversion of tryptophan, its methyl ester and tryptamine to 1-acetyl-beta-carbolines.  

PubMed

Non-enzymatic modification of l-tryptophan (1) and its metabolites and derivatives with aldehydes, via the Pictet-Spengler reaction, affords beta-carbolines. Here we demonstrate that methylglyoxal (2) generates 1-acetyl-beta-carbolines from tryptophan (1), from its methyl ester (6) and from tryptamine (4); however, 2 did not generate 1-(1-hydroxyethyl)-beta-carboline derivates. HPLC analysis of model reaction systems showed formation of 1-acetyl-beta-carboline (3) and 1-acetyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (5) during incubation of 1 and 2, at pH 5.7 and 7.4, at 100 degrees C, and only 5 at 37 degrees C, at the same pH values, with limited access of oxygen. Aerobic conditions caused higher formation of 3 at 37 degrees C at both pH values, while, at higher temperature, the same effect was only observed at pH 5.7. Lack of oxygen did not much influence the formation of 3 or 5 at both pH and temperature values, in comparison with the formation at limited access of oxygen. Incubation of 2 and 6 generated methyl-1-acetyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (7) together with 3 and 5 as a result of hydrolysis of 6 into 1 and, partially, 7 into 5, while in incubation mixtures of 2 and 4 only unstable 1-acetyl-3,4-dihydro-beta-carboline (8) was observed. Incubation of 1 with d-glucose as well as incubation of tryptophan with Amadori product 18 under similar conditions did not generate carbolines 3 or 5. For the first time, we were able to demonstrate the presence of 1-acetyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (5) in some commercially available ketchups and in previously heated tomato concentrate. PMID:18313932

Nemet, Ina; Varga-Defterdarovi?, Lidija

2008-04-15

149

Thermochemical characteristics of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation are determined. It is established that there is a proportional dependence of these thermochemical characteristics vs. the degree of acetylation, weight fraction of bonded acetic acid, and molar mass of the repeating unit of cellulose acetates.

Larina, V. N.; Ur'yash, V. F.; Kushch, D. S.

2012-12-01

150

Protein lysine acetylation guards metabolic homeostasis to fight against cancer.  

PubMed

Properly coordinated metabolism and maintained metabolite homeostasis are important because altered metabolite homeostasis has a causal role in many human diseases, including cancer. Metabolite homeostasis is maintained by fine-tuned coordination of metabolite generation and utilization. Metabolite deregulation has recently been shown to alter the signaling pathways and reprogram epigenetic factors associated with tumorigenesis. Protein lysine acetylation is emerging as a metabolism-coordinating mechanism. Mechanistic studies have shown that acetylation may have roles in nutrient adaptation and in maintaining metabolite homeostasis by exerting regulatory effects on metabolic enzymes, metabolic pathways and metabolic networks. Here we review recent progress in the determination of the role of acetylation regulation in metabolism coordination. In particular, we review links between deregulated acetylation in metabolic enzymes and tumorigenesis. We further hypothesize on applications of the mediation of acetylation to restore deregulated metabolism coordination and thus develop novel means of cancer treatment. PMID:23665675

Xu, W; Li, Y; Liu, C; Zhao, S

2014-05-01

151

The impact of intragenic recombination on phylogenetic reconstruction at the sectional level in Eucalyptus when using a single copy nuclear gene (cinnamoyl CoA reductase)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low copy number nuclear genes have been found to be useful for phylogenetic reconstruction at different taxonomic levels. This study investigated the utility of a single copy gene, cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), for resolving phylogenetic relationships at the sectional level within Eucalyptus. The monophyly of sections Exsertaria and Latoangulatae was explored, using section Maidenaria as an outgroup, and the impact

Fiona S. Poke; Darren P. Martin; Dorothy A. Steane; René E. Vaillancourt; James B. Reid

2006-01-01

152

Reversible acetylation regulates acetate and propionate metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis  

PubMed Central

Carbon metabolic pathways are important to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, extremely little is known about metabolic regulation in mycobacteria. There is growing evidence for lysine acetylation being a mechanism of regulating bacterial metabolism. Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification in which an acetyl group is covalently attached to the side chain of a lysine residue. This modification is mediated by acetyltransferases, which add acetyl groups, and deacetylases, which remove the acetyl groups. Here we set out to test whether lysine acetylation and deacetylation impact acetate metabolism in the model mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis, which possesses 25 candidate acetyltransferases and 3 putative lysine deacetylases. Using mutants lacking predicted acetyltransferases and deacetylases we showed that acetate metabolism in M. smegmatis is regulated by reversible acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Ms-Acs) through the action of a single pair of enzymes: the acetyltransferase Ms-PatA and the sirtuin deacetylase Ms-SrtN. We also confirmed that the role of Ms-PatA in regulating Ms-Acs regulation depends on cAMP binding. We additionally demonstrated a role for Ms-Acs, Ms-PatA and Ms-SrtN in regulating the metabolism of propionate in M. smegmatis. Finally, along with Ms-Acs, we identified a candidate propionyl-CoA synthetase, Ms5404, as acetylated in whole-cell lysates. This work lays the foundation for studying the regulatory circuit of acetylation and deacetylation in the cellular context of mycobacteria. PMID:23813678

Hayden, Jennifer D.; Brown, Lanisha R.; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Perkowski, Ellen F.; Chen, Xian

2013-01-01

153

SIAH-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of acetyl-transferases regulate the p53 response and protein acetylation.  

PubMed

Posttranslational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation regulates many biological processes ranging from signal transduction to chromatin compaction. Here we identify the acetyl-transferases CBP/p300, Tip60 and PCAF as new substrates for the ubiquitin E3 ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2. While CBP/p300 can undergo ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation by SIAH1 and SIAH2, the two other acetyl-transferases are exclusively degraded by SIAH2. Accordingly, SIAH-deficient cells show enhanced protein acetylation, thus revealing SIAH proteins as indirect regulators of the cellular acetylation status. Functional experiments show that Tip60/PCAF-mediated acetylation of the tumor suppressor p53 is antagonized by the p53 target gene SIAH2 which mediates ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation of both acetyl-transferases and consequently diminishes p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. The p53 kinase HIPK2 mediates hierarchical phosphorylation of SIAH2 at 5 sites, which further boosts its activity as a ubiquitin E3 ligase for several substrates and therefore dampens the late p53 response. PMID:23044042

Grishina, Inna; Debus, Katherina; García-Limones, Carmen; Schneider, Constanze; Shresta, Amit; García, Carlos; Calzado, Marco A; Schmitz, M Lienhard

2012-12-01

154

Semi-synthetic preparation of 1-O-(1'-/sup 14/C)hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor) using plant cell cultures  

SciTech Connect

Incubation of photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures of rape (Brassica napus) and heterotrophic cell suspension cultures of soya (Glycine max) with 1-O-(1'-/sup 14/C)hexadecyl-sn-glycerol or rac-1-O-(1'-/sup 14/C)hexadecylglycerol leads in high yield (up to 78%) to labeled 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines. Alkaline hydrolysis of the choline glycerophospholipids yields pure 1-O-(1'-/sup 14/C)hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. 1-O-(1'-14C)Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor) is obtained by acetylating the lyso compound. The semi-synthetic preparation described leads to labeled platelet activating factor in an overall yield of 50-60% without loss of specific activity.

Weber, N.; Mangold, H.K.

1985-04-01

155

Optimization of dilute acid hydrolysis of Enteromorpha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid hydrolysis is a simple and direct way to hydrolyze polysaccharides in biomass into fermentable sugars. To produce fermentable sugars effectively and economically for fuel ethanol, we have investigated the hydrolysis of Enteromorpha using acids that are typically used to hydrolyze biomass: H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4 and C4H4O4 (maleic acid). 5%(w/w) Enteromorpha biomass was treated for different times (30, 60, and 90 min) and with different acid concentrations (0.6, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, and 2.2%, w/w) at 121°C. H2SO4 was the most effective acid in this experiment. We then analyzed the hydrolysis process in H2SO4 in detail using high performance liquid chromatography. At a sulfuric acid concentration of 1.8% and treatment time of 60 min, the yield of ethanol fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) was high, (230.5 mg/g dry biomass, comprising 175.2 mg/g glucose and 55.3 mg/g xylose), with 48.6% of total reducing sugars being ethanol fermentable. Therefore, Enteromorpha could be a good candidate for production of fuel ethanol. In future work, the effects of temperature and biomass concentration on hydrolysis, and also the fermentation of the hydrolysates to ethanol fuel should be focused on.

Feng, Dawei; Liu, Haiyan; Li, Fuchao; Jiang, Peng; Qin, Song

2011-11-01

156

PROCESS DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CELLULOSE HYDROLYSIS  

E-print Network

a constant reaction temperature. Enzyme and substrate wereenzyme production section (WENZ) is at 30 C, and the desired hydrolysis temperatureTEMPERATURE (both stages) pH (both stages) SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE CELL RECYCLE RATIO AVERAGE CELL CONCENTRATION DILUTION RATE ENZYME

Lindsey, R.R.

2011-01-01

157

Enzymatic hydrolysis of spent coffee ground.  

PubMed

Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the main residue generated during the production of instant coffee by thermal water extraction from roasted coffee beans. This waste is composed mainly of polysaccharides such as cellulose and galactomannans that are not solubilised during the extraction process, thus remaining as unextractable, insoluble solids. In this context, the application of an enzyme cocktail (mannanase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase) with more than one component that acts synergistically with each other is regarded as a promising strategy to solubilise/hydrolyse remaining solids, either to increase the soluble solids yield of instant coffee or for use as raw material in the production of bioethanol and food additives (mannitol). Wild fungi were isolated from both SCG and coffee beans and screened for enzyme production. The enzymes produced from the selected wild fungi and recombinant fungi were then evaluated for enzymatic hydrolysis of SCG, in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Out of the enzymes evaluated on SCG, the application of mannanase enzymes gave better yields than when only cellulase or xylanase was utilised for hydrolysis. The recombinant mannanase (Man1) provided the highest increments in soluble solids yield (17 %), even when compared with commercial preparations at the same protein concentration (0.5 mg/g SCG). The combination of Man1 with other enzyme activities revealed an additive effect on the hydrolysis yield, but not synergistic interaction, suggesting that the highest soluble solid yields was mainly due to the hydrolysis action of mannanase. PMID:23436225

Jooste, T; García-Aparicio, M P; Brienzo, M; van Zyl, W H; Görgens, J F

2013-04-01

158

COMPUTERIZED EXTRAPOLATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The program RATE was developed to aid in the extrapolation and interpretation of hydrolysis rate data to a format that is useful for environmental risk assessment. ydrolysis data typically are reported in the literature as pseudo-first-order rate constants at the temperature and ...

159

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass  

E-print Network

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

Raines, Ronald T.

160

Membrane reactor for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellobiose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressurized, stirred vessel attached with an ultrafiltration membrane was used as a membrane reactor. Cellobiose hydrolysis by cellobiase was carried out and theoretically analyzed in terms of steady-state conversion and flow rate through the membrane. When the flow rate exceeds a critical value, a significant fraction of the enzyme inside the reactor is localized in the concentration polarization layer

J. Hong; G. T. Tsao; P. C. Wankat

1981-01-01

161

Role of fragmentation activity in cellulose hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of cellulose hydrolysis have been carried out on three components of the cellulolytic systems, viz, endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and cellobiases. Little attention has been paid to the fragmentation activity of certain cellulolytic systems. We have noticed that despite being a more powerful degrader of modified cellulose (CMC), the 7-day grown culture filtrate of Myrothecium verrucaria was less effective than

Abdul Aala Najmus Saqib; Philip John Whitney

2006-01-01

162

Hydrolysis of ionic cellulose to glucose.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of ionic cellulose (IC), 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cellulose phosphite, which could be synthesized from cellulose and dimethylimidazolium methylphosphite ([Dmim][(OCH3)(H)PO2]) ionic liquid, was conducted for the synthesis of glucose. The reaction without catalysts at 150°C for 12h produced glucose with 14.6% yield. To increase the hydrolysis yield, various acid catalysts were used, in which the sulfonated active carbon (AC-SO3H) performed the best catalytic activity in the IC hydrolysis. In the presence of AC-SO3H, the yields of glucose reached 42.4% and 53.9% at the reaction condition of 150°C for 12h and 180°C for 1.5h, respectively; however the yield decreased with longer reaction time due to the degradation of glucose. Consecutive catalyst reuse experiments on the IC hydrolysis demonstrated the catalytic activity of AC-SO3H persisted at least through four successive uses. PMID:25011079

Vo, Huyen Thanh; Widyaya, Vania Tanda; Jae, Jungho; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Hyunjoo

2014-09-01

163

Different modes of carbon monoxide binding to acetyl-CoA synthase and the role of a conserved phenylalanine in the coordination environment of nickel.  

PubMed

Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) catalyzes the reversible condensation of CO and CH3 units at a unique Ni-Fe cluster, the A cluster, to form an acetyl-Ni intermediate that subsequently reacts with CoA to produce acetyl-CoA. ACS is a component of the multienzyme complex acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase (ACDS) in Archaea and CO dehydrogenase/ACS (CODH/ACS) in bacteria; in both systems, intraprotein CO channeling takes place between the CODH and ACS active sites. Previous studies indicated that protein conformational changes control the chemical reactivity of the A cluster and suggested the involvement of a conserved Phe residue that moves concomitantly into and out of the coordination environment of Ni. Herein, steady-state rate measurements in which both CO and CH3-corrinoid are varied, and rapid methylation reactions of the ACDS ? subunit, measured by stopped-flow methods, provide a kinetic model for acetyl-CoA synthesis that includes a description of the inhibitory effects of CO explained by competition of CO and CH3 for the same form of the enzyme. Electron paramagnetic resonance titrations revealed that the formation of a paramagnetic Ni(+)-CO species does not match the kinetics of CO interaction as a substrate but instead correlates well with an inhibited state of the enzyme, which requires revision of previous models that postulate that this species is an intermediate. Characterization of the ? subunit F195A variant showed markedly increased substrate reactivity with CO, which provides biochemical functional evidence of steric shielding of the CO substrate interaction site by the phenyl group side chain. The phenyl group also likely enhances the nucleophilicity of the Ni center to facilitate CH3 group transfer. A model was developed for how the catalytic properties of the A cluster are optimized by linking conformational changes to a repositionable aromatic shield able to modulate the nucleophilicity of Ni, sterically select the most productive order of substrate addition, and overcome intrinsic inhibition by CO. PMID:23394607

Gencic, Simonida; Kelly, Kayla; Ghebreamlak, Selamawit; Duin, Evert C; Grahame, David A

2013-03-12

164

Acetyl-CoA Induces Cell Growth and Proliferation by Promoting the Acetylation of Histones at Growth Genes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The decision by a cell to enter a round of growth and division must be intimately coordinated with nutrient availability and its metabolic state. These metabolic and nutritional requirements, and the mechanisms by which they induce cell growth and proliferation, remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that acetyl-CoA is the downstream metabolite of carbon sources that represents a critical metabolic signal for growth and proliferation. Upon entry into growth, intracellular acetyl-CoA levels increase substantially and consequently induce the Gcn5p/SAGA-catalyzed acetylation of histones at genes important for growth, thereby enabling their rapid transcription and commitment to growth. Thus, acetyl-CoA functions as a carbon-source rheostat that signals the initiation of the cellular growth program by promoting the acetylation of histones specifically at growth genes. PMID:21596309

Cai, Ling; Sutter, Benjamin M.; Li, Bing; Tu, Benjamin P.

2011-01-01

165

Coupled Ferredoxin and Crotonyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Reduction with NADH Catalyzed by the Butyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase\\/Etf Complex from Clostridium kluyveri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferre- doxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehy- drogenase\\/Etf complex

Fuli Li; Julia Hinderberger; Henning Seedorf; Jin Zhang; Wolfgang Buckel; Rudolf K. Thauer

2008-01-01

166

Hydrolysis of the chlorophosphazenes: cyclic trimer and linear polymer  

E-print Network

Products of the Chlorophosphazene Cyclic Trimer (t). . 30 2. P NMR Spectroscopic Properties of Hydrolyzed Poly(dichlorophosphazene). 46 LIST OP PIGURES FIGURE Page Selected P NMR spectra from a representative hydrolysis study using 1 eq of water... additional peaks tenatively associated with the hydrolyzed species cis-4, trans-4 and 5. Hydrolysis affected with 12 eq water, spectra obtained after 16 hours. 27 Mole fractions of various hydrolysis products of t vs time for a representative hydrolysis...

Gabler, Douglas G

2012-06-07

167

Furfural Production from Fruit Shells by Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentosans are hydrolyzed to pentoses by dilute mineral acid hydrolysis. The main source of pentosans is hemicelluloses. Furfural can be produced by the acid hydrolysis of pentosan from fruit shells such as hazelnut, sunflower, walnut, and almond of agricultural wastes. Further dehydration reactions of the pentoses yield furfural. The hydrolysis of each shell sample was carried out in dilute sulfuric

Ayhan Demirbas

2006-01-01

168

Enzymatic hydrolysis of rawhide using papain and neutrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rawhide split was hydrolysed separately by two proteolytic enzymes, papain and neutrase. The effects of enzymatic conditions of the hydrolysis reaction were investigated. During the first 10min of the enzymatic hydrolysis, the yield of the hydrolysed protein increased sharply, then it slowly increased or became essentially constant due to the limited availability of the substrate. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of

Siriporn Damrongsakkul; Kongpob Ratanathammapan; Kittinan Komolpis; Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

2008-01-01

169

Obesity, cancer, and acetyl-CoA metabolism  

PubMed Central

As rates of obesity soar in the Unites States and around the world, cancer attributed to obesity has emerged as major threat to public health. The link between obesity and cancer can be attributed in part to the state of chronic inflammation that develops in obesity. Acetyl-CoA production and protein acetylation patterns are highly sensitive to metabolic state and are significantly altered in obesity. In this article, we explore the potential role of nutrient-sensitive lysine acetylation in regulating inflammatory processes in obesity-linked cancer. PMID:23878588

Lee, Joyce V.; Shah, Supriya A.; Wellen, Kathryn E.

2013-01-01

170

Functional characterization of two new members of the caffeoyl CoA O -methyltransferase-like gene family from Vanilla planifolia reveals a new class of plastid-localized O -methyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferases (OMTs) have been characterized from numerous plant species and have been demonstrated to be involved in\\u000a lignin biosynthesis. Higher plant species are known to have additional caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes, which have not been well\\u000a characterized. Here, we identified two new caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes by screening a cDNA library from specialized hair cells\\u000a of pods of

Thomas Widiez; Thomas G. Hartman; Nativ Dudai; Qing Yan; Michael Lawton; Daphna Havkin-Frenkel; Faith C. Belanger

171

Neuroprotection in rabbit retina with N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate and 2-phosphonyl-methyl pentanedioic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal tissue is subject to ischemia from diabetic retinopathy and other conditions that affect the retinal vasculature such as lupus erythematosus and temporal arteritis. There is evidence in animal models of reversible ischemia that a therapeutic window exists during early recovery when agents that reduce glutamate activity at its receptor sites can rescue neurons from injury. To model ischemia, we used sodium cyanide (NaCN), to inhibit oxidative metabolism, and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to inhibit glycolysis. Dissociated rabbit retina cells were studied to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (MAAG), which competes with glutamate as a low-potency agonist at the NMDA receptor complex. N-acetylated ?-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase; the NAAG-hydrolyzing enzyme) is responsible for the hydrolysis of NAAG into glutamate, a neurotransmitter and potent excitotoxin, and N-acetylaspartate. 2-Phosphonyl-methyl pentanedioic acid (PMPA) and ?-linked NAAG (?-NAAG), inhibitors of NAALADase, were also tested, since inhibition of NAALADase could reduce synaptic glutamate and increase the concentration of NAAG. We found that metabolic inhibition with NaCN/2-DG for 1 hour caused 50% toxicity as assessed with the MTT assay. Co-treatment with NAAG resulted in dose-dependent protection of up to 55% (p<0.005). When the non-hydrolyzable, NAALADase inhibitor ?-NAAG was employed dose-dependent protection of up to 37% was observed (p<0.001). PMPA also showed 48% protection (p<.05-.001) against these insults. These data suggest that NAAG may antagonize the effect of glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex in retina. Inhibition of NAALADase by PMPA and ?-NAAG may increase the activity of endogenous NAAG.

Hacker, Henry D.; Yourick, Debra L.; Koenig, Michael K.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Meyerhoff, James L.

1999-06-01

172

?-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 ?g/ml to 513.5 ?g/ml at 60°C and 28 times from 7.78 ?g/ml to 221.46 ?g/ml at 50°C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without ?-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2013-01-01

173

Kinetics of ptaquiloside hydrolysis in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence of the toxin, a full understanding of the PTA degradation in aqueous environments is important. The kinetics of PTA hydrolysis was examined at 22 degrees C in aqueous buffered solutions (pH 2.88-8.93). The reaction was found to follow first-order kinetics with respect to PTA at all pH and temperature conditions. At pH lower than 4.43 (+/- 0.32), the reaction is acid-mediated, whereas the reaction is base-mediated at pH higher than 6.39 (+/- 0.28). The rate constants for the acid-catalyzed, base-catalyzed, and neutral hydrolysis are 25.70 (+/- 0.96), 4.83 (+/- 0.03) X 10(4), and 9.49 (+/- 6.02) x 10(-4) h(-1), respectively. The PTA hydrolysis at pH 4.46 is strongly dependent on temperature, with an activation energy of 74.4 (+/- 2.6) kJ mol(-1). Stoichiometric calculations, reaction kinetics, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry strongly indicates the formation of an intermediary compound at pH 5.07 and 6.07 via a mechanism comprising two first-order consecutive reactions. Ptaquiloside has the lowest rate of hydrolysis at slightly acidic pH and low temperatures. Therefore, because PTA is not sorbed in soil, slightly acidic sandy soils in cold climates are most prone to PTA leaching to deeper soil layers and aquifers. PMID:17022402

Ayala-Luis, Karina B; Hansen, Pernille B; Rasmussen, Lars H; Hansen, Hans Christian B

2006-10-01

174

Enzymatic hydrolysis of low substituted carboxymethyl cellulose  

E-print Network

cellulase from Trichoderma viride at specified optimum conditions of 50 C and pH 4. 8. 2. Identify products from the enzymatic hydrolysis of low DS CMC and measure amounts of glucose and total reducing sugars as a function of time during enzymatic... cellulase enzyme from Trichoderma viride (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN). Additional experiments were carried out using commercial CMC with an average DS of 0, 5 and 0. 73, courtesy of Hercules Inc. (Wilmington, DE). The following procedure...

Chanona Dominquez, Guadalupe

2012-06-07

175

Vapor Phase Acetylation of Southern Pine, Douglas-Fir, and Aspen Wood Flakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern pine, Douglas-fir, and aspen wood flakes were acetylated with acetic anhydride vapor and compared with flakes acetylated with liquid acetic anhydride diluted with xylene. The rate of acetylation was much lower for the vapor than for the liquid phase reaction. Acetylation weight percent gains above 20 were achieved by both methods. Flakeboards made from both types of flakes absorbed

Roger M. Rowell

1986-01-01

176

Acetylation of Androgen Receptor Enhances Coactivator Binding and Promotes Prostate Cancer Cell Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification by acetylation occurs at -amino lysine residues of histones and transcription factors. Unlike phosphorylation, a direct link between transcription factor acetylation and cellular growth or apoptosis has not been established. We show that the nuclear androgen receptor (AR), a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator, is acetylated in vivo. The acetylation of the AR is induced by ligand dihydrotestosterone and by histone

Maofu Fu; Mahadev Rao; Chenguang Wang; Toshiyuki Sakamaki; Jian Wang; Dolores Di Vizio; Xueping Zhang; Chris Albanese; Steven Balk; Chawnshang Chang; Saijun Fan; Eliot Rosen; Jorma J. Palvimo; Olli A. Janne; Selen Muratoglu; Maria Laura Avantaggiati; Richard G. Pestell

2003-01-01

177

In vitro and in vivo degradation behavior of acetylated chitosan porous beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitosans with different degree of acetylation (DA, 10–50%) were synthesized by the acetylation reaction of deacetylated chitosan and acetic anhydride with different ratios. The porous beads (approx. 500 ?m) fabricated from the acetylated chitosans were used to investigate the degradation behaviors of chitosans with different DA in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro degradation behavior of the acetylated chitosan

Sung Mook Lim; Dae Kun Song; Se Heang Oh; Dong Sin Lee-Yoon; Eun Hee Bae; Jin Ho Lee

2008-01-01

178

Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

179

Acetylation negatively regulates glycogen phosphorylase by recruiting protein phosphatase 1  

PubMed Central

Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycogen catabolism and plays a key role in maintaining cellular and organismal glucose homeostasis. GP is the first protein whose function was discovered to be regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation, which is controlled by phosphorylase kinase (PhK) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Here, we report that lysine acetylation negatively regulates GP activity by both inhibiting enzyme activity directly and promoting dephosphorylation. Acetylation of GP Lys470 enhances its interaction with the PP1 substrate targeting subunit, GL, and PP1, thereby promoting GP dephosphorylation and inactivation. We show that GP acetylation is stimulated by glucose and insulin and inhibited by glucagon. Our results provide molecular insights into the intricate regulation of the classical GP and a functional cross-talk between protein acetylation and phosphorylation. PMID:22225877

Zhang, Tengfei; Wang, Shiwen; Lin, Yan; Xu, Wei; Ye, Dan; Xiong, Yue; Zhao, Shimin; Guan, Kun-Liang

2012-01-01

180

Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes. PMID:21151438

Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2010-01-01

181

Mechanical properties and dimensional stability of acetylated aspen flakeboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspen flakes, reacted with acetic anhydride to approximately 20% weight gain, were pressed into flakeboards using a watersoluble\\u000a phenolic resin. Microphotographs revealed little penetration of the resin into the acetylated wood. Water sorption and thickness\\u000a swelling are greatly reduced with acetylation; however, internal bond and moduli of rupture and elasticity were also significantly\\u000a reduced as compared to control boards.

J. A. Youngquist; R. M. Rowell; A. Krzysik

1986-01-01

182

Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation  

PubMed Central

The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

2012-01-01

183

In situ proton NMR study of acetyl and formyl group migration in mono-O-acyl D-glucose.  

PubMed

Acetyl and formyl group migration, mutarotation, and hydrolysis of mono-O-acylated glucose are studied by in situ 1D and 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Alpha-D-glucosyl-1-acetate and alpha-D-glucosyl-1-formate serve as sole starting materials. They are generated in situ by configuration retaining glucosyltransfer from alpha-D-glucosyl-1-phosphate to formate and acetate, which is catalyzed by the Glu-237 --> Gln mutant of Leuconostoc mesenteroides sucrose phosphorylase. Temporary accumulated regio-isomeric mono-O-acyl D-glucoses are identified, characterized, and quantified directly from the reaction mixture. Time courses of the transformations give insight into pH dependence of acyl group migration and mutarotation as well as into the stability of various regioisomers. PMID:19172587

Brecker, Lothar; Mahut, Marek; Schwarz, Alexandra; Nidetzky, Bernd

2009-04-01

184

Organosolv pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of poplars: I. Enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic residues.  

PubMed

Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) organosolv pulps produced in a wide range of solvent composition (between 30 and 70% by volume of methanol) and catalysts (H(2)SO(4) and H(3)PO(4)) such that the cooking liquor pH hydrolysis residues (pulps) are in the 40-60% range; the acid-catalyzed delignification followed by enzyme hydrolysis can generate 70-88% of the original six-carbon sugars contained in the wood. Glucomannan and arablnogalactan are dissolved into the pulping liquor in the pH range of 2-4.5. Lower pH (hydrolysis residues, 36-41% conversions of wood into fermentable sugars were obtained after enzyme hydrolysis; the starting feedstocks contain 50.8 and 46.6% hexosans, respectively, for aspen and black cotton-wood. The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be formally treated as two simultaneous pseudo-first-order reactions in which fast and slow hydrolyses of cellulose occur. Correlations between the glucan digestibility and the effect of the pretreatment have been made. The higher residual xylan content reduces the amount of the rapidly hydrolyzable glucan fraction and lowers the glucan digestibility. The proposed simple kinetic treatment is very helpful in assessing the effect of the pretreatment on pulp enzyme hydrolyzability. PMID:18584659

Chum, H L; Johnson, D K; Black, S; Baker, J; Grohmann, K; Sarkanen, K V; Wallace, K; Schroeder, H A

1988-05-01

185

Studies on the mechanism of ring hydrolysis in phenylacetate degradation: a metabolic branching point.  

