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Sample records for acetyl group-binding receptor

  1. Acetylation of lysine 109 modulates pregnane X receptor DNA binding and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Pasquel, Danielle; Doricakova, Aneta; Li, Hao; Kortagere, Sandhya; Krasowski, Matthew D; Biswas, Arunima; Walton, William G; Redinbo, Matthew R; Dvorak, Zdenek; Mani, Sridhar

    2016-09-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a major transcriptional regulator of xenobiotic metabolism and transport pathways in the liver and intestines, which are critical for protecting organisms against potentially harmful xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. Inadvertent activation of drug metabolism pathways through PXR is known to contribute to drug resistance, adverse drug-drug interactions, and drug toxicity in humans. In both humans and rodents, PXR has been implicated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Because of PXR's important functions, it has been a therapeutic target of interest for a long time. More recent mechanistic studies have shown that PXR is modulated by multiple PTMs. Herein we provide the first investigation of the role of acetylation in modulating PXR activity. Through LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified lysine 109 (K109) in the hinge as PXR's major acetylation site. Using various biochemical and cell-based assays, we show that PXR's acetylation status and transcriptional activity are modulated by E1A binding protein (p300) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Based on analysis of acetylation site mutants, we found that acetylation at K109 represses PXR transcriptional activity. The mechanism involves loss of RXRα dimerization and reduced binding to cognate DNA response elements. This mechanism may represent a promising therapeutic target using modulators of PXR acetylation levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:26855179

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Bovine Acetyl Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Reddy, Pranhitha; Kishimoto, Chiharu; Krieger, Monty

    1988-12-01

    The acetyl low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor is expressed on macrophages and some endothelial cells and mediates macrophage--foam cell formation in culture. A 220-kDa acetyl LDL binding protein was partially purified from bovine liver membranes and was used to make a specific monoclonal antibody. The 220-kDa protein immunoprecipitated by this antibody retained binding activity, and the antibody was used to detect this protein in cells lining bovine liver sinusoids and on the surface of cultured bovine alveolar macrophages. In the human monocytic cell line THP-1, the expression of both acetyl LDL receptor activity and a 220-kDa acetyl LDL binding protein were dramatically induced in parallel after differentiation to a macrophage-like state induced by phorbol ester. The ligand specificity, tissue and cell-type specificity, and coinduction data indicated that this 220-kDa cell-surface binding protein is probably a receptor that mediates acetyl LDL endocytosis. The 220-kDa protein, which was purified 238,000-fold from bovine lung membranes to near homogeneity using monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography, is a trimer of 77-kDa subunits that contain asparagine-linked carbohydrate chains.

  3. Lysine deacetylase inhibition attenuates hypertension and is accompanied by acetylation of mineralocorticoid receptor instead of histone acetylation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Seok, Young Mi; Lee, Hae Ahm; Park, Kwon Moo; Hwangbo, Mi-Hyang; Kim, In Kyeom

    2016-07-01

    Inhibition of lysine deacetylase (KDAC) attenuated development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We hypothesized that KDAC inhibition attenuates hypertension and is accompanied by acetylation of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) instead of histone acetylation in SHRs. Valproate (VPA, 0.71 % wt/vol), an inhibitor of class I KDACs, was administered in drinking water to 7-week-old SHRs and Wistar Kyoto rats for 11 weeks. MR acetylation was determined by immunoprecipitation with anti-MR antibody followed by western blot with anti-acetyl-lysine antibody. Expression levels of acetylated histone H3, KDACs, MR target genes, or MR corepressors in the kidney cortex were measured by using western blot analysis or real-time PCR. Recruitment of MR and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and histone modifications on promoters of target genes were analyzed by performing a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Treatment of SHR with VPA increased MR acetylation without affecting MR expression, which attenuated development of hypertension in SHR VPA decreased expression of KDAC class I but globally increased acetylated histone H3. Although VPA treatment increased histone 3 acetylation (H3Ac) and trimethylation of the fourth lysine (H3K4me3) in the promoter regions of MR target genes, it decreased the expression of target genes as well as recruitment of MR and Pol II. These results suggest that KDAC inhibition attenuates the development of hypertension in SHRs and is accompanied by acetylation of MR that is independent of histone acetylation. PMID:27106211

  4. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. {yields} PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. {yields} SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. {yields} PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  5. Glutamine Triggers Acetylation-Dependent Degradation of Glutamine Synthetase via the Thalidomide Receptor Cereblon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T Van; Lee, J Eugene; Sweredoski, Michael J; Yang, Seung-Joo; Jeon, Seung-Je; Harrison, Joseph S; Yim, Jung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang Ghil; Handa, Hiroshi; Kuhlman, Brian; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Reitsma, Justin M; Park, Chul-Seung; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-03-17

    Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor for the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase 4 (CRL4) complex, is a direct protein target for thalidomide teratogenicity and antitumor activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). Here we report that glutamine synthetase (GS) is an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Upon exposing cells to high glutamine concentration, GS is acetylated at lysines 11 and 14, yielding a degron that is necessary and sufficient for binding and ubiquitylation by CRL4(CRBN) and degradation by the proteasome. Binding of acetylated degron peptides to CRBN depends on an intact thalidomide-binding pocket but is not competitive with IMiDs. These findings reveal a feedback loop involving CRL4(CRBN) that adjusts GS protein levels in response to glutamine and uncover a new function for lysine acetylation. PMID:26990986

  6. Acetylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 is permissive for tyrosine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; James, Stephen R

    2004-01-01

    Background Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are key moderators of insulin action. Their specific regulation determines downstream protein-protein interactions and confers specificity on growth factor signalling. Regulatory mechanisms that have been identified include phosphorylation of IRS proteins on tyrosine and serine residues and ubiquitination of lysine residues. This study investigated other potential molecular mechanisms of IRS-1 regulation. Results Using the sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system we found that IRS-1 and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) interact in the cytoplasmic compartment of yeast cells. The interaction mapped to the C-terminus of IRS-1 and was confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation in vitro of recombinant IRS-1 and HDAC2. HDAC2 bound to IRS-1 in mammalian cells treated with phorbol ester or after prolonged treatment with insulin/IGF-1 and also in the livers of ob/ob mice but not PTP1B knockout mice. Thus, the association occurs under conditions of compromised insulin signalling. We found that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, of which the acetylation is increased by treatment of cells with Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of HDAC activity. TSA-induced increases in acetylation of IRS-1 were concomitant with increases in tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin. These effects were confirmed using RNA interference against HDAC2, indicating that HDAC2 specifically prevents phosphorylation of IRS-1 by the insulin receptor. Conclusions Our results show that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, a post-translational modification that has not been previously described. Acetylation of IRS-1 is permissive for tyrosine phosphorylation and facilitates insulin-stimulated signal transduction. Specific inhibition of HDAC2 may increase insulin sensitivity in otherwise insulin resistant conditions. PMID:15522123

  7. Histone Deacetylase 6-Controlled Hsp90 Acetylation Significantly Alters Mineralocorticoid Receptor Subcellular Dynamics But Not its Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Canino, Rubén; Lorenzo-Díaz, Fabián; Jaisser, Frederic; Farman, Nicolette; Giraldez, Teresa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego

    2016-06-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that transduces the biological effects of corticosteroids. Its best-characterized role is to enhance transepithelial sodium reabsorption in response to increased aldosterone levels. In addition, MR participates in other aldosterone- or glucocorticoid-controlled processes such as cardiovascular homeostasis, adipocyte differentiation or neurogenesis, and regulation of neuronal activity in the hippocampus. Like other steroid receptors, MR forms cytosolic heterocomplexes with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90), Hsp70, and other proteins such as immunophilins. Interaction with Hsp90 is thought to maintain MR in a ligand-binding competent conformation and to regulate ligand-dependent and -independent nucleocytoplasmatic shuttling. It has previously been shown that acetylation of residue K295 in Hsp90 regulates its interaction with the androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In this work we hypothesized that Hsp90 acetylation provides a regulatory step to modulate MR cellular dynamics and activity. We used Hsp90 acetylation mimic mutant K295Q or nonacetylatable mutant K295R to examine whether MR nucleocytoplasmatic shuttling and gene transactivation are affected. Furthermore, we manipulated endogenous Hsp90 acetylation levels by controlling expression or activity of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), the enzyme responsible for deacetylation of Hsp90-K295. Our data demonstrates that HDAC6-mediated Hsp90 acetylation regulates MR cellular dynamics but it does not alter its function. This stands in contrast with the down-regulation of GR by HDAC6, suggesting that Hsp90 acetylation may play a role in balancing relative MR and GR activity when both factors are co-expressed in the same cell. PMID:27100623

  8. Nucleolin Acts as a Scavenger Receptor for Acetylated Low-Density Lipoprotein on Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuichi; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Ohminato, Yukari; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although macrophage phagocytoses modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), excessive accumulation of modified LDL induces macrophage foam cell formation, which is a feature of atherosclerotic plaque. Thus, the identification of scavenger receptor for modified LDL will provide better understanding of an atherosclerotic event. We recently showed that nucleolin expressed on macrophages acts as a scavenger receptor for various endogenous discarded products. Here, we investigated whether or not nucleolin is involved in the uptake of acetylated LDL (AcLDL). In contrast to normal LDL, AcLDL directly bound to immobilized nucleolin. AcLDL exhibited a higher affinity for macrophages than normal LDL. This binding of AcLDL was inhibited by anti-nucleolin antibody and antineoplastic guanine-rich oligonucleotide (AGRO), a nucleolin-specific oligonucleotide aptamer. In addition, AcLDL exhibited a higher affinity for HEK cells transfected with nucleolin than those without. Further, intracellular accumulation of AcLDL was also inhibited by anti-nucleolin antibody. The results of this study suggest that nucleolin expressed on macrophages is a receptor for AcLDL. PMID:26328500

  9. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by carcinogenic aromatic amines and modulatory effects of their N-acetylated metabolites.

    PubMed

    Juricek, Ludmila; Bui, Linh-Chi; Busi, Florent; Pierre, Stéphane; Guyot, Erwan; Lamouri, Aazdine; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Barouki, Robert; Coumoul, Xavier; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Aromatic amines (AAs) are an important class of chemicals which account for 12 % of known carcinogens. The biological effects of AAs depend mainly on their biotransformation into reactive metabolites or into N-acetylated metabolites which are generally considered as less toxic. Although the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway by certain carcinogenic AAs has been reported, the effects of their N-acetylated metabolites on the AhR have not been addressed. Here, we investigated whether carcinogenic AAs and their N-acetylated metabolites may activate/modulate the AhR pathway in the absence and/or the presence of a bona fide AhR ligand (benzo[a]pyrene/B(a)P]. In agreement with previous studies, we found that certain AAs activated the AhR in human liver and lung cells as assessed by an increase in cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression and activity. Altogether, we report for the first time that these properties can be modulated by the N-acetylation status of the AA. Whereas 2-naphthylamine significantly activated the AhR and induced CYP1A1 expression, its N-acetylated metabolite was less efficient. In contrast, the N-acetylated metabolite of 2-aminofluorene was able to significantly activate AhR, whereas the parent AA, 2-aminofluorene, did not. In the presence of B(a)P, activation of AhR or antagonist effects were observed depending on the AA or its N-acetylated metabolite. Activation and/or modulation of the AhR pathway by AAs and their N-acetylated metabolites may represent a novel mechanism contributing to the toxicological effects of AAs. More broadly, our data suggest biological interactions between AAs and other classes of xenobiotics through the AhR pathway. PMID:25224404

  10. Upregulation of mGlu2 receptors via NF-κB p65 acetylation is involved in the Proneurogenic and antidepressant effects of acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Cuccurazzu, Bruna; Bortolotto, Valeria; Valente, Maria Maddalena; Ubezio, Federica; Koverech, Aleardo; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia

    2013-10-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring molecule with an important role in cellular bioenergetics and as donor of acetyl groups to proteins, including NF-κB p65. In humans, exogenously administered ALC has been shown to be effective in mood disturbances, with a good tolerability profile. No current information is available on the antidepressant effect of ALC in animal models of depression and on the putative mechanism involved in such effect. Here we report that ALC is a proneurogenic molecule, whose effect on neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal neural progenitors is independent of its neuroprotective activity. The in vitro proneurogenic effects of ALC appear to be mediated by activation of the NF-κB pathway, and in particular by p65 acetylation, and subsequent NF-κB-mediated upregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2) expression. When tested in vivo, chronic ALC treatment could revert depressive-like behavior caused by unpredictable chronic mild stress, a rodent model of depression with high face validity and predictivity, and its behavioral effect correlated with upregulated expression of mGlu2 receptor in hippocampi of stressed mice. Moreover, chronic, but not acute or subchronic, drug treatment significantly increased adult born neurons in hippocampi of stressed and unstressed mice. We now propose that this mechanism could be potentially involved in the antidepressant effect of ALC in humans. These results are potentially relevant from a clinical perspective, as for its high tolerability profile ALC may be ideally employed in patient subpopulations who are sensitive to the side effects associated with classical antidepressants. PMID:23670591

  11. Histone acetylation regulates orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 expression in hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xina; Song, Xuhong; Yuan, Song; Cai, Haitao; Chen, Yequn; Chang, Xiaolan; Liang, Bin; Huang, Dongyang

    2015-12-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia and inflammation are correlated with atherogenesis. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1, as a key regulator of inflammation, is closely associated with lipid levels in vivo. However, the mechanism by which lipids regulate NR4A1 expression remains unknown. We aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of NR4A1 expression in monocytes during hypercholesterolaemia, and reveal the potential role of NR4A1 in hypercholesterolaemia-induced circulating inflammation. Circulating leucocytes were collected from blood samples of 139 patients with hypercholesterolaemia and 139 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. We found that there was a low-grade inflammatory state and higher expression of NR4A1 in patients. Both total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in plasma were positively correlated with NR4A1 mRNA level. ChIP revealed that acetylation of histone H3 was enriched in the NR4A1 promoter region in patients. Human mononuclear cell lines THP-1 and U937 were treated with cholesterol. Supporting our clinical observations, cholesterol enhanced p300 acetyltransferase and decreased HDAC7 (histone deacetylase 7) recruitment to the NR4A1 promoter region, resulting in histone H3 hyperacetylation and further contributing to NR4A1 up-regulation in monocytes. Moreover, cytosporone B, an NR4A1 agonist, completely reversed cholesterol-induced IL-6 (interleukin 6) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) expression to below basal levels, and knockdown of NR4A1 expression by siRNA not only mimicked, but also exaggerated the effects of cholesterol on inflammatory biomarker up-regulation. Thus we conclude that histone acetylation contributes to the regulation of NR4A1 expression in hypercholesterolaemia, and that NR4A1 expression reduces hypercholesterolaemia-induced inflammation. PMID:26396259

  12. Histone acetylation characterizes chromatin presetting by NF1 and Oct1 and enhances glucocorticoid receptor binding to the MMTV promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Astrand, Carolina; Belikov, Sergey; Wrange, Orjan

    2009-09-10

    Transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This switch was reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. Previously, we showed that Nuclear Factor 1 (NF1) and Octamer Transcription Factor 1 (Oct1) bind constitutively to the MMTV promoter and thereby induce translational nucleosome positioning representing an intermediary, i.e. preset, state of nucleosome organization. Here we further characterize this NF1 and Oct1 induced preset chromatin in relation to the inactive and the hormone-activated state. The preset chromatin exhibits increased histone acetylation but does not cause dissociation of histone H1 as oppose to the hormone-activated state. Furthermore, upon hormone induction the preset MMTV chromatin displays an enhanced and prolonged GR binding capacity and transcription during an intrinsic and time-dependent silencing of the injected template. The silencing process correlates with a reduced histone acetylation. However, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), does not counteract silencing in spite of its distinct stimulation of GR-DNA binding. The latter indicates the importance of histone acetylation to maintain DNA access for inducible factor binding. We discuss how constitutively bound factors such as NF1 and Oct1 may participate in the maintenance of tissue specificity of hormone responsive genes.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of N-parinaroyl analogs of ganglioside GM3 and de-N-acetyl GM3. Interactions with the EGF receptor kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, W.; Welti, R.; Hafner-Strauss, S.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A specific plasma membrane glycosphingolipid, known as ganglioside GM3, can regulate the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor; this modulation is not associated with alterations in hormone binding to the receptor. GM3 inhibits EGF receptor tyrosyl kinase activity in detergent micelles, in plasma membrane vesicles, and in whole cells. In addition, immunoaffinity-purified EGF receptor preparations contain ganglioside GM3 (Hanai et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 10915-10921), implying that the glycosphingolipid is intimately associated with the receptor kinase in cell membranes. Both the nature of this association and the molecular mechanism of kinase inhibition remain to be elucidated. In this report, we describe the synthesis of a fluorescent analog of ganglioside GM3, in which the native fatty acid was replaced with trans-parinaric acid. This glycosphingolipid inhibited the receptor kinase activity in a manner similar to that of the native ganglioside. A modified fluorescent glycosphingolipid, N-trans-parinaroyl de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, was also prepared. This analog, like the nonfluorescent de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, had no effect on receptor kinase activity. Results from tryptophan fluorescence quenching and steady-state anisotropy measurements in membranes containing these fluorescent probes and the human EGF receptor were consistent with the notion that GM3, but not de-N-acetyl GM3, interacts specifically with the receptor in intact membranes.

  14. The Escherichia coli G-fimbrial lectin protein participates both in fimbrial biogenesis and in recognition of the receptor N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

    PubMed Central

    Saarela, S; Taira, S; Nurmiaho-Lassila, E L; Makkonen, A; Rhen, M

    1995-01-01

    The gafD gene encoding the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific fimbrial lectin (adhesin) protein GafD of uropathogenic Escherichia coli was cloned and subjected to genetic analysis. The corresponding gene product was isolated as a MalE fusion protein. The lectin gene was identified with the aid of deletion mutagenesis; mutations in gafD impaired either receptor binding or both receptor binding and fimbria production, depending on the mutation created. All mutants converted to wild-type expressors when complemented in trans with the cloned intact gafD gene. The predicted 354-amino-acid sequence of GafD, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, is closely related to those of the fimbria-associated F17-G and F17b-G proteins coded for by enterotoxigenic and invasive E. coli strains. Isolated GafD was shown to recognize N-acetyl-D-glucosamine by virtue of specific binding to an immobilized receptor, thus proving directly that GafD is a sugar-binding protein. Our results indicate that GafD as such is sufficient for receptor recognition and that the protein also participates in fimbrial biogenesis. PMID:7883703

  15. SF-1 (Nuclear Receptor 5A1) Activity Is Activated by Cyclic AMP via p300-Mediated Recruitment to Active Foci, Acetylation, and Increased DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Yi; Juan, Li-Jung; Chung, Bon-chu

    2005-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a nuclear receptor essential for steroidogenic gene expression, but how its activity is regulated is unclear. Here we demonstrate that p300 plays an important role in regulating SF-1 function. SF-1 was acetylated in vitro and in vivo by p300 at the KQQKK motif in the Ftz-F1 (Fushi-tarazu factor 1) box adjacent to its DNA-binding domain. Mutation of the KQQKK motif reduced the DNA-binding activity and p300-dependent activation of SF-1. When stimulated with cyclic AMP (cAMP), adrenocortical Y1 cells expressed more p300, leading to additional SF-1 association with p300 and increased SF-1 acetylation and DNA binding. It also increased SF-1 colocalization with p300 in nuclear foci. Collectively, these results indicate that SF-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by p300 in response to the cAMP signaling pathway by way of increased acetylation, DNA binding, and recruitment to nuclear foci. PMID:16287857

  16. Imaging opiate receptors by positron tomography (PET): Evaluation by displacement of 3-Acetyl-6-Deoxy-6-Beta-/sup 18/F-flouronaltrexone with active and inactive naloxone

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Channing, M.A.; Rice, K.R.; Pert, C.B.; Eckelman, W.C.; Burke, T.R.; Bennett, J.M.; Carson, R.E.; Di Chiro, G.

    1985-05-01

    We recently reported the development of a new radiopharmaceutical for in vivo PET imaging of opiate receptors, 3-acetyl-6-deoxy-6-Beta-/sup 18/F-fluoronaltrexone: 3-acetylcyclofoxy, or /sup 18/F-ACF. These studies involved displacement of /sup 18/F-ACF from sites of uptake in the baboon sub-cortical gray matter, and provided strong proof of the opiate receptor specificity of the tracer. We now report on the anatomic localization of /sup 18/F-ACF in the sub-cortical grapy matter of baboon, and the kinetics of uptake and displacement of the tracer. /sup 18/F-ACF was prepared from the known 3-acetyl-6-alpha-naltrexol via the triflate, using /sup 18/F produced by neutron bombardment of /sup 6/Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Anesthetized baboons were imaged after injection of /sup 18/F-ACF (sp.ac.=20Ci/mmol), using the NIH NEUROPET, a high resolution PET scanner. After bolus injection, the initial distribution to brain was rapid with peak uptake at 6 minutes post-injection. Clearance from opiate receptor rich regions of thalamus and basal ganglia was gradual, but after injection of active (but not after inactive), naloxone, clearance from these regions more than doubled. In non-opiate rich regions, (e.g. cerebellum), the predominant component of clearance was equally rapid with or without the active naloxone. Displacement studies of positron labelled ligands provide a powerful tool for non-invasive study of opiate receptor in living primates.

  17. Expression of type I and type II bovine scavenger receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells: Lipid droplet accumulation and nonreciprocal cross competition by acetylated and oxidized low density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M. Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston ); Ekkel, Y.; Rohrer, L.; Penman, M.; Freedman, N.J.; Krieger, M. ); Chisolm, G.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Type I and type II scavenger receptors, which have been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis and other macrophage-associated functions, differ only by the presence in the type I receptor of an extracellular cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. Stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transfectants expressing high levels of either the type I or type II bovine scavenger receptors have been generated. Type I and type II receptors in these cells mediated high-affinity saturable endocytosis of both {sup 125}I-labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) and {sup 125}I-labeled oxidized LDL with the distinctive broad ligand specificity characteristic of scavenger receptors. After incubation for 2 days with acetylated LDL, the transfected cells accumulated oil red O-staining lipid droplets reminiscent of those in macrophage foam cells, whereas untransfected CHO cells did not. Thus, macrophage-specific gene products other than the scavenger receptor are not required for modified-LDL-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. In transfected cells, acetylated LDL efficiently competed for both its own endocytosis and that of oxidized LDL. This nonreciprocal cross competition suggests that these ligands may bind to nonidentical but interacting sites on a single receptor. Results were similar for transfectants expressing either type I or type II scavenger receptors. The nonreciprocal cross competition seen in the transfected CHO cells differs from that previously observed with cultured macrophages.