PubMed

The widespread, long sought-after bacterial aerobic phenylalanine/phenylacetate catabolic pathway has recently been elucidated. It proceeds via coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters and involves the epoxidation of the aromatic ring of phenylacetyl-CoA, subsequent isomerization to an uncommon seven-membered C-O-heterocycle (oxepin-CoA), and non-oxygenolytic ring cleavage. Here we characterize the hydrolytic oxepin-CoA ring cleavage catalyzed by the bifunctional fusion protein PaaZ. The enzyme consists of a C-terminal (R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase domain (formerly MaoC) that cleaves the ring and produces a highly reactive aldehyde and an N-terminal NADP(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase domain that oxidizes the aldehyde to 3-oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA. In many phenylacetate-utilizing bacteria, the genes for the pathway exist in a cluster that contains an NAD(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase in place of PaaZ, whereas the aldehyde-producing hydratase is encoded outside of the cluster. If not oxidized immediately, the reactive aldehyde condenses intramolecularly to a stable cyclic derivative that is largely prevented by PaaZ fusion in vivo. Interestingly, the derivative likely serves as the starting material for the synthesis of antibiotics (e.g. tropodithietic acid) and other tropone/tropolone related compounds as well as for ?-cycloheptyl fatty acids. Apparently, bacteria made a virtue out of the necessity of disposing the dead-end product with ring hydrolysis as a metabolic branching point. PMID:21296885

Teufel, Robin; Gantert, Carla; Voss, Michaela; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Haehnel, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Georg

2011-04-01

186

Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

2014-10-01

187

Regulation of s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase by lysine acetylation.  

PubMed

S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is an NAD(+)-dependent tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine and is important in cell growth and the regulation of gene expression. Loss of SAHH function can result in global inhibition of cellular methyltransferase enzymes because of high levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine. Prior proteomics studies have identified two SAHH acetylation sites at Lys(401) and Lys(408) but the impact of these post-translational modifications has not yet been determined. Here we use expressed protein ligation to produce semisynthetic SAHH acetylated at Lys(401) and Lys(408) and show that modification of either position negatively impacts the catalytic activity of SAHH. X-ray crystal structures of 408-acetylated SAHH and dually acetylated SAHH have been determined and reveal perturbations in the C-terminal hydrogen bonding patterns, a region of the protein important for NAD(+) binding. These crystal structures along with mutagenesis data suggest that such hydrogen bond perturbations are responsible for SAHH catalytic inhibition by acetylation. These results suggest how increased acetylation of SAHH may globally influence cellular methylation patterns. PMID:25248746

Wang, Yun; Kavran, Jennifer M; Chen, Zan; Karukurichi, Kannan R; Leahy, Daniel J; Cole, Philip A

2014-11-01

188

Epidemiological characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in the North West of England by protein A (spa) and coagulase (coa) gene polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In a comparative study, isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with known pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage type were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) for additional discriminatory subtyping information. PFGE was previously performed using standardized, commercially available kits and pre-programmed software. Isolates were examined for coagulase (coa) and protein A (spa)

J. W ALKER; R. B ORROW; V. E DWARDS-JONES; A. J. FOX

1998-01-01

189

Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal ?-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via ?-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial ?-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the C? hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie (Nankai) [Nankai; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

2012-10-15

190

1,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-2-N-(tri-fluoro-acetyl)-?-l-fucose  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C14H18F3NO8, was produced through conjugation of 1,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-2-azidode­oxy-?,?-l-fucose with tri­fluoro­acetyl chloride in the presence of bis­(di­phenyl­phosphino)ethane in tetra­hydro­furan at room temperature. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that the ?-anomer of the product mixture crystallizes from ethyl acetate/hexa­nes. The compound exists in a typical chair conformation with the maximum possible number of substituents, four out of five, located in the sterically preferred equatorial positions. The major directional force facilitating packing of the mol­ecules are N—H?O hydrogen bonds involving the amide moieties of neighboring mol­ecules, which connect mol­ecules stacked along the a-axis direction into infinite strands with a C 1 1(4) graph-set motif. Formation of the strands is assisted by a number of weaker C—H?O inter­actions involving the methine and methyl H atoms. These strands are connected through further C—H?O and C—H?F inter­actions into a three dimensional network PMID:24764861

McCutcheon, David C.; Norris, Peter; Zeller, Matthias

2014-01-01

191

Partial acid hydrolysis of poplar wood as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Partial acid hydrolysis was studied as a pretreatment to enhance glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar. The pretreatments were carried out in a continuous flow reactor at temperatures ranging from 162 to 222/sup 0/C, acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5%, and treatment times from 3.6 to 12.7 s. The pretreated slurries were hydrolyzed with Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at 50/sup 0/C and a pH of 4.8 for 48 h. Increased yields of glucose were achieved when poplar was pretreated at temperatures higher than 180/sup 0/C. By increasing the cellobiase activity of the cellulase with the addition of NOVO cellobiase, in some cases 100% of the potential glucose content of the substrate was converted to glucose after only 24 h of enzymatic hydrolysis.

Knappert, D.; Grethlein, H.; Converse, A.

1981-01-01

192

Genetic Construction of Truncated and Chimeric Metalloproteins Derived from the Alpha Subunit of Acetyl-CoA Synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a genetics-based method is used to truncate acetyl-coenzyme A synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum (ACS), an alpha2beta2 tetrameric 310 kda bifunctional enzyme. ACS catalyzes the reversible reduction of CO2 to CO and the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from CO (or CO2 in the presence of low-potential reductants), CoA, and a methyl group bound to a corrinoid-iron sulfur protein (CoFeSP). ACS contains 7 metal-sulfur clusters of 4 different types called A, B, C, and D. The B, C, and D clusters are located in the 72 kda beta subunit while the A-cluster, a Ni-X-Fe4S4 cluster that serves as the active site for acetyl-CoA synthase activity, is located in the 82 kda alpha subunit. The extent to which the essential properties of the cluster, including catalytic, redox, spectroscopic, and substrate-binding properties, were retained as ACS was progressively truncated was determined. Acetyl-CoA synthase catalytic activity remained when the entire alpha subunit was removed, as long as CO, rather than CO2 and a low-potential reductant, was used as a substrate. Truncating an {approx} 30 kda region from the N-terminus of the alpha subunit yielded a 49 kda protein that lacked catalytic activity but exhibited A-cluster-like spectroscopic, redox, and CO binding properties. Further truncation afforded a 23 kda protein that lacked recognizable A-cluster properties except for UV-vis spectra typical of [Fe4S4]2+ clusters. Two chimeric proteins were constructed by fusing the gene encoding a ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum to genes encoding the 49 kda and 82 kda fragments of the alpha subunit. The chimeric proteins exhibited EPR signals that were not the simple sum of the signals from the separate proteins, suggesting magnetic interactions between clusters. This study highlights the potential for using genetics to simplify the study of complex multi-centered metalloenzymes and to generate new complex metalloenzymes with interesting properties.

Huay-Keng Loke; Xiangshi Tan; Paul A. Lindahl

2002-06-28

193

Purification and characterization of an extracellular muramidase of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 that acts on non-N-acetylated peptidoglycan.  

PubMed Central

An extracellular enzyme showing lytic activity on non-N-acetylated peptidoglycan has been isolated from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The lytic enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration, with a recovery of 24%. The enzyme was monomeric and had an estimated molecular weight of 41,000 and an isoelectric point of 3.8. It has been characterized as a muramidase whose 23-amino-acid N terminus displayed 39% homology with the N,O-diacetyl muramidase of the fungus Chalaropsis sp. The muramidase hydrolyzed purified cell walls at an optimum pH of 3, with a maximum velocity of 9.1 mumol of reducing sugars released min-1 mg of muramidase-1 and a concentration of cell walls giving a half-maximum rate of 0.01 mg ml-1. Its activity was inhibited by glucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, Hg2+, Fe3+, and Ag+ but not by choline. The muramidase-peptidoglycan complex rapidly dissociated before total hydrolysis of the chain and randomly reassociated on another peptidoglycan chain. The affinity of the muramidase was affected by the protein content and the acetylation of the cell wall. Images PMID:1599233

Croux, C; Canard, B; Goma, G; Soucaille, P

1992-01-01

194

Inactivation kinetics of beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase from green crab (Scylla serrata) in dioxane solution.  

PubMed

Beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase, EC.3.2.1.52), which catalyzes the cleavage of N-acetylglucosamine polymers, is a composition of chitinase and cooperates with endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase to disintegrate chitin into N-acetylglucosamine (NAG). In this investigation, A NAGase from green crab (Scylla serrata) was purified and the effects of dioxane on the enzyme activity for the hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide (pNP-NAG) were studied. The results show that appropriate concentrations of dioxane can lead to reversible inactivation of the enzyme and the inactivation is classified as mixed type. The value of IC50, the dioxane (inactivator) concentration leading to 50% activity lost, is estimated to be 0.68%. The kinetics of inactivation of NAGase in the appropriate concentrations of dioxane solution has been studied using the kinetic method of the substrate reaction. The rate constants of inactivation have been determined. The results showed that k+0 is much larger than k'+0, indicating the free enzyme molecule is more fragile than the enzyme-substrate complex in the dioxane solution. It is suggested that the presence of the substrate offers marked protection of this enzyme against inactivation by dioxane. PMID:19108590

Xie, Jin-Jin; Chen, Chao-Qi; Yan, Ya-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Lin, Jian-Cheng; Wang, Qin; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

2009-02-01

195

Effects of microtubule mechanics on hydrolysis and catastrophes  

E-print Network

We introduce a model for microtubule mechanics containing lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments, bending rigidity of dimers, and repulsive interactions between protofilaments modeling steric constraints to investigate the influence of mechanical forces on hydrolysis and catastrophes. We use the allosteric dimer model, where tubulin dimers are characterized by an equilibrium bending angle, which changes from $0^\\circ$ to $22^\\circ$ by hydrolysis of a dimer. This also affects the lateral interaction and bending energies and, thus, the mechanical equilibrium state of the microtubule. As hydrolysis gives rise to conformational changes in dimers, mechanical forces also influence the hydrolysis rates by mechanical energy changes modulating the hydrolysis rate. The interaction via the microtubule mechanics then gives rise to correlation effects in the hydrolysis dynamics, which have not been taken into account before. Assuming a dominant influence of mechanical energies on hydrolysis rates, we investigate the most probable hydrolysis pathways both for vectorial and random hydrolysis. Investigating the stability with respect to lateral bond rupture, we identify initiation configurations for catastrophes along the hydrolysis pathways and values for a lateral bond rupture force. If we allow for rupturing of lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments above this threshold force, our model exhibits avalanche-like catastrophe events.

Nina Müller; Jan Kierfeld

2014-06-05

196

Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution  

SciTech Connect

The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

1996-11-01

197

Urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate reaction fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility of toxic or radioactive metal contaminants in subsurface environments can be reduced by the formation of mineral precipitates that form co-precipitates with the contaminants or that isolate them from the mobile fluid phase. An engineering challenge is to control the spatial distribution of precipitation reactions with respect to: 1) the location of a contaminant, and 2) where reactants are introduced into the subsurface. One strategy being explored for immobilizing contaminants, such as Sr-90, involves stimulating mineral precipitation by forming carbonate ions and hydroxide via the in situ, microbially mediated hydrolysis of urea. A series of column experiments have been conducted to explore how the construction or design of such an in situ reactant production strategy can affect the temporal and spatial distribution of calcium carbonate precipitation, and how the distribution is coupled to changes in permeability. The columns were constructed with silica gel as the porous media. An interval midway through the column contained an adsorbed urease enzyme in order to simulate a biologically active zone. A series of influent solutions were injected to characterize hydraulic properties of the column (e.g., bromide tracer), profiles of chemical conditions and reaction products as the enzyme catalyzes urea hydrolysis (e.g., pH, ammonia, urea), and changes that occur due to CaCO3 precipitation with the introduction of a calcium+urea solutions. In one experiment, hydraulic conductivity was reduced as precipitate accumulated in a layer within the column that had a higher fraction of fine grained silica gel. Subsequent reduction of permeability and flow (for a constant head condition) resulted in displacement of the hydrolysis and precipitation reaction profiles upstream. In another experiment, which lacked the physical heterogeneity (fine grained layer), the precipitation reaction did not result in loss of permeability or flow velocity and the reaction profile, characterized by the pH profile and hydrolysis reaction species, was extended downstream of the enzyme zone. Downstream extension of the reaction profile was due partially to the partial mobility of the enzyme in the column. The experiments are helping to illustrate the complexity of transient reaction fronts as well as the needs and challenges for advanced modeling approaches. A modeling platform developed at the Idaho National Laboratory, which is capable of simulating tightly coupled physical-chemical processes (the Reactive Transport simulator), is being applied to pre-experimental simulations and post-experimental interpretation of results.

Fox, D. T.; Redden, G. D.; Henriksen, J.; Fujita, Y.; Guo, L.; Huang, H.

2010-12-01

198

Improved method for detection of starch hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents. (Refs. 18).

Ohawale, M.R.; Wilson, J.J.; Khachatourians, G.G.; Ingledew, W.M.

1982-09-01

199

Determination of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine in fungal cell walls.  

PubMed

A new method was developed to determine glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) in materials containing chitin and chitosan, such as fungal cell walls. It is based on two steps of hydrolysis with (i) concentrated sulfuric acid at low temperature and (ii) dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature, followed by one-step degradation with nitrous acid. In this process, chitin and chitosan are converted into anhydromannose and acetic acid. Anhydromannose represents the sum of GlcN and GlcNAc, whereas acetic acid is a marker for GlcNAc only. The method showed recovery of 90.1% of chitin and 85.7-92.4% of chitosan from commercial preparations. Furthermore, alkali insoluble material (AIM) from biomass of three strains of zygomycetes, Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizomucor pusillus, was analyzed by this method. The glucosamine contents of AIM from R. oryzae and M. indicus were almost constant (41.7 +/- 2.2% and 42.0 +/- 1.7%, respectively), while in R. pusillus, it decreased from 40.0 to 30.0% during cultivation from 1 to 6 days. The GlcNAc content of AIM from R. oryzae and R. pusillus increased from 24.9 to 31.0% and from 36.3 to 50.8%, respectively, in 6 days, while it remained almost constant during the cultivation of M. indicus (23.5 +/- 0.8%). PMID:18729456

Zamani, Akram; Jeihanipour, Azam; Edebo, Lars; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2008-09-24

200

Feedback regulation of plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase by 18:1-acyl carrier protein in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

Plant seed oil represents a major renewable source of reduced carbon, but little is known about the biochemical regulation of its synthesis. The goal of this research was to identify potential feedback regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in Brassica napus embryo-derived cell cultures and to characterize both the feedback signals and enzymatic targets of the inhibition. Fatty acids delivered via Tween esters rapidly reduced the rate of fatty acid synthesis in a dose-dependent and reversible manner, demonstrating the existence of feedback inhibition in an oil-accumulating tissue. Tween feeding did not affect fatty acid elongation in the cytosol or the incorporation of radiolabeled malonate into nascent fatty acids, which together pinpoint plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) as the enzymatic target of feedback inhibition. To identify the signal responsible for feedback, a variety of Tween esters were tested for their effects on the rate of fatty acid synthesis. Maximum inhibition was achieved upon feeding oleic acid (18:1) Tween esters that resulted in the intracellular accumulation of 18:1 free fatty acid, 18:1-CoA, and 18:1-acyl-carrier protein (ACP). Direct, saturable inhibition of ACCase enzyme activity was observed in culture extracts and in extracts of developing canola seeds supplemented with 18:1-ACP at physiological concentrations. A mechanism for feedback inhibition is proposed in which reduced demand for de novo fatty acids results in the accumulation of 18:1-ACP, which directly inhibits plastidic ACCase, leading to reduced fatty acid synthesis. Defining this mechanism presents an opportunity for mitigating feedback inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in crop plants to increase oil yield. PMID:22665812

Andre, Carl; Haslam, Richard P; Shanklin, John

2012-06-19

201

Xylan as limiting factor in enzymatic hydrolysis of nanocellulose.  

PubMed

The role of xylan as a limiting factor in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was studied by hydrolysing nanocellulose samples prepared by mechanical fibrillation of birch pulp with varying xylan content. Analyzing the nanocelluloses and their hydrolysis residues with dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a certain fraction of xylan remained tightly attached to cellulose fibrils despite partial hydrolysis of xylan with xylanase prior to pulp fibrillation and that this fraction remained in the structure during the hydrolysis of nanocellulose with cellulase mixture as well. Thus, a loosely bound fraction of xylan was predicted to have been more likely removed by purified xylanase. The presence of loosely bound xylan seemed to limit the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, indicated by an increase in cellulose crystallinity and by preserved crystal width measured with wide-angle X-ray scattering. Removing loosely bound xylan led to a proportional hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose with the cellulase mixture. PMID:23238342

Penttilä, Paavo A; Várnai, Anikó; Pere, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tekla; Salmén, Lennart; Siika-aho, Matti; Viikari, Liisa; Serimaa, Ritva

2013-02-01

202

ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

203

Histones of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Synthesis, acetylation, and methylation.  

PubMed Central

Histones of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were prepared by a new method and fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Acid-urea-Triton gel analysis and tritiated acetate labeling demonstrated high levels of steady-state acetylation for the single histone H3 protein, in contrast to low levels on histones H4 and H2B. Twenty percent of histone H3 is subject to dynamic acetylation with, on average, three acetylated lysine residues per protein molecule. Histone synthesis in light-dark-synchronized cultures was biphasic with pattern differences between two histone H1 variants, between two H2A variants, and between H2B and ubiquitinated H2B. Automated protein sequence analysis of histone H3 demonstrated a site-specific pattern of steady-state acetylation between 7 and 17% at five of the six amino-terminal lysines and of monomethylation between 5 and 81% at five of the eight amino-terminal lysines in a pattern that may limit dynamic acetylation. An algal histone H3 sequence was confirmed by protein sequencing with a single threonine as residue 28 instead of the serine28-alanine29 sequence, present in all other known plant and animal H3 histones. PMID:7480339

Waterborg, J H; Robertson, A J; Tatar, D L; Borza, C M; Davie, J R

1995-01-01

204

Identification and preliminary characterization of acsF, a Putative Ni-insertase used in the biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA synthase from Clostridium thermoaceticum  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The acsABCDE genes in the Clostridium thermoaceticum genome are used for autotrophic acetyl-CoA synthesis using the Wood/Ljungdahl pathway. A 2.8 kb region between acsC and acsD was cloned and sequenced. Two open reading frames, orf7 ({approx} 1.9 kb) and acsF ({approx} 0.7 kb) were identified. orf7 appears to encode an Fe-S protein, in that it contains 5 conserved cysteine residues, 3 of which are present in a motif (CXXXXXCXXC) commonly used to coordinate Fe-S clusters. However, Orf7 is probably not involved in autotrophic acetyl-CoA synthesis, as homologous genes are present in organisms that do not utilize this pathway and are absent in many that do. In contrast, acsF is probably involved in this pathway. Sequence alignment of AcsF and 11 homologs reveals a number of conserved regions, including a P-loop that binds nucleoside triphosphates and catalyzes their hydrolysis. One homolog is CooC, an ATPase/GTPase that inserts Ni into a precursor form of the C-cluster of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum. Purified AcsF lacked Ni and Fe, and slowly catalyzed the hydrolysis of ATP. Such similarities to CooC suggest that AcsF may function to insert Ni into a Ni-deficient form of the bifunctional acetyl-CoA synthase/CODH from C. thermoaceticum (ACSCt). However, this could not be established, as expression of acsF did not effect activation of recombinant AcsAB expressed in E. coli. Also, E. coli cells defective in hypB retained the ability to synthesize active recombinant AcsAB. Rather, the concentration of extracellular Ni2+ ions was critical to activation.

Huay-Keng Loke; Paul A. Lindahl

2003-01-01

205

Hydrolysis of lignocelluloses by penicillium funiculosum cellulase  

SciTech Connect

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is a promising method for the conversion of waste cellulose to glucose. During the past few years, the development of this technology has proceeded rapidly, with significant advances made in enzyme production, pretreatment, and hydrolysis. A variety of fungi are reported to produce cellulases but among these Trichoderma reesei and its mutants are powerful producers of cellulases. However, the search for new and possibly better sources of cellulase is continued due to the low levels of beta-glucosidase of T. reesei. Penicillium funiculosum produces a complete cellulase having endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (15-20 U/mL), exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (1.5-2.0 U/mL), and high beta-glucosidase (8-10 U/mL). The saccharification of alkali-treated cotton and bagasse by P. funiculosum enzyme was 70 and 63%, respectively. It was possible to obtain glucose concentration as high as 30% using 50% bagasse. It is of interest that the percent saccharification of cellulosic substrates with the Penicillium enzyme is comparable to that of T. reesei cellulase when the same amount of filter paper activity is used, although the endo-glucanase activity of the latter is two to three times higher. This communication reports the studies on saccharification of lignocelluloses by P. funiculosum cellulase and certain studies on the kinetic aspects. (Refs. 15).

Mishra, C.; Rao, M.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Deshpande, V.

1984-04-01

206

Liver-specific silencing of the human gene encoding succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase.  

PubMed

The human succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) gene encodes the ketolytic enzyme that functions in the mitochondrial matrix. The activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA by SCOT is essential for the use of ketone bodies as an energy source. The ketolytic capacity of tissues is proportional to their level of SCOT activity. Normal hepatocytes, the site of ketone body synthesis, have no detectable SCOT protein. The absence of SCOT in hepatocytes is an important element in energy metabolism, suppressing ketolysis in the liver. To study the tissue-specific silencing of SCOT expression, we analyzed the promoter function of SCOT gene in three different human cell lines. Immunoblot analysis showed that SCOT protein was detectable in HeLa cervical cancer cells and Chang liver cells. However, SCOT protein was not detected in HepG2 hepatoma cells and liver tissues, indicating that HepG2 hepatoma cells maintain the characteristics of liver cells in the ketone body metabolism. Luciferase reporter assays in HeLa and Chang liver cells showed that the 361-bp proximal region of the SCOT gene was responsible for the basal promoter activity and contained two GC boxes, each of which was bound in vitro by Sp1, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor. These results suggest that these GC boxes may be important for SCOT gene expression. Moreover, the region between -2168 and -361 appeared to inhibit the SCOT promoter activity in HepG2 cells. Thus, liver-specific silencing of the SCOT gene expression may be mediated in part by its 5'-flanking sequence. PMID:18648183

Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Song, Xiang-Qian; Mitchell, Grant A; Kondo, Naomi

2008-07-01

207

Synthetic biology for engineering acetyl coenzyme a metabolism in yeast.  

PubMed

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

Nielsen, Jens

2014-01-01

208

Synthetic Biology for Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Yeast  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

2014-01-01

209

An acetylation rheostat for the control of muscle energy homeostasis  

PubMed Central

In recent years the role of acetylation has gained ground as an essential modulator of intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Imbalance in energy homeostasis or chronic cellular stress, due to diet, aging or disease, translate into alterations in the acetylation levels of key proteins which governs bioenergetics, cellular substrate use and/or changes in mitochondrial content and function. For example, cellular stress induced by exercise or caloric restriction can alter the coordinated activity of acetyltransferases and deacetylases to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and function in order to adapt to low energetic levels. The natural duality of these enzymes, as metabolic sensors and effector proteins, have helped biologists understand how the body can integrate seemingly distinct signaling pathways to control mitochondrial biogenesis, insulin sensitivity, glucose transport, reactive oxygen species handling, angiogenesis and muscle satellite cell proliferation/differentiation. Our review will summarize the recent developments related to acetylation dependent responses following metabolic stress in skeletal muscle. PMID:23999889

Menzies, Keir; Auwerx, Johan

2013-01-01

210

Exploring the accessible conformations of N-terminal acetylated ?-synuclein  

PubMed Central

Alpha synuclein (?syn) fibrils are found in the Lewy Bodies of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aggregation of the ?syn monomer to soluble oligomers and insoluble fibril aggregates is believed to be one of the causes of PD. Recently, the view of the native state of ?syn as a monomeric ensemble was challenged by a report suggesting that ?syn exists in its native state as a helical tetramer. This review reports on our current understanding of ?syn within the context of these recent developments and describes the work performed by a number of groups to address the monomer/tetramer debate. A number of in depth studies have subsequently shown that both non-acetylated and acetylated ?syn purified under mild conditions are primarily monomer. A description of the accessible states of acetylated ?syn monomer and the ability of ?syn to self-associate is explored. PMID:23499431

Moriarty, Gina M.; Janowska, Maria K.; Kang, Lijuan; Baum, Jean

2014-01-01

211

Investigation of the Acetylation Mechanism by GCN5 Histone Acetyltransferase  

PubMed Central

The histone acetylation of post-translational modification can be highly dynamic and play a crucial role in regulating cellular proliferation, survival, differentiation and motility. Of the enzymes that mediate post-translation modifications, the GCN5 of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) proteins family that add acetyl groups to target lysine residues within histones, has been most extensively studied. According to the mechanism studies of GCN5 related proteins, two key processes, deprotonation and acetylation, must be involved. However, as a fundamental issue, the structure of hGCN5/AcCoA/pH3 remains elusive. Although biological experiments have proved that GCN5 mediates the acetylation process through the sequential mechanism pathway, a dynamic view of the catalytic process and the molecular basis for hGCN5/AcCoA/pH3 are still not available and none of theoretical studies has been reported to other related enzymes in HAT family. To explore the molecular basis for the catalytic mechanism, computational approaches including molecular modeling, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulation were carried out. The initial hGCN5/AcCoA/pH3 complex structure was modeled and a reasonable snapshot was extracted from the trajectory of a 20 ns MD simulation, with considering post-MD analysis and reported experimental results. Those residues playing crucial roles in binding affinity and acetylation reaction were comprehensively investigated. It demonstrated Glu80 acted as the general base for deprotonation of Lys171 from H3. Furthermore, the two-dimensional QM/MM potential energy surface was employed to study the sequential pathway acetylation mechanism. Energy barriers of addition-elimination reaction in acetylation obtained from QM/MM calculation indicated the point of the intermediate ternary complex. Our study may provide insights into the detailed mechanism for acetylation reaction of GCN5, and has important implications for the discovery of regulators against GCN5 enzymes and related HAT family enzymes. PMID:22574209

Liang, Zhongjie; Li, Lianchun; Ouyang, Sisheng; Kong, Xiangqian; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Bairong; Luo, Cheng

2012-01-01

212

Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

213

Cyclohexanecarboxyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and Cyclohex-1-ene-1-Carboxyl-CoA Dehydrogenases, Two Enzymes Involved in the Fermentation of Benzoate and Crotonate in Syntrophus aciditrophicus  

PubMed Central

The strictly anaerobic Syntrophus aciditrophicus is a fermenting deltaproteobacterium that is able to degrade benzoate or crotonate in the presence and in the absence of a hydrogen-consuming partner. During growth in pure culture, both substrates are dismutated to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate. In this work, the unknown enzymes involved in the late steps of cyclohexane carboxylate formation were studied. Using enzyme assays monitoring the oxidative direction, a cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA (Ch1CoA)-forming cyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA (ChCoA) dehydrogenase was purified and characterized from S. aciditrophicus and after heterologous expression of its gene in Escherichia coli. In addition, a cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA (Ch1,5CoA)-forming Ch1CoA dehydrogenase was characterized after purification of the heterologously expressed gene. Both enzymes had a native molecular mass of 150 kDa and were composed of a single, 40- to 45-kDa subunit; both contained flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor. While the ChCoA dehydrogenase was competitively inhibited by Ch1CoA in the oxidative direction, Ch1CoA dehydrogenase further converted the product Ch1,5CoA to benzoyl-CoA. The results obtained suggest that Ch1,5CoA is a common intermediate in benzoate and crotonate fermentation that serves as an electron-accepting substrate for the two consecutively operating acyl-CoA dehydrogenases characterized in this work. In the case of benzoate fermentation, Ch1,5CoA is formed by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase; in the case of crotonate fermentation, Ch1,5CoA is formed by reversing the reactions of the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway that are also employed during the oxidative (degradative) branch of benzoate fermentation. PMID:23667239

Kung, Johannes W.; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin

2013-01-01

214

Catalytic zinc complexes for phosphate diester hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Creating efficient artificial catalysts that can compete with biocatalysis has been an enduring challenge which has yet to be met. Reported herein is the synthesis and characterization of a series of zinc complexes designed to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters. By introducing a hydrated aldehyde into the ligand we achieve turnover for DNA-like substrates which, combined with ligand methylation, increases reactivity by two orders of magnitude. In contrast to current orthodoxy and mechanistic explanations, we propose a mechanism where the nucleophile is not coordinated to the metal ion, but involves a tautomer with a more effective Lewis acid and more reactive nucleophile. This data suggests a new strategy for creating more efficient metal ion based catalysts, and highlights a possible mode of action for metalloenzymes. PMID:24919567

Tirel, Emmanuel Y; Bellamy, Zoë; Adams, Harry; Lebrun, Vincent; Duarte, Fernanda; Williams, Nicholas H

2014-07-28

215

[Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in reverse micelles].  