  18. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Effect of Histone Acetylation on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate 2B Receptor Subunits and Interleukin-1 Receptors in Association with Nociception-Related Somatosensory Cortex Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yukio; Yoshikawa, Nao; Murkami, Yuki; Mitani, Satoko; Matsumoto, Naoya; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Yamada, Tomoki; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Junichiro; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi; Jin, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Whole-body inflammation (i.e., sepsis) often results in brain-related sensory dysfunction. We previously reported that interleukin (IL)-1 resulted in synaptic dysfunction of septic encephalopathy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown, as do effective treatments. Using mice, we examined immunohistochemistry, co-immunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and behavior analyses, and investigated the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B subunit (NR2B) of NMDA receptor, IL-1 receptor, and histone acetylation in the pathophysiology underlying sensory dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice groups of sham-operated, LPS, LPS with an NR2B antagonist, or LPS with resveratrol (a histone acetylation activator) were analyzed. We found that LPS increased NR2B and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) immunoreactivity. The expression of Iba1, a marker for microglia and/or macrophages, increased more significantly in the brain than in the spinal cord, implicating NR2B and IL-1R in brain inflammation. Immunoprecipitation with NR2B and IL-1R revealed related antibodies. Blood levels of IL-1β (i.e., the IL-1R ligand) increased, though not significantly, suggesting that inflammation peaked at 20 h. Behavioral assessments of central (CNS) and peripheral sensory (PNS) function indicated that LPS delayed CNS but not PNS escape latency. Finally, NR2B antagonist or resveratrol in the lateral ventricle antagonized the effects of LPS in the brain and improved animal survival. In summary, histone acetylation may control expression of NR2B and IL-1R, alleviating inflammation-induced sensory neuronal dysfunction caused by LPS. PMID:26682951

  20. Interactive Roles of Ets-1, Sp1, and Acetylated Histones in the Retinoic Acid-dependent Activation of Guanylyl Cyclase/Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A Gene Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prerna; Garg, Renu; Bolden, Gevoni; Pandey, Kailash N.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac hormones atrial and brain natriuretic peptides activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), which plays a critical role in reduction of blood pressure and blood volume. Currently, the mechanisms responsible for regulating the Npr1 gene (coding for GC-A/NPRA) transcription are not well understood. The present study was conducted to examine the interactive roles of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), Ets-1, Sp1, and histone acetylation on the transcriptional regulation and function of the Npr1 gene. Deletion analysis of the Npr1 promoter and luciferase assays showed that ATRA enhanced a 16-fold Npr1 promoter activity and greatly stimulated guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity of the receptor protein in both atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-dependent and -independent manner. As confirmed by gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, ATRA enhanced the binding of both Ets-1 and Sp1 to the Npr1 promoter. The retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) was recruited by Ets-1 and Sp1 to form a transcriptional activator complex with their binding sites in the Npr1 promoter. Interestingly, ATRA also increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and enhanced their recruitment to Ets-1 and Sp1 binding sites within the Npr1 promoter. Collectively, the present results demonstrate that ATRA regulates Npr1 gene transcription and GC activity of the receptor by involving the interactive actions of Ets-1, Sp1, and histone acetylation. PMID:20864529

  1. HDAC1 bound to the Cyp1a1 promoter blocks histone acetylation associated with Ah receptor-mediated transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Schnekenburger, Michael; Peng, Li; Puga, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic bioactivation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as the environmental procarcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase encoded by the substrate-inducible Cyp1a1 gene. Cyp1a1 induction requires trans-activation by the heterodimeric transcriptional complex formed by the liganded Ah receptor (AHR) and its partner, ARNT. Previously, we showed that constitutively bound HDAC1 dissociates from Cyp1a1 promoter chromatin after ligand-mediated induction, concomitantly with the recruitment of AHR/ARNT complexes and p300. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that HDAC1 binding maintains the Cyp1a1 gene in a silenced state in uninduced cells. We find that Cyp1a1 induction by the AHR/ARNT is associated with modification of specific chromatin marks, including hyperacetylation of histone H3K14 and H4K16, trimethylation of histone H3K4, and phosphorylation of H3S10. HDAC1 and DNMT1 form complexes on the Cyp1a1 promoter of uninduced cells but HDAC1 inhibition alone is not sufficient to induce Cyp1a1 expression, although it allows for the hyperacetylation of H3K14 and H4K16 to levels similar to those found in B[a]P-induced cells. These results show that by blocking modification of histone marks, HDAC1 plays a central role in Cyp1a1 expression and that its removal is a necessary but not sufficient condition for Cyp1a1 induction, underscoring the requirement for a concerted series of chromatin remodeling events to complete the initial steps of gene trans-activation by the Ah receptor. PMID:17707923

  2. Characterization of the N-Acetyl-5-neuraminic Acid-binding Site of the Extracytoplasmic Solute Receptor (SiaP) of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strain 2019

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jason W.; Coussens, Nathan P.; Allen, Simon; Houtman, Jon C.D.; Turner, Keith H.; Zaleski, Anthony; Ramaswamy, S.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A.

    2012-11-14

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic human pathogen causing otitis media in children and chronic bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The outer membrane of nontypeable H. influenzae is dominated by lipooligosaccharides (LOS), many of which incorporate sialic acid as a terminal nonreducing sugar. Sialic acid has been demonstrated to be an important factor in the survival of the bacteria within the host environment. H. influenzae is incapable of synthesizing sialic acid and is dependent on scavenging free sialic acid from the host environment. To achieve this, H. influenzae utilizes a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter. In this study, we characterize the binding site of the extracytoplasmic solute receptor (SiaP) from nontypeable H. influenzae strain 2019. A crystal structure of N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-bound SiaP was determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Thermodynamic characterization of Neu5Ac binding shows this interaction is enthalpically driven with a substantial unfavorable contribution from entropy. This is expected because the binding of SiaP to Neu5Ac is mediated by numerous hydrogen bonds and has several buried water molecules. Point mutations targeting specific amino acids were introduced in the putative binding site. Complementation with the mutated siaP constructs resulted either in full, partial, or no complementation, depending on the role of specific residues. Mass spectrometry analysis of the O-deacylated LOS of the R127K point mutation confirmed the observation of reduced incorporation of Neu5Ac into the LOS. The decreased ability of H. influenzae to import sialic acid had negative effects on resistance to complement-mediated killing and viability of biofilms in vitro, confirming the importance of sialic acid transport to the bacterium.

  3. Glucocorticoid Receptor Recruitment of Histone Deacetylase 2 Inhibits Interleukin-1β-Induced Histone H4 Acetylation on Lysines 8 and 12

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of dexamethasone to regulate interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced gene expression, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Low concentrations of dexamethasone (10−10 M) repress IL-1β-stimulated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression and fail to stimulate secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor expression. Dexamethasone (10−7 M) and IL-1β (1 ng/ml) both stimulated HAT activity but showed a different pattern of histone H4 acetylation. Dexamethasone targeted lysines K5 and K16, whereas IL-1β targeted K8 and K12. Low concentrations of dexamethasone (10−10 M), which do not transactivate, repressed IL-1β-stimulated K8 and K12 acetylation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that dexamethasone inhibits IL-1β-enhanced acetylated K8-associated GM-CSF promoter enrichment in a concentration-dependent manner. Neither IL-1β nor dexamethasone elicited any GM-CSF promoter association at acetylated K5 residues. Furthermore, we show that GR acts both as a direct inhibitor of CREB binding protein (CBP)-associated HAT activity and also by recruiting HDAC2 to the p65-CBP HAT complex. This action does not involve de novo synthesis of HDAC protein or altered expression of CBP or p300/CBP-associated factor. This mechanism for glucocorticoid repression is novel and establishes that inhibition of histone acetylation is an additional level of control of inflammatory gene expression. This further suggests that pharmacological manipulation of of specific histone acetylation status is a potentially useful approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:10958685

  4. The Interaction of a Carbohydrate-Binding Module from a Clostridium perfringens N-Acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase with its Carbohydrate Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ficko-Blean,E.; Boraston, A.

    2006-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a notable colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract. This bacterium is quite remarkable for a human pathogen by the number of glycoside hydrolases found in its genome. The modularity of these enzymes is striking as is the frequent occurrence of modules having amino acid sequence identity with family 32 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), often referred to as F5/8 domains. Here we report the properties of family 32 CBMs from a C. perfringens N-acetyl-{beta}-hexosaminidase. Macroarray, UV difference, and isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies indicate a preference for the disaccharide LacNAc ({beta}-d-galactosyl-1,4-{beta}-d-N-acetylglucosamine). The molecular details of the interaction of this CBM with galactose, LacNAc, and the type II blood group H-trisaccharide are revealed by x-ray crystallographic studies at resolutions of 1.49, 2.4, and 2.3 Angstroms, respectively.

  5. Neuroprotective targets through which 6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one (SN79), a sigma receptor ligand, mitigates the effects of methamphetamine in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Nidhi; Robson, Matthew J.; Rosen, Abagail; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high or repeated doses of methamphetamine can cause hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, which are thought to increase the risk of developing a variety of neurological conditions. Sigma receptor antagonism can prevent methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, but the underlying cellular targets through which the neuroprotection is conveyed remain unknown. Differentiated NG108-15 cells were thus used as a model system to begin elucidating the neuroprotective mechanisms targeted by sigma receptor antagonists to mitigate the effects of methamphetamine. In differentiated NG108-15 cells, methamphetamine caused the generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, an increase in PERK-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, ultimately resulting in apoptosis at micromolar concentrations, and necrotic cell death at higher concentrations. The sigma receptor antagonist, 6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one (SN79), attenuated methamphetamine-induced increases in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, activation of caspase-3,-8 and-9 and accompanying cellular toxicity. In contrast, 1,3-di(2-tolyl)-guanidine (DTG), a sigma receptor agonist, shifted the dose response curve of methamphetamine-induced cell death towards the left. To probe the effect of temperature on neurotoxicity, NG108-15 cells maintained at an elevated temperature (40 °C) exhibited a significant and synergistic increase in cell death in response to methamphetamine, compared to cells maintained at a normal cell culture temperature (37 °C). SN79 attenuated the enhanced cell death observed in the methamphetamine-treated cells at 40 °C. Together, the data demonstrate that SN79 reduces methamphetamine-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generation and caspase activation, thereby conveying neuroprotective effects against methamphetamine under regular and elevated temperature conditions. PMID:24380829

  6. The Acetyl Group Buffering Action of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Offsets Macronutrient-induced Lysine Acetylation of Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael N.; Kjalarsdottir, Lilja; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Brosnan, M. Julia; Rolph, Timothy P.; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation (AcK), a posttranslational modification wherein a two-carbon acetyl group binds covalently to a lysine residue, occurs prominently on mitochondrial proteins and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction. An emergent theory suggests mitochondrial AcK occurs via mass action rather than targeted catalysis. To test this hypothesis we performed mass spectrometry-based acetylproteomic analyses of quadriceps muscles from mice with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), an enzyme that buffers the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool by converting short-chain acyl-CoAs to their membrane permeant acylcarnitine counterparts. CrAT deficiency increased tissue acetyl-CoA levels and susceptibility to diet-induced AcK of broad-ranging mitochondrial proteins, coincident with diminished whole body glucose control. Sub-compartment acetylproteome analyses of muscles from obese mice and humans showed remarkable overrepresentation of mitochondrial matrix proteins. These findings reveal roles for CrAT and L-carnitine in modulating the muscle acetylproteome and provide strong experimental evidence favoring the nonenzymatic carbon pressure model of mitochondrial AcK. PMID:26748706

  7. A SUMO-acetyl switch in PXR biology.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wenqi; Sun, Mengxi; Zhang, Shupei; Shen, Xunan; Galeva, Nadezhda; Williams, Todd D; Staudinger, Jeff L

    2016-09-01

    Post-translational modification (PTM) of nuclear receptor superfamily members regulates various aspects of their biology to include sub-cellular localization, the repertoire of protein-binding partners, as well as their stability and mode of degradation. The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a master-regulator of the drug-inducible gene expression in liver and intestine. The PXR-mediated gene activation program is primarily recognized to increase drug metabolism, drug transport, and drug efflux pathways in these tissues. The activation of PXR also has important implications in significant human diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. Our recent investigations reveal that PXR is modified by multiple PTMs to include phosphorylation, SUMOylation, and ubiquitination. Using both primary cultures of hepatocytes and cell-based assays, we show here that PXR is modified through acetylation on lysine residues. Further, we show that increased acetylation of PXR stimulates its increased SUMO-modification to support active transcriptional suppression. Pharmacologic inhibition of lysine de-acetylation using trichostatin A (TSA) alters the sub-cellular localization of PXR in cultured hepatocytes, and also has a profound impact upon PXR transactivation capacity. Both the acetylation and SUMOylation status of the PXR protein is affected by its ability to associate with the lysine de-acetylating enzyme histone de-acetylase (HDAC)3 in a complex with silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT). Taken together, our data support a model in which a SUMO-acetyl 'switch' occurs such that acetylation of PXR likely stimulates SUMO-modification of PXR to promote the active repression of PXR-target gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:26883953