PubMed

Several types of surfactants were adopted to construct reverse micelles, in order to investigate the characteristics of cellulose hydrolysis, we used the carboxymethyl cellulose as substrate. The electrical conductivity was measured to determine the maximum water solubilization W0( W0 = [H2O]/[SA] ) of CTAB, SDS, Tween-80 and rhamnolipid reverse micellar systems were 15.2, 20.1, 2.3 and 40.3. In this condition we studied the effects of surfactants concentrations and cellulose dosage on the enzymatic hydrolysis of reverse micelle,and compared with aqueous systems. It was shown by the results that when the cellulose dosage was 0.15 FPU/g substrate, the maximum yield of reducing sugar in reverse micelles was obtained at 1 cmc of CTAB, SDS, Tween-80 and rhamnolipid, in which the rhamnolipid yield was the highest of 198.03 mg substrate. When the concentrations of CTAB, SDS, Tween-80 and rhamnolipid were 1 cmc, the productions of reverse micelles systems were higher than that of aqueous systems of 34.36%, 21.24%, 11.44% and 34.62%. In the optimum conditions of the surfactant concentration, taking the saving cost and sugar yield into consideration, the cellulose dosage of 5 FPU substrate was the most suitable. The reducing sugar's yield of biosurfactant rhamnolipid reverse micellar system was higher than those of three chemical surfactant systems, it was shown that the adoption of biosurfactant has technologically promising prospect in constructing reverse micelles and enhancing the stability of reverse micelles. PMID:21072947

Wang, Wei-Wei; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liang, Yun-Shan; Chao, Yang

2010-09-01

216

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

217

Coupling of actin hydrolysis and polymerization: Reduced description with two  

E-print Network

OFFPRINT Coupling of actin hydrolysis and polymerization: Reduced description with two nucleotide of actin hydrolysis and polymerization: Reduced description with two nucleotide states X. Li1,2 , R PACS 87.15.rp ­ Polymerization Abstract ­ The polymerization of actin filaments is coupled

Kierfeld, Jan

218

Synergistic Catalysis of Dimetilan Hydrolysis by Metal Ions and  

E-print Network

such as extracellular enzymes. Introduction Hydrolysis is believed to be the predominant degradation pathway that dissolved metal ions (1), simple hydrous metal oxides (2-5), and clays (6, 7) can increase hydrolysis rates of agrochemicals dramatically. Catalysis may arise from reaction of the added chemical constituent with the agro

Huang, Ching-Hua

219

Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008  

E-print Network

Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008 Revised Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg Vest wastewater treatment plant, Denmark PSO-F&U project nr. 2006 This project "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet .DK under the PSO

220

Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007  

E-print Network

Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Model calculations and cost "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet.DK under the PSO-F&U projects having National Laboratory, Rambøll, the Estate of Overgaard and SamRas. The wastewater treatment plant Esbjerg

221

Reaction dynamics of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ABC transporter family that confers drug resistance to many tumors by catalyzing their efflux, and it is a major component of drug-drug interactions. P-gp couples drug efflux with ATP hydrolysis by coordinating conformational changes in the drug binding sites with the hydrolysis of ATP and release of ADP. To understand the relative rates of the chemical step for hydrolysis and the conformational changes that follow it, we exploited isotope exchange methods to determine the extent to which the ATP hydrolysis step is reversible. With ?(18)O4-labeled ATP, no positional isotope exchange is detectable at the bridging ?-phosphorus-O-?-phosphorus bond. Furthermore, the phosphate derived from hydrolysis includes a constant ratio of three (18)O/two (18)O/one (18)O that reflects the isotopic composition of the starting ATP in multiple experiments. Thus, H2O-exchange with HPO4(2-) (Pi) was negligible, suggesting that a [P-gp·ADP·Pi] is not long-lived. This further demonstrates that the hydrolysis is essentially irreversible in the active site. These mechanistic details of ATP hydrolysis are consistent with a very fast conformational change immediately following, or concomitant with, hydrolysis of the ?-phosphate linkage that ensures a high commitment to catalysis in both drug-free and drug-bound states. PMID:24506763

Scian, Michele; Acchione, Mauro; Li, Mavis; Atkins, William M

2014-02-18

222

THE MECHANISM OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

chloride with aqueous chloride solution and proposed the mechanism of the reaction!). The kinetics of the hydrolysis of methylene chloride has now been investigated over the pH range from ° to 12 under the same experimental conditions as those in the exchange reaction reported in the foregoing paper!). It has been found that the rate of the hydrolysis is approximately

Kozo TANABE; Masayuki MATSUDA

223

Cationic ester-containing gemini surfactants: Chemical hydrolysis and biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cationic gemini surfactants having ester bonds between the hydrophobic tail and the cationic moiety have been synthesized. The ester bonds were either with the ester carbonyl group away from the positive charge (esterquat type arrangement) or facing the positive charge (betaine ester type arrangement). The chemical hydrolysis of the surfactants was investigated and compared with the hydrolysis of the

A. R. Tehrani-Bagha; H. Oskarsson; C. G. van Ginkel; K. Holmberg

2007-01-01

224

Enzymic mechanisms involving concomitant transfer and hydrolysis reactions  

PubMed Central

The kinetic parameters of ten different enzymic mechanisms in which bimolecular transfer reactions occur concomitantly with the hydrolysis of the donor molecule have been studied. The usefulness of these parameters for making a choice of mechanism is discussed. The analysis has been extended to the use of alternative substrates in bimolecular transfer reactions that proceed without the hydrolysis of the donor molecule. PMID:4772273

Frère, Jean-Marie

1973-01-01

225

Total Energy Production and Phosphocreatine Hydrolysis in the Isotonic Twitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using frog's sartorius muscles we have found no correlation be- tween phosphocreatine hydrolysis and shortening under conditions (iodoacetate poisoning and anoxia) where this reaction was the only expected source of energy. Phosphocreatine hydrolysis did, however, show a constant term corre- sponding to the activation heat of A.V. Hill, and a linear term with work. It was concluded that shortening heat

FRANCIS D. CARLSON; DONNA J. HARDY; DOUGLAS R. WILKIE

2009-01-01

226

Modeling of autocatalytic hydrolysis of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations.  

PubMed

The stability and hydrolysis kinetics of a phosphate prodrug, adefovir dipivoxil, in solid formulations were studied. The stability relationship between five solid formulations was explored. An autocatalytic mechanism for hydrolysis could be proposed according to the kinetic behavior which fits the Prout-Tompkins model well. For the classical kinetic models could hardly describe and predict the hydrolysis kinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations accurately when the temperature is high, a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network was constructed to model the hydrolysis kinetics. The build-in approaches in Weka, such as lazy classifiers and rule-based learners (IBk, KStar, DecisionTable and M5Rules), were used to verify the performance of MLP. The predictability of the models was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation and an external test set. It reveals that MLP should be of general applicability proposing an alternative efficient way to model and predict autocatalytic hydrolysis kinetics for phosphate prodrugs. PMID:21467805

Dong, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Bingren; Deng, Haishan; Wu, Jingfang

2011-04-01

227

COA User's Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

Fox, B.; Pautz, J.; Sellers, C.

1999-01-28

228

Heme prosthetic group required for acetylation of prostaglandin H synthase by aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of aspirin to acetylate PGH synthase was determined by reacting (3H-acetyl)-aspirin with purified enzyme followed by high pressure liquid chromatogra- phy analysis of the protein components of the reaction mixture. Heme-reconstituted enzyme incorporated ap- proximately one acetyl group per 70-kDa subunit, whereas apoprotein incorporated 0.1 acetyl group per subunit. The ability of the heme prosthetic group to enhance

YING-NAN PAN CHEN; LAWRENCE J. MARNETT

229

In Vivo Acetylation of CheY, a Response Regulator in Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

CheY, the excitatory response regulator in the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli, can be modulated by two covalent modifications: phosphorylation and acetylation. Both modifications have been detected in vitro only. The role of CheY acetylation is still obscure, although it is known to be involved in chemotaxis and to occur in vitro by two mechanisms—acetyl-CoA synthetase-catalyzed transfer of acetyl groups

Jianshe Yan; Rina Barak; Orna Liarzi; Alla Shainskaya; Michael Eisenbach

2008-01-01

230

The Chemotaxis Response Regulator CheY Can Catalyze its Own Acetylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the processes by which CheY, the excitatory response regulator of chemotaxis in Escherichia coli, can be activated to generate clockwise flagellar rotation is by acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs)-mediated acetylation. Deletion of Acs results in defective chemotaxis, indicating the involvement of Acs-mediated acetylation in chemotaxis. To investigate whether Acs is the sole acetylating agent of CheY, we purified the latter

Rina Barak; Jianshe Yan; Alla Shainskaya; Michael Eisenbach

2006-01-01

231

Lysine acetylation activates 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase to promote tumor growth.  

PubMed

Although the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is important for tumor growth, how 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) in this pathway is upregulated in human cancers is unknown. We found that 6PGD is commonly activated in EGF-stimulated cells and human cancer cells by lysine acetylation. Acetylation at K76 and K294 of 6PGD promotes NADP(+) binding to 6PGD and formation of active 6PGD dimers, respectively. Moreover, we identified DLAT and ACAT2 as upstream acetyltransferases of K76 and K294, respectively, and HDAC4 as the deacetylase of both sites. Expressing acetyl-deficient mutants of 6PGD in cancer cells significantly attenuated cell proliferation and tumor growth. This is due in part to reduced levels of 6PGD products ribulose-5-phosphate and NADPH, which led to reduced RNA and lipid biosynthesis as well as elevated ROS. Furthermore, 6PGD activity is upregulated with increased lysine acetylation in primary leukemia cells from human patients, providing mechanistic insights into 6PGD upregulation in cancer cells. PMID:25042803

Shan, Changliang; Elf, Shannon; Ji, Quanjiang; Kang, Hee-Bum; Zhou, Lu; Hitosugi, Taro; Jin, Lingtao; Lin, Ruiting; Zhang, Liang; Seo, Jae Ho; Xie, Jianxin; Tucker, Meghan; Gu, Ting-Lei; Sudderth, Jessica; Jiang, Lei; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Wu, Shaoxiong; Li, Yuancheng; Mao, Hui; Chen, Peng R; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Georgia Zhuo; Lonial, Sagar; Arellano, Martha L; Khoury, Hanna J; Khuri, Fadlo R; Lee, Benjamin H; Brat, Daniel J; Ye, Keqiang; Boggon, Titus J; He, Chuan; Kang, Sumin; Fan, Jun; Chen, Jing

2014-08-21

232

Acetylated starch-polylactic acid loose-fill packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different genetic and botanical sources of starches are available for use in hydrophobic starch-based packaging materials. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the type of acetylated starch and the presence of polylactic acid (PLA) and ethanol on the functional properties of extruded foams, and to compare the specific mechanical energy requirements for preparing these foams.

Junjie Guan; Kent M. Eskridge; Milford A. Hanna

2005-01-01

233

Fully acetylated carbamate and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa oleifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new and three synthetically known glycosides have been isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera, employing a bioassay-directed isolation method on the ethanolic extract. Most of these compounds, bearing thiocarbamate, carbamate or nitrile groups, are fully acetylated glycosides, which are very rare in nature. Elucidation of the structures was made using chemical and spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques.

Shaheen Faizi; Bina Shaheen Siddiqui; Rubeena Saleem; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Khalid Aftab; Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani

1995-01-01

234

Prebiotically plausible oligoribonucleotide ligation facilitated by chemoselective acetylation  

PubMed Central

The recent synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleoside-2?,3?-cyclic phosphates under prebiotically plausible conditions has strengthened the case for the involvement of RNA at an early stage in the origin of life. However, a prebiotic conversion of these weakly activated monomers, and their purine counterparts, to the 3?,5?-linked RNA polymers of extant biochemistry has been lacking – previous attempts leading only to short oligomers with mixed linkages. Here we show that the 2?-hydroxyl group of oligoribonucleotide-3?-phosphates can be chemoselectively acetylated in water under prebiotically credible conditions, allowing rapid and efficient template-directed ligation. The 2?-O-acetyl group at the ligation junction of the product RNA strand can be removed under conditions that leave the internucleotide bonds intact. Remarkably, acetylation of mixed oligomers possessing either 2?- or 3?-terminal phosphates is selective for the 2?-hydroxyl group of the latter. This newly discovered chemistry thus suggests a prebiotic route from ribonucleoside-2?,3?-cyclic phosphates to predominantly 3?,5?-linked RNA via partially 2?-O-acetylated-RNA. PMID:23609088

Bowler, Frank R.; Chan, Christopher K. W.; Duffy, Colm D.; Gerland, Beatrice; Islam, Saidul; Powner, Matthew W.; Sutherland, John D.; Xu, Jianfeng

2014-01-01

235

Fluorescence excitation spectroscopic study of the jet-cooled acetyl cyanide  

E-print Network

Fluorescence excitation spectroscopic study of the jet-cooled acetyl cyanide Min-Chul Yoon, Young S Received 21 October 1998; accepted 19 January 1999 Fluorescence excitation spectrum of acetyl cyanide (CH3 Institute of Physics. S0021-9606 99 00515-2 I. INTRODUCTION Photochemistry of acetyl cyanide

Kim, Sang Kyu

236

Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases accumulating during infection.  

PubMed

Resistance against the leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum is mediated by the tomato Cf proteins which belong to the class of receptor-like proteins and indirectly recognize extracellular avirulence proteins (Avrs) of the fungus. Apart from triggering disease resistance, Avrs are believed to play a role in pathogenicity or virulence of C. fulvum. Here, we report on the avirulence protein Avr4, which is a chitin-binding lectin containing an invertebrate chitin-binding domain (CBM14). This domain is found in many eukaryotes, but has not yet been described in fungal or plant genomes. We found that interaction of Avr4 with chitin is specific, because it does not interact with other cell wall polysaccharides. Avr4 binds to chitin oligomers with a minimal length of three N-acetyl glucosamine residues. In vitro, Avr4 protects chitin against hydrolysis by plant chitinases. Avr4 also binds to chitin in cell walls of the fungi Trichoderma viride and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and protects these fungi against normally deleterious concentrations of plant chitinases. In situ fluorescence studies showed that Avr4 also binds to cell walls of C. fulvum during infection of tomato, where it most likely protects the fungus against tomato chitinases, suggesting that Avr4 is a counter-defensive virulence factor. PMID:17153926

van den Burg, Harrold A; Harrison, Stuart J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Vervoort, Jacques; de Wit, Pierre J G M

2006-12-01

237

Factors impeding enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations.  

PubMed

Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased maximum attainable degree of hydrolysis (DH%). We here identified the underlying factors causing the concentration effect. Wheat gluten was hydrolyzed at solid concentrations from 4.4% to 70%. The decreased hydrolysis rate was present at all solid concentrations and at any time of the reaction. Mass transfer limitations, enzyme inhibition and water activity were shown to not cause this hydrolysis rate limitation up to 50% solids. However, the hydrolysis rate limitation can be, at least partly, explained by a second-order enzyme inactivation process. Furthermore, mass transfer impeded the hydrolysis above 60% solids. Addition of enzyme after 24 h at high solid concentrations scarcely increased the DH%, suggesting that the maximum attainable DH% decreases at high solid concentrations. Reduced enzyme activities caused by low water activities can explain this DH% limitation. Finally, a possible influence of the plastein reaction on the DH% limitation is discussed. PMID:24474643

Hardt, N A; Janssen, A E M; Boom, R M; van der Goot, A J

2014-07-01

238

Correlation of changes in rate of sterol synthesis with changes in HMG CoA reductase activity in cultured lens epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, the authors correlated changes in HMG CoA reductase activity with changes in relative rates of sterol synthesis measured from either /sup 3/H/sub 2/O or 1-/sup 14/C-acetate for bovine lens epithelial cells cultured in the presence or absence of lipoproteins. Enzyme activity and rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O or 1-/sup 14/C-acetate into digitonin precipitable sterols were measured in cells on the 4th day of subculture in DMEM containing 9% whole calf serum (WM) or 9% lipoprotein deficient serum (LDM). In three experiments, HMG CoA reductase activity (U/10/sup 6/ cells) averaged 2.2 +/- 0.1 times greater for cells grown in LDM than WM. Sterol synthesis averaged 3.0 +/- 0.4 times greater when measured with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and 4.0 +/- 1.1 times greater when measured with /sup 14/C-acetate. Thus, /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and /sup 14/C-acetate appear to be comparable substrates for estimating changes in relative rates of sterol synthesis by cultured cells. The larger increases in rates of sterol synthesis than in reductase activity in response to decreased cholesterol could reflect stimulation at additional metabolic steps in the cholesterol pathway beyond mevalonic acid.

Cenedella, R.J.; Hitchener, W.R.

1986-05-01

239

Synthesis and bioactivity of ?-(1?4)-linked oligomannoses and partially acetylated derivatives.  

PubMed

The synthesis of ?-(1?4)-linked hexa- to octamannoses and their partially acetylated derivatives was efficiently carried out by assembly of appropriate oligomeric fragments using ?-selective glucosylation followed by gluco to manno epimerization at a late stage of the synthetic pathway. In the course of this study, we also observed that 2-O-acetylated oligomannoses coexisted in equilibrium with the 3-O-acetylated isomers due to intramolecular migration of the acetyl group. Bioactivity of the synthetic oligomannoses and partially acetylated derivatives was investigated in order to identify the possible smallest oligomer for induction of cytokines as that shown in the polysaccharides extracted from Dendrobium huoshanense. PMID:23745711

Ohara, Keiichiro; Lin, Chih-Chien; Yang, Pei-Jung; Hung, Wei-Ting; Yang, Wen-Bin; Cheng, Ting-Jen Rachel; Fang, Jim-Min; Wong, Chi-Huey

2013-07-01

240

Hydrolysis and Partial Recycling of a Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquid  

PubMed Central

Hydrolysis of the ionic liquid Et3NHCl-2AlCl3 and a process for recycling the triethylamine were studied. When the hydrolysis was carried out at a relatively high temperature, the released HCl could be absorbed more easily. With addition of sodium hydroxide to the aqueous hydrolysis solution, a feasible process for recycling triethylamine was developed, involving first distillation of triethylamine, followed by filtration of the aluminium hydroxide. The yield of recovered triethylamine was about 95%. The triethylhydrogenammonium chloride prepared from the recycled triethylamine was of good purity and could be reused to synthesize new chloroaluminate ionic liquids.

Fang, Ming-Hong; Wang, Li-Sheng

2007-01-01

241

Factors limiting the hydrolysis of casein by subtilisin DY.  

PubMed

It was shown that during the subtilisin DY-induced hydrolysis of casein relatively stable polypeptide structures are formed. In their interior these structures contain peptide bonds which are susceptible to the enzyme used. Heating (up to 100 degrees C) and/or application of ultrasound (25 kHz, 60 W) results in their unfolding. Data are provided, which show that under the enzyme-substrate complex formation does not lead to an enzyme conformation more susceptible to autolysis. Taking into account the described phenomena a higher degree of hydrolysis was attained in comparison to those obtained by standard enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:3322321

Nedkov, P; Lilova, A; Tchorbanov, B

1987-10-01

242

Effect of corosolic acid on the hydrolysis of disaccharides.  

PubMed

The banaba leaf (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) has been used in traditional Oriental medicine to treat diabetes in the Philippines. It contains corosolic acid (CA), a compound which has a hypoglycemic effect. We examined the effect of CA on blood glucose levels and the hydrolysis of disaccharides in the small intestine in mice. CA (10 mg/kg body weight) improved hyperglycemia after an oral administration of sucrose, and significantly reduced the hydrolysis of sucrose in the small intestine. These results suggest that the hypoglycemic activity of CA is derived, at least in part, due to the inhibition of the hydrolysis of sucrose. PMID:18635916

Takagi, Satoshi; Miura, Toshihiro; Ishibashi, Chinami; Kawata, Takanori; Ishihara, Eriko; Gu, Yeunhwa; Ishida, Torao

2008-06-01

243

Kinetics of iodine hydrolysis in unbuffered solutions  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of hydrolysis or disproportionation of hypoiodite were studied spectrophotometrically in basic solution at an ionic strength of 0.2 M as a function of pH, iodide and total iodine concentration, and temperature. The existence of three independent pathways for this second-order process was confirmed. The pH-stat method was used to monitor the corresponding reaction of hypoiodous acid in weakly alkaline solution. The generalized rate law for the disproportionation is: /minus/d((HOI) + (OI/sup /minus//))dt = k /sub a/(HOI)/sup 2/ + k/sub b/(HOI) (OI/sup /minus//) + k/sub c/(OI/sup /minus//)/sup 2/ + k/sub d/(I/sub 2/OH/sup /minus//) (OI/sup /minus//). The values of k/sub a/ and k/sub b/ are substantially smaller than previously reported. However, an unexplained contribution to the rate law resulting from the pH-stat measurements was also obtained. The rapid recombination of iodide and iodate in HClO/sub 4/ solutions was followed by stopped-flow spectrophotometry at three ionic strengths, and over a range of iodide and hydrogen ion concentrations, and at eight temperatures. Fifth-order kinetics were observed with no detectable induction period. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Palmer, D.A.; Lyons, L.J.

1988-01-01

244

Synthesis, hydrolysis and stability of psilocin glucuronide.  

PubMed

A two-step synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), the main metabolite of psilocin, with methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-isobutyryl-1-O-trichloroacetimidoyl-?-d-glucopyranuronate is reported. With the synthesized PCG, hydrolysis conditions in serum and urine were optimized. Escherichia coli proved to be a better enzyme source for ?-glucuronidase than Helix pomatia. It was essential to add ascorbic acid to serum samples to protect psilocin during incubation. Furthermore the stability of PCG and psilocin was compared as stability data are the basis for forensic interpretation of measurements. PCG showed a greater long-term stability after six months in deep frozen serum and urine samples than psilocin. The short-term stability of PCG for one week in whole blood at room temperature and in deep frozen samples was also better than that of psilocin. Therefore, PCG can be considered to be more stable than the labile psilocin and should always be included if psilocin is analyzed in samples. PMID:24513688

Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Lehr, Matthias; Köhler, Helga

2014-04-01

245

Membrane reactor for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellobiose  

SciTech Connect

A pressurized, stirred vessel attached with an ultrafiltration membrane was used as a membrane reactor. Cellobiose hydrolysis by cellobiase was carried out and theoretically analyzed in terms of steady-state conversion and flow rate through the membrane. When the flow rate exceeds a critical value, a significant fraction of the enzyme inside the reactor is localized in the concentration polarization layer where shear from stirring is high. Consequently, enzyme deactivation inside the concentration polarization layer is accelerated and the conversion decreased due to an exchange of active enzyme in bulk with deactivated enzyme in the polarization layer via convection and back diffusion. Successful operation can be obtained at flow rates lower than the critical point to avoid the polarization and thus the deactivation. It is shown that 6.5 L of 2mg/mL of cellobiose solution is hydrolyzed to glucose with a conversion of 91% in 20 hours with 1.617 mg of cellobiase enzyme in a reactor attached with a PM 10 membrane of an effective surface area of 39.2 sq.cm. (Refs. 17).

Hong, J.; Tsao, G.T.; Wankat, P.C.

1981-07-01

246

General lysosomal hydrolysis can process prorenin accurately.  

PubMed

Renin, an aspartyl protease that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin system, is first synthesized as an inactive precursor, prorenin. Prorenin is activated by the proteolytic removal of an amino terminal prosegment in the dense granules of the juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of the kidney by one or more proteases whose identity is uncertain but commonly referred to as the prorenin-processing enzyme (PPE). Because several extrarenal tissues secrete only prorenin, we tested the hypothesis that the unique ability of JG cells to produce active renin might be explained by the existence of a PPE whose expression is restricted to JG cells. We found that inducing renin production by the mouse kidney by up to 20-fold was not associated with the concomitant induction of candidate PPEs. Because the renin-containing granules of JG cells also contain several lysosomal hydrolases, we engineered mouse Ren1 prorenin to be targeted to the classical vesicular lysosomes of cultured HEK-293 cells, where it was accurately processed and stored. Furthermore, we found that HEK cell lysosomes hydrolyzed any artificial extensions placed on the protein and that active renin was extraordinarily resistant to proteolytic degradation. Altogether, our results demonstrate that accurate processing of prorenin is not restricted to JG cells but can occur in classical vesicular lysosomes of heterologous cells. The implication is that renin production may not require a specific PPE but rather can be achieved by general hydrolysis in the lysosome-like granules of JG cells. PMID:24965790

Xa, Lucie K; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Mercure, Chantal; Lazure, Claude; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

2014-09-01

247

Ubiquitination of Notch1 is regulated by MAML1-mediated p300 acetylation of Notch1  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p300 acetylates conserved lysines within Notch1 C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAML1 and CSL, components of Notch transcription complex, increase Notch acetylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAML1-dependent acetylation of Notch1 by p300 decreases the ubiquitination of Notch1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDK8 inhibits Notch acetylation and Notch transcription enhanced by p300. -- Abstract: Earlier studies demonstrated the involvement of the p300 histone acetyltransferase in Notch signaling but the precise mechanisms by which p300 might modulate Notch function remains to be investigated. In this study, we show that p300 acetylates Notch1 ICD in cell culture assay and in vitro, and conserved lysines located within the Notch C-terminal nuclear localization signal are essential for Notch acetylation. MAML1 and CSL, which are components of the Notch transcription complex, enhance Notch acetylation and we suggest that MAML1 increases Notch acetylation by potentiating p300 autoacetylation. Furthermore, MAML1-dependent acetylation of Notch1 ICD by p300 decreases the ubiquitination of Notch1 ICD in cellular assays. CDK8 has been shown to target Notch1 for ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. We show that CDK8 inhibits Notch acetylation and Notch transcription enhanced by p300. Therefore, we speculate that acetylation of Notch1 might be a mechanism to regulate Notch activity by interfering with ubiquitin-dependent pathways.

Popko-Scibor, Anita E.; Lindberg, Mikael J.; Hansson, Magnus L.; Holmlund, Teresa [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallberg, Annika E., E-mail: Annika.Wallberg@ki.se [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2011-12-16

248

Generation of mature N?-terminal acetylated thymosin ? 1 by cleavage of recombinant prothymosin ?.  

PubMed

N(?)-terminal acetylation of peptides plays an important biological role but is rarely observed in prokaryotes. N(?)-terminal acetylated thymosin ?1 (T?1), a 28-amino-acid peptide, is an immune modifier that has been used in the clinic to treat hepatitis B and C virus (HBV/HCV) infections. We previously documented N(?)-terminal acetylation of recombinant prothymosin ? (ProT?) in E. coli. Here we present a method for production of N(?)-acetylated T?1 from recombinant ProT?. The recombinant ProT? was cleaved by human legumain expressed in Pichia pastoris to release T?1 in vitro. The N(?)-acetylated T?1 peptide was subsequently purified by reverse phase and cation exchange chromatography. Mass spectrometry indicated that the molecular mass of recombinant N(?)-acetylated T?1 was 3108.79 in, which is identical to the mass of N(?)-acetylated T?1 produced by total chemical synthesis. This mass corresponded to the nonacetylated T?1 mass with a 42 Da increment. The retention time of recombinant N(?)-acetylated T?1 and chemosynthetic N(?)-acetylated T?1 were both 15.4 min in RP-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These data support the use of an E. coli expression system for the production of recombinant human N(?)-acetylated T?1 and also will provide the basis for the preparation of recombinant acetylated peptides in E. coli. PMID:24288480

Liu, Bo; Gong, Xin; Chang, Shaohong; Sun, Peng; Wu, Jun

2013-01-01

249

Centromere-specific acetylation of histone H4 in barley detected through three-dimensional microscopy.  

PubMed

Histone acetylation affects chromatin conformation and transcriptional activity. However, the structural role of histone acetylation at specific chromosomal regions, such as the centromere, is poorly understood. In this study, histone H4 acetylation and its localization in barley interphase nuclei are revealed by three-dimensional microscopy. The centromeres form a ring-like allocation near the nuclear membrane in barley. Immunofluorescence studies on non-fixed, interphase nuclei treatment revealed ring-like distribution of the highly acetylated histone H4, located near the nuclear membrane at one pole of the nucleus. This fluorescent structure was similar to the centromere cluster and referred to as hyperacetylated region (HAR). The distribution pattern of the acetylated histone H4 was similar to each of the K5, K8, K12 and K16 lysine residues, although H4 acetylated at K5, K8 and K12 residues was found in almost all nuclei, whereas H4 acetylated at K16 was weakly observed in only half of the nuclei. Each HAR consists of two strongly acetylated cores and a halo-like, less acetylated surrounding area. Fluorescence signals from centromere-specific repetitive sequences of barley, detected through three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH), co-localized with the HAR corresponding to the K5 residue acetylation, but the signals did not completely overlap each other. These findings indicate that histone acetylation specifically occurring at the centromeres likely have certain structural roles for the centromere. PMID:12650619

Wako, Toshiyuki; Houben, Andreas; Furushima-Shimogawara, Rieko; Belyaev, Nikolai D; Fukui, Kiichi

2003-03-01

250

Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glycosides for their analysis in foods.  

PubMed

Steryl glycosides (SG) contribute significantly to the total intake of phytosterols. The standard analytical procedure involving acid hydrolysis fails to reflect the correct sterol profile of SG due to isomerization of some of the labile sterols. Therefore, various glycosylases were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse SG under milder conditions. Using a pure SG mixture in aqueous solution, the highest glycolytic activity, as demonstrated by the decrease in SG and increase in free sterols was achieved using inulinase preparations (decrease of >95%). High glycolytic activity was also demonstrated using hemicellulase (63%). The applicability of enzymatic hydrolysis using inulinase preparations was further verified on SG extracted from foods. For example in potato peel ?(5)-avenasteryl glucoside, a labile SG, was well preserved and contributed 26.9% of the total SG. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is suitable for replacing acid hydrolysis of SG in food lipid extracts to accurately determine the sterol profile of SG. PMID:24912717

Münger, Linda H; Nyström, Laura

2014-11-15

251

Hydrolysis of Al3+ from constrained molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the hydrolysis reactions of Al3+ in AlCl3 aqueous solution using the constrained molecular dynamics based on the Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics method. By employing the proton-aluminum coordination number as a reaction coordinate in the constrained molecular dynamics the deprotonation as well as dehydration processes are successfully realized. From our free-energy difference of ?G0~=8.0 kcal mol-1 the hydrolysis constant pKa1 is roughly estimated as 5.8, comparable to the literature value of 5.07. We show that the free-energy difference for the hydrolysis of Al3+ in acidic conditions is at least 4 kcal mol-1 higher than that in neutral condition, indicating that the hydrolysis reaction is inhibited by the presence of excess protons located around the hydrated ion, in agreement with the change of the predominant species by pH.

Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masaru; Kimura, Takaumi

2006-02-01

252

Kinetic studies of the hydrolysis of organophosphate insecticides by phosphotriesterase  

E-print Network

:1 for profenofos. The relative stereochemistry of the enzymatic hydrolysis of both substrates, however, remains unclear. For propetamphos, this ambiguity is due to the failure of developing a method using ³¹P NMR spectroscopy to visualize the individual peaks...

Zaitoun, Basel M.

2012-06-07

253

Hydrolysis of the amorphous cellulose in cotton-based paper.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of cellulose in Whatman no. 42 cotton-based paper was studied using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and uniaxial tensile testing to understand the course and kinetics of the reaction. GPC results suggested that scission reactions passed through three stages. Additionally, the evolution of soluble oligomers in the ESI-MS data and the steady course of strength loss showed that the hydrolysis reaction occurred at a constant rate. These findings are explained with a more detailed description of the cellulose hydrolysis, which includes multiple chain scissions on amorphous segments. The breaks occur with increasing frequency near the ends of amorphous segments, where chains protrude from crystalline domains. Oligomers unattached to crystalline domains are eventually created. Late-stage reactions near the ends of amorphous segments produce a kinetic behavior that falsely suggests that hydrolysis had ceased. Monte Carlo simulations of cellulose degradation corroborated the experimental findings. PMID:18324778

Stephens, Catherine H; Whitmore, Paul M; Morris, Hannah R; Bier, Mark E

2008-04-01

254

ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

255

Variability in Starch Acetylation Efficiency from Commercial Waxy Corn Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(1):68-71 Raw material variability is common for starch processors and is responsible for increased processing costs. In this study, variability of starch acetylation due to hybrid influence was quantified. Six waxy corn (maize) hybrids from 1998 and five waxy corn hybrids from 1999 were wet-milled in the laboratory. Starch obtained from each hybrid was modified according to a

M. R. Wilkins; P. Wang; L. Xu; Y. Niu; M. E. Tumbleson; K. D. Rausch

2003-01-01

256

Acetylation of general transcription factors by histone acetyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetylation of histones increases the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to transcription factors [1,2], relieving transcriptional repression [3] and correlating with the potential for transcriptional activity in vivo[4–7]. The characterization of several novel histone acetyltransferases –  including the human GCN5 homolog PCAF (p300\\/CBP-associated factor) [8], the transcription coactivator p300\\/CBP [9], and TAFII250 [10] –  has provided a potential explanation for

Axel Imhof; Xiang-Jiao Yang; Vasily V Ogryzko; Yoshihiro Nakatani; Alan P Wolffe; Hui Ge

1997-01-01

257

The acetylation of apiitol in the determination of apiose.  

PubMed

The complete acetylation of apiitol required 9 h when acetic anhydride at 120 degrees was used and sodium acetate was the catalyst. Both apiitol pentaacetate and apiitol tetraacetate were detected before acetylation was complete. When the reaction was done in dimethyl sulfoxide, with 1-methylimidazole as the catalyst, a third compound was observed, and identified as 1,2,4-tri-O-acetyl-3-C-(acetoxymethyl)-3-O-(methylthiomethyl)-D-glycero- tetrito l [3-O-(methylthiomethyl)apiitol tetraacetate] by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In N,N-dimethylformamide, with 1-methylimidazole as catalyst, the acetylation of apiitol was essentially complete in 4 h at 85 degrees, and the formation of methylthiomethyl ether was avoided. A method for preparing alditol acetates using 1-methylimidazole as the catalyst, and suitable for samples containing apiose as well as ordinary sugars, is described. The separation of apiitol pentaacetate from xylitol pentaacetate by gas-liquid chromatography proved difficult. However, a virtually complete separation of the peracetates of apiitol and xylitol as well as complete separation of those of rhamnitol, fucitol, arabinitol, mannitol, galactitol, glucitol, and myo-inositol, plus apiitol tetraacetate and 3-O-(methylthiomethyl)apiitol tetraacetate, was accomplished with a 30 m x 0.53 mm (i.d.) SP-2380 column in 49 min, and on a 30 m x 0.75 mm (i.d.) SP-2330 column in 82 min. A complete separation of apiitol and xylitol pentaacetates as well as four other alditol peracetates was obtained with a 60 m DB-1 column in 15.2 min, however this column did not resolve the acetates of fucitol and arabinitol. A variety of other columns and column conditions were ineffective. PMID:2379200

Kindel, P K; Cheng, L A

1990-05-15

258

Dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of the cane sugar industry, is an abundant source of hemicellulose that could be hydrolyzed\\u000a to yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol and chemicals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration,\\u000a temperature, time, and dry matter concentration on hemicellulose hydrolysis were studied with a 20-L batch hydrolysis reactor\\u000a using a statistical experimental design.

Markus Neureiter; Herbert Danner; Christiane Thomasser; Bamusi Saidi; Rudolf Braun

2002-01-01

259

Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and

J. M. Hernández-Salas; M. S. Villa-Ramírez; J. S. Veloz-Rendón; K. N. Rivera-Hernández; R. A. González-César; M. A. Plascencia-Espinosa; S. R. Trejo-Estrada

2009-01-01

260

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob and ethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob and ethanol fermentation from cellulosic hydrolysate were investigated. After corncob was pretreated by 1% H2SO4 at 108°C for 3h, the cellulosic residue was hydrolyzed by cellulase from Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 and the hydrolysis yield was 67.5%. Poor cellobiase activity in T. reesei cellulase restricted the conversion of cellobiose to glucose, and the accumulation of cellobiose caused

Ming Chen; Liming Xia; Peijian Xue

2007-01-01

261

Acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones from Amberboa ramosa  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive memory loss that leads to a profound emotional disturbance in later stages. As no safe and effective drug is yet available for the treatment of AD, secondary metabolites from plants may be instrumental in meeting this challenge. Keeping in view this point we evaluated sesquiterpenes of medicinal plant Amberboa ramosa for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Results Four sesquiterpene lactones have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Amberboa ramosa. In which one compound Amberbin C (1) was found to be new while other three Amberin (2), Amberbin A (3), and Amberbin B (4) were previously reported ones. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using different spectroscopic techniques. Isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory potential against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase enzymes. All compounds showed excellent inhibitory activities against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase. Conclusions A new sesquiterpene lactone has been isolated and fully characterized, the sesquiterpene lactones from Amberboa ramosa showed good inhibitory activities against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase enzymes, this study indicated that sesquiterpene lactone can become interesting lead molecules in drug development against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). PMID:23837557

2013-01-01

262

Regulation of bacterial physiology by lysine acetylation of proteins.  

PubMed

Post-translational modification of proteins is a reversible mechanism of cellular adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In eukaryotes, the physiological relevance of N-?-lysine protein acetylation is well demonstrated. In recent times, important roles in the regulation of metabolic processes in bacteria are being uncovered, adding complexity to cellular regulatory networks. The aim of this mini-review is to sum up the current state-of-the-art in the regulation of bacterial physiology by protein acetylation. Current knowledge on the molecular biology aspects of known bacterial protein acetyltransferases and deacetylases will be summarized. Protein acetylation in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, will be explained in the light of their physiological relevance. Progress in the elucidation of bacterial acetylomes and the emerging understanding of chemical acylation mechanisms will be discussed together with their regulatory and evolutionary implications. Fundamental molecular studies detailing this recently discovered regulatory mechanism pave the way for their prospective application for the construction of synthetic regulation networks. PMID:24636882

Bernal, Vicente; Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Gallego-Jara, Julia; Écija-Conesa, Ana; de Diego, Teresa; Iborra, José Luis; Cánovas, Manuel

2014-12-25

263

?-Glutamyl Hydrolase: Kinetic Characterization of Isopeptide Hydrolysis Using Fluorogenic Substrates†  

PubMed Central

?-Glutamyl hydrolase, a cysteine peptidase, catalyzes the hydrolysis of poly-?-glutamate derivatives of folate co-factors and many antifolate drugs. We have used internally quenched fluorogenic derivatives of glutamyl-?-glutamate and (4,4-difluoro)glutamyl-?-glutamate to examine the effect of fluorine substitution adjacent to the scissile isopeptide bond. Using a newly developed continuous fluorescence assay, the hydrolysis of both substrates could be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Fluorine substitution resulted in a significant decrease in observed rates of hydrolysis under steady-state conditions due primarily to a ~ 15-fold increase in Km. Using stopped-flow techniques, hydrolysis of the non-fluorinated isopeptide was characterized by a burst phase followed by a steady-state rate, indicating that formation of the acyl enzyme is not rate-limiting for hydrolysis of this isopeptide. This conclusion was confirmed by analysis of the progress curves over a wide range of substrate concentration, which demonstrated that the acylation rate (k2) is ~ 10-fold higher than the deacylation rate (k3). The increased value of Km associated with the difluoro derivative limited the ability to obtain comparable pre-steady-state kinetics data at saturating concentration of substrate due to inner filter effects. However, even under non-saturating conditions, a modest burst was observed for the difluoro derivative. These data indicate that either deacylation or rearrangement of the enzyme-product complex is rate-limiting in this isopeptide hydrolysis reaction. PMID:18171026

Alexander, Jessica P.; Ryan, Thomas J.; Ballou, David P.; Coward, James K.

2008-01-01

264

Crystal structure of tabtoxin resistance protein complexed with acetyl coenzyme A reveals the mechanism for {beta}-lactam acetylation.  

SciTech Connect

Tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) is an enzyme that renders tabtoxin-producing pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, tolerant to their own phytotoxins. Here, we report the crystal structure of TTR complexed with its natural cofactor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to 1.55 {angstrom} resolution. The binary complex forms a characteristic 'V' shape for substrate binding and contains the four motifs conserved in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, which also includes the histone acetyltransferases (HATs). A single-step mechanism is proposed to explain the function of three conserved residues, Glu92, Asp130 and Tyr141, in catalyzing the acetyl group transfer to its substrate. We also report that TTR possesses HAT activity and suggest an evolutionary relationship between TTR and other GNAT members.

He, H.; Ding, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Sun, F.; Le, Y.; Qin, X.; Tang, H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Liu, J.; Zhao, N.; Rao, Z.; Biosciences Division; Tsinghua Univ.; Chinese Academy of Science

2003-01-31

265

Inert and oxidative subcritical water hydrolysis of insoluble egg yolk granular protein, functional properties, and comparison to enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The use of enzymes to recover soluble peptides with functional properties from insoluble proteins could prove to be very expensive, implying high reaction times and low yields. In this study, the insoluble granular protein, previously delipidated, was hydrolyzed using enzymes (trypsin) as a comparison to the proposed alternative method: subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) using both nitrogen and oxygen streams. The result of the hydrolysis was characterized in terms of the yield and peptide size distribution as well as different functional properties. The SWH of the delipidated granules resulted in a higher recovery yield than that obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in half of the time. The foaming capacity of the peptides obtained by SWH was higher than that obtained by trypsin hydrolysis, although the foam stability was lower. Slight differences were detected between these peptides in terms of their emulsifying properties. PMID:25033007

Marcet, Ismael; Alvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

2014-08-13

266

Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities.  

PubMed

Loss of Werner syndrome protein function causes Werner syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN's DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor HU. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K

2014-08-01

267

Cell differentiation along multiple pathways accompanied by changes in histone acetylation status.  

PubMed

Post-translational modification of histones is fundamental to the regulation of basic nuclear processes and subsequent cellular events, including differentiation. In this study, we analyzed acetylated forms of histones H2A, H2B, and H4 during induced differentiation in mouse (mESCs) and human (hESCs) embryonic stem cells and during induced enterocytic differentiation of colon cancer cells in vitro. Endoderm-like differentiation of mESCs induced by retinoic acid and enterocytic differentiation induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate were accompanied by increased mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of histone H2B and a pronounced increase in di- and tri-acetylation of histone H4. In enterocytes, mono-acetylation of histone H2A also increased and tetra-acetylation of histone H4 appeared only after induction of this differentiation pathway. During differentiation of hESCs, we observed increased mono-acetylation and decreased tri-acetylation of H2B. Mono-, di-, and tri-acetylation of H4 were reduced, manifested by a significant increase in nonacetylated H4 histones. Levels of acetylated histones increased during induced differentiation in mESCs and during histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-induced enterocytic differentiation, whereas differentiation of human ESCs was associated with reduced acetylation of histones H2B and H4. PMID:24697692

Legartová, So?a; Kozubek, Stanislav; Franek, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyn?k; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Martinet, Nadine; Bártová, Eva

2014-04-01

268

Impacts of microalgae pre-treatments for improved anaerobic digestion: thermal treatment, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. Adoption of pre-treatments such as thermal, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to remove these inhibitory compounds and enhance biogas yields by degrading the cell wall, and releasing the intracellular algogenic organic matter (AOM). This work investigated the effect of four pre-treatments on three microalgae species, and their impact on the quantity of soluble biomass released in the media and thus on the digestion process yields. The analysis of the composition of the soluble COD released and of the TEM images of the cells showed two main degradation actions associated with the processes: (1) cell wall damage with the release of intracellular AOM (thermal, thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound) and (2) degradation of the cell wall constituents with the release of intracellular AOM and the solubilisation of the cell wall biopolymers (enzymatic hydrolysis). As a result of this, enzymatic hydrolysis showed the greatest biogas yield increments (>270%) followed by thermal hydrolysis (60-100%) and ultrasounds (30-60%). PMID:25150520

Ometto, Francesco; Quiroga, Gerardo; Pšeni?ka, Pavel; Whitton, Rachel; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

2014-11-15

269

Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass  

DOEpatents

A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

2000-01-01

270

Biomimetic catalysis for hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover.  

PubMed

Efficient and economical hydrolysis of plant cell wall polysaccharides into monomeric sugars is a significant technical hurdle in biomass processing for renewable fuels and chemicals. One possible approach to overcoming this hurdle is a biomimetic approach with dicarboxylic acid catalyst mimicking the catalytic core microenvironment in natural enzymes. This paper reports developments in the use of a dicarboxylic acid catalyst, maleic acid, for hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover. Hemicellulose hydrolysis and xylose degradation kinetics in the presence of maleic acid was compared to sulfuric acid. At optimized reaction conditions for each acid, maleic acid hydrolysis results in minimal xylose degradation, whereas sulfuric acid causes 3-10 times more xylose degradation. These results formed the basis for optimizing the hydrolysis of hemicellulose from corn stover using maleic acid. At 40 g/L dry corn stover solid-loading, both acid catalysts can achieve near-quantitative monomeric xylose yield. At higher solids loadings (150-200 g dry stover per liter), sulfuric acid catalyzed hydrolysis results in more than 30% degradation of the xylose, even under the previously reported optimal condition. However, as a result of minimized xylose degradation, optimized biomimetic hydrolysis of hemicellulose by maleic acid can reach approximately 95% monomeric xylose yields with trace amounts of furfural. Fermentation of the resulting unconditioned hydrolysate by recombinant S. cerevisiae results in 87% of theoretical ethanol yield. Enzyme digestibility experiments on the residual corn stover solids show that >90% yields of glucose can be produced in 160 h from the remaining cellulose with cellulases (15 FPU/g-glucan). PMID:17269678

Lu, Yulin; Mosier, Nathan S

2007-01-01

271

Distinct and Predictive Histone Lysine Acetylation Patterns at Promoters, Enhancers, and Gene Bodies  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotic cells, histone lysines are frequently acetylated. However, unlike modifications such as methylations, histone acetylation modifications are often considered redundant. As such, the functional roles of distinct histone acetylations are largely unexplored. We previously developed an algorithm RFECS to discover the most informative modifications associated with the classification or prediction of mammalian enhancers. Here, we used this tool to identify the modifications most predictive of promoters, enhancers, and gene bodies. Unexpectedly, we found that histone acetylation alone performs well in distinguishing these unique genomic regions. Further, we found the association of characteristic acetylation patterns with genic regions and association of chromatin state with splicing. Taken together, our work underscores the diverse functional roles of histone acetylation in gene regulation and provides several testable hypotheses to dissect these roles. PMID:25122670

Rajagopal, Nisha; Ernst, Jason; Ray, Pradipta; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Michael; Kellis, Manolis; Ren, Bing

2014-01-01

272

Distinct and predictive histone lysine acetylation patterns at promoters, enhancers, and gene bodies.  

PubMed

In eukaryotic cells, histone lysines are frequently acetylated. However, unlike modifications such as methylations, histone acetylation modifications are often considered redundant. As such, the functional roles of distinct histone acetylations are largely unexplored. We previously developed an algorithm RFECS to discover the most informative modifications associated with the classification or prediction of mammalian enhancers. Here, we used this tool to identify the modifications most predictive of promoters, enhancers, and gene bodies. Unexpectedly, we found that histone acetylation alone performs well in distinguishing these unique genomic regions. Further, we found the association of characteristic acetylation patterns with genic regions and association of chromatin state with splicing. Taken together, our work underscores the diverse functional roles of histone acetylation in gene regulation and provides several testable hypotheses to dissect these roles. PMID:25122670

Rajagopal, Nisha; Ernst, Jason; Ray, Pradipta; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Michael; Kellis, Manolis; Ren, Bing

2014-01-01

273

A Random Sequential Mechanism of Aminoglycoside Acetylation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Eis Protein  

PubMed Central

An important cause of bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is the enzymatic acetylation of their amino groups by acetyltransferases, which abolishes their binding to and inhibition of the bacterial ribosome. Enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) is one of such acetyltransferases, whose upregulation was recently established as a cause of resistance to aminoglycosides in clinical cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The mechanism of aminoglycoside acetylation by MtEis is not completely understood. A systematic analysis of steady-state kinetics of acetylation of kanamycin A and neomycin B by Eis as a function of concentrations of these aminoglycosides and the acetyl donor, acetyl coenzyme A, reveals that MtEis employs a random-sequential bisubstrate mechanism of acetylation and yields the values of the kinetic parameters of this mechanism. The implications of these mechanistic properties for the design of inhibitors of Eis and other aminoglycoside acetyltransferases are discussed. PMID:24699000

Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Green, Keith D.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

2014-01-01

274

Strength tests on acetylated aspen flakeboards exposed to a brown-rot fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspen flakeboards made from control flakes and acetylated flakes at 18% acetyl weight gain using phenol-formaldehyde or isocyanate adhesives were subjected to a bending creep test under progressive brown-rot fungal attack with Tyromyces palustris. Deflection of the boards was measured as a function of time until failure. Isocyanate-bonded control flakeboards failed in an average of 26 days, while isocyanate-bonded acetylated

Roger M. Rowell; John A. Youngquist; Yuji Imamura

1988-01-01

275

Determination of N-acetylation phenotyping in a greek population using caffeine as a metabolic probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Studies of isoniazid, the well known antituberculosis drug, have revealed that N-acetylation polymorphism, is of great clinical\\u000a importance. In human, N-acetylation is one of the most important pathways in the inactivation of isoniazid. Caffeine, which\\u000a is also biotransformed by N-acetylation, has been widely used as anin vivo probe for the assessment of N-acetyltransferase polymorphism. The activity of N-acetyltransferase can be

E. K. Asprodini; E. Zifa; I. Papageorgiou; A. Benakis

1998-01-01

276

Autoimmune regulator is acetylated by transcription coactivator CBP/p300  

SciTech Connect

The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is a regulator of transcription in the thymic medulla, where it controls the expression of a large set of peripheral-tissue specific genes. AIRE interacts with the transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase CBP and synergistically cooperates with it in transcriptional activation. Here, we aimed to study a possible role of AIRE acetylation in the modulation of its activity. We found that AIRE is acetylated in tissue culture cells and this acetylation is enhanced by overexpression of CBP and the CBP paralog p300. The acetylated lysines were located within nuclear localization signal and SAND domain. AIRE with mutations that mimicked acetylated K243 and K253 in the SAND domain had reduced transactivation activity and accumulated into fewer and larger nuclear bodies, whereas mutations that mimicked the unacetylated lysines were functionally similar to wild-type AIRE. Analogously to CBP, p300 localized to AIRE-containing nuclear bodies, however, the overexpression of p300 did not enhance the transcriptional activation of AIRE-regulated genes. Further studies showed that overexpression of p300 stabilized the AIRE protein. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that AIRE, with mutations mimicking K243/K253 acetylation in SAND, was able to activate gene expression, although the affected genes were different and the activation level was lower from those regulated by wild-type AIRE. Our results suggest that the AIRE acetylation can influence the selection of AIRE activated genes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE is acetylated by the acetyltransferases p300 and CBP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation occurs between CARD and SAND domains and within the SAND domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases the size of AIRE nuclear dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases AIRE protein stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE acetylation mimic regulates a different set of AIRE target genes.

Saare, Mario, E-mail: mario.saare@ut.ee [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia)] [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia); Rebane, Ana [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia) [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia); SIAF, Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, University of Zuerich, Davos (Switzerland); Rajashekar, Balaji; Vilo, Jaak [BIIT, Bioinformatics, Algorithmics and Data Mining group, Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia)] [BIIT, Bioinformatics, Algorithmics and Data Mining group, Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Peterson, Paert [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia)] [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, 19th Ravila Str, Tartu (Estonia)

2012-08-15

277

Acetyl-L-carnitine flux to lipids in cells estimated using isotopomer spectral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetyl-L-carnitine is known as a reservoir of acti- vated acetyl units and as a modulator of metabolic function. The objective of this study was to quantify the fate of the acetyl moiety of acetyh-carnitine in lipogenic pathways. Lipogenesis was studied in an adipocyte model, differentiated 3T3L1 cells, and a hepatoma cell, HepG2 cells. Lipogenesis and ketogene- sis were examined in

Luis Lligona-Trulla; Arduino Arduini; Tayseer A. Aldaghlas; Menotti Calvani; Joanne K. Kelleher

278

Regulation of Human Flap Endonuclease1 Activity by Acetylation through the Transcriptional Coactivator p300  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a role for the transcriptional coactivator p300 in DNA metabolism. p300 formed a complex with flap endonuclease-1 (Fen1) and acetylated Fen1 in vitro. Furthermore, Fen1 acetylation was observed in vivo and was enhanced upon UV treatment of human cells. Remarkably, acetylation of the Fen1 C terminus by p300 significantly reduced Fen1's DNA binding and nuclease activity. Proliferating cell

Sameez Hasan; Manuel Stucki; Paul O Hassa; Ralph Imhof; Peter Gehrig; Peter Hunziker; Ulrich Hübscher; Michael O Hottiger

2001-01-01

279

Epidemic based modeling of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

An epidemic based model was developed to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover. The process of substrate getting adsorbed and digested by enzyme was simulated as susceptibles getting infected by viruses and becoming removed and recovered. This model simplified the dynamic enzyme "infection" process and the catalysis of cellulose into a two-parameter controlled, enzyme behavior guided mechanism. Furthermore, the model incorporates the adsorption block by lignin and inhibition effects on cellulose catalysis. The model satisfactorily predicted the enzyme adsorption and hydrolysis, negative role of lignin, and inhibition effects over hydrolysis for a broad range of substrate and enzyme loadings. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the incorporation of lignin and other inhibition effects. Our model will be a useful tool for evaluating the effects of parameters during hydrolysis and guide a design strategy for continuous hydrolysis and the associated process control. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1021-1028, 2014. PMID:25079785

Tai, Chao; Arellano, Maria G; Keshwani, Deepak R

2014-09-01

280

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and various pretreated wood fractions  

SciTech Connect

Three strains of Trichoderma-Trichoderma reesei C30, Trichoderma reesei QM9414, and Trichoderma species E58-were used to study the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wood substrates. Each of the culture filtrates was incubated with a variety of commercially prepared cellulose substrates and pretreated wood substrates. Solka floc was the most easily degraded commercial cellulose. The enzyme accessibility of steam-exploded samples which has been alkali extracted and then stored wet decreased with the duration of the steam treatment. Air drying reduced the extent of hydrolysis of all the samples but had a greater effect on the samples which had previously shown the greatest hydrolysis. Mild pulping using 2% chlorite increased the enzymatic hydrolysis of all the samples. Steam explosion was shown to be an excellent pretreatment method for aspen wood and was much superior to dilute nitric acid pretreatment. The results indicate that the distribution of the lignin as well as the surface area of the cellulosic substrate are important features in enzymatic hydrolysis. (Refs 17).