  8. Protein Acetylation and Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Galdieri, Luciano; Zhang, Tiantian; Rogerson, Daniella; Lleshi, Rron

    2014-01-01

    Cells sense and appropriately respond to the physical conditions and availability of nutrients in their environment. This sensing of the environment and consequent cellular responses are orchestrated by a multitude of signaling pathways and typically involve changes in transcription and metabolism. Recent discoveries suggest that the signaling and transcription machineries are regulated by signals which are derived from metabolism and reflect the metabolic state of the cell. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a key metabolite that links metabolism with signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Acetyl-CoA is produced by glycolysis as well as other catabolic pathways and used as a substrate for the citric acid cycle and as a precursor in synthesis of fatty acids and steroids and in other anabolic pathways. This central position in metabolism endows acetyl-CoA with an important regulatory role. Acetyl-CoA serves as a substrate for lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), which catalyze the transfer of acetyl groups to the epsilon-amino groups of lysines in histones and many other proteins. Fluctuations in the concentration of acetyl-CoA, reflecting the metabolic state of the cell, are translated into dynamic protein acetylations that regulate a variety of cell functions, including transcription, replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and aging. This review highlights the synthesis and homeostasis of acetyl-CoA and the regulation of transcriptional and signaling machineries in yeast by acetylation. PMID:25326522

  9. Differential effects of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors are subunit- and pH-dependent in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Khacho, Pamela; Wang, Boyang; Ahlskog, Nina; Hristova, Elitza; Bergeron, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Ischemic strokes cause excessive release of glutamate, leading to overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and excitotoxicity-induced neuronal death. For this reason, inhibition of NMDARs has been a central focus in identifying mechanisms to avert this extensive neuronal damage. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), the most abundant neuropeptide in the brain, is neuroprotective in ischemic conditions in vivo. Despite this evidence, the exact mechanism underlying its neuroprotection, and more specifically its effect on NMDARs, is currently unknown due to conflicting results in the literature. Here, we uncover a pH-dependent subunit-specific action of NAAG on NMDARs. Using whole-cell electrophysiological recordings on acute hippocampal slices from adult mice and on HEK293 cells, we found that NAAG increases synaptic GluN2A-containing NMDAR EPSCs, while effectively decreasing extrasynaptic GluN2B-containing NMDAR EPSCs in physiological pH. Intriguingly, the results of our study further show that in low pH, which is a physiological occurrence during ischemia, NAAG depresses GluN2A-containing NMDAR EPSCs and amplifies its inhibitory effect on GluN2B-containing NMDAR EPSCs, as well as upregulates the surface expression of the GluN2A subunit. Altogether, our data demonstrate that NAAG has differential effects on NMDAR function based on subunit composition and pH. These findings suggest that the role of NAAG as a neuroprotective agent during an ischemic stroke is likely mediated by its ability to reduce NMDAR excitation. The inhibitory effect of NAAG on NMDARs and its enhanced function in acidic conditions make NAAG a prime therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic events. PMID:26303888

  10. The world of protein acetylation.

    PubMed

    Drazic, Adrian; Myklebust, Line M; Ree, Rasmus; Arnesen, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Acetylation is one of the major post-translational protein modifications in the cell, with manifold effects on the protein level as well as on the metabolome level. The acetyl group, donated by the metabolite acetyl-coenzyme A, can be co- or post-translationally attached to either the α-amino group of the N-terminus of proteins or to the ε-amino group of lysine residues. These reactions are catalyzed by various N-terminal and lysine acetyltransferases. In case of lysine acetylation, the reaction is enzymatically reversible via tightly regulated and metabolism-dependent mechanisms. The interplay between acetylation and deacetylation is crucial for many important cellular processes. In recent years, our understanding of protein acetylation has increased significantly by global proteomics analyses and in depth functional studies. This review gives a general overview of protein acetylation and the respective acetyltransferases, and focuses on the regulation of metabolic processes and physiological consequences that come along with protein acetylation. PMID:27296530

  11. Acetyl transfer in arylamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J.

    1966-01-01

    1. N-Hydroxyacetamidoaryl compounds (hydroxamic acids) are metabolites of arylamides, and an enzyme that transfers the acetyl group from these derivatives to arylamines has been found in rat tissues. The reaction products were identified by thin-layer chromatography and a spectrophotometric method, with 4-amino-azobenzene as acetyl acceptor, was used to measure enzyme activity. 2. The acetyltransferase was in the soluble fraction of rat liver, required a thiol for maximum activity and had a pH optimum between 6·0 and 7·5. 3. The soluble fractions of various rat tissues showed decreasing activity in the following order: liver, adrenal, kidney, lung, spleen, testis, heart; brain was inactive. 4. With the exception of aniline and aniline derivatives all the arylamines tested were effective as acetyl acceptors but aromatic compounds with side-chain amino groups were inactive. 5. The N-hydroxyacetamido derivatives of 2-naphthylamine, 4-amino-biphenyl and 2-aminofluorene were active acetyl donors but N-hydroxyacetanilide showed only slight activity. Acetyl-CoA was not a donor. 6. Some properties of the enzyme are compared with those of other acetyltransferases. PMID:5969287

  12. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  13. The effect of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate and N-acetyl-aspartate on white matter oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Karolina; Hamilton, Nicola B; Wade, Anna; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur; Attwell, David

    2009-06-01

    Elevations of the levels of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are associated with myelin loss in the leucodystrophies Canavan's disease and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease. NAAG and NAA can activate and antagonize neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and also act on group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Oligodendrocytes and their precursors have recently been shown to express NMDA receptors, and activation of these receptors in ischaemia leads to the death of oligodendrocyte precursors and the loss of myelin. This raises the possibility that the failure to develop myelin, or demyelination, occurring in the leucodystrophies could reflect an action of NAAG or NAA on oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors. However, since the putative subunit composition of NMDA receptors on oligodendrocytes differs from that of neuronal NMDA receptors, the effects of NAAG and NAA on them are unknown. We show that NAAG, but not NAA, evokes an inward membrane current in cerebellar white matter oligodendrocytes, which is reduced by NMDA receptor block (but not by block of metabotropic glutamate receptors). The size of the current evoked by NAAG, relative to that evoked by NMDA, was much smaller in oligodendrocytes than in neurons, and NAAG induced a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in neurons but not in oligodendrocytes. These differences in the effect of NAAG on oligodendrocytes and neurons may reflect the aforementioned difference in receptor subunit composition. In addition, as a major part of the response in oligodendrocytes was blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX), much of the NAAG-evoked current in oligodendrocytes is a secondary consequence of activating neuronal NMDA receptors. Six hours exposure to 1 mM NAAG did not lead to the death of cells in the white matter. We conclude that an action of NAAG on oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors is unlikely to be a major contributor to white matter damage in the leucodystrophies. PMID:19383832

  14. A dysregulated acetyl/SUMO switch of FXR promotes hepatic inflammation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Xiao, Zhen; Kwon, Sanghoon; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Ryerson, Daniel; Tkac, David; Ma, Ping; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Zhou, Edward; Xu, H Eric; Palvimo, Jorma J; Chen, Lin-Feng; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2015-01-13

    Acetylation of transcriptional regulators is normally dynamically regulated by nutrient status but is often persistently elevated in nutrient-excessive obesity conditions. We investigated the functional consequences of such aberrantly elevated acetylation of the nuclear receptor FXR as a model. Proteomic studies identified K217 as the FXR acetylation site in diet-induced obese mice. In vivo studies utilizing acetylation-mimic and acetylation-defective K217 mutants and gene expression profiling revealed that FXR acetylation increased proinflammatory gene expression, macrophage infiltration, and liver cytokine and triglyceride levels, impaired insulin signaling, and increased glucose intolerance. Mechanistically, acetylation of FXR blocked its interaction with the SUMO ligase PIASy and inhibited SUMO2 modification at K277, resulting in activation of inflammatory genes. SUMOylation of agonist-activated FXR increased its interaction with NF-κB but blocked that with RXRα, so that SUMO2-modified FXR was selectively recruited to and trans-repressed inflammatory genes without affecting FXR/RXRα target genes. A dysregulated acetyl/SUMO switch of FXR in obesity may serve as a general mechanism for diminished anti-inflammatory response of other transcriptional regulators and provide potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets for obesity-related metabolic disorders. PMID:25425577

  15. Aberrant levels of histone H3 acetylation induce spermatid anomaly in mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Endo, Daisuke; Akiyama, Naotaro; Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene function. We reported previously that histone H3 acetylation pattern is subject to dynamic changes and limited to certain stages of germ cell differentiation during murine spermatogenesis, suggesting a crucial role for acetylation in the process. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hyper- and hypo-acetylation on spermatogenesis. Changes in acetylation level were induced by either in vivo administration of sodium phenylbutyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, or by knockdown of histone acetyltransferases using short hairpin RNA plasmids transfection. Administration of sodium phenylbutyrate induced accumulation of acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 and lysine 18 in round spermatids, together with spermatid morphological abnormalities and induction of apoptosis through a Bax-related pathway. Knockdown of steroid receptor coactivator 1, a member of histone acetyltransferases, but not general control of amino acid synthesis 5 nor elongator protein 3 by in vivo electroporation of shRNA plasmids, reduced acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 in round spermatids, and induced morphological abnormalities. We concluded that the proper regulation of histone H3 acetylation levels is important for spermatid differentiation and complex chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis. PMID:25326673

  16. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone prevents NF-κB activation in cisplatin nephrotoxicity through the reduction of p65 acetylation via the AMPK-SIRT1/p300 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiong; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Fang; Liu, Yanyan; Wang, Jin; Gao, Hongyu; Rong, Song; Yao, Ying; Li, Junhua; Xu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    The thiazolidinedione pioglitazone, which is also a PPAR-γ agonist, now is widely used in patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. NF-κB is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor controlling the expression of numerous genes involved in inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the activation of PPAR-γ attenuates the cisplatin-induced NF-κB activation in cisplatin nephrotoxicity. The results showed that the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone decreased the expression of NF-κB p65 transcription target genes (e.g., IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) and inhibited histological injury and inflammatory cells infiltration in cisplatin nephrotoxicity. The suppression of NF-κB activity following pioglitazone treatment inhibited the cisplatin-induced IκB-α degredation and NF-κB p65 subunit translocation. Translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit depends on p65 acetylation, which primarily regulated by SIRT1 or p300. Notably, AMP kinase (AMPK) activation not only decreased the phosphorylation, activation and p65 interaction of p300 but also increased SIRT1 expression, activation and p65 binding, thus leading to a significant reduction in p65 acetylation. Interestingly, the reduction of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β, the inhibition of histological injury and the inflammatory cells infiltration following pioglitazone treatment in cisplatin nephrotoxicity were attenuated after treatment with the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. These results suggest that the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone prevents NF-κB activation in cisplatin nephrotoxicity through a reduction in p65 acetylation via the AMPK-SIRT1/p300 pathway. PMID:26673543

  17. Bacterial protein acetylation: new discoveries unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alan J

    2016-05-01

    Nε-acetylation is emerging as an abundant post-translational modification of bacterial proteins. Two mechanisms have been identified: one is enzymatic, dependent on an acetyltransferase and acetyl-coenzyme A; the other is non-enzymatic and depends on the reactivity of acetyl phosphate. Some, but not most, of those acetylations are reversed by deacetylases. This review will briefly describe the current status of the field and raise questions that need answering. PMID:26660885

  18. Simvastatin enhances NMDA receptor GluN2B expression and phosphorylation of GluN2B and GluN2A through increased histone acetylation and Src signaling in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Baofeng; Li, Guoxi; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Simvastatin (SV) can improve cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease patients and mice. Herein, we report that the administration of SV (20 mg/kg) for 5 days in mice (SV-mice) or the treatment of slices with SV (10 μM) for 4 h (SV-slices) could increase the density of NMDA-evoked inward currents (INMDA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, which were blocked by farnesol (FOH) that converts farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), but not geranylgeraniol (GGOH) that increases geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP). Sensitivity of INMDA to ifenprodil in SV-mice or SV-slices was significantly increased. The levels of hippocampal GluN2B and GluN2A or Src phosphorylation in SV-mice or SV-slices were higher than controls, which were sensitive to FOH. The Src inhibitor PP2 could inhibit the SV-enhanced phosphorylation of GluN2B and GluN2A and SV-augmented INMDA, but PI3K inhibitor LY294002 did not. The levels of GluN2B mRNA and protein were elevated in SV-mice, which was abolished by FOH, but not by GGOH or PP2. Furthermore, the histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation of GluN2B promoter was increased in SV-mice, which was suppressed by FOH rather than GGOH or PP2. In control mice and slices, the reduction of FPP by farnesyl transferase inhibitor could increase the levels of GluN2B expression, the histone H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and enhance the phosphorylation of GluN2B, GluN2A and Src. The findings indicate that the administration of SV can enhance GluN2B expression and GluN2B and GluN2A phosphorylation leading to augmentation of NMDAR activity through reducing FPP to increase histone acetylation of GluN2B and Src signaling. PMID:27016018

  19. Investigating Histone Acetylation Stoichiometry and Turnover Rate.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Baeza, J; Denu, J M

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a dynamic epigenetic modification that functions in the regulation of DNA-templated reactions, such as transcription. This lysine modification is reversibly controlled by histone (lysine) acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we present methods employing isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry (MS) to comprehensively investigate histone acetylation dynamics. Turnover rates of histone acetylation are determined by measuring the kinetics of labeling from (13)C-labeled precursors of acetyl-CoA, which incorporates (13)C-carbon onto histones via the acetyltransferase reaction. Overall histone acetylation states are assessed from complete protease digestion to single amino acids, which is followed by MS analysis. Determination of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry is achieved by chemically acetylating endogenous histones with isotopic acetic anhydride, followed by trypsin digestion and LC-MS analysis. Combining metabolic labeling with stoichiometric analysis permits determination of both acetylation level and acetylation dynamics. When comparing genetic, diet, or environmental perturbations, these methods permit both a global and site-specific evaluation of how histone acetylation is dynamically regulated. PMID:27423860

  20. Mitochondrial Acetylation and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gregory R.; Payne, R. Mark

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a prominent and conserved regulatory posttranslational modification that is abundant on numerous enzymes involved in the processes of intermediary metabolism. Well-characterized mitochondrial processes of carbon utilization are enriched in acetyl-lysine modifications. Although seminal discoveries have been made in the basic biology of mitochondrial acetylation, an understanding of how acetylation states influence enzyme function and metabolic reprogramming during pathological states remains largely unknown. This paper will examine our current understanding of eukaryotic acetate metabolism and present recent findings in the field of mitochondrial acetylation biology. The implications of mitochondrial acetylation for the aging process will be discussed, as well as its potential implications for the unique and localized metabolic states that occur during the aging-associated conditions of heart failure and cancer growth. PMID:21437190

  1. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  2. Astrocyte Reactivity Following Blast Exposure Involves Aberrant Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Zachary S.; Grinter, Michael B.; VandeVord, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    psi blast but not a 10 psi blast. Further investigation of gene expression by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array, showed dysregulation of several cytokine and cytokine receptors that are involved in neuroinflammatory processes. We have shown aberrant histone acetylation patterns involved in blast induced astrogliosis and cognitive impairments. Further understanding of their role in the injury progression may lead to novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27551260

  3. Proteomic profiling of lysine acetylation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals the diversity of acetylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Tassadit; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Hardouin, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and highly regulated post-translational modification with the well demonstrated physiological relevance in eukaryotes. Recently, its important role in the regulation of metabolic processes in bacteria was highlighted. Here, we reported the lysine acetylproteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a proteomic approach. We identified 430 unique peptides corresponding to 320 acetylated proteins. In addition to the proteins involved in various metabolic pathways, several enzymes contributing to the lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis were characterized as acetylated. This data set illustrated the abundance and the diversity of acetylated lysine proteins in P. aeruginosa and opens opportunities to explore the role of the acetylation in the bacterial physiology. PMID:25900529

  4. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong-Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  5. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation.

  6. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

  7. Dichotomy in the Epigenetic Mark Lysine Acetylation is Critical for the Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ravi; Philizaire, Marc; Mujtaba, Shiraz

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of lysine acetylation serve as a major epigenetic mark, which regulates cellular response to inflammation, DNA damage and hormonal changes. Microarray assays reveal changes in gene expression, but cannot predict regulation of a protein function by epigenetic modifications. The present study employs computational tools to inclusively analyze microarray data to understand the potential role of acetylation during development of androgen-independent PCa. The data revealed that the androgen receptor interacts with 333 proteins, out of which at least 92 proteins were acetylated. Notably, the number of cellular proteins undergoing acetylation in the androgen-dependent PCa was more as compared to the androgen-independent PCa. Specifically, the 32 lysine-acetylated proteins in the cellular models of androgen-dependent PCa were mainly involved in regulating stability as well as pre- and post-processing of mRNA. Collectively, the data demonstrate that protein lysine acetylation plays a crucial role during the transition of androgen-dependent to -independent PCa, which importantly, could also serve as a functional axis to unravel new therapeutic targets. PMID:26295410

  8. Acetylation phenotypes in patients with bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bicho, M P; Breitenfeld, L; Carvalho, A A; Manso, C F

    1988-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the possible association of bladder carcinoma with the slow acetylator phenotype in a portuguese population. 49 patients with bladder carcinoma were compared to a normal control group of 84 individuals. No statistically significant association was detected. But when subdividing the group of slow acetylators it is found that in the subgroup with 12-36% acetylation there is a higher percentage of patients, which is statistically significant. These results are in agreement with two other studies, using populations of similar ethnic origin. PMID:3265609

  9. Impact of acetylation on tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Li, Fu-Long; Cheng, Zhou-Li; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of protein lysine residues is a reversible and dynamic process that is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs and SIRTs). Recent studies have revealed that acetylation modulates not only nuclear proteins but also cytoplasmic or mitochondrial proteins, including many metabolic enzymes. In tumors, cellular metabolism is reprogrammed to provide intermediates for biosynthesis such as nucleotides, fatty acids, and amino acids, and thereby favor the rapid proliferation of cancer cells and tumor development. An increasing number of investigations have indicated that acetylation plays an important role in tumor metabolism. Here, we summarize the substrates that are modified by acetylation, especially oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and enzymes that are implicated in tumor metabolism. PMID:27308346

  10. Acetylator phenotypes in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Penketh, R J A; Gibney, S F A; Nurse, G T; Hopkinson, D A

    1983-01-01

    Acetylator phenotypes have been determined in 139 unrelated subjects from the hitherto untested populations of Papua New Guinea, and their relevance to current antituberculous isoniazid chemotherapy is discussed. PMID:6842533

  11. Acetyl-L-carnitine increases mitochondrial protein acetylation in the aged rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Janos; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Lee, Kwangwon; Virmani, Ashraf; Koverech, Aleardo; Cavazza, Claudio; Chance, Mark R; Hoppel, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that in vivo treatment of elderly Fisher 344 rats with acetylcarnitine abolished the age-associated defect in respiratory chain complex III in interfibrillar mitochondria and improved the functional recovery of the ischemic/reperfused heart. Herein, we explored mitochondrial protein acetylation as a possible mechanism for acetylcarnitine's effect. In vivo treatment of elderly rats with acetylcarnitine restored cardiac acetylcarnitine content and increased mitochondrial protein lysine acetylation and increased the number of lysine-acetylated proteins in cardiac subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria. Enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial β-oxidation, and ATP synthase of the respiratory chain showed the greatest acetylation. Acetylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, complex V, and aspartate aminotransferase was accompanied by decreased catalytic activity. Several proteins were found to be acetylated only after treatment with acetylcarnitine, suggesting that exogenous acetylcarnitine served as the acetyl-donor. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that acetylcarnitine treatment also induced changes in mitochondrial protein amount; a two-fold or greater increase/decrease in abundance was observed for thirty one proteins. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the first time that in the aged rat heart in vivo administration of acetylcarnitine provides acetyl groups for protein acetylation and affects the amount of mitochondrial proteins. PMID:25660059

  12. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  13. Beta-endorphin and alpha-n-acetyl beta-endorphin; synthesis, conformation and binding parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Lovegren, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin (EP) is a 31-residue opioid peptide found in many tissues, including the pituitary, brain and reproductive tract. Alpha-amino-acetyl beta-endorphin (AcEP) was characterized spectroscopically by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism in deuterated water and trifluoroethanol (TFE). Both EP and AcEP bind to neuroblastoma N2a cells. This binding was not mediated through opiate receptors, and both peptides seemed to bind at common sites. Ovarian immunoreactive-EP levels were determined for immature and mature rates. These levels were found to be responsive to exogenous gonadotropin treatment in immature animals. A large percentage of the immunoreactive-EP is present in follicular fluid, and most of the endorphin-like peptides were acetylated, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Chromatogaphic analysis suggested at least three EP-like species: EP, a carboxy-terminally cleaved and an amino-terminally acetylated EP.

  14. Protein acetylation in metabolism - metabolites and cofactors.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Keir J; Zhang, Hongbo; Katsyuba, Elena; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Reversible acetylation was initially described as an epigenetic mechanism regulating DNA accessibility. Since then, this process has emerged as a controller of histone and nonhistone acetylation that integrates key physiological processes such as metabolism, circadian rhythm and cell cycle, along with gene regulation in various organisms. The widespread and reversible nature of acetylation also revitalized interest in the mechanisms that regulate lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and deacetylases (KDACs) in health and disease. Changes in protein or histone acetylation are especially relevant for many common diseases including obesity, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, as well as for some rare diseases such as mitochondrial diseases and lipodystrophies. In this Review, we examine the role of reversible acetylation in metabolic control and how changes in levels of metabolites or cofactors, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide, coenzyme A, acetyl coenzyme A, zinc and butyrate and/or β-hydroxybutyrate, directly alter KAT or KDAC activity to link energy status to adaptive cellular and organismal homeostasis. PMID:26503676

  15. Glucose-dependent acetylation of Rictor promotes targeted cancer therapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Kenta; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Ikegami, Shiro; Villa, Genaro R.; Yang, Huijun; Yong, William H.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Yamagata, Kanato; Arai, Nobutaka; Cavenee, Webster K.; Mischel, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells adapt their signaling in response to nutrient availability. To uncover the mechanisms regulating this process and its functional consequences, we interrogated cell lines, mouse tumor models, and clinical samples of glioblastoma (GBM), the highly lethal brain cancer. We discovered that glucose or acetate is required for epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFRvIII), the most common growth factor receptor mutation in GBM, to activate mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and promote tumor growth. Glucose or acetate promoted growth factor receptor signaling through acetyl-CoA–dependent acetylation of Rictor, a core component of the mTORC2 signaling complex. Remarkably, in the presence of elevated glucose levels, Rictor acetylation is maintained to form an autoactivation loop of mTORC2 even when the upstream components of the growth factor receptor signaling pathway are no longer active, thus rendering GBMs resistant to EGFR-, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-, or AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog)-targeted therapies. These results demonstrate that elevated nutrient levels can drive resistance to targeted cancer treatments and nominate mTORC2 as a central node for integrating growth factor signaling with nutrient availability in GBM. PMID:26170313

  16. Protein acetylation sites mediated by Schistosoma mansoni GCN5

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Furtado Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Meirelles Bastosde Oliveira, Francisco; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado

    2008-05-23

    The transcriptional co-activator GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcription activation. As in other eukaryotes, the DNA from the parasite Schistosome mansoni is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Using a series of synthetic peptides we determined that Lys-14 of histone H3 was acetylated by the recombinant SmGCN5-HAT domain. SmGCN5 was also able to acetylate schistosome non-histone proteins, such as the nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1, and the co-activator SmNCoA-62. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of SmGCN5 protein in the nuclei of vitelline cells. Within the nucleus, SmGCN5 was found to be located in interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs), which are transcriptionally active structures. The data suggest that SmGCN5 is involved in transcription activation.