Saddler, J.N.; Brownell, H.H.; Clermont, L.P.; Levitin, N.

1982-06-01

281

Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.  

PubMed

Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis. PMID:21487699

Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

2011-09-01

282

Characterization of casein hydrolysates derived from enzymatic hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Casein is the main proteinaceous component of milk and has made us interest due to its wide applications in the food, drug, and cosmetic industries as well as to its importance as an investigation material for elucidating essential questions regarding the protein chemistry. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important method commonly used in the modification of protein structure in order to enhance the functional properties of proteins. The relationship between enzymatic hydrolysis and structure change of casein need to make more study. Results During hydrolysis, degree of hydrolysis in the casein hydrolysates increased rapidly in the initial 20 minutes, reached a plateau after 45 minutes, and then kept relative constant for the rest of the hydrolysis. The relative percentage of the released peptides with molecular weight of over 50 kD significantly decreased with hydrolyzation, while those with MW of 30–50 kD and below 20 kD increased significantly. The contents of a-helix and ?-turn in the hydrolysates increased compared to the original casein. Moreover, the molecular flexibilities of the casein hydrolysates, estimated by the ratio of ?-helix to ?-structure, were lower than that of original casein protein. Conclusions The significant changes in molecular weight distribution and structure characteristics of casein hydrolysates were found compared to the control sample. This change should be the basis of enhancement of functional properties. PMID:23556455

2013-01-01

283

Theoretical studies of the ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin.  

PubMed Central

The ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin was studied using quantum chemical (QM) and molecular dynamics calculations. The initial model compound for QM calculations was constructed on the basis of the energy-minimized structure of the myosin(S1dc)-ATP complex, which was determined by molecular mechanics calculations. The result of QM calculations suggested that the ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin consists of a single elementary reaction in which a water molecule nucleophilically attacked gamma-phosphorus of ATP. In addition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the initial and final states of the ATP hydrolysis reaction, that is, the myosin-ATP and myosin-ADP.Pi complexes. These calculations revealed roles of several amino acid residues (Lys185, Thr186, Ser237, Arg238, and Glu459) in the ATPase pocket. Lys185 maintains the conformation of beta- and gamma-phosphate groups of ATP by forming the hydrogen bonds. Thr186 and Ser237 are coordinated to a Mg(2+) ion, which interacts with the phosphates of ATP and therefore contributes to the stabilization of the ATP structure. Arg238 and Glu459, which consisted of the gate of the ATPase pocket, retain the water molecule acting on the hydrolysis at the appropriate position for initiating the hydrolysis. PMID:11606291

Okimoto, N; Yamanaka, K; Ueno, J; Hata, M; Hoshino, T; Tsuda, M

2001-01-01

284

Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2013-01-01

285

Enzymatic 2'-N-acetylation of arbekacin and antibiotic activity of its product.  

PubMed

Aminoglycoside antibiotics (AGs) with a free 2'-amino group were subjected to enzymatic N-acetylation using a cell free extract that contained an aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase, AAC (2'), derived from a kasugamycin-producing strain of Streptomyces kasugaensis. TLC and antibiotic assay of the incubated reaction mixtures revealed that a modified compound retaining substantial antibiotic activity was formed from arbekacin (ABK), while modification of the other AGs resulted in the marked decrease in antibiotic activity. Structure determination following isolation from a large scale reaction mixture showed the modified ABK to be 2'-N-acetyl ABK. In addition, 2',6'-di-N-acetyl ABK was formed as a minor product. The same conversion also occurred with dibekacin (DKB) resulting in the formation of 2'-N-acetyl DKB and 2',6'-di-N-acetyl DKB. MIC determination showed antibacterial activity (1.56 approximately 3.13 micrograms/ml) of 2'-N-acetyl ABK against a variety of organisms. By contrast, 2'-N-acetyl DKB showed no substantial antibiotic activity. We believe 2'-N-acetyl ABK has the highest and broadest antibacterial activity, compared with known N-acetylated AGs. PMID:8682723

Hotta, K; Zhu, C B; Ogata, T; Sunada, A; Ishikawa, J; Mizuno, S; Ikeda, Y; Kondo, S

1996-05-01

286

Peptidoglycan O Acetylation and Autolysin Profile of Enterococcus faecalis in the Viable but Nonculturable State  

PubMed Central

The O acetylation of peptidoglycan occurs specifically at the C-6 hydroxyl group of muramoyl residues. Using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography-based organic acid analysis and carbohydrate analysis by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography, we determined that strains of Entercoccus durans, E. faecalis, E. faecium, and E. hirae produce O-acetylated peptidoglycan. The levels of O acetylation ranged from 19% to 72% relative to the muramic acid content, and they were found to vary with the growth phase of the culture. Increases of 10 to 40% in O acetylation were observed with cultures entering the stationary phase. Cells of E. faecalis in the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state had the highest levels of peptidoglycan O acetylation. The presence of this modification to peptidoglycan was shown to inhibit the action of hen egg white lysozyme in a concentration-dependent manner. Zymography using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels containing either O-acetylated or chemically de-O-acetylated peptidoglycan was used to monitor the production of specific autolysins in E. faecalis. Differences in the expression of specific autolysins were observed with the age of the culture, and VBNC E. faecalis produced the highest levels of these enzymes. This technique also permitted classification of the enterococcal autolysins into enzymes that preferentially hydrolyze either O-acetylated or non-O-acetylated peptidoglycan and enzymes that show no apparent preference for either substrate type. PMID:16428393

Pfeffer, John M.; Strating, Hendrik; Weadge, Joel T.; Clarke, Anthony J.

2006-01-01

287

Structure of the ?-tubulin acetyltransferase, ?TAT1, and implications for tubulin-specific acetylation.  

PubMed

Protein acetylation is an important posttranslational modification with the recent identification of new substrates and enzymes, new links to disease, and modulators of protein acetylation for therapy. ?-Tubulin acetyltransferase (?TAT1) is the major ?-tubulin lysine-40 (K40) acetyltransferase in mammals, nematodes, and protozoa, and its activity plays a conserved role in several microtubule-based processes. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structure of the human ?TAT1/acetyl-CoA complex. Together with structure-based mutagenesis, enzymatic analysis, and functional studies in cells, we elucidate the catalytic mechanism and mode of tubulin-specific acetylation. We find that ?TAT1 has an overall fold similar to the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase but contains a relatively wide substrate binding groove and unique structural elements that play important roles in ?-tubulin-specific acetylation. Conserved aspartic acid and cysteine residues play important catalytic roles through a ternary complex mechanism. ?TAT1 mutations have analogous effects on tubulin acetylation in vitro and in cells, demonstrating that it is the central determining factor of ?-tubulin K40 acetylation levels in vivo. Together, these studies provide general insights into distinguishing features between histone and tubulin acetyltransferases, and they have specific implications for understanding the molecular basis of tubulin acetylation and for developing small molecule modulators of microtubule acetylation for therapy. PMID:23071314

Friedmann, David R; Aguilar, Andrea; Fan, Jiayi; Nachury, Maxence V; Marmorstein, Ronen

2012-11-27

288

Histone Acetylation and CREB Binding Protein Are Required for Neuronal Resistance against Ischemic Injury  

E-print Network

Epigenetic transcriptional regulation by histone acetylation depends on the balance between histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase activities (HDAC). Inhibition of HDAC activity provides neuroprotection, indicating ...

Yildirim, Ferah

289

Acetylation-defective mutants of Ppar? are associated with decreased lipid synthesis in breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

In our prior publications we characterized a conserved acetylation motif (K(R)xxKK) of evolutionarily related nuclear receptors. Recent reports showed that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) deacetylation by SIRT1 is involved in delaying cellular senescence and maintaining the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. However, it still remains unknown whether lysyl residues 154 and 155 (K154/155) of the conserved acetylation motif (RIHKK) in Ppar?1 are acetylated. Herein, we demonstrate that Ppar?1 is acetylated and regulated by both endogenous TSA-sensitive and NAD-dependent deacetylases. Acetylation of lysine 154 was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) while deacetylation of lysine 155 by SIRT1 was confirmed by in vitro deacetylation assay. An in vivo labeling assay revealed K154/K155 as bona fide acetylation sites. The conserved acetylation sites of Ppar?1 and the catalytic domain of SIRT1 are both required for the interaction between Ppar?1 and SIRT1. Sirt1 and Ppar?1 converge to govern lipid metabolism in vivo. Acetylation-defective mutants of Ppar?1 were associated with reduced lipid synthesis in ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that the conserved lysyl residues K154/K155 of Ppar?1 are acetylated and play an important role in lipid synthesis in ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:25229978

Tian, Lifeng; Wang, Chenguang; Hagen, Fred K.; Gormley, Michael; Addya, Sankar; Soccio, Raymond; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Zhou, Jie; Powell, Michael J.; Xu, Ping; Deng, Haiteng; Sauve, Anthony A.; Pestell, Richard G.

2014-01-01

290

Acetylation-defective mutant of Ppar? is associated with decreased lipid synthesis in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

In our prior publications we characterized a conserved acetylation motif (K(R)xxKK) of evolutionarily related nuclear receptors. Recent reports showed that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) deacetylation by SIRT1 is involved in delaying cellular senescence and maintaining the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. However, it still remains unknown whether lysyl residues 154 and 155 (K154/155) of the conserved acetylation motif (RIHKK) in Ppar?1 are acetylated. Herein, we demonstrate that Ppar?1 is acetylated and regulated by both endogenous TSA-sensitive and NAD-dependent deacetylases. Acetylation of lysine 154 was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) while deacetylation of lysine 155 by SIRT1 was confirmed by in vitro deacetylation assay. An in vivo labeling assay revealed K154/K155 as bona fide acetylation sites. The conserved acetylation sites of Ppar?1 and the catalytic domain of SIRT1 are both required for the interaction between Ppar?1 and SIRT1. Sirt1 and Ppar?1 converge to govern lipid metabolism in vivo. Acetylation-defective mutants of Ppar?1 were associated with reduced lipid synthesis in ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that the conserved lysyl residues K154/K155 of Ppar?1 are acetylated and play an important role in lipid synthesis in ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:25229978

Tian, Lifeng; Wang, Chenguang; Hagen, Fred K; Gormley, Michael; Addya, Sankar; Soccio, Raymond; Casimiro, Mathew C; Zhou, Jie; Powell, Michael J; Xu, Ping; Deng, Haiteng; Sauve, Anthony A; Pestell, Richard G

2014-09-15

291

3-(2-Acetyl-anilino)propanoic acid  

PubMed Central

The title mol­ecule, C11H13NO3, has its propanoic acid group in an extended conformation, such that the mol­ecule is nearly planar, with a mean deviation of 0.036?Å [the maxima being 0.106?(1) and 0.110?(1)?Å for the two methyl­ene C atoms]. The NH group forms an intra­molecular hydrogen bond with the acetyl group; in the crystal COOH group forms a centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimer. PMID:21581332

Sparrow, Christopher R.; Walker, Edwin H.; Fronczek, Frank R.

2008-01-01

292

Base hydrolysis and supercritical water oxidation of PBX-9404  

SciTech Connect

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. The authors also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.; Sanchez, J.A.

1994-11-09

293

Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive  

SciTech Connect

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, we examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. We also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.

1994-12-31

294

Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive  

SciTech Connect

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. The authors also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.

1995-04-01

295

Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.  

PubMed

Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24755261

Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

2014-07-01

296

Effect of cyclodextrins on the acid hydrolysis of digoxin.  

PubMed

The effects of three cyclodextrins (alpha-, beta-, gamma-CyD) on the acid hydrolysis of digoxin were examined. From the high performance liquid chromatographic tracing of each of the four components (digoxin, bisdigitoxoside, monodigitoxoside, digoxigenin) in reaction mixtures, the individual rate constants (K1-K6) were determined by analogue computer simulation. The hydrolysis was suppressed by CyDs in the order of beta-great than gamma-greater than alpha-greater than-CyD, where beta-CyD inhibited the appearance rates of digoxigenin (k3, K5, and K6) significantly. In the dissolution study of digoxin tablets, the increase in dissolution rate and decrease in acid hydrolysis were attained by inclusion complexation. The data are presented suggesting that CyDs are useful for improving the oral bioavailability of digoxin. PMID:6128384

Uekama, K; Fujinaga, T; Hirayama, F; Otagiri, M; Kurono, Y; Ikeda, K

1982-10-01

297

Stereochemical applications of potential energy calculations Part VIII. MM2 conformational analysis of acetyl- L-phenylalanine p-acetyl anilide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous empirical energy calculations of the conformations of acetyl- L—phenylalanine p-acetyl anilide were revised using molecular mechanics model (MM2) with full geometry optimization. Except for finding additional local minima with respect to side-chain rotations, the results confirmed the possibility for closure of seven-membered rings (C eq7 conformer) through an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the acetyl carbonyl oxygen atom and the anilide hydrogen atom. Contrary to experimental evidence, some MM2(87) torsional parameters referring to the N?C ? (?) and C ??C' (?) rotations tend to favour C eq7 strongly with respect to C 5 backbone conformations.

Ivanov, Petko M.; Ivanova, Maria I.

1992-06-01

298

C-lactam derivatives of oleanolic acid. hydrolysis and further acylation of methyl acetyloleanolate C-lactam and C-thiolactam.  

PubMed

Acetyl methyl oleanolate was transformed into a seven-membered C-lactam derivative (2) using Beckmann rearrangement of the corresponding C-oxime during the last step of the synthesis. The C=O group of the lactam system was transformed into a C=S group by Lavesson's reagent. The resulting acetylthiolactam 3 and initial acetyllactam 2 were subjected to alkaline hydrolysis to obtain lactam 4 and thiolactam 5 with an unsubstituted C-3 hydroxyl group. Subsequently, compounds 4 and 5 were acylated with either succinic or acetic anhydride in pyridine. Various acylating conditions were tested for hydroxythiolactam 5. The structures of the newly obtained compounds were supported by spectral and mass spectrometric data. PMID:24689221

Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

2014-03-01

299

Hydrolysis and photolysis of oxytetracycline in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Oxytetracycline ((2Z,4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6S,12aS)-2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene-1,3,12-trione) is a member of tetracycline antibiotics family and is widely administered to farm animals for the purpose of therapeutical treatment and health protection. Increasing attention has been paid to the environmental fate of oxytetracycline and other veterinary antibiotics with the occurrence of these antibiotics in the environment. The hydrolysis and photolysis degradation of oxytetracycline was investigated in this study. Oxytetracycline hydrolysis was found to obey the first-order model and similar rate constant values ranging from 0.094 +/- 0.001 to 0.106 +/- 0.003 day(-1) were obtained at different initial concentration ranging from 10 to 230 microM. Solution pH and temperature were shown to have remarked effects on oxytetracycline hydrolysis. The hydrolysis in pH neutral solution appeared to be much faster than in both acidic and alkaline solutions. Oxytetracycline half-life decreased from 1.2 x 10(2) to 0.15 day with the increasing temperature from 4 +/- 0.8 to 60 +/- 1 degrees C. The presence of Ca(2+) made oxytetracycline hydrolytic degradation kinetics deviate from the simple first-order model to the availability-adjusted first-order model and greatly slowed down the hydrolysis. Oxytetracycline photolysis was found to be very fast with a degradation rate constant at 3.61 +/- 0.06 day(-1), which is comparable to that of hydrolysis at 60 degrees C. The presence of Ca(2+) accelerated oxytetracycline photolysis, implying that oxytetracycline become more vulnerable to sunlight irradiation after chelating with Ca(2+). The photolysis may be the dominant degradation pathway of oxytetracycline in shallow transparent water environment. PMID:20390934

Xuan, Richeng; Arisi, Lestley; Wang, Qiquan; Yates, Scott R; Biswas, Keka C

2010-01-01

300

Fundamental Reaction Pathway and Free Energy Profile for Butyrylcholinesterase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Heroin  

PubMed Central

The pharmacological function of heroin requires an activation process which transforms heroin into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which is the most active form. The primary enzyme responsible for this activation process in human plasma is butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The detailed reaction pathway of the activation process via BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis has been explored computationally, for the first time, in the present study by performing molecular dynamics simulation and first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy calculations. It has been demonstrated that the whole reaction process includes acylation and deacylation stages. The acylation consists of two reaction steps, i.e. the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of 3-acetyl group of heroin by the hydroxyl oxygen of Ser198 side chain and the dissociation of 6-MAM. The deacylation also consists of two reaction steps, i.e. the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the acyl-enzyme intermediate by a water molecule and the dissociation of the acetic acid from Ser198. The calculated free energy profile reveals that the second transition state (TS2) should be rate-determining. The structural analysis reveals that the oxyanion hole of BChE plays an important role in the stabilization of the rate-determining transition state TS2. The free energy barrier (15.9±0.2 or 16.1±0.2 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is in good agreement with the experimentally-derived activation free energy (~16.2 kcal/mol), suggesting that the mechanistic insights obtained from the present computational study are reliable. The obtained structural and mechanistic insights could be valuable for use in future rational design of a novel therapeutic treatment of heroin abuse. PMID:23992153

Qiao, Yan; Han, Keli; Zhan, Chang-Guo

2013-01-01

301

Microwave-assisted hydrolysis of polysaccharides over polyoxometalate clusters.  

PubMed

Polyoxometalate (POM) clusters were utilized as recyclable acid catalysts and microwave-absorbing agents for the microwave-assisted hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose. Phosphotungstic (PW) and silicotungstic (SiW) acids showed high hydrolyzing activity, while phosphomolybdic acid (PMo) showed lower glucose stability. The PW catalyst could be recycled by ether extraction at least 4 times without changing its catalytic activity. The addition of PW could reduce the energy demand required for running the hydrolysis by 17-23%. The dielectric property of the aqueous PW solution was important for increasing the microwave-absorption capability of the reaction system and reducing the energy consumption. PMID:23859983

Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Ueda, Tadaharu; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-ichi

2013-09-01

302

Hydrolysis for direct esterification of lipids from wet microalgae.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of lipids from microalgae under high water content was investigated as a pretreatment of direct esterification. Results indicated that the hydrolysis process reduced the inhibition by water in FAME production; in addition, FAME obtained by esterification of hydrolysates was increased by 181.7% compared to FAME obtained by direct transesterification under the same amount of water content (80%). This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since it uses no organic solvent, reduces the drying cost and lowers the operating cost compared to any other traditional method. PMID:23856586

Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Yutaka

2013-09-01

303

The Mechanisms of Plant Cell Wall Deconstruction during Enzymatic Hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Mechanical agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble plant biomass at high dry matter contents is indispensable for the initial liquefaction step in biorefining. It is known that particle size reduction is an important part of liquefaction, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we put forward a simple model based on mechanical principles capable of capturing the result of the interaction between mechanical forces and cell wall weakening via hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds. This study illustrates that basic material science insights are relevant also within biochemistry, particularly when it comes to up-scaling of processes based on insoluble feed stocks. PMID:25232741

Thygesen, Lisbeth G.; Thybring, Emil E.; Johansen, Katja S.; Felby, Claus

2014-01-01

304

Acetyl radical production by the methylglyoxal-peroxynitrite system: a possible route for L-lysine acetylation.  

PubMed

Methylglyoxal is an ?-oxoaldehyde putatively produced in excess from triose phosphates, aminoacetone, and acetone in some disorders, particularly in diabetes. Here, we investigate the nucleophilic addition of ONOO(-), known as a potent oxidant and nucleophile, to methylglyoxal, yielding an acetyl radical intermediate and ultimately formate and acetate ions. The rate of ONOO(-) decay in the presence of methylglyoxal [k(2,app) = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1); k(2) ? 1.0 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)] at pH 7.2 and 25 °C was found to be faster than that reported with monocarbonyl substrates (k(2) < 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), diacetyl (k(2) = 1.0 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), or CO(2) (k(2) = 3-6 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). The pH profile of the methylglyoxal-peroxynitrite reaction describes an ascendant curve with an inflection around pH 7.2, which roughly coincides with the pK(a) values of both ONOOH and H(2)PO(4)(-) ion. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping experiments with 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane revealed concentration-dependent formation of an adduct that can be attributed to 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane-CH(3)CO(•) (a(N) = 0.83 mT). Spin trapping with 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzene sulfonate gave a signal that could be assigned to a methyl radical adduct [a(N) = 1.41 mT; a(H) = 1.35 mT; a(H(m)) = 0.08 mT]. The 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane-CH(3)CO(•) adduct could also be observed by replacement of ONOO(-) with H(2)O(2), although at much lower yields. Acetyl radicals could be also trapped by added L-lysine as indicated by the presence of (?)N-acetyl-L-lysine in the spent reaction mixture. This raises the hypothesis that ONOO(-)/H(2)O(2) in the presence of methylglyoxal is endowed with the potential to acetylate proteins in post-translational processes. PMID:20923167

Massari, Júlio; Tokikawa, Rita; Zanolli, Luiz; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi; Assunção, Nilson Antônio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques

2010-11-15

305

SAHA Regulates Histone Acetylation, Butyrylation, and Protein Expression in Neuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence suggests that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a clinically approved HDAC inhibitor for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, shows promising clinical benefits in neuroblastoma, the most common extra cranial solid neoplasm with limited choice of therapeutic intervention. However, the molecular mechanism under which the compound exerts its antitumor effect remains elusive. Here we report a quantitative proteomics study that determines changes of protein expression, histone lysine acetylation, and butyrylation in response to SAHA treatment. We detected and quantified 28 histone lysine acetylation and 18 histone lysine butyrylation marks, most of which are dramatically induced by SAHA. Importantly, we identified 11 histone Kbu sites as novel histone marks in human cells. Furthermore, quantitative proteomic analysis identified 5426 proteins, among which 510 proteins were up-regulated and 508 proteins were down-regulated (significant p value <0.05). The subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified distinct SAHA-response gene ontology (GO) categories and signaling pathways, including cellular metabolism and DNA-dependent pathways. Our study therefore reveals new histone epigenetic marks and offers key insights into the molecular mechanism by which SAHA regulates proteomic changes in neuroblastoma cells and identifies biomarker candidates for SAHA. PMID:25160476

Xu, Guofeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Zhixiang; Qian, Lili; Dai, Lunzhi; Wan, Xuelian; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Wu, Yeming

2014-10-01

306

Protein acetylation sites mediated by Schistosoma mansoni GCN5  

SciTech Connect

The transcriptional co-activator GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcription activation. As in other eukaryotes, the DNA from the parasite Schistosome mansoni is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Using a series of synthetic peptides we determined that Lys-14 of histone H3 was acetylated by the recombinant SmGCN5-HAT domain. SmGCN5 was also able to acetylate schistosome non-histone proteins, such as the nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1, and the co-activator SmNCoA-62. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of SmGCN5 protein in the nuclei of vitelline cells. Within the nucleus, SmGCN5 was found to be located in interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs), which are transcriptionally active structures. The data suggest that SmGCN5 is involved in transcription activation.

Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Furtado Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Meirelles Bastosde Oliveira, Francisco; Rumjanek, Franklin David [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil); Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado [Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Programa de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590 (Brazil)], E-mail: fantappie@bioqmed.ufrj.br

2008-05-23

307

3?-O-Acetyl-2?-de-oxy-uridine  

PubMed Central

In the two independent but very similar mol­ecules of the title compound, C11H14N2O6, both nucleobase fragments are nearly planar (both within 0.01?Å) while the furan­ose rings exhibit 2 E-endo envelope conformations. In the crystal, the two 3?-O-acetyl-2?-de­oxy­uridine mol­ecules form a pseudosymmetric dimer of two bases connected via two nearly identical resonance-assisted N—H?O hydrogen bonds. The resulting pair is further connected with neighboring pairs via two similar O—H?O bonds involving the only hydroxyl group of the 2?-de­oxy­furan­ose fragment and the remaining carbonyl oxygen of the nucleobase. These inter­actions result in the formation of an infinite ‘double band’ along the b axis that can be considered as a self-assembled analogue of a polynucleotide mol­ecule with non-canonical Watson–Crick base pairs. The infinite chains of 3?-O-acetyl-2?-de­oxy­uridine pairs are additionally held together by C—H?O inter­actions involving C atoms of the uracyl base and O atoms of carbonyl groups. Only weak C—H?O contacts exist between neighboring chains. PMID:21522742

Doboszewski, Bogdan; Nazarenko, Alexander Y.; Nemykin, Victor N.

2011-01-01

308

Two Arabidopsis proteins synthesize acetylated xylan in vitro.  

PubMed

Xylan is the third most abundant glycopolymer on earth after cellulose and chitin. As a major component of wood, grain and forage, this natural biopolymer has far-reaching impacts on human life. This highly acetylated cell wall polysaccharide is a vital component of the plant cell wall, which functions as a molecular scaffold, providing plants with mechanical strength and flexibility. Mutations that impair synthesis of the xylan backbone give rise to plants that fail to grow normally because of collapsed xylem cells in the vascular system. Phenotypic analysis of these mutants has implicated many proteins in xylan biosynthesis; however, the enzymes directly responsible for elongation and acetylation of the xylan backbone have not been unambiguously identified. Here we provide direct biochemical evidence that two Arabidopsis thaliana proteins, IRREGULAR XYLEM 10-L (IRX10-L) and ESKIMO1/TRICOME BIREFRINGENCE 29 (ESK1/TBL29), catalyze these respective processes in vitro. By identifying the elusive xylan synthase and establishing ESK1/TBL29 as the archetypal plant polysaccharide O-acetyltransferase, we have resolved two long-standing questions in plant cell wall biochemistry. These findings shed light on integral steps in the molecular pathways used by plants to synthesize a major component of the world's biomass and expand our toolkit for producing glycopolymers with valuable properties. PMID:25141999

Urbanowicz, Breeanna R; Peña, Maria J; Moniz, Heather A; Moremen, Kelley W; York, William S

2014-10-01

309

Acetylation of MKP-1 and the Control of Inflammation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a class of pattern-recognition receptors, play a critical role in the defense against microbial pathogens. However, excessive TLR-mediated responses result in sepsis, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammation. To prevent deleterious activation of TLRs, cells have evolved multiple mechanisms that inhibit innate immune reactions. Stimulation of TLRs induces the expression of the gene encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a nuclear-localized dual-specificity phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in the attenuation of TLR-triggered production of proinflammatory cytokines. MKP-1 is posttranslationally modified by multiple mechanisms, including phosphorylation. A study now demonstrates that MKP-1 is also acetylated on a key lysine residue following stimulation of TLRs. Acetylation of MKP-1 promotes the interaction of MKP-1 with its substrate p38 MAPK, which results in dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK and the inhibition of innate immunity.

Hongbo Chi (Department of Immunology; REV); Richard A. Flavell (Yale University School of Medicine;Howard Hughes Medical Institute REV)

2008-10-14

310

Cationised O-acetyl galactoglucomannans: synthesis and characterisation.  

PubMed

Water-soluble O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGMs) can be obtained from Norway spruce by hot-water-extraction of the wood or as a side product by ultrafiltration of mechanical pulping waters. Cationic and amphiphilic polysaccharides and their derivatives are of interest for a number of applications and thus quaternary nitrogen moieties with cationic charge were grafted onto GGMs in the heterogeneous reaction to render a cationic polyelectrolyte. The degree of substitution was measured by elemental analysis of nitrogen, by quantitative (13)C NMR and interestingly also by polyelectrolyte titration and the results were congruent. NMR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS), and FT-IR analysis were used to characterise the product. THF or DMSO with water enhanced the reaction efficiency and decreased M(w) reduction in comparison to plain water as a reaction media. Cationised GGM was also successfully acetylated. The cationic derivatives of hemicelluloses can potentially be utilised as polyelectrolyte layers in packaging and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:24274567

Kisonen, Victor; Xu, Chunlin; Eklund, Patrik; Lindqvist, Hanna; Sundberg, Anna; Pranovich, Andrey; Sinkkonen, Jari; Vilaplana, Francisco; Willför, Stefan

2014-01-01

311

Acetylation Increases EWS-FLI1 DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activity  

PubMed Central

Ewing Sarcoma (ES) is associated with a balanced chromosomal translocation that in most cases leads to the expression of the oncogenic fusion protein and transcription factor EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 has been shown to be crucial for ES cell survival and tumor growth. However, its regulation is still enigmatic. To date, no functionally significant post-translational modifications of EWS-FLI1 have been shown. Since ES are sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI), and these inhibitors are advancing in clinical trials, we sought to identify if EWS-FLI1 is directly acetylated. We convincingly show acetylation of the C-terminal FLI1 (FLI1-CTD) domain, which is the DNA binding domain of EWS-FLI1. In vitro acetylation studies showed that acetylated FLI1-CTD has higher DNA binding activity than the non-acetylated protein. Over-expression of PCAF or treatment with HDI increased the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1, when co-expressed in Cos7 cells. However, our data that evaluates the acetylation of full-length EWS-FLI1 in ES cells remains unclear, despite creating acetylation specific antibodies to four potential acetylation sites. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 may either gain access to chromatin as a result of histone acetylation or undergo regulation by direct acetylation. These data should be considered when patients are treated with HDAC inhibitors. Further investigation of this phenomenon will reveal if this potential acetylation has an impact on tumor response. PMID:22973553

Schlottmann, Silke; Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Knights, Chad; Cheema, Amrita; Uren, Aykut; Avantaggiati, Maria L.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

312

Acetylome Analysis Reveals Diverse Functions of Lysine Acetylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The lysine acetylation of proteins is a reversible post-translational modification that plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tuberculosis. Increasing evidence shows that lysine acetylation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. However, only a few acetylated proteins of M. tuberculosis are known, presenting a major obstacle to understanding the functional roles of reversible lysine acetylation in this pathogen. We performed a global acetylome analysis of M. tuberculosis H37Ra by combining protein/peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and LC-MS/MS. In total, we identified 226 acetylation sites in 137 proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Ra. The identified acetylated proteins were functionally categorized into an interaction map and shown to be involved in various biological processes. Consistent with previous reports, a large proportion of the acetylation sites were present on proteins involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the citrate cycle, and fatty acid metabolism. A NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase (MRA_1161) deletion mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Ra was constructed and its characterization showed a different colony morphology, reduced biofilm formation, and increased tolerance of heat stress. Interestingly, lysine acetylation was found, for the first time, to block the immunogenicity of a peptide derived from a known immunogen, HspX, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays a regulatory role in immunogenicity. Our data provide the first global survey of lysine acetylation in M. tuberculosis. The dataset should be an important resource for the functional analysis of lysine acetylation in M. tuberculosis and facilitate the clarification of the entire metabolic networks of this life-threatening pathogen. PMID:25180227

Liu, Fengying; Yang, Mingkun; Wang, Xude; Yang, Shanshan; Gu, Jing; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Xian-En; Deng, Jiaoyu; Ge, Feng

2014-12-01

313

The dynamics of conformational isomerization in flexible biomolecules. I. Hole-filling spectroscopy of N-acetyl tryptophan methyl amide and N-acetyl tryptophan amide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conformational isomerization dynamics of N-acetyl tryptophan methyl amide (NATMA) and N-acetyl tryptophan amide (NATA) have been studied using the methods of IR-UV hole-filling spectroscopy (HFS) and IR-induced population transfer spectroscopy (IR-PTS), which were developed for this purpose. Single conformations of these molecules were selectively excited in well-defined NH stretch fundamentals. This excess energy was used to drive conformational isomerization.

Brian C. Dian; Asier Longarte; Paul R. Winter; Timothy S. Zwier

2004-01-01

314

Identification of the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-inducible element in the promoter of the Trichoderma atroviride nag1 gene encoding N-acetyl-glucosaminidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the regulation by N-acetyl-glucosamine of the nag1 gene of the mycoparasitic biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride (=T. harzianum P1), which encodes a 73-kDa N-acetyl-#-D-glucosaminidase. The use of translational fusions revealed that a 290-bp fragment of the 5' regulatory region of nag1 is sufficient to confer inducibility on the Aspergillus niger goxA gene. The region between positions -150 and

C. Peterbauer; K. Brunner; R. Mach; C. Kubicek

2002-01-01

315

The Role of Histone Acetylation in Cocaine-Induced Neural Plasticity and Behavior  

E-print Network

The Role of Histone Acetylation in Cocaine-Induced Neural Plasticity and Behavior George A Rogge1 of abuse, such as cocaine, cause stable changes in neural plasticity that in turn drive long-term changes regulation via histone acetylation in cocaine action. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews advance online

Wood, Marcelo A.

316

Acetylation of RNA Processing Proteins and Cell Cycle Proteins in Mitosis  

PubMed Central

Mitosis is a highly regulated process in which errors can lead to genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. During this phase of the cell cycle, transcription is silent and RNA translation is inhibited. Thus, mitosis is largely driven by posttranslational modification of proteins, including phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation. Here, we show that protein acetylation is prevalent during mitosis. To identify proteins that are acetylated, we synchronized HeLa cells in early prometaphase and immunoprecipitated lysine-acetylated proteins with anti-acetyl-lysine antibody. The immunoprecipitated proteins were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These include proteins involved in RNA translation, RNA processing, cell cycle regulation, transcription, chaperone function, DNA damage repair, metabolism, immune response and cell structure. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analyses confirmed that two RNA processing proteins, eIF4G and RNA helicase A, and several cell cycle proteins, including APC1, anillin and NudC, were acetylated in mitosis. We further showed that acetylation of APC1 and NudC was enhanced by apicidin treatment, suggesting that their acetylation was regulated by histone deacetylase. Moreover, treating mitotic cells with apicidin or trichostatin A induced spindle abnormalities and cytokinesis failure. These studies suggest that protein acetylation/deacetylation is likely an important regulatory mechanism in mitosis. PMID:20812760

Chuang, Carol; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Huang, Feilei; Pan, Jing; Josic, Djuro; Yu-Lee, Li-yuan

2010-01-01

317

A Simplified Procedure for the Acetylation of Hardwood and Softwood Flaxes for Flakeboard Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern pine and aspen flakes were acetylated with acetic anhydride alone without cosolvent or catalyst by a simple dip procedure. The new procedure greatly shortens reaction time and simplifies chemical recovery. Acetylation weight gains of 15% to 20% can be achieved in 1 to 3 hours with southern pine flakes and in 2 to 4 hours with aspen flakes.Flakeboards made

Roger M. Rowell; Anne-Marie Tillman; Rune Simonson

1986-01-01

318

ASEB: a web server for KAT-specific acetylation site prediction  

PubMed Central

Protein lysine acetylation plays an important role in the normal functioning of cells, including gene expression regulation, protein stability and metabolism regulation. Although large amounts of lysine acetylation sites have been identified via large-scale mass spectrometry or traditional experimental methods, the lysine (K)-acetyl-transferase (KAT) responsible for the acetylation of a given protein or lysine site remains largely unknown due to the experimental limitations of KAT substrate identification. Hence, the in silico prediction of KAT-specific acetylation sites may provide direction for further experiments. In our previous study, we developed the acetylation set enrichment based (ASEB) computer program to predict which KAT-families are responsible for the acetylation of a given protein or lysine site. In this article, we provide KAT-specific acetylation site prediction as a web service. This web server not only provides the online tool and R package for the method in our previous study, but several useful services are also included, such as the integration of protein–protein interaction information to enhance prediction accuracy. This web server can be freely accessed at http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/huac. PMID:22600735

Wang, Likun; Du, Yipeng; Lu, Ming; Li, Tingting

2012-01-01

319

Neuroprotection by Acetyl-L-Carnitine after Traumatic Injury to the Immature Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and is characterized by reduced aerobic cerebral energy metabolism early after injury, possibly due to impaired activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Exogenous acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is metabolized in the brain to acetyl coenzyme A and subsequently enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle. ALCAR administration is neuroprotective in

Susanna Scafidi; Jennifer Racz; Julie Hazelton; Mary C. McKenna; Gary Fiskum

2010-01-01

320

Total Levels of Hippocampal Histone Acetylation Predict Normal Variability in Mouse Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic, pharmacological, and environmental interventions that alter total levels of histone acetylation in specific brain regions can modulate behaviors and treatment responses. Efforts have been made to identify specific genes that are affected by alterations in total histone acetylation and to propose that such gene specific modulation could explain the effects of total histone acetylation levels on behavior — the implication being that under naturalistic conditions variability in histone acetylation occurs primarily around the promoters of specific genes. Methods/Results Here we challenge this hypothesis by demonstrating with a novel flow cytometry based technique that normal variability in open field exploration, a hippocampus-related behavior, was associated with total levels of histone acetylation in the hippocampus but not in other brain regions. Conclusions Results suggest that modulation of total levels of histone acetylation may play a role in regulating biological processes. We speculate in the discussion that endogenous regulation of total levels of histone acetylation may be a mechanism through which organisms regulate cellular plasticity. Flow cytometry provides a useful approach to measure total levels of histone acetylation at the single cell level. Relating such information to behavioral measures and treatment responses could inform drug delivery strategies to target histone deacetylase inhibitors and other chromatin modulators to places where they may be of benefit while avoiding areas where correction is not needed and could be harmful. PMID:24788142

Nesbitt, Addie May I.; McCurdy, Richard D.; Bryant, Sharell M.; Alter, Mark D.

2014-01-01

321

Discovery and characterization of sialic acid O-acetylation in group B Streptococcus  

E-print Network

infections annually in the United States (5). Anchored to the cell wall of GBS (6) is a thick capsular (GBS) is the leading cause of human neo- natal sepsis and meningitis. The GBS capsular polysaccharide are consistent with initial O-acetylation at position 7, and subsequent migration of the O-acetyl ester

Nizet, Victor

322

Pathway of Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine Biosynthesis in Phaseolus aureus 1  

PubMed Central

Studies with extracts obtained from mung beans (Phaseolus aureus) showed that UDP-N-acetyl d-glucosamine is formed from d-fructose 6-phosphate by a series of the following enzymic reactions: [Formula: see text] UDP-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine inhibits the first reaction in the multistep pathway leading to its biosynthesis. PMID:16656888

Mayer, F. C.; Bikel, I.; Hassid, W. Z.

1968-01-01

323

The Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Administration on Persons with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since previous investigations reported improvements in cognition of patients with dementia after acetyl-L-carnitine therapy and since there is an increased risk for persons with Down syndrome to develop Alzheimer disease, this study was designed to investigate the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine administration on neurological, intellectual, and…

Pueschel, Siegfried M.

2006-01-01

324

Acetylation Regulates the DNA End-Trimming Activity of DNA Polymerase ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel regulatory mechanism for DNA polymerase ? (Pol?), a protein involved in DNA base excision repair (BER). Pol? colocalized in vivo and formed a complex with the transcriptional coactivator p300. p300 interacted with Pol? through distinct domains and acetylated Pol? in vitro. Pol? acetylation was furthermore observed in vivo. Lysine 72 of Pol? was identified as the

Sameez Hasan; Nazim El-Andaloussi; Ulrike Hardeland; Paul O. Hassa; Christine Bürki; Ralph Imhof; Primo Schär; Michael O. Hottiger

2002-01-01

325

Characteristics of acetylated and enzyme-modified potato and sweet potato flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of modified potato and sweet potato flours have been determined by incorporating acetyl groups (acetylation) and by treating with glucoamylase (enzymatic modification). Fractionation studies on Sepharose CL-2B showed that the content of high molecular weight fraction decreased, with a proportionate increase in the lower molecular weight carbohydrate fraction, whereas FT-IR indicated changes in crystallinity of the modified starches.

A. Ramesh Yadav; S. Mahadevamma; R. N. Tharanathan; R. S. Ramteke

2007-01-01

326

CPLA 1.0: an integrated database of protein lysine acetylation.  

PubMed

As a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) discovered decades ago, protein lysine acetylation was known for its regulation of transcription through the modification of histones. Recent studies discovered that lysine acetylation targets broad substrates and especially plays an essential role in cellular metabolic regulation. Although acetylation is comparable with other major PTMs such as phosphorylation, an integrated resource still remains to be developed. In this work, we presented the compendium of protein lysine acetylation (CPLA) database for lysine acetylated substrates with their sites. From the scientific literature, we manually collected 7151 experimentally identified acetylation sites in 3311 targets. We statistically studied the regulatory roles of lysine acetylation by analyzing the Gene Ontology (GO) and InterPro annotations. Combined with protein-protein interaction information, we systematically discovered a potential human lysine acetylation network (HLAN) among histone acetyltransferases (HATs), substrates and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In particular, there are 1862 triplet relationships of HAT-substrate-HDAC retrieved from the HLAN, at least 13 of which were previously experimentally verified. The online services of CPLA database was implemented in PHP?+?MySQL?+?JavaScript, while the local packages were developed in JAVA 1.5 (J2SE 5.0). The CPLA database is freely available for all users at: http://cpla.biocuckoo.org. PMID:21059677

Liu, Zexian; Cao, Jun; Gao, Xinjiao; Zhou, Yanhong; Wen, Longping; Yang, Xiangjiao; Yao, Xuebiao; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

2011-01-01

327

Inhibition of XMRV and HIV-1 proteases by pepstatin A and acetyl-pepstatin  

E-print Network

of two classical inhibitors of aspartic proteases (PRs), pepstatin A and acetyl-pepstatin, were compared preference for the one-inhibitor binding mode for HIV-1 PR­acetyl- pepstatin and the two-inhibitor binding and S4¢ sites with the statine residues may shift the ground state binding towards the two-inhibitor

328

In vitro antioxidant activity of acetylated and benzoylated derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta).  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of natural ulvan and its derivatives (acetylated and benzoylated ulvans) in vitro was determined, including scavenging activity against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability. Obvious differences in antioxidant activity between natural ulvan and its derivatives were observed, moreover, the antioxidant activity of acetylated and benzoylated ulvans was stronger than that of natural ulvan. PMID:16481163

Qi, Huimin; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhao, Tingting; Hu, Rugui; Zhang, Kun; Li, Zhien

2006-05-01

329

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms  

E-print Network

Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation Antagonize the Reprogramming of Epi-Polymorphisms Anne genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results-L, Nagarajan M, Veyrieras J-B, Bottin H, Steinmetz LM, et al. (2012) Genetic Modifiers of Chromatin Acetylation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids Eiichi OBATAYA* and Joseph GRIL**  

E-print Network

liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various1 Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids Eiichi OBATAYA* and Joseph GRIL** * Institute of Wood Technology, Akita Prefectural University 016-0876 Akita Japan ** Laboratoire de Mécanique et Génie

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

HATs and HDACs in neurodegeneration: a tale of disconcerted acetylation homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradual disclosure of the molecular basis of selective neuronal apoptosis during neurodegenerative diseases reveals active participation of acetylating and deacetylating agents during the process. Several studies have now successfully manipulated neuronal vulnerability by influencing the dose and enzymatic activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes regulating acetylation homeostasis within the nucleus, thus focusing on the importance of

R N Saha; K Pahan

2006-01-01

332

Quantum and classical dynamics simulations of ATP hydrolysis in solution  

PubMed Central

ATP hydrolysis is a key reaction in living cells that drives many cellular processes. The reaction, which involves gamma phosphate cleavage from ATP, converting it to ADP, has been suggested to occur via an associative or dissociative mechanism dependent upon the surrounding environment. Prior quantum chemical studies suffered from short simulation timescales failing to capture free energy contributions due to relaxation of the surrounding aqueous environment. We have developed a highly parallelized QM/MM implementation in the NAMD and OpenAtom simulation packages, using the dual grid, dual length scale method for combined plane-wave and Eular exponential spline-based QM/MM simulations. This approach, using message-driven parallel quantum and classical dynamics, permits sufficient timescale simulations for quantum chemical events such as ATP hydrolysis, and is found to accurately and reliably include the free energy contributions of solvent relaxation to hydrolysis. In this paper we describe the application of the dual grid, dual length plane-wave-based QM/MM method to study both the associative and dissociative mechanisms of ATP hydrolysis, accounting for the free energy contribution from solvent relaxation, as well as for the key role of Mg2+ in the reaction. PMID:23293550

Harrison, Christopher B.; Schulten, Klaus

2012-01-01

333

Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PMID:25129733

Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

2014-11-01

334

Hydrolysis of oligosaccharides over solid acid catalysts: a review.  

PubMed

Mild fractionation/pretreatment processes are becoming the most preferred choices for biomass processing within the biorefinery framework. To further explore their advantages, new developments are needed, especially to increase the extent of the hydrolysis of poly- and oligosaccharides. A possible way forward is the use of solid acid catalysts that may overcome many current drawbacks of other common methods. In this Review, the advantages and limitations of the use of heterogeneous catalysis for the main groups of solid acid catalysts (zeolites, resins, carbon materials, clays, silicas, and other oxides) and their relation to the hydrolysis of model soluble disaccharides and soluble poly- and oligosaccharides are presented and discussed. Special attention is given to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and hemicellulose-derived saccharides into monosaccharides, the impact on process performance of potential catalyst poisons originating from biomass and biomass hydrolysates (e.g., proteins, mineral ions, etc.). The data clearly point out the need for studying hemicelluloses in natura rather than in model compound solutions that do not retain the relevant factors influencing process performance. Furthermore, the desirable traits that solid acid catalysts must possess for the efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis are also presented and discussed with regard to the design of new catalysts. PMID:24616436

Vilcocq, Léa; Castilho, Paula C; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C

2014-04-01

335

Role of Bulk Water in Hydrolysis of the Rhodopsin Chromophore*  

E-print Network

Role of Bulk Water in Hydrolysis of the Rhodopsin Chromophore* Received for publication,February 24 water molecules in the Rho acti- vation process. Atomic structures of Rho and hydroxyl radical footprinting reveal ordered waters within Rho transmembrane helices that are located close to highly conserved

Palczewski, Krzysztof

336

Actin Polymerization Overshoots and Hydrolysis as Assayed by Pyrene Fluorescence  

E-print Network

Actin Polymerization Overshoots and Hydrolysis as Assayed by Pyrene Fluorescence F. J. Brooks and A observed in the flu- orescence intensity of pyrene-labeled actin during rapid polymerization. We show coefficients: 0.37 for F-ATP actin; 0.55 for F-ADP+Pi actin; and 0.75 for F-ADP actin. Finally, we present

Carlsson, Anders

337

Fractionation and Molecular Characteristics of Cellulose During Enzymatic Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) on the molecular characteristics as well as fractional composition of cellulose was studied using the direct size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis in sodium hydroxide. Bleached hardwood pulp was subjected to the action of the cellulase complex Celluclast™ supplemented with Novozyme 188™. The residues after the enzymatic treatment were fractionated by dissolution in 10% NaOH

T. Eremeeva; T. Bikova; M. Eisimonte; U. Viesturs; A. Treimanis

2001-01-01

338

The role of microemulsions in lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions.  

PubMed

The kinetics of the p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis reaction, catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipase in the water-in-oil microemulsion cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/water/pentanol/hexane, was investigated. The results described in the present manuscript reveal two peculiar characteristics of the reaction: (i) the initial rate of hydrolysis is very fast and (ii) by decreasing the water content of the microemulsion, the reaction rate approaches the typical behavior of reactions performed in aqueous solution. In particular, for microemulsion systems with a high water content, the end points of the reactions are dictated by the shape stability of the microemulsion. For these systems, our methodological approach shows that the process follows a second-order kinetics equation, indicative of the dual role played by water, which is involved both as a component of the microemulsion, i.e., relevant for the microemulsion stability and as a reagent of the hydrolysis reaction. In contrast, for microemulsions containing a small amount of water, after the hydrolysis reaction the system seems to fall in the no existence range of the microemulsion. Accordingly, the kinetics results are more complex: in the initial stage, the reaction follows a zero-order kinetics equation, while for longer reaction times a first-order kinetics equation fits the experimental data, as would be expected for an enzymatic reaction in a homogeneous system. PMID:24585724

Lopez, Francesco; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Colella, Matilde; De Leonardis, Antonella; Palazzo, Gerardo; Ambrosone, Luigi

2014-01-01

339

DFT STUDY OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF SOME S-TRIAZINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of atrazine and related 2-chloro-s-triazines to the corresponding 2-hydroxy-s-triazines was investigated using the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory method. Gas-phase calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G* level of ...

340

Hydrolysis reactions of the taccalonolides reveal structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The taccalonolides are microtubule stabilizers isolated from plants of the genus Tacca that show potent in vivo antitumor activity and the ability to overcome multiple mechanisms of drug resistance. The most potent taccalonolide identified to date, AJ, is a semisynthetic product generated from the major plant metabolite taccalonolide A in a two-step reaction. The first step involves hydrolysis of taccalonolide A to generate taccalonolide B, and then this product is oxidized to generate an epoxide group at C-22-C-23. To generate sufficient taccalonolide AJ for in vivo antitumor efficacy studies, the hydrolysis conditions for the conversion of taccalonolide A to B were optimized. During purification of the hydrolysis products, we identified the new taccalonolide AO (1) along with taccalonolide I. When the same hydrolysis reaction was performed on a taccalonolide E-enriched fraction, four new taccalonolides, assigned as AK, AL, AM, and AN (2-5), were obtained in addition to the expected product taccalonolide N. Biological assays were performed on each of the purified taccalonolides, which allowed for increased refinement of the structure-activity relationship of this class of compounds. PMID:23855953

Li, Jing; Peng, Jiangnan; Risinger, April L; Mooberry, Susan L

2013-07-26

341

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics  

DOEpatents

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2003-12-09

342

Hydrolysis and Soil Adsorption of the Labile Herbicide Isoxaflutole  

E-print Network

Hydrolysis and Soil Adsorption of the Labile Herbicide Isoxaflutole S A R A H T A Y L O R - L O V E) is a new herbicide marketed for broadleaf and grass weed control in corn, but little information has been published on the soil behavior and environmental fate of the compound. The herbicide exhibits an unusual

Sims, Gerald K.

343

Acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted to establish optimal conditions for the acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for maximal ethanol yield. The starch contents of two sweet potato cultivars (Georgia Red and TG-4), based on fresh weight, were 21.1 +/- 0.6% and 27.5 +/- 1.6%, respectively. The results of acid hydrolysis experiments showed the following: (1) both hydrolysis rate and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concentration were a function of HCL concentration, temperature, and time; (2) the reducing sugars were rapidly formed with elevated concentrations of HCl and temperature, but also destroyed quickly; and (3) HMF concentration increased significantly with the concentration of HCl, temperature, and hydrolysis time. Maximum reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% HMF (based on wet weight) was achieved after heating 8% SPS for 15 min in 1N HCl at 110/sup 0/C. Degraded 8% SPS (1N HCl, 97/sup 0/C for 20 min or 110/sup 0/C for 10 min) was utilized as substrate for ethanol fermentation and 3.8% ethanol (v/v) was produced from 1400 mL fermented wort. This is equal to 41.6 g ethanol (200 proof) from 400 g of fresh sweet potato tuber (Georgia Red) or an ethanol yield potential of 431 gal of 200-proof ethanol/acre (from 500 bushel tubers/acre).

Kim, K.; Hamdy, M.K.

1985-01-01

344

BSA Treatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Lignin  

E-print Network

) pretreated corn stover and Douglas fir treated by SO2 steam explosion and for simultaneous saccharification. Similar improve- ments were also observed for enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX the saccharification rate of cellulose in Sigmacell 100 and steam exploded poplar by as much as a factor of 7 while

California at Riverside, University of

345

Steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood from Eucalyptus globulus Labill has been pretreated under various conditions of acid impregnation and steam explosion. The effects of these pretreatment conditions have been assessed by measuring monomer (xylose and glucose) and oligomer solubilization. Samples pretreated under conditions that yielded optimal hemicellulose solubilization for acid impregnated or non-impregnated wood have been further subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, using a preparation

A. P. Nunes; J. Pourquie

1996-01-01

346

Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol made biologically from a variety of cellulosic biomass sources such as agricultural and forestry residues, grasses, and fast growing wood is widely recognized as a unique sustainable liquid transportation fuel with powerful economic, environmental, and strategic attributes, but production costs must be competitive for these benefits to be realized. Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation processes offer important potential advantages in

Simone Brethauer; Charles E. Wyman

2010-01-01

347

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars, and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies,

Ye Sun; Jiayang Cheng

2002-01-01

348

Single Molecule Study of Cellulase Hydrolysis of Crystalline Cellulose  

SciTech Connect

This report seeks to elucidate the role of cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I) in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A single-molecule approach uses various imaging techniques to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBH I.

Liu, Y.-S.; Luo, Y.; Baker, J. O.; Zeng, Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Smith, S.; Ding, S.-Y.

2009-12-01

349

Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

1992-06-30

350

Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

1992-06-30

351

Loss-of-Function Mutation of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION2 in Arabidopsis Leads to Reduced Cell Wall Acetylation and Increased Resistance to Botrytis cinerea1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Nearly all polysaccharides in plant cell walls are O-acetylated, including the various pectic polysaccharides and the hemicelluloses xylan, mannan, and xyloglucan. However, the enzymes involved in the polysaccharide acetylation have not been identified. While the role of polysaccharide acetylation in vivo is unclear, it is known to reduce biofuel yield from lignocellulosic biomass by the inhibition of microorganisms used for fermentation. We have analyzed four Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of the protein Cas1p known to be involved in polysaccharide O-acetylation in Cryptococcus neoformans. Loss-of-function mutants in one of the genes, designated REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION2 (RWA2), had decreased levels of acetylated cell wall polymers. Cell wall material isolated from mutant leaves and treated with alkali released about 20% lower amounts of acetic acid when compared with the wild type. The same level of acetate deficiency was found in several pectic polymers and in xyloglucan. Thus, the rwa2 mutations affect different polymers to the same extent. There were no obvious morphological or growth differences observed between the wild type and rwa2 mutants. However, both alleles of rwa2 displayed increased tolerance toward the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. PMID:21212300

Manabe, Yuzuki; Nafisi, Majse; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Orfila, Caroline; Gille, Sascha; Rautengarten, Carsten; Cherk, Candice; Marcus, Susan E.; Somerville, Shauna; Pauly, Markus; Knox, J. Paul; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2011-01-01

352

Structural, morphological, and physicochemical properties of acetylated high-, medium-, and low-amylose rice starches.  

PubMed

The high-, medium-, and low-amylose rice starches were isolated by the alkaline method and acetylated by using acetic anhydride for 10, 30, and 90 min of reaction. The degree of substitution (DS), the Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the X-ray diffractograms, the thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, and the swelling power and solubility of native and acetylated starches were evaluated. The DS of the low-amylose rice starch was higher than the DS of the medium- and the high-amylose rice starches. The introduction of acetyl groups was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The acetylation treatment reduced the crystallinity, the viscosity, the swelling power, and the solubility of rice starch; however, there was an increase in the thermal stability of rice starch modified by acetylation. PMID:24528747

Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vania Zanella; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Marques E Silva, Ricardo; da Rosa Zavareze, Elessandra; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

2014-03-15

353

A highly efficient in situ N-acetylation approach for solid phase synthesis.  