  17. Histone Acetylation Regulates Intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    McBrian, Matthew A.; Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Ferrari, Roberto; Su, Trent; Huang, Ta-Wei; Li, Kunwu; Hong, Candice S.; Christofk, Heather R.; Vogelauer, Maria; Seligson, David B.; Kurdistani, Siavash K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Differences in global levels of histone acetylation occur in normal and cancer cells, although the reason why cells regulate these levels has been unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for histone acetylation in regulating intracellular pH (pHi). As pHi decreases, histones are globally deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and the released acetate anions are coexported with protons out of the cell by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), preventing further reductions in pHi. Conversely, global histone acetylation increases as pHi rises, such as when resting cells are induced to proliferate. Inhibition of HDACs or MCTs decreases acetate export and lowers pHi, particularly compromising pHi maintenance in acidic environments. Global deacetylation at low pH is reflected at a genomic level by decreased abundance and extensive redistribution of acetylation throughout the genome. Thus, acetylation of chromatin functions as a rheostat to regulate pHi with important implications for mechanism of action and therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23201122

  18. Lipoxin receptors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario; Recchia, Irene; Recchiuti, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Lipoxins (LXs) represent a class of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites that carry potent immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, LXA4 and LXB4 being the main components of this series. LXs are generated by cooperation between 5-lipoxygenase (LO) and 12- or 15-LO during cell-cell interactions or by single cell types. LX epimers at carbon 15, the 15-epi-LXs, are formed by aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cooperation with 5-LO. 15-epi-LXA4 is also termed aspirin-triggered LX (ATL). In vivo studies with stable LX and ATL analogs have established that these eicosanoids possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. A LXA4 receptor has been cloned. It belongs to the family of chemotactic receptors and clusters with formyl peptide receptors on chromosome 19. Therefore, it was initially denominated formyl peptide receptor like 1 (FPRL1). This receptor binds with high affinity and stereoselectivity LXA4 and ATL. It also recognizes a variety of peptides, synthetic, endogenously generated, or disease associated, but with lower affinity compared to LXA4. For this reason, this receptor has been renamed ALX. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ALX expression, signaling, and potential pathophysiological role. The involvement of additional recognition sites in LX bioactions is also discussed. PMID:17767357

  19. Proteomic analysis of acetylation in thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dooil; Lee, Yong-Jik; Kim, Jung-Ae; Choi, Ji Young; Kang, Sunghyun; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2013-08-01

    Recent analysis of prokaryotic N(ε)-lysine-acetylated proteins highlights the posttranslational regulation of a broad spectrum of cellular proteins. However, the exact role of acetylation remains unclear due to a lack of acetylated proteome data in prokaryotes. Here, we present the N(ε)-lysine-acetylated proteome of gram-positive thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus. Affinity enrichment using acetyl-lysine-specific antibodies followed by LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 253 acetylated peptides representing 114 proteins. These acetylated proteins include not only common orthologs from mesophilic Bacillus counterparts, but also unique G. kaustophilus proteins, indicating that lysine acetylation is pronounced in thermophilic bacteria. These data complement current knowledge of the bacterial acetylproteome and provide an expanded platform for better understanding of the function of acetylation in cellular metabolism. PMID:23696451

  20. Acetylation of bleached Kraft pulp: effect of xylan content on properties of acetylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Karol; Reyes, Herna; Escobar, Danilo; Vega-Lara, Johana; Berg, Alex; Pereira, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Bleached Kraft pulp (BKP) from Eucalyptus globulus and cotton xylan blends (CXB) was acetylated. The effects of xylan content on cellulose acetylation and the properties of the acetylated material were studied. An increase in xylan content caused a slight decrease in the degree of substitution (2.98 to 2.68 for CXB; 2.93 to 2.84 for BKP). Thermal analysis showed that the melting temperature also decreases from 268.0 to 188.8 °C for CXB and from 221.4 to 212.8 °C for BKP. Moreover, the solubility decreased due to the partial dissolution of acetylated xylans. The presence of xylans during Kraft pulp acetylation does not have a significant negative effect on the physical properties of the acetylated material, but the decrease in melting temperature was beneficial for the application of acetylated polymer as a natural internal plasticizer. This is considered to be an important argument for BKP utilization in the cellulose acetate manufacturing process. PMID:25498729

  1. Non-enzymatic protein acetylation detected by NAPPA protein arrays*

    PubMed Central

    Olia, Adam S.; Barker, Kristi; McCullough, Cheryl E.; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Speicher, David W.; Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation is a post-translational modification that occurs on thousands of proteins located in many cellular organelles. This process mediates many protein functions and modulates diverse biological processes. In mammalian cells, where acetyl-CoA is the primary acetyl donor, acetylation in the mitochondria is thought to occur by chemical means due to the relatively high concentration of acetyl-CoA located in this organelle. In contrast, acetylation outside of the mitochondria is thought to be mediated predominantly by acetyltransferase enzymes. Here we address the possibility that non-enzymatic chemical acetylation outside of the mitochondria may be more common than previously appreciated. We employed the Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array platform to perform an unbiased screen for human proteins that undergo chemical acetylation, which resulted in the identification of a multitude of proteins with diverse functions and cellular localization. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that basic residues typically precede the acetylated lysine in the −7 to −3 position, and we show by mutagenesis that these basic residues contribute to chemical acetylation capacity. We propose that these basic residues lower the pKa of the substrate lysine for efficient chemical acetylation. Many of the identified proteins reside outside of the mitochondria, and have been previously demonstrated to be acetylated in vivo. As such, our studies demonstrate that chemical acetylation occurs more broadly throughout the eukaryotic cell than previously appreciated, and suggests that this post-translational protein modification may have more diverse roles in protein function and pathway regulation. PMID:26083674

  2. Nucleosome structure incorporated histone acetylation site prediction in arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Acetylation is a crucial post-translational modification for histones, and plays a key role in gene expression regulation. Due to limited data and lack of a clear acetylation consensus sequence, a few researches have focused on prediction of lysine acetylation sites. Several systematic prediction studies have been conducted for human and yeast, but less for Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Concerning the insufficient observation on acetylation site, we analyzed contributions of the peptide-alignment-based distance definition and 3D structure factors in acetylation prediction. We found that traditional structure contributes little to acetylation site prediction. Identified acetylation sites of histones in Arabidopsis thaliana are conserved and cross predictable with that of human by peptide based methods. However, the predicted specificity is overestimated, because of the existence of non-observed acetylable site. Here, by performing a complete exploration on the factors that affect the acetylability of lysines in histones, we focused on the relative position of lysine at nucleosome level, and defined a new structure feature to promote the performance in predicting the acetylability of all the histone lysines in A. thaliana. Conclusion We found a new spacial correlated acetylation factor, and defined a ε-N spacial location based feature, which contains five core spacial ellipsoid wired areas. By incorporating the new feature, the performance of predicting the acetylability of all the histone lysines in A. Thaliana was promoted, in which the previous mispredicted acetylable lysines were corrected by comparing to the peptide-based prediction. PMID:21047388

  3. N-acetyl-l-tryptophan, but not N-acetyl-d-tryptophan, rescues neuronal cell death in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Ana C; Jiang, Jiying; Zeng, Jiang; Mao, Lilly L; Zhou, Shuanhu; Sugarbaker, Peter; Zhang, Xinmu; Li, Wei; Friedlander, Robert M; Wang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss. Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and proteasomal dysfunction are all responsible for ALS pathogenesis. N-acetyl-tryptophan has been identified as an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and therefore is a potential neuroprotective agent. By quantifying cell death, we demonstrate that N-acetyl-l-tryptophan (L-NAT) and N-acetyl-DL-tryptophan are neuroprotective in NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells and/or primary motor neurons, while their isomer N-acetyl-d-tryptophan has no protective effect. These findings are consistent with energy minimization and molecular modeling analysis, confirming that L-NAT generates the most stable complex with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). L-NAT inhibits the secretion of Substance P and IL-1β (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and/or dot blots) and mitochondrial dysfunction by effectively inhibiting the release of cytochrome c/Smac/AIF from mitochondria into the cytoplasm and activation of apoptotic pathways, including the activation of caspase-1, -9, and -3, as well as proteasomal dysfunction through restoring chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like proteasome activity. These data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which L-NAT offers neuroprotection in models of ALS and suggest its potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for ALS. We demonstrate that L-NAT (N-acetyl-l-tryptophan), but not D-NAT, rescues NSC-34 cells and primary motor neurons from cell death. L-NAT inhibits the secretion of Substance P and IL-1β, and caspase-1 activation, the release of cytochrome c/Smac/AIF, and the activation of caspase -9, and -3, as well as proteasomal dysfunction. The data suggest the potential of L-NAT as a novel therapeutic strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). AIF, apoptosis-inducing factor. PMID

  4. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, P.G.; Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1996-09-24

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives are disclosed which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides. 5 figs.

  5. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  6. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  7. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  8. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  9. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, Paul G.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    1996-01-01

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.

  10. Small GTP-binding protein Ran is regulated by posttranslational lysine acetylation

    PubMed Central

    de Boor, Susanne; Knyphausen, Philipp; Kuhlmann, Nora; Wroblowski, Sarah; Brenig, Julian; Scislowski, Lukas; Baldus, Linda; Nolte, Hendrik; Krüger, Marcus; Lammers, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ran is a small GTP-binding protein of the Ras superfamily regulating fundamental cellular processes: nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, nuclear envelope formation and mitotic spindle assembly. An intracellular Ran•GTP/Ran•GDP gradient created by the distinct subcellular localization of its regulators RCC1 and RanGAP mediates many of its cellular effects. Recent proteomic screens identified five Ran lysine acetylation sites in human and eleven sites in mouse/rat tissues. Some of these sites are located in functionally highly important regions such as switch I and switch II. Here, we show that lysine acetylation interferes with essential aspects of Ran function: nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, subcellular Ran localization, GTP hydrolysis, and the interaction with import and export receptors. Deacetylation activity of certain sirtuins was detected for two Ran acetylation sites in vitro. Moreover, Ran was acetylated by CBP/p300 and Tip60 in vitro and on transferase overexpression in vivo. Overall, this study addresses many important challenges of the acetylome field, which will be discussed. PMID:26124124

  11. Dynamic Protein Acetylation in Plant–Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gaoyuan; Walley, Justin W.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen infection triggers complex molecular perturbations within host cells that results in either resistance or susceptibility. Protein acetylation is an emerging biochemical modification that appears to play central roles during host–pathogen interactions. To date, research in this area has focused on two main themes linking protein acetylation to plant immune signaling. Firstly, it has been established that proper gene expression during defense responses requires modulation of histone acetylation within target gene promoter regions. Second, some pathogens can deliver effector molecules that encode acetyltransferases directly within the host cell to modify acetylation of specific host proteins. Collectively these findings suggest that the acetylation level for a range of host proteins may be modulated to alter the outcome of pathogen infection. This review will focus on summarizing our current understanding of the roles of protein acetylation in plant defense and highlight the utility of proteomics approaches to uncover the complete repertoire of acetylation changes triggered by pathogen infection. PMID:27066055