PubMed

We describe a new general N-acetylation method for solid phase synthesis. Malonic acid is used as a precursor and the reaction proceeds by in situ formation of a reactive ketene intermediate at room temperature. We have successfully applied this methodology to peptides and non-peptidic molecules containing a variety of functional groups. The reaction gave high yields compared to known acetylation methods, irrespective of the structure, conformation and sequence of the acetylated molecule. Computational studies revealed that the concerted mechanism via the ketene intermediate is kinetically favorable and leads to a thermodynamically stable acetylated product. In conclusion, our method can be easily applied to acetylation in a wide variety of chemical reactions performed on the solid phase. PMID:24526269

Chandra, Koushik; Roy, Tapta Kanchan; Naoum, Johnny N; Gilon, Chaim; Gerber, R Benny; Friedler, Assaf

2014-03-28

354

Acetylation of RNA Polymerase II Regulates Growth-Factor-Induced Gene Transcription in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Lysine acetylation regulates transcription by targeting histones and nonhistone proteins. Here we report that the central regulator of transcription, RNA polymerase II, is subject to acetylation in mammalian cells. Acetylation occurs at eight lysines within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest polymerase subunit and is mediated by p300/KAT3B. CTD acetylation is specifically enriched downstream of the transcription start sites of polymerase-occupied genes genome-wide, indicating a role in early stages of transcription initiation or elongation. Mutation of lysines or p300 inhibitor treatment causes the loss of epidermal growth-factor-induced expression of c-Fos and Egr2, immediate-early genes with promoter-proximally paused polymerases, but does not affect expression or polymerase occupancy at housekeeping genes. Our studies identify acetylation as a new modification of the mammalian RNA polymerase II required for the induction of growth factor response genes. PMID:24207025

Schröder, Sebastian; Herker, Eva; Itzen, Friederike; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Kaehlcke, Katrin; Cho, Sungyoo; Pollard, Katherine S.; Capra, John A.; Schnölzer, Martina; Cole, Philip A.; Geyer, Matthias; Bruneau, Benoit G.; Adelman, Karen; Ott, Melanie

2014-01-01

355

Investigation of acetylated kapok fibers on the sorption of oil in water.  

PubMed

Kapok fibers have been acetylated for oil spill cleanup in the aqueous environment. The structures of raw and acetylated kapok fiber were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Without severe damage to the lumen structures, the kapok fibers were successfully acetylated and the resulting fibers exhibited a better oil sorption capacity than raw fibers for diesel and soybean oil. Compared with high viscosity soybean oil, low viscosity diesel shows a better affinity to the surface of acetylated fibers. Sorption kinetics is fitted well by the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium data can be described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The results implied that acetylated kapok fiber can be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials. PMID:23596942

Wang, Jintao; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

2013-02-01

356

Lysine-5 Acetylation Negatively Regulates Lactate Dehydrogenase A and Is Decreased in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Tumor cells commonly have increased glucose uptake and lactate accumulation. Lactate is produced from pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A), which is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells and is important for cell growth. Elevated transcription by c-Myc or HIF1? may contribute to increased LDH-A in some cancer types. Here, we show that LDH-A is acetylated at lysine 5 (K5) and that this acetylation inhibits LDH-A activity. Furthermore, the K5-acetylated LDH-A is recognized by the HSC70 chaperone and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Replacement of endogenous LDH-A with an acetylation mimetic mutant decreases cell proliferation and migration. Importantly, K5 acetylation of LDH-A is reduced in human pancreatic cancers. Our study reveals a mechanism of LDH-A upregulation in pancreatic cancers. PMID:23523103

Zhao, Di; Zou, Shao-Wu; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Xin; Mo, Yan; Wang, Ping; Xu, Yan-Hui; Dong, Bo; Xiong, Yue; Lei, Qun-Ying; Guan, Kun-Liang

2013-01-01

357

ISOLATION AND UTILIZATION OF ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE FROM OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis) MESOCARP Keywords: acetyl-CoA carboxylase, gene isolation, biotin carboxylase, biodegradable plastics, oil palm.  

E-print Network

ISOLATION AND UTILIZATION OF ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE FROM OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis) MESOCARP 97 Keywords: acetyl-CoA carboxylase, gene isolation, biotin carboxylase, biodegradable plastics, oil palm; Accepted: 7 November 2007. ISOLATION AND UTILIZATION OF ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE FROM OIL PALM (Elaeis

Sinskey, Anthony J.

358

Acetylation of the Response Regulator RcsB Controls Transcription from a Small RNA Promoter  

PubMed Central

N?-lysine acetylation was recently discovered on many bacterial proteins that function in diverse cellular processes. Thus, many questions remain unanswered. For example, what mechanisms regulate lysine acetylation? Does acetylation affect physiology? To help answer these questions, we studied the Escherichia coli response regulator and transcription factor RcsB, which is reported to be acetylated in vitro. To characterize RcsB acetylation, we monitored transcription from the rprA promoter, which requires RcsB. The conventional view is that RcsB is activated by phosphorylation through either the Rcs phosphorelay or acetyl phosphate. We affirmed that rprA transcription requires phosphorylated RcsB and showed that acetyl-phosphate (AcP) is a phosphoryl group donor to RcsB. However, a mutant that accumulates AcP (ackA) exhibited a reduction in rprA transcription instead of the predicted increase. rprA transcription also diminished in the cobB mutant, which lacks the only known E. coli protein deacetylase. This suggests the existence of an inhibitory mechanism that involves lysine acetylation, a supposition supported by the observation that RcsB isolated from the ackA or cobB mutant was hyperacetylated. Finally, we used a genetic approach to identify an AckA- and CobB-sensitive lysine (Lys-154) that controls RcsB activity. We propose that acetylation inhibits RcsB activity and that some of this inhibition acts through the acetylation of Lys-154. PMID:23852870

Hu, Linda I.; Chi, Bui Khanh; Kuhn, Misty L.; Filippova, Ekaterina V.; Walker-Peddakotla, Arti J.; Bäsell, Katrin; Becher, Dörte; Anderson, Wayne F.; Antelmann, Haike

2013-01-01

359

Hair Analysis for Determination of Isoniazid Concentrations and Acetylator Phenotype during Antituberculous Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background. Analysis of isoniazid (INH) uptake has been based on measurement of plasma concentrations providing a short-term and potentially biased view. Objectives. To establish hair analysis as a tool to measure long-term uptake of INH and to assess whether acetylator phenotype in hair reflects N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) genotype. Design and Methods. INH and acetyl-INH concentrations in hair were determined in patients on INH treatment for M. tuberculosis infection using high pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Acetyl-INH/INH ratios were correlated with NAT-2 genotype. Results. Hair concentrations of INH, determined in 40 patients, were not dependent on ethnic group or body mass index and were significantly higher in male compared to female patients (median (range) 2.37?ng/mg (0.76–4.9) versus 1.11?ng/mg (0.02–7.20) (P = 0.02). Acetyl-INH/INH ratios were a median of 15.2% (14.5 to 31.7) in homozygous rapid acetylator NAT-2 genotype and 37.3% (1.73 to 51.2) in the heterozygous rapid acetylator NAT-2 genotype and both significantly higher than in the slow acetylator NAT-2 genotype with 5.8% (0.53 to 14.4) (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Results of hair analysis for INH showed lower concentrations in females. Acetyl-INH/INH ratios were significantly lower in patients with slow acetylator versus rapid acetylator genotypes. PMID:23091716

Eisenhut, Michael; Thieme, Detlef; Schmid, Dagmar; Fieseler, Sybille; Sachs, Hans

2012-01-01

360

System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveals Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases  

SciTech Connect

Background: Protein acetylation is widespread in prokaryotes. Results: Six new acyl-CoA synthetases whose activities are controlled by acetylation were identified, and their substrate preference established. A new protein acetyltransferase was also identified and its substrate specificity determined. Conclusion: Protein acetyltransferases acetylate a conserved lysine residue in protein substrates. Significance: The R. palustris Pat enzyme specifically acetylates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases and regulates fatty acid metabolism.

Crosby, Heidi A [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2012-01-01

361

(2-Naphthoxy)acetyl chloride, a simple fluorescent reagent.  

PubMed

In continuing the search for fluorescent reagents for analytical derivatization in chromatography, we found a simple chemical, (2-naphthoxy)acetyl chloride, with potential fluorophore/chromophore characteristics for the highly sensitive detection of analytes with an amino function. The reagent has an auxochrome (a substituted alkoxy moiety) attached to the fluorophoric/chromophoric naphthalene system, resulting in favorable spectrophotometric properties. The reagent can be easily prepared from (2-naphthoxy)acetic acid and has been used in organic synthesis; it is initially introduced as a fluorescent reagent to derivatise amantadine and memantine (amino pharmaceuticals) as model analytes. The resulting naphthoxy derivatives of the drugs can be analyzed at sub-microM levels by HPLC with fluorimetric detection (excitation wavelength 227 nm, emission wavelength 348 nm). Application of the reagent to the fluorimetric derivatization of important biological amines for sensitive detection can be expected. PMID:12613813

Duh, Tsai-Hui; Wu, Hsin-Lung; Kou, Hwang-Shang; Lu, Chi-Yu

2003-02-14

362

Mutagenicity studies with N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid.  

PubMed

Analytical studies have reported that N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (NAA) is present at low concentrations in many foods. The current studies were conducted to assess the mutagenicity of NAA using standard OECD guideline in vitro bacterial and in vivo mammalian mutagenicity studies. For comparison and control data, mutagenicity studies were also conducted with its constituent amino acid L-aspartate (ASP) because NAA is metabolized to ASP. The combination of an in vitro method for assessing point mutations in bacteria and an in vivo method to assess clastogenicity in an animal model provided adequate evidence for mutagenicity hazard assessment of NAA. No evidence of mutagenicity was observed in either test system with either NAA or ASP. The results from the current studies demonstrate that the presence of NAA in foods is not likely to represent a risk for mutagenicity. PMID:19445994

Karaman, Sule; Myhre, Abby; Donner, E Maria; Munley, Susan M; Delaney, Bryan

2009-08-01

363

Toxoplasma histone acetylation remodelers as novel drug targets  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of neurological birth defects and a serious opportunistic pathogen. The authors and others have found that Toxoplasma uses a unique nucleosome composition supporting a fine gene regulation together with other factors. Post-translational modifications in histones facilitate the establishment of a global chromatin environment and orchestrate DNA-related biological processes. Histone acetylation is one of the most prominent post-translational modifications influencing gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases have been intensively studied as potential drug targets. In particular, histone deacetylase inhibitors have activity against apicomplexan parasites, underscoring their potential as a new class of antiparasitic compounds. In this review, we summarize what is known about Toxoplasma histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases, and discuss the inhibitors studied to date. Finally, the authors discuss the distinct possibility that the unique nucleosome composition of Toxoplasma, which harbors a nonconserved H2Bv variant histone, might be targeted in novel therapeutics directed against this parasite. PMID:23199404

Vanagas, Laura; Jeffers, Victoria; Bogado, Silvina S; Dalmasso, Maria C; Sullivan, William J; Angel, Sergio O

2013-01-01

364

Construction of Syrian hamster lines congenic at the polymorphic acetyltransferase locus (NAT2): acetylator genotype-dependent N- and O-acetylation of arylamine carcinogens.  

PubMed

Congenic Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2 Syrian hamster lines were constructed by introducing the NAT2r gene from MHA/SsLak inbred hamsters into a background BIO 1.5 Syrian inbred hamster line. Genetic identity of the Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2 congenic lines and nonidentity with the previously constructed Bio. 82.73/H-Pat congenic lines were determined by "DNA fingerprints" of genomic DNA derived from the different hamster lines. The N-acetylation capacity of the Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2 congenic hamster lines was clearly NAT2-dependent both in vivo and in vitro, with highest levels expressed in Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2r homozygous rapid acetylators, intermediate levels in Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2r/NAT2s heterozygous acetylators, and lowest levels in Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2s homozygous slow acetylators. The NAT2-dependent expression of N-acetyltransferase activity was evident toward p-aminobenzoic acid, 4-aminophenol, 2-aminofluorene, 4-aminobiphenyl, beta-naphthylamine, and 3,2'-dimethyl-4-amino-biphenyl in liver, kidney, colon, lung, and urinary bladder cytosols. The polymorphic acetyltransferase (NAT2) and the monomorphic acetyltransferase (NAT1) were isolated from hepatic cytosols and tested separately for their ability to catalyze arylamine N-acetyltransferase and N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase activities. Both arylamine N-acetylation and N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetylation were clearly acetylator genotype-dependent when catalyzed by NAT2, and both were clearly acetylator genotype-independent when catalyzed by NAT1. NAT2/NAT1 activity ratios varied with the particular arylamine substrate acetylated. These studies show an important role for NAT2 acetylator genotype in Syrian hamster carcinogenic arylamine metabolism and confirm its role in the metabolic activation of N-hydroxyarylamines. The Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2 congenic lines provide a new model for investigating the precise role of the NAT2 gene locus in arylamine metabolism and toxicity. PMID:8291057

Hein, D W; Doll, M A; Rustan, T D; Gray, K; Ferguson, R J; Feng, Y

1994-01-01

365

Effect of the extent of the hydrolysis of tetrabutoxytitanium on catalysis efficiency in the esterification reaction  

SciTech Connect

A study was carried out on the products of the hydrolysis of tetrabutoxytitanium and their catalytic activity in the esterification reaction. A maximum is observed in the dependence of the reaction rate constant on the extent of the hydrolysis of tetrabutoxytitanium. The maximum effective esterification rate constant corresponds to 60% hydrolysis of tetrabutoxytitanium. The hydrolysis products in this case have largely linear structure. The relationship between the catalytic activity of linear polytitanates and their stability in the reaction medium is discussed.

Chervina, S.I.; Maksimenko, E.G.; Barshtein, R.S.; Shabanova, N.V.; Bulai, A.K.; Kotov, Yu.I.; Slonim, I.Ya.

1988-03-01

366

Extensive lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways and parasite-specific functions during Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development.  

PubMed

Lysine acetylation has emerged as a major post-translational modification involved in diverse cellular functions. Using a combination of immunoisolation and liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry, we determined the first acetylome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during its active proliferation in erythrocytes with 421 acetylation sites identified in 230 proteins. Lysine-acetylated proteins are distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion and apicoplast. Whereas occurrence of lysine acetylation in a similarly wide range of cellular functions suggests conservation of lysine acetylation through evolution, the Plasmodium acetylome also revealed significant divergence from those of other eukaryotes and even the closely related parasite Toxoplasma. This divergence is reflected in the acetylation of a large number of Plasmodium-specific proteins and different acetylation sites in evolutionarily conserved acetylated proteins. A prominent example is the abundant acetylation of proteins in the glycolysis pathway but relatively deficient acetylation of enzymes in the citrate cycle. Using specific transgenic lines and inhibitors, we determined that the acetyltransferase PfMYST and lysine deacetylases play important roles in regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic protein acetylation. The Plasmodium acetylome provides an exciting start point for further exploration of functions of acetylation in the biology of malaria parasites. PMID:23796209

Miao, Jun; Lawrence, Matthew; Jeffers, Victoria; Zhao, Fangqing; Parker, Daniel; Ge, Ying; Sullivan, William J; Cui, Liwang

2013-08-01

367

Up-regulation of an N-terminal truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase enhances production of essential oils and sterols in transgenic Lavandula latifolia.  

PubMed

Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oil is widely used in the perfume, cosmetic, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. Thus, modifications of yield and composition of this essential oil by genetic engineering should have important scientific and commercial applications. We generated transgenic spike lavender plants expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana HMG1 cDNA, encoding the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR1S), a key enzyme of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Transgenic T0 plants accumulated significantly more essential oil constituents as compared to controls (up to 2.1- and 1.8-fold in leaves and flowers, respectively). Enhanced expression of HMGR1S also increased the amount of the end-product sterols, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol (average differences of 1.8- and 1.9-fold, respectively), but did not affect the accumulation of carotenoids or chlorophylls. We also analysed T1 plants derived from self-pollinated seeds of T0 lines that flowered after growing for 2 years in the greenhouse. The increased levels of essential oil and sterols observed in the transgenic T0 plants were maintained in the progeny that inherited the HMG1 transgene. Our results demonstrate that genetic manipulation of the MVA pathway increases essential oil yield in spike lavender, suggesting a contribution for this cytosolic pathway to monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of the species. PMID:17714440

Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Sales, Ester; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

2007-11-01

368

Insertional Inactivation of Methylmalonyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Mutase and Isobutyryl-CoA Mutase Genes in Streptomyces cinnamonensis: Influence on Polyketide Antibiotic Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The coenzyme B12-dependent isobutyryl coenzyme A (CoA) mutase (ICM) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) catalyze the isomerization of n-butyryl-CoA to isobutyryl-CoA and of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, respectively. The influence that both mutases have on the conversion of n- and isobutyryl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA and the use of the latter in polyketide biosynthesis have been investigated with the polyether antibiotic (monensin) producer Streptomyces cinnamonensis. Mutants prepared by inserting a hygromycin resistance gene (hygB) into either icmA or mutB, encoding the large subunits of ICM and MCM, respectively, have been characterized. The icmA::hygB mutant was unable to grow on valine or isobutyrate as the sole carbon source but grew normally on butyrate, indicating a key role for ICM in valine and isobutyrate metabolism in minimal medium. The mutB::hygB mutant was unable to grow on propionate and grew only weakly on butyrate and isobutyrate as sole carbon sources. 13C-labeling experiments show that in both mutants butyrate and acetoacetate may be incorporated into the propionate units in monensin A without cleavage to acetate units. Hence, n-butyryl-CoA may be converted into methylmalonyl-CoA through a carbon skeleton rearrangement for which neither ICM nor MCM alone is essential. PMID:10482499

Vrijbloed, Jan W.; Zerbe-Burkhardt, Katja; Ratnatilleke, Ananda; Grubelnik-Leiser, Andreas; Robinson, John A.

1999-01-01

369

Ancient ubiquitous protein-1 mediates sterol-induced ubiquitination of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase in lipid droplet-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes  

PubMed Central

Sterol-induced binding to Insigs in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes triggers ubiquitination of the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase. This ubiquitination, which is mediated by Insig-associated ubiquitin ligases gp78 and Trc8, is obligatory for extraction of reductase from lipid droplet–associated ER membranes into the cytosol for proteasome-mediated, ER-associated degradation (ERAD). In this study, we identify lipid droplet–associated, ancient, ubiquitous protein-1 (Aup1) as one of several proteins that copurify with gp78. RNA interference (RNAi) studies show that Aup1 recruits the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc7 to lipid droplets and facilitates its binding to both gp78 and Trc8. The functional significance of these interactions is revealed by the observation that RNAi-mediated knockdown of Aup1 blunts sterol-accelerated ubiquitination of reductase, which appears to occur in lipid droplet–associated membranes and subsequent ERAD of the enzyme. In addition, Aup1 knockdown inhibits ERAD of Insig-1, another substrate for gp78, as well as that of membrane-bound precursor forms of sterol-regulatory, element-binding protein-1 and -2, transcription factors that modulate expression of genes encoding enzymes required for cholesterol synthesis. Considered together, these findings not only implicate a role for Aup1 in maintenance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, but they also highlight the close connections among ERAD, lipid droplets, and lipid droplet–associated proteins. PMID:23223569

Jo, Youngah; Hartman, Isamu Z.; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A.

2013-01-01

370

A new class of inhibitors of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis and invasion of prostate cancer cells q  

E-print Network

A new class of inhibitors of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis and invasion of prostate cancer-independent prostate cancer cells. Blocking cellular hydrolysis of 2-AG to increase its endogenous concentration to inhibit 2-AG hydrolysis and prostate cancer cell invasion. Compounds containing a thioether b to a TFK

Hammock, Bruce D.

371

Increase in Fluorescence upon the Hydrolysis of Tyrosine Peptides: Application to Proteinase Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosine increases by a factor of approximately two when the carboxy group is liberated from a peptide bond by hydrolysis. The increase in fluorescence provides a novel way to monitor the hydrolysis of native tyrosine peptides that contain only proteinogenic amino acids. Thus, for example, the hydrolysis by HIV-1 proteinase of a heptapeptide viral protein fragment

A. G. Peranteau; P. Kuzmic; Y. Angell; C. Garciaecheverria; D. H. Rich

1995-01-01

372

Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.  

PubMed

An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. PMID:22975252

Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

2012-11-01

373

The acetylation motif in AMP-forming Acyl coenzyme A synthetases contains residues critical for acetylation and recognition by the protein acetyltransferase pat of Rhodopseudomonas palustris.  

PubMed

The AMP-forming acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases are a large class of enzymes found in both anabolic and catabolic pathways that activate fatty acids to acyl-CoA molecules. The protein acetyltransferase (Pat) from Rhodopseudomonas palustris (RpPat) inactivates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases by acetylating the ?-amino group of a conserved, catalytic lysine residue. In all of the previously described RpPat substrates, this lysine residue is located within a PX4GK motif that has been proposed to be a recognition motif for RpPat. Here, we report five new substrates for RpPat, all of which are also AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases. This finding supports the idea that Pat enzymes may have evolved to control the activity of this family of enzymes. Notably, RpPat did not acetylate the wild-type long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase B (RpLcsB; formerly Rpa2714) enzyme of this bacterium. However, a single amino acid change two residues upstream of the acetylation site was sufficient to convert RpLcsB into an RpPat substrate. The results of mutational and functional analyses of RpLcsB and RpPimA variants led us to propose PK/RTXS/T/V/NGKX2K/R as a substrate recognition motif. The underlined positions within this motif are particularly important for acetylation by RpPat. The first residue, threonine, is located 4 amino acids upstream of the acetylation site. The second residue can be S/T/V/N and is located two positions upstream of the acetylation site. Analysis of published crystal structures suggests that the side chains of these two residues are very close to the acetylated lysine residue, indicating that they may directly interact with RpPat. PMID:24488314

Crosby, Heidi A; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

2014-04-01

374

The Acetylation Motif in AMP-Forming Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetases Contains Residues Critical for Acetylation and Recognition by the Protein Acetyltransferase Pat of Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

PubMed Central

The AMP-forming acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases are a large class of enzymes found in both anabolic and catabolic pathways that activate fatty acids to acyl-CoA molecules. The protein acetyltransferase (Pat) from Rhodopseudomonas palustris (RpPat) inactivates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases by acetylating the ?-amino group of a conserved, catalytic lysine residue. In all of the previously described RpPat substrates, this lysine residue is located within a PX4GK motif that has been proposed to be a recognition motif for RpPat. Here, we report five new substrates for RpPat, all of which are also AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases. This finding supports the idea that Pat enzymes may have evolved to control the activity of this family of enzymes. Notably, RpPat did not acetylate the wild-type long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase B (RpLcsB; formerly Rpa2714) enzyme of this bacterium. However, a single amino acid change two residues upstream of the acetylation site was sufficient to convert RpLcsB into an RpPat substrate. The results of mutational and functional analyses of RpLcsB and RpPimA variants led us to propose PK/RTXS/T/V/NGKX2K/R as a substrate recognition motif. The underlined positions within this motif are particularly important for acetylation by RpPat. The first residue, threonine, is located 4 amino acids upstream of the acetylation site. The second residue can be S/T/V/N and is located two positions upstream of the acetylation site. Analysis of published crystal structures suggests that the side chains of these two residues are very close to the acetylated lysine residue, indicating that they may directly interact with RpPat. PMID:24488314

Crosby, Heidi A.

2014-01-01

375

Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications.  

PubMed

Hormone systems evolved over 500 million years of animal natural history to motivate feeding behavior and convert excess calories to fat. These systems produced vertebrates, including humans, who are famine-resistant but sensitive to obesity in environments of persistent overnutrition. We looked for cell-intrinsic metabolic features, which might have been subject to an evolutionary drive favoring lipogenesis. Mitochondrial protein acetylation appears to be such a system. Because mitochondrial acetyl-coA is the central mediator of fuel oxidation and is saturable, this metabolite is postulated to be the fundamental indicator of energy excess, which imprints a memory of nutritional imbalances by covalent modification. Fungal and invertebrate mitochondria have highly acetylated mitochondrial proteomes without an apparent mitochondrially targeted protein lysine acetyltransferase. Thus, mitochondrial acetylation is hypothesized to have evolved as a nonenzymatic phenomenon. Because the pKa of a nonperturbed Lys is 10.4 and linkage of a carbonyl carbon to an ? amino group cannot be formed with a protonated Lys, we hypothesize that acetylation occurs on residues with depressed pKa values, accounting for the propensity of acetylation to hit active sites and suggesting that regulatory Lys residues may have been under selective pressure to avoid or attract acetylation throughout animal evolution. In addition, a shortage of mitochondrial oxaloacetate under ketotic conditions can explain why macronutrient insufficiency also produces mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Reduced mitochondrial activity during times of overnutrition and undernutrition would improve fitness by virtue of resource conservation. Micronutrient insufficiency is predicted to exacerbate mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Nicotinamide riboside and Sirt3 activity are predicted to relieve mitochondrial inhibition. PMID:24050258

Ghanta, Sirisha; Grossmann, Ruth E; Brenner, Charles

2013-01-01

376

Switching Catalysis from Hydrolysis to Perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase  

SciTech Connect

Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k{sub cat}, but K{sub m} also increased so the specificity constant, k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties but binds {var_epsilon}-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones.

Yin, D.; Bernhardt, P; Morley, K; Jiang, Y; Cheeseman, J; Purpero, V; Schrag, J; Kazlauskas, R

2010-01-01

377

Hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution of model and ultimate carcinogens  

SciTech Connect

The hydrolysis reaction of the Model Carcinogen O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in aqueous buffer (pH 7.0-10.0) proceeds by was of a nitrenium ion intermediate. The products formed from this process are predominately 2,4-dichloroaniline, and 2-hydroxy-4-chloro-pivalanilide. At pH 10-13 the rate becomes dependent upon hydroxide. The product that is formed is 4-chlorophenylhydroxylamine. 4-Chlorophenyl-hydroxylamine is formed by basic ester hydrolysis determined by an [sup 18]O GC-MS experiment. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in an aqueous diethylamine (pH 11.3) buffer gave 4-chlorophenyl-N,N-diethylhydrazine as the substitution product in a 16% yield. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydroxylamine with diethylamine gave a 1% yield of the hydrazine product. The reaction of N,N-dimethylanline and aniline with ring-substituted O-pivaloyl-N-arylhydroxylamines in MeOH generates products of nucleophilic attack on the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine derivative. The hydrolysis of the ultimate carcinogen N-(sulfonatooxy)-N-4-aminobiphenyl proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes and generates predominately a product of nucleophilic attack by chloride ion at the ortho position of the aromatic ring. A labile intermediate identified as N-acetypl-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine has been detected by NMR. This intermediate rearranges to form 4-hydroxy-3-phenylacetanilide. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine proceeds by way of two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-methoxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine also proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. Spectroscopic evidence of two diastereomeric intermediates formed from the hydrolysis of the N-benzoyl imines were tentatively identified as N-benzoyl-N-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine.

Helmick, J.S.

1992-01-01

378

Switching catalysis from hydrolysis to perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens esterase.  

PubMed

Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k(cat), but K(m) also increased so the specificity constant, k(cat)/K(m), remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties but binds epsilon-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones. PMID:20112920

Yin, De Lu Tyler; Bernhardt, Peter; Morley, Krista L; Jiang, Yun; Cheeseman, Jeremy D; Purpero, Vincent; Schrag, Joseph D; Kazlauskas, Romas J

2010-03-01

379

Effect of presence of sulphurdioxide on acetylation and sorption isotherm of acetylated starches from cultivars of cassava.  

PubMed

Starches from cultivars of cassava were modified with acetic anhydride. Treatment with sulphurdioxide was compared with native. The starches were evaluated for functional properties and moisture isotherms were calculated. Addition of 3.5% acetic anhydride resulted in starches with DS of 1.66% and 3.25% in sweet and bitter cultivars. Sweet starch alone will be applicable for food. Least gelation concentrations for the native were 14% and 10% against 6% and 8% acetylated samples, respectively. Degree of substitution (DS) was reduced with SO2 by 45% and 39% in sweet and bitter cultivar with 150 mg/kg starch, respectively. Swelling power and solubility increased with DS. Exudates from samples varied. Monolayer values of the starches were between 1.05% and 9.16% under 18 °C and 30 °C that simulated distribution and storage. R(2) value of water adsorbed and water activity ranged from 50% to 97%. X-ray patterns were not disrupted. PMID:24423517

Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin Faramade; Seidu, Kudirat Titilope; Mueller, Rudolf

2014-05-15

380

Sialic Acid (N-Acetyl Neuraminic Acid) Utilization by Bacteroides fragilis Requires a Novel N-Acetyl Mannosamine Epimerase? †  

PubMed Central

We characterized the nanLET operon in Bacteroides fragilis, whose products are required for the utilization of the sialic acid N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) as a carbon and energy source. The first gene of the operon is nanL, which codes for an aldolase that cleaves NANA into N-acetyl mannosamine (manNAc) and pyruvate. The next gene, nanE, codes for a manNAc/N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) epimerase, which, intriguingly, possesses more similarity to eukaryotic renin binding proteins than to other bacterial NanE epimerase proteins. Unphosphorylated manNAc is the substrate of NanE, while ATP is a cofactor in the epimerase reaction. The third gene of the operon is nanT, which shows similarity to the major transporter facilitator superfamily and is most likely to be a NANA transporter. Deletion of any of these genes eliminates the ability of B. fragilis to grow on NANA. Although B. fragilis does not normally grow with manNAc as the sole carbon source, we isolated a B. fragilis mutant strain that can grow on this substrate, likely due to a mutation in a NAG transporter; both manNAc transport and NAG transport are affected in this strain. Deletion of the nanE epimerase gene or the rokA hexokinase gene, whose product phosphorylates NAG, in the manNAc-enabled strain abolishes growth on manNAc. Thus, B. fragilis possesses a new pathway of NANA utilization, which we show is also found in other Bacteroides species. PMID:19304853

Brigham, Christopher; Caughlan, Ruth; Gallegos, Rene; Dallas, Mary Beth; Godoy, Veronica G.; Malamy, Michael H.

2009-01-01

381

Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Sites in Rat Tissues Reveals Organ Specificity and Subcellular Patterns  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Lysine acetylation is a major posttranslational modification involved in a broad array of physiological functions. Here, we provide an organ-wide map of lysine acetylation sites from 16 rat tissues analyzed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. We quantify 15,474 modification sites on 4,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle contraction. Furthermore, we illustrate that acetylation of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a cellular mechanism to switch off enzymatic activity. PMID:22902405

Lundby, Alicia; Lage, Kasper; Weinert, Brian T.; Bekker-Jensen, Dorte B.; Secher, Anna; Skovgaard, Tine; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Dmytriyev, Anatoliy; Choudhary, Chunaram; Lundby, Carsten; Olsen, Jesper V.

2014-01-01

382

Autoimmune regulator is acetylated by transcription coactivator CBP/p300.  

PubMed

The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is a regulator of transcription in the thymic medulla, where it controls the expression of a large set of peripheral-tissue specific genes. AIRE interacts with the transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase CBP and synergistically cooperates with it in transcriptional activation. Here, we aimed to study a possible role of AIRE acetylation in the modulation of its activity. We found that AIRE is acetylated in tissue culture cells and this acetylation is enhanced by overexpression of CBP and the CBP paralog p300. The acetylated lysines were located within nuclear localization signal and SAND domain. AIRE with mutations that mimicked acetylated K243 and K253 in the SAND domain had reduced transactivation activity and accumulated into fewer and larger nuclear bodies, whereas mutations that mimicked the unacetylated lysines were functionally similar to wild-type AIRE. Analogously to CBP, p300 localized to AIRE-containing nuclear bodies, however, the overexpression of p300 did not enhance the transcriptional activation of AIRE-regulated genes. Further studies showed that overexpression of p300 stabilized the AIRE protein. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that AIRE, with mutations mimicking K243/K253 acetylation in SAND, was able to activate gene expression, although the affected genes were different and the activation level was lower from those regulated by wild-type AIRE. Our results suggest that the AIRE acetylation can influence the selection of AIRE activated genes. PMID:22659170

Saare, Mario; Rebane, Ana; Rajashekar, Balaji; Vilo, Jaak; Peterson, Pärt

2012-08-15

383

Adenovirus E1B 55-Kilodalton Oncoprotein Inhibits p53 Acetylation by PCAF  

PubMed Central

The adenovirus E1B 55-kDa protein binds to cellular tumor suppressor p53 and inactivates its transcriptional transactivation function. p53 transactivation activity is dependent upon its ability to bind to specific DNA sequences near the promoters of its target genes. It was shown recently that p53 is acetylated by transcriptional coactivators p300, CREB bidning protein (CBP), and PCAF and that acetylation of p53 by these proteins enhances p53 sequence-specific DNA binding. Here we show that the E1B 55-kDa protein specifically inhibits p53 acetylation by PCAF in vivo and in vitro, while acetylation of histones and PCAF autoacetylation is not affected. Furthermore, the DNA-binding activity of p53 is diminished in cells expressing the E1B 55-kDa protein. PCAF binds to the E1B 55-kDa protein and to a region near the C terminus of p53 encompassing Lys-320, the specific PCAF acetylation site. We further show that the E1B 55-kDa protein interferes with the physical interaction between PCAF and p53, suggesting that the E1B 55-kDa protein inhibits PCAF acetylase function on p53 by preventing enzyme-substrate interaction. These results underscore the importance of p53 acetylation for its function and suggest that inhibition of p53 acetylation by viral oncoproteins prevent its activation, thereby contributing to viral transformation. PMID:10891493

Liu, Yue; Colosimo, April L.; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Liao, Daiqing

2000-01-01

384

Metabolism, cytoskeleton and cellular signalling in the grip of protein N? - and O-acetylation  

PubMed Central

Acetylation of the ?-amino group of lysine residues (N?-acetylation) is a reversible post-translational modification with the potential to rival phosphorylation. In addition to histones and many transcription factors such as p53, regulators of DNA repair, replication and recombination are subject to N?-acetylation. This modification is also important for governing the activities of various enzymes, including histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, bacterial and mammalian acetyl-CoA synthases, kinases, phosphatases, the ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2 and the chaperonin heat shock protein 90. Furthermore, lysine acetylation occurs in cellular structure proteins such as ?-tubulin, actin, cortactin and p120 catenin. Strikingly, the Yersinia outer protein YopJ promotes O-acetylation of crucial serine and threonine residues that are required for activation of the MAPK/ERK kinase and I?B kinase families, which precludes their phosphorylation and blocks signal transduction. Thus, N?- and O-acetylation are becoming recognized as two prominent mechanisms for regulating protein functions in diverse organisms. PMID:17545996

Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Gregoire, Serge

2007-01-01

385

Paraquat induces epigenetic changes by promoting histone acetylation in cell culture models of dopaminergic degeneration.  

PubMed

Environmental neurotoxic exposure to agrochemicals has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The widely used herbicide paraquat is among the few environmental chemicals potentially linked with PD. Since epigenetic changes are beginning to emerge as key mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases, herein we examined the effects of paraquat on histone acetylation, a major epigenetic change in chromatin that can regulate gene expression, chromatin remodeling, cell survival and cell death. Exposure of N27 dopaminergic cells to paraquat induced histone H3 acetylation in a time-dependent manner. However, paraquat did not alter acetylation of another core histone H4. Paraquat-induced histone acetylation was associated with decreased total histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and HDAC4 and 7 protein expression levels. To determine if histone acetylation plays a role in paraquat-induced apoptosis, the novel HAT inhibitor anacardic acid was used. Anacardic acid treatment significantly attenuated paraquat-induced caspase-3 enzyme activity, suppressed proteolytic activation and kinase activity of protein kinase C delta (PKC?) and also blocked paraquat-induced cytotoxicity. Together, these results demonstrate that the neurotoxic agent paraquat induced acetylation of core histones in cell culture models of PD and that the inhibition of HAT activity by anacardic acid protects against apoptotic cell death, indicating that histone acetylation may represent key epigenetic changes in dopaminergic neuronal cells during neurotoxic insults. PMID:21777615

Song, C; Kanthasamy, A; Jin, H; Anantharam, V; Kanthasamy, A G

2011-10-01

386

Differential Histone Acetylation in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Due to Growth in NaCl 1  

PubMed Central

The steady state distribution of histone variant proteins and their modifications by acetylation were characterized in wild type and salinity stress adapted alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Isotopic labeling detected dynamic acetylation at four sites in the histone H3 variants and five sites in histones H4 and H2B. Histone variant H3.2 was the most highly acetylated histone with 25% higher steady state acetylation and a two- to threefold higher acetylation labeling than histone H3.1. Histone phosphorylation was limited to histone variants H1.A, H1.B, and H1.C and to histone H2A.3, which was also acetylated. Histone variant composition was unaffected by cellular exposure to NaCl. Histone acetylation was qualitatively similar in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cells under normal growth conditions. However, short term salt stress in salt sensitive cells or continued growth at 1% NaCl in salt tolerant cells led to major increases in the multiacetylated forms of histone H4 and the two variants of histone H3. These changes were more pronounced in the diploid than in the tetraploid alfalfa strains. The increase in multiacetylation of core histones serves as an in vivo reporter suggesting an altered intranuclear ionic environment in the presence of salt. It may also represent an adaptive response in chromatin structure to permit chromatin function in a more saline intranuclear environment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16666742

Waterborg, Jakob H.; Harrington, Rodney E.; Winicov, Ilga

1989-01-01

387

Profiling of Cytosolic and Peroxisomal Acetyl-CoA Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

As a key intracellular metabolite, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) plays a major role in various metabolic pathways that link anabolism and catabolism. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA involving metabolism is compartmentalized, and may vary with the nutrient supply of a cell. Membranes separating intracellular compartments are impermeable to acetyl-CoA and no direct transport between the compartments occurs. Thus, without carnitine supply the glyoxylate shunt is the sole possible route for transferring acetyl-CoA from the cytosol or the peroxisomes into the mitochondria. Here, we investigate the physiological profiling of different deletion mutants of ACS1, ACS2, CIT2 and MLS1 individually or in combination under alternative carbon sources, and study how various mutations alter carbon distribution. Based on our results a detailed model of carbon distribution about cytosolic and peroxisomal acetyl-CoA metabolism in yeast is suggested. This will be useful to further develop yeast as a cell factory for the biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA-derived products. PMID:22876324

Chen, Yun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

2012-01-01

388

Structural Basis for Acetylated Histone H4 Recognition by the Human BRD2 Bromodomain*  

PubMed Central

Recognition of acetylated chromatin by the bromodomains and extra-terminal domain (BET) family proteins is a hallmark for transcriptional activation and anchoring viral genomes to mitotic chromosomes of the host. One of the BET family proteins BRD2 interacts with acetylated chromatin during mitosis and leads to transcriptional activation in culture cells. Here, we report the crystal structures of the N-terminal bromodomain of human BRD2 (BRD2-BD1; residues 74–194) in complex with each of three different Lys-12-acetylated H4 peptides. The BRD2-BD1 recognizes the H4 tail acetylated at Lys-12 (H4K12ac), whereas the side chain of hypoacetylated Lys-8 of H4 binds at the cavity of the dimer interface of BRD2-BD1. From binding studies, we identified the BRD2-BD1 residues that are responsible for recognition of the Lys-12-acetylated H4 tail. In addition, mutation to Lys-8 in the Lys-12-acetylated H4 tail decreased the binding to BRD2-BD1, implicating the critical role of Lys-8 in the Lys-12-acetylated H4 tail for the recognition by BRD2-BD1. Our findings provide a structural basis for deciphering the histone code by the BET bromodomain through the binding with a long segment of the histone H4 tail, which presumably prevents erasure of the histone code during the cell cycle. PMID:20048151

Umehara, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Jang, Moon Kyoo; Nakano, Kazumi; Tanaka, Akiko; Ozato, Keiko; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2010-01-01

389

Novel agents for enzymatic and fungal hydrolysis of stevioside.  

PubMed

A comparative study on the potential of some biological agents to perform the hydrolysis of stevioside was carried out, aiming at establishing an alternative methodology to achieve the aglycon steviol or its rearranged derivative isosteviol, in high yields to be used in the preparation of novel bioactive compounds. Hydrolysis reactions were performed by using filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Rhizopus arrhizus), a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and enzymes (pancreatin and lipases PL250 and VFL 8000). Pancreatin showed the best hydrolytic activity, furnishing isosteviol at 93.9% of yield, at pH 4.0, using toluene as a co-solvent. Steviol was produced using both pancreatin at pH 7.0 (20.2% yield) and A. niger at pH 7 (20.8% yield). PMID:24031374

Milagre, H M S; Martins, L R; Takahashi, J A

2009-04-01

390

Catalysis of a Flavoenzyme-Mediated Amide Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A new pyrimidine catabolic pathway (the Rut pathway) was recently discovered in Escherichia coli K12. In this pathway, uracil is converted to 3-hydroxypropionate, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. The seven-gene Rut operon is required for this conversion. Here we demonstrate that the flavoenzyme RutA catalyzes the initial uracil ring-opening reaction to give 3-ureidoacrylate. This reaction, while formally a hydrolysis reaction, proceeds by an oxidative mechanism initiated by the addition of a flavin hydroperoxide to the C4 carbonyl. While peroxide-catalyzed amide hydrolysis has chemical precedent, we are not aware of a prior example of analogous chemistry catalyzed by flavin hydroperoxides. This study further illustrates the extraordinary catalytic versatility of the flavin cofactor.

Mukherjee, Tathagata; Zhang, Yang; Abdelwahed, Sameh; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P. (Cornell); (TAM)

2010-09-13

391

Simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification of wet microalgal lipid using acid.  

PubMed

This research demonstrated hydrolysis of wet microalgal lipid and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) using acid in one-step process. The investigation of simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification (SHE) of wet microalgal lipid was conducted by using L27 orthogonal design and the effects of water content, volume of sulphuric acid, volume of methanol, temperature and time on SHE were examined. As a result, water content was found to be the most effective factor. The effects of various parameters on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and equilibrium relation between FAME and FFA were also examined under water content 80%. Equimolar amounts of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid showed similar results. This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since no organic solvents are used. PMID:24080318

Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Kartikawati, Muliasari; Kitamura, Yutaka

2013-12-01

392

Novel agents for enzymatic and fungal hydrolysis of stevioside  

PubMed Central

A comparative study on the potential of some biological agents to perform the hydrolysis of stevioside was carried out, aiming at establishing an alternative methodology to achieve the aglycon steviol or its rearranged derivative isosteviol, in high yields to be used in the preparation of novel bioactive compounds. Hydrolysis reactions were performed by using filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Rhizopus arrhizus), a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and enzymes (pancreatin and lipases PL250 and VFL 8000). Pancreatin showed the best hydrolytic activity, furnishing isosteviol at 93.9% of yield, at pH 4.0, using toluene as a co-solvent. Steviol was produced using both pancreatin at pH 7.0 (20.2% yield) and A. niger at pH 7 (20.8% yield). PMID:24031374

Milagre, H.M.S.; Martins, L.R.; Takahashi, J.A.

2009-01-01

393

Accelerated Hydrolysis of Aspirin Using Alternating Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major problem of current drug-based therapy is selectivity. As in other areas of science, a combined approach might improve the situation decisively. The idea is to use the pro-drug principle together with an alternating magnetic field as physical stimulus, which can be applied in a spatially and temporarily controlled manner. As a proof of principle, the neutral hydrolysis of aspirin in physiological phosphate buffer of pH 7.5 at 40 °C was chosen. The sensor and actuator system is a commercially available gold nanoparticle (NP) suspension which is approved for animal usage, stable in high concentrations and reproducibly available. Applying the alternating magnetic field of a conventional NMR magnet system accelerated the hydrolysis of aspirin in solution.

Reinscheid, Uwe M.

2009-08-01

394

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover process development and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The hydrolysis of acid treated corn stover with cellulase from T. reesei Rut-C-30 was evaluated. Experiments were conducted with substrate concentrations of 5 to 25% by weight, enzyme activities of 0.5 to 7 IU/ml and residence times of 24 to 48 hours. Maximum conversion was 55% for specific cellulase activity of 25 to 30 IU/g. Optimum cellobiase activity for minimum cellobiose production was found to be approximately 1.8 cellobiase units to 1 FPA unit. Hydrolysis experiments with steam exploded corn stover led to a maximum conversion of 80%, significantly higher than the results obtained for acid treated substrate. Steam exploded corn stover was demonstrated as a suitable carbon source for growth of T. reesei in submerged cultures.

Perez, J.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

1981-12-01

395

Snapshots of the maltose transporter during ATP hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

ATP-binding cassette transporters are powered by ATP, but the mechanism by which these transporters hydrolyze ATP is unclear. In this study, four crystal structures of the full-length wild-type maltose transporter, stabilized by adenosine 5{prime}-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate or ADP in conjunction with phosphate analogs BeF{sub 3}{sup -}, VO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, or AlF{sub 4}{sup -}, were determined to 2.2- to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. These structures led to the assignment of two enzymatic states during ATP hydrolysis and demonstrate specific functional roles of highly conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domain, suggesting that ATP-binding cassette transporters catalyze ATP hydrolysis via a general base mechanism.

Oldham, Michael L.; Chen, Jue (Purdue)

2011-12-05

396

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-06-01

397

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-01-01

398

Investigation of the Polymorphs and Hydrolysis of Uranium Trioxide  

SciTech Connect

This work focuses on progress in gaining a better understanding of the polymorphic nature of the UO3-water system, one of several important materials associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the fuel cycle. Powder x-ray diffraction, Raman and fluorescence characterization was performed on polymorphic forms of UO3 and UO3 hydrolysis products for the purpose of developing some predictive capability of estimating process history and utility, e.g. for polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Specifically, we have investigated three industrially relevant production pathways of UO3 and discovered a previously unknown low temperature route to ?-UO3. Pure phases of UO3, hydrolysis products and starting materials were used to establish optical spectroscopic signatures for these compounds.

Sweet, Lucas E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

2013-04-01

399

A mechanism of catalyzed GTP hydrolysis by Ras protein through magnesium ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrolysis by Ras plays pivotal roles in the activation of signaling pathways that lead to cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Despite their significant role in human cancer, the hydrolysis mechanism remains unclear. In the present Letter, we propose a GTP hydrolysis mechanism in which the ? phosphate is cut off primarily by magnesium ion. We studied both normal and mutated Ras and the cause of the malfunction of these mutants, compared the effect of Mg2+ and Mn2+. The simulation results are consistent with the experiments and support the new hydrolysis mechanism. This work will benefit both GTPases and ATPases hydrolysis studies.

Lu, Qiang; Nassar, Nicolas; Wang, Jin

2011-11-01

400

Acetyl-Boswellic Acids Are Novel Catalytic Inhibitors of Human Topoisomerases I and IIa  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Acetyl-boswellic acids (acetyl-BA) are pentacyclic,triterpenes derived from the gum,resin of frankincense. We have previously shown that these compounds are effective cytotoxic agents, acting through,a mechanism,that appears,to involve the inhibi- tion of topoisomerase,activity. We have,now,investigated,the mechanism,of action of acetyl-BA and,show,that these com- pounds,are more,potent,inhibitors of human,topoisomerases,I and IIa than camptothecin, and amsacrine or etoposide, re- spectively. Our data demonstrate that

Tatiana Syrovets; Berthold B Uchele; Erk Gedig; Joseph R. Slupsky; Thomas Simmet

401

Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein,\\u000a resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high\\u000a nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It\\u000a turned out that the optimum enzyme was

Hu Hou; Bafang Li; Xue Zhao

2011-01-01

402

Endo-exo Synergism in Cellulose Hydrolysis Revisited*  

PubMed Central

Synergistic cooperation of different enzymes is a prerequisite for efficient degradation of cellulose. The conventional mechanistic interpretation of the synergism between randomly acting endoglucanases (EGs) and chain end-specific processive cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) is that EG-generated new chain ends on cellulose surface serve as starting points for CBHs. Here we studied the hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose (BC) by CBH TrCel7A and EG TrCel5A from Trichoderma reesei under both single-turnover and “steady state” conditions. Unaccountable by conventional interpretation, the presence of EG increased the rate constant of TrCel7A-catalyzed hydrolysis of BC in steady state. At optimal enzyme/substrate ratios, the “steady state” rate of synergistic hydrolysis became limited by the velocity of processive movement of TrCel7A on BC. A processivity value of 66 ± 7 cellobiose units measured for TrCel7A on 14C-labeled BC was close to the leveling off degree of polymerization of BC, suggesting that TrCel7A cannot pass through the amorphous regions on BC and stalls. We propose a mechanism of endo-exo synergism whereby the degradation of amorphous regions by EG avoids the stalling of TrCel7A and leads to its accelerated recruitment. Hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw suggested that this mechanism of synergism is operative also in the degradation of lignocellulose. Although both mechanisms of synergism are used in parallel, the contribution of conventional mechanism is significant only at high enzyme/substrate ratios. PMID:22733813

Jalak, Jurgen; Kurasin, Mihhail; Teugjas, Hele; Valjamae, Priit

2012-01-01

403

Fructan Hydrolysis Drives Petal Expansion in the Ephemeral Daylily Flower.  

PubMed Central

Dry weight, water content, soluble carbohydrate content, and carbohydrate composition of daylily (Hemerocallis hybrid cv Cradle Song) flower petals were monitored in the 3 d leading up to full opening and in the first day of senescence. Timing of events was related to the time (hour 0) when flower expansion was 60% complete. Petal dry weight increased linearly from hour -62 (tight bud) to hour 10 (fully developed flower), then fell rapidly to hour 34 as senescence advanced. Increase in water content was proportional to dry weight increase from hour -62 to hour -14, but was more rapid as the bud cracked and the flower opened, giving an increase in fresh weight/dry weight ratio. Soluble carbohydrate was 50% of petal dry weight up to hour 10, then decreased during senescence to reach 4% by hour 34. Up until hour -14, fructan accounted for 80% of the soluble carbohydrate in the petals, whereas hexose accounted for only 2%. Fructan hydrolysis started just prior to bud crack at hour -14, reaching completion by hour 10 when no detectable fructan remained, and fructose plus glucose accounted for more than 80% of the total soluble carbohydrate. The proportion of sucrose remained constant throughout development. Osmolality of petal cell sap increased significantly during fructan hydrolysis, from 0.300 to 0.340 osmolal. Cycloheximide applied to excised buds between hour -38 and hour -14 halted both fructan hydrolysis and flower expansion. The findings suggest that onset of fructan hydrolysis, with the concomitant large increase in osmoticum, is an important event driving flower expansion in daylily. PMID:12231928

Bieleski, R. L.

1993-01-01

404

?-Tricalcium phosphate hydrolysis to hydroxyapatite at and near physiological temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of hydroxyapatite (HAp) formation by direct hydrolysis of a-tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP) [a-Ca3(PO4)2] have been investigated. Transformation kinetics were examined for reactions at 37 °C, 45 °C and 56 °C by isothermal calorimetric analysis. Setting times and morphologies of the resultant HAp were found to be strongly dependent on reaction temperature. XRD analysis accompanied by FTIR confirmed that phase

C. Durucan; P. W. Brown

2000-01-01

405

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g\\/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater

Russell L. Holliday; Jerry W. King; Gary R. List

1997-01-01

406

Endo-exo synergism in cellulose hydrolysis revisited.  

PubMed

Synergistic cooperation of different enzymes is a prerequisite for efficient degradation of cellulose. The conventional mechanistic interpretation of the synergism between randomly acting endoglucanases (EGs) and chain end-specific processive cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) is that EG-generated new chain ends on cellulose surface serve as starting points for CBHs. Here we studied the hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose (BC) by CBH TrCel7A and EG TrCel5A from Trichoderma reesei under both single-turnover and "steady state" conditions. Unaccountable by conventional interpretation, the presence of EG increased the rate constant of TrCel7A-catalyzed hydrolysis of BC in steady state. At optimal enzyme/substrate ratios, the "steady state" rate of synergistic hydrolysis became limited by the velocity of processive movement of TrCel7A on BC. A processivity value of 66 ± 7 cellobiose units measured for TrCel7A on (14)C-labeled BC was close to the leveling off degree of polymerization of BC, suggesting that TrCel7A cannot pass through the amorphous regions on BC and stalls. We propose a mechanism of endo-exo synergism whereby the degradation of amorphous regions by EG avoids the stalling of TrCel7A and leads to its accelerated recruitment. Hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw suggested that this mechanism of synergism is operative also in the degradation of lignocellulose. Although both mechanisms of synergism are used in parallel, the contribution of conventional mechanism is significant only at high enzyme/substrate ratios. PMID:22733813

Jalak, Jürgen; Kurašin, Mihhail; Teugjas, Hele; Väljamäe, Priit

2012-08-17

407

Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils  

E-print Network

(1975), employing corn as the test crop with 30C days and 20C nights, found that in a slightly acid soil both OP and polyphosphate effectively supplied P for plant growth, while in an alkaline-calcareous soil polyphosphate was significantly less... calcareous soils. Most likely the high alkalinity of the calcareous soils obscured any differences in hydrolysis of PP due to texture. The interaction between soil texture and sterilization was also significant (Table 5). Under nonsterile con- ditions...

Stewart, William M.

2012-06-07

408

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover process development and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of acid treated corn stover with cellulase from T. reesei Rut-C-30 was evaluated. Experiments were conducted with substrate concentrations of 5 to 25% by weight, enzyme activities of 0.5 to 7 IU\\/ml and residence times of 24 to 48 hours. Maximum conversion was 55% for specific cellulase activity of 25 to 30 IU\\/g. Optimum cellobiase activity for minimum

J. Perez; C. R. Wilke; H. W. Blanch

1981-01-01

409

Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides by a semimicro technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are described for rapid lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides, isolation of the hydrolytic products by TLC and their\\u000a conversion to methyl esters and fatty acid analysis by GLC. The techniques are applicable to a few mg of triglycerides or\\u000a fats. Examples of data obtained with purified triglycerides indicate that the specific action of pancreatic lipase for the\\u000a 1,3 ester groups

F. E. Luddy; R. A. Barford; S. F. Herb; P. Magidman; R. W. Riemenschneider

1964-01-01

410

Novel Penicillium cellulases for total hydrolysis of lignocellulosics.  

PubMed

The (hemi)cellulolytic systems of two novel lignocellulolytic Penicillium strains (Penicillium pulvillorum TUB F-2220 and P. cf. simplicissimum TUB F-2378) have been studied. The cultures of the Penicillium strains were characterized by high cellulase and ?-glucosidase as well moderate xylanase activities compared to the Trichoderma reesei reference strains QM 6a and RUTC30 (volumetric or per secreted protein, respectively). Comparison of the novel Penicillium and T. reesei secreted enzyme mixtures in the hydrolysis of (ligno)cellulose substrates showed that the F-2220 enzyme mixture gave higher yields in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and similar yields in hydrolysis of pre-treated spruce and wheat straw than enzyme mixture secreted by the T. reesei reference strain. The sensitivity of the Penicillium cellulase complexes to softwood (spruce) and grass (wheat straw) lignins was lignin and temperature dependent: inhibition of cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of wheat straw lignin was minor at 35°C while at 45°C by spruce lignin a clear inhibition was observed. The two main proteins in the F-2220 (hemi)cellulase complex were partially purified and identified by peptide sequence similarity as glycosyl hydrolases (cellobiohydrolases) of families 7 and 6. Adsorption of the GH7 enzyme PpCBH1 on cellulose and lignins was studied showing that the lignin adsorption of the enzyme is temperature and pH dependent. The ppcbh1 coding sequence was obtained using PCR cloning and the translated amino acid sequence of PpCBH1 showed up to 82% amino acid sequence identity to known Penicillium cellobiohydrolases. PMID:23608505

Marjamaa, Kaisa; Toth, Karolina; Bromann, Paul Andrew; Szakacs, George; Kruus, Kristiina

2013-05-10

411

Extrusion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-print Network

milling one day and 18. 5% after six days. Enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase from Trichoderma viride gave 38. 2% saccharification after the one-day milling treatment and 58% after the six-day treatment. Both alkali solubility and susceptibility... into the two roll mill, masticated for one minute intervals, and scraped off between intervals. Treated and untreated samples were hydrolyzed by cellulases of Trlchoderma viride QM 9414 and hydrolysates analyzed for total reducing sugar. Results indicated...

Ocana Camacho, Ronay

2012-06-07