  12. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Traina, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    A large body of evidence points to the positive effects of dietary supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). Its use has shown health benefits in neuroinflammation, which is a common denominator in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. ALC is the principal acetyl ester of L-Carnitine (LC), and it plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism, acting as a donor of acetyl groups and facilitating the transfer of fatty acids from cytosol to mitochondria during beta-oxidation. Dietary supplementation of ALC exerts neuroprotective, neurotrophic, antidepressive and analgesic effects in painful neuropathies. ALC also has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. Moreover, ALC exhibits positive effects on mitochondrial metabolism, and shows promise in the treatment of aging and neurodegenerative pathologies by slowing the progression of mental deterioration. In addition, ALC plays neuromodulatory effects on both synaptic morphology and synaptic transmission. These effects are likely due to affects of ALC through modulation of gene expression on several targets in the central nervous system. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on effects of ALC in the nervous system. PMID:27100509

  13. Enhancement of lysine acetylation accelerates wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Spallotta, Francesco; Cencioni, Chiara; Straino, Stefania; Sbardella, Gianluca; Castellano, Sabrina; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Martelli, Fabio; Gaetano, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    In physiopathological conditions, such as diabetes, wound healing is significantly compromised and chronic complications, including ulcers, may occur. In a mouse model of skin repair, we recently reported that wound treatment with Sirtuin activators and class I HDAC inhibitors induced keratinocyte proliferation and enhanced healing via a nitric oxide (NO) dependent mechanism. We observed an increase in total protein acetylation in the wound area, as determined by acetylation of α-tubulin and histone H3 Lysine 9. We reasoned that this process activated cell function as well as regulated gene expression to foster tissue repair. We report here that the direct activation of P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) by the histone acetylase activator pentadecylidenemalonate 1b (SPV-106) induced Lysine acetylation in the wound area. This intervention was sufficient to enhance repair process by a NO-independent mechanism. Hence, an impairment of PCAF and/or other GCN5 family acetylases may delay skin repair in physiopathological conditions. PMID:24265859

  14. Fragrance material review on acetyl cedrene.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of acetyl cedrene when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Acetyl cedrene is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. The generic formula for this group can be represented as (R1)(R2)CO. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for acetyl cedrene were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. PMID:23907023

  15. Inhibition of phagocytic activity by the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, G; Gorocica, P; Agundis, C; Pérez, A; Molina, J; Zenteno, E

    1998-06-01

    Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin (ALL), specific for N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, induces inhibition of the erythrophagocytic activity of resident murine peritoneal macrophages and of the macrophage-like cell line J-774. This effect was observed only in macrophages that were Mac-2 (CD11c/CD18 or CR4) negative, indicating that macrophage activation induces important modification to the glycosylation (mainly O-glycosylation) of the membrane. Receptors for IgM and C3b remain unaltered after lectin treatment. Ultrastructural analysis revealed (a) that ALL induced the formation of pinocytic vacuoles, and (b) a regular distribution over the macrophage membrane as well as endosomal vesicles of the gold labeled ALL. Our results suggest that macrophage membrane glycoproteins with constitutive N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues participate in the regulation of pinocytic-phagocytic vacuole formation. PMID:9881768

  16. Combination of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor LAF237 [(S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-1-adamantyl)ammo]acetyl-2-cyanopyrrolidine] with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist valsartan [N-(1-oxopentyl)-N-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]methyl]-L-valine] enhances pancreatic islet morphology and function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qianni; Law, Pui Ki; de Gasparo, Marc; Leung, Po Sing

    2008-12-01

    LAF237 [(S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-1-adamantyl)ammo]acetyl-2-cyanopyrrolidine] is an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV that delays the degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Valsartan [N-(1-oxopentyl)-N-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]methyl]-l-valine] is an antagonist of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) that reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. LAF237 and valsartan act on a common target through separate pathways to improve pancreatic islet cell function. We hypothesize that the combination of these two drugs acts in a synergistic or additive manner on islet function and structure. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies. To measure the acute effect of the treatment, pancreatic islets of db/db mice were isolated and stimulated in vitro with glucose in the presence of valsartan (1 microM) and exendin-4 (100 nM), a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Combination treatment with valsartan and exendin-4 significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets. For studies of chronic effect, db/db mice received LAF237 (1 mg/kg/day) and/or valsartan (10 mg/kg/day). Islet cell reactive oxygen species (ROS), proliferation, apoptosis, fibrosis, beta-cell area, and glucose homeostasis were evaluated after 8 weeks of treatment, which showed that combination treatment resulted in a significant increase in pancreatic islet beta-cell area compared with monotherapy. This beneficial effect correlated with an increase in beta-cell proliferation and a decrease in ROS-induced islet apoptosis and fibrosis. These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that combination treatment with LAF237 and valsartan has significant beneficial additive effects on pancreatic beta-cell structure and function compared with their respective monotherapeutic effects. PMID:18787107

  17. Acetylation and characterization of spruce (Picea abies) galactoglucomannans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunlin; Leppänen, Ann-Sofie; Eklund, Patrik; Holmlund, Peter; Sjöholm, Rainer; Sundberg, Kenneth; Willför, Stefan

    2010-04-19

    Acetylated galactoglucomannans (GGMs) are the main hemicellulose type in most softwood species and can be utilized as, for example, bioactive polymers, hydrocolloids, papermaking chemicals, or coating polymers. Acetylation of spruce GGM using acetic anhydride with pyridine as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale, whereas, as a classic method, it can be potentially transferred to the industrial scale. The effects of the amount of catalyst and acetic anhydride, reaction time, temperature and pretreatment by acetic acid were investigated. A fully acetylated product was obtained by refluxing GGM for two hours. The structures of the acetylated GGMs were determined by SEC-MALLS/RI, (1)H and (13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. NMR studies also indicated migration of acetyl groups from O-2 or O-3 to O-6 after a heating treatment in a water bath. The thermal stability of the products was investigated by DSC-TGA. PMID:20144827

  18. Global Histone H4 Acetylation in the Olfactory Bulb of Lactating Rats with Different Patterns of Maternal Behavior.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Ivy Reichert Vital; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Dani, Caroline; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Giovenardi, Márcia

    2016-10-01

    In rats, variations in the levels of neuromodulatory molecules and in the expression of their receptors are observed during pregnancy and postpartum. These changes may contribute to the development and management of maternal behavior. The frequency of licking the pups is used to evaluate maternal care, having mothers with low licking (LL) and high licking (HL) frequencies. Previously, we found that HL had increased levels of transcriptional expression of the receptors for serotonin (HTR1a, HTR1b), estrogen (Erα), dopamine (D1a), and prolactin (Prlr) than LL in the olfactory bulb (OB); however, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unknown. Since evidences pointed out that epigenetic marks, which may alter gene expression, are modulated by environmental factors such as exercise, diet, maternal care, and xenobiotic exposure, our objective was to verify the acetylation levels of histone-H4 in the OB of LL and HL rats. Maternal behavior was studied for the first 7 postpartum days. LL (n = 4) and HL (n = 5) mothers were selected according to the behavior of licking their pups. Acetylation levels of histone-H4 were determined using the Global Histone-H4 Acetylation Assay Kit and expressed as ng/mg protein (mean ± SD). Analysis revealed that HL (278.36 ± 68.95) had increased H4 acetylation levels than LL (183.24 ± 73.05; p = 0.045). The enhanced expression of the previously studied receptors in the OB could be related, at least in part, to the hyperacetylation status of histone-H4 here observed. Afterward, the modulation of histone acetylation levels could exert a pivotal role through molecular mechanisms involved in the different patterns of maternal behavior. PMID:26620050

  19. Interfacing protein lysine acetylation and protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Hue T.; Uhrig, R. Glen; Nimick, Mhairi; Moorhead, Greg B.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition that different protein covalent modifications can operate in concert to regulate a single protein has forced us to re-think the relationship between amino acid side chain modifications and protein function. Results presented by Tran et al. 2012 demonstrate the association of a protein phosphatase (PP2A) with a histone/lysine deacetylase (HDA14) on plant microtubules along with a histone/lysine acetyltransferase (ELP3). This finding reveals a regulatory interface between two prevalent covalent protein modifications, protein phosphorylation and acetylation, emphasizing the integrated complexity of post-translational protein regulation found in nature. PMID:22827947

  20. Determination of amphetamine by HPLC after acetylation.

    PubMed

    Veress, T

    2000-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the HPLC determination of amphetamine by off-line pre-column derivatization. The proposed procedure consists of sample preparation by acetylation of amphetamine with acetic anhydride and a subsequent reversed-phase HPLC separation on an octadecyl silica stationary phase with salt-free mobile phase (tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, 0.1% triethylamine in water, 15:15:70 v/v) applying UV-detection. The applicability of the elaborated procedure is demonstrated with results obtained by analysis of real samples seized in the Hungarian black market. PMID:10641931

  1. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of acetylated EGCG and antioxidant properties of the acetylated derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) acetylated derivatives were prepared by lipase catalyzed acylation of EGCG with vinyl acetate to improve its lipophilicity and expand its application in lipophilic media. The immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, was found to be the optimum catalyst. The optimiz...

  2. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

  3. Protein lysine acetylation in bacteria: Current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Tassadit; Kentache, Takfarinas; Hardouin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins are key events in cellular metabolism and physiology regulation. Lysine acetylation is one of the best studied protein modifications in eukaryotes, but, until recently, ignored in bacteria. However, proteomic advances have highlighted the diversity of bacterial lysine-acetylated proteins. The current data support the implication of lysine acetylation in various metabolic pathways, adaptation and virulence. In this review, we present a broad overview of the current knowledge of lysine acetylation in bacteria. We emphasize particularly the significant contribution of proteomics in this field. PMID:26390373

  4. Determination of Acetylation of the Gli Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Coni, Sonia; Di Magno, Laura; Canettieri, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) are the final effectors of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and play a key role in development and cancer. The activity of the Gli proteins is finely regulated by covalent modifications, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation. Both Gli1 and Gli2 are acetylated at a conserved lysine, and this modification causes the inhibition of their transcriptional activity. Thus, the acetylation status of these proteins represents a useful marker to monitor Hh activation in pathophysiological conditions. Herein we describe the techniques utilized to detect in vitro and intracellular acetylation of the Gli transcription factors. PMID:26179046

  5. Probing the acetylation code of histone H4.

    PubMed

    Lang, Diana; Schümann, Michael; Gelato, Kathy; Fischle, Wolfgang; Schwarzer, Dirk; Krause, Eberhard

    2013-10-01

    Histone modifications play crucial roles in genome regulation with lysine acetylation being implicated in transcriptional control. Here we report a proteome-wide investigation of the acetylation-dependent protein-protein interactions of the N-terminal tail of histone H4. Quantitative peptide-based affinity MS experiments using the SILAC approach determined the interactomes of H4 tails monoacetylated at the four known acetylation sites K5, K8, K12, and K16, bis-acetylated at K5/K12, triple-acetylated at K8/12/16 and fully tetra-acetylated. A set of 29 proteins was found enriched on the fully acetylated H4 tail while specific binders of the mono and bis-acetylated tails were barely detectable. These observations are in good agreement with earlier reports indicating that the H4 acetylation state establishes its regulatory effects in a cumulative manner rather than via site-specific recruitment of regulatory proteins. PMID:23970329

  6. Generation of acetyllysine antibodies and affinity enrichment of acetylated peptides

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Kun-Liang; Yu, Wei; Lin, Yan; Xiong, Yue; Zhao, Shimin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has emerged as one of the major post-translational modifications, as indicated by its roles in chromatin remodeling, activation of transcription factors and, most recently, regulation of metabolic enzymes. Identification of acetylation sites in a protein is the first essential step for functional characterization of acetylation in physiological regulation. However, the study of the acetylome is hindered by the lack of suitable physical and biochemical properties of the acetyl group and existence of high-abundance acetylated histones in the cell, and needs a robust method to overcome these problems. Here we present protocols for (i) using chemically acetylated ovalbumin and synthetic acetylated peptide to generate a pan-acetyllysine antibody and a site-specific antibody to Lys288-acetylated argininosuccinate lyase, respectively; (ii) using subcellular fractionation to reduce highly abundant acetylated histones; and (iii) using acetyllysine antibody affinity purification and mass spectrometry to characterize acetylome of human liver tissue. The entire characterization procedure takes ~2–3 d to complete. PMID:21085124

  7. The Fasted/Fed Mouse Metabolic Acetylome: N6-Acetylation Differences Suggest Acetylation Coordinates Organ-Specific Fuel Switching

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Hartil, Kirsten; Robinson, Alan J.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Kurland, Irwin J.; Bruce, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The elucidation of extra-nuclear lysine acetylation has been of growing interest, as the co-substrate for acetylation, acetyl CoA, is at a key metabolic intersection. Our hypothesis was that mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein acetylation may be part of a fasted/re-fed feedback control system for the regulation of the metabolic network in fuel switching, where acetyl CoA would be provided by fatty acid oxidation, or glycolysis, respectively. To test this we characterized the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylome in various organs that have a high metabolic rate relative to their mass, and/or switch fuels, under fasted and re-fed conditions (brain, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, white and brown adipose tissues). Using immunoprecipitation, coupled with LC-MSMS label free quantification, we show there is a dramatic variation in global quantitative profiles of acetylated proteins from different organs. In total, 733 acetylated peptides from 337 proteins were identified and quantified, out of which 31 acetylated peptides from the metabolic proteins that may play organ-specific roles were analyzed in detail. Results suggest that fasted/re-fed acetylation changes coordinated by organ-specific (de-)acetylases in insulin-sensitive versus insensitive organs may underlie fuel use and switching. Characterization of the tissue-specific acetylome should increase understanding of metabolic conditions wherein normal fuel switching is disrupted, such as in Type II diabetes. PMID:21728379

  8. N-acetylaspartate catabolism determines cytosolic acetyl-CoA levels and histone acetylation in brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Prokesch, A.; Pelzmann, H. J.; Pessentheiner, A. R.; Huber, K.; Madreiter-Sokolowski, C. T.; Drougard, A.; Schittmayer, M.; Kolb, D.; Magnes, C.; Trausinger, G.; Graier, W. F.; Birner-Gruenberger, R.; Pospisilik, J. A.; Bogner-Strauss, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation depends on the abundance of nucleo-cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA. Here, we present a novel route for cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA production in brown adipocytes. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is a highly abundant brain metabolite catabolized by aspartoacylase yielding aspartate and acetate. The latter can be further used for acetyl-CoA production. Prior to this work, the presence of NAA has not been described in adipocytes. Here, we show that accumulation of NAA decreases the brown adipocyte phenotype. We increased intracellular NAA concentrations in brown adipocytes via media supplementation or knock-down of aspartoacylase and measured reduced lipolysis, thermogenic gene expression, and oxygen consumption. Combinations of approaches to increase intracellular NAA levels showed additive effects on lipolysis and gene repression, nearly abolishing the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppara. Transcriptome analyses of aspartoacylase knock-down cells indicate deficiencies in acetyl-CoA and lipid metabolism. Concordantly, cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA levels and global histone H3 acetylation were decreased. Further, activating histone marks (H3K27ac and H3K9ac) in promoters/enhancers of brown marker genes showed reduced acetylation status. Taken together, we present a novel route for cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA production in brown adipocytes. Thereby, we mechanistically connect the NAA pathway to the epigenomic regulation of gene expression, modulating the phenotype of brown adipocytes. PMID:27045997

  9. Binding of TATA Binding Protein to a Naturally Positioned Nucleosome Is Facilitated by Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Sewack, Gerald F.; Ellis, Thomas W.; Hansen, Ulla

    2001-01-01

    The TATA sequence of the human, estrogen-responsive pS2 promoter is complexed in vivo with a rotationally and translationally positioned nucleosome (NUC T). Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrate that TATA binding protein (TBP) does not detectably interact with this genomic binding site in MCF-7 cells in the absence of transcriptional stimuli. Estrogen stimulation of these cells results in hyperacetylation of both histones H3 and H4 within the pS2 chromatin encompassing NUC T and the TATA sequence. Concurrently, TBP becomes associated with the pS2 promoter region. The relationship between histone hyperacetylation and the binding of TBP was assayed in vitro using an in vivo-assembled nucleosomal array over the pS2 promoter. With chromatin in its basal state, the binding of TBP to the pS2 TATA sequence at the edge of NUC T was severely restricted, consistent with our in vivo data. Acetylation of the core histones facilitated the binding of TBP to this nucleosomal TATA sequence. Therefore, we demonstrate that one specific, functional consequence of induced histone acetylation at a native promoter is the alleviation of nucleosome-mediated repression of the binding of TBP. Our data support a fundamental role for histone acetylation at genomic promoters in transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors and provide a general mechanism for rapid and reversible transcriptional activation from a chromatin template. PMID:11158325

  10. Thermochemical characteristics of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, V. N.; Ur'yash, V. F.; Kushch, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation are determined. It is established that there is a proportional dependence of these thermochemical characteristics vs. the degree of acetylation, weight fraction of bonded acetic acid, and molar mass of the repeating unit of cellulose acetates.

  11. Emerging Functions for N-Terminal Protein Acetylation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    N-terminal (Nt-) acetylation is a widespread but poorly understood co-translational protein modification. Two reports now shed light onto the proteome-wide dynamics and protein-specific consequences of Nt-acetylation in relation to plant development, stress-response, and protein stability, identifying this modification as a key regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and behaviour. PMID:26319188

  12. Effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine acetylation in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, I M; Iqbal, T; Saleem, S; Mehboob, H; Akhter, N; Riaz, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine N-acetylation by human N-acetyltrasferase-2 (NAT2) was studied in 19 (n=19) healthy male volunteers in two different phases. In the first phase of the study the volunteers were given an oral dose of sulfamethazine 500 mg alone and blood and urine samples were collected. After the 10-day washout period the same selected volunteers were again administered sulfamethazine 500 mg along with 1000 mg acetaminophen. The acetylation of sulfamethazine by human NAT2 in both phases with and without acetaminophen was determined by HPLC to establish their respective phenotypes. In conclusion obtained statistics of present study revealed that acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) decreased sulfamethazine acetylation in plasma of both slow and fast acetylator male volunteers. A highly significant (P<0.0001) decrease in plasma-free and total sulfamethazine concentration was also observed when acetaminophen was co-administered. Urine acetylation status in both phases of the study was found not to be in complete concordance with that of plasma. Acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) increased the acetyl, free and total sulfamethazine concentration in urine of both slow and fast acetylators. Urine acetylation analysis has not been found to be a suitable approach for phenotypic studies. PMID:26519524

  13. An Alternative Strategy for Pan-acetyl-lysine Antibody Generation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yee; Sim, Choon Kiat; Zhang, Qiongyi; Tang, Hui; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Pan, Hong; Karnani, Neerja; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Kangling; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies. PMID:27606599

  14. Medial temporal N-acetyl aspartate in pediatric major depression

    PubMed Central

    MacMaster, Frank P.; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S. Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD-case control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  15. Medial temporal N-acetyl-aspartate in pediatric major depression.

    PubMed

    MacMaster, Frank P; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R

    2008-10-30

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD case-control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in the left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  16. Global analysis of lysine acetylation in strawberry leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Songlin; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Jin, Liang; Cao, Lingling; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Huasheng; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants. PMID:26442052

  17. Antemortem stress regulates protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-07-01

    Although exhaustive research has established that preslaughter stress is a major factor contributing to pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat, questions remain regarding the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis. In this study, the influence of preslaughter stress on protein acetylation in relationship to glycolysis was studied. The data show that antemortem swimming significantly enhanced glycolysis and the total acetylated proteins in postmortem longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of mice. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors eliminated stress induced increase in glycolysis. Inversely, antemortem injection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and nicotinamide (NAM), further increased protein acetylation early postmortem and the glycolysis. These data provide new insight into the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis by showing that protein acetylation regulates glycolysis, which may participate in the regulation of preslaughter stress on glycolysis in postmortem muscle. PMID:26920270

  18. Acetylated histone H3 increases nucleosome dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Marek; Manohar, Mridula; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Chromatin's basic unit structure is the nucleosome, i.e. genomic DNA wrapped around a particular class of proteins -- histones -- which due to their physical hindrance, block vital biological processes, such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. Histone post-translational modifications, which are known to exist in vivo, are hypothesized to regulate these biological processes by directly altering DNA-histone interactions and thus nucleosome structure and stability. Using magnetic tweezers technique we studied the acetylation of histone H3 in the dyad region, i.e. at K115 and K122, on reconstituted arrays of nucleosomes under constant external force. Based on the measured increase in the probability of dissociation of modified nucleosomes, we infer that this double modification could facilitate histone chaperone mediated nucleosome disassembly in vivo.

  19. SIAH-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of acetyl-transferases regulate the p53 response and protein acetylation.

    PubMed

    Grishina, Inna; Debus, Katherina; García-Limones, Carmen; Schneider, Constanze; Shresta, Amit; García, Carlos; Calzado, Marco A; Schmitz, M Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation regulates many biological processes ranging from signal transduction to chromatin compaction. Here we identify the acetyl-transferases CBP/p300, Tip60 and PCAF as new substrates for the ubiquitin E3 ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2. While CBP/p300 can undergo ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation by SIAH1 and SIAH2, the two other acetyl-transferases are exclusively degraded by SIAH2. Accordingly, SIAH-deficient cells show enhanced protein acetylation, thus revealing SIAH proteins as indirect regulators of the cellular acetylation status. Functional experiments show that Tip60/PCAF-mediated acetylation of the tumor suppressor p53 is antagonized by the p53 target gene SIAH2 which mediates ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation of both acetyl-transferases and consequently diminishes p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. The p53 kinase HIPK2 mediates hierarchical phosphorylation of SIAH2 at 5 sites, which further boosts its activity as a ubiquitin E3 ligase for several substrates and therefore dampens the late p53 response. PMID:23044042

  20. Characterization of O-Acetylation of N-Acetylglucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Elvis; Rolain, Thomas; Courtin, Pascal; Guillot, Alain; Langella, Philippe; Hols, Pascal; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) N-acetyl muramic acid (MurNAc) O-acetylation is widely spread in Gram-positive bacteria and is generally associated with resistance against lysozyme and endogenous autolysins. We report here the presence of O-acetylation on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in Lactobacillus plantarum PG. This modification of glycan strands was never described in bacteria. Fine structural characterization of acetylated muropeptides released from L. plantarum PG demonstrated that both MurNAc and GlcNAc are O-acetylated in this species. These two PG post-modifications rely on two dedicated O-acetyltransferase encoding genes, named oatA and oatB, respectively. By analyzing the resistance to cell wall hydrolysis of mutant strains, we showed that GlcNAc O-acetylation inhibits N-acetylglucosaminidase Acm2, the major L. plantarum autolysin. In this bacterial species, inactivation of oatA, encoding MurNAc O-acetyltransferase, resulted in marked sensitivity to lysozyme. Moreover, MurNAc over-O-acetylation was shown to activate autolysis through the putative N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase LytH enzyme. Our data indicate that in L. plantarum, two different O-acetyltransferases play original and antagonistic roles in the modulation of the activity of endogenous autolysins. PMID:21586574

  1. Chitosan Molecular Structure as a Function of N-Acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Eduardo F.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2011-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to characterize the structure and solubility of chitosan nanoparticle-like structures as a function of the deacetylation level (0, 40, 60, and 100%) and the spatial distribution of the N-acetyl groups in the particles. The polysaccharide chains of highly N-deacetylated particles where the N-acetyl groups are uniformly distributed present a high flexibility and preference for the relaxed two-fold helix and five-fold helix motifs. When these groups are confined to a given region of the particle, the chains adopt preferentially a two-fold helix with f and w values close to crystalline chitin. Nanoparticles with up to 40% acetylation are moderately soluble, forming stable aggregates when the N-acetyl groups are unevenly distributed. Systems with 60% or higher N-acetylation levels are insoluble and present similar degrees of swelling regardless the distribution of their N-acetyl groups. Overall particle solvation is highly affected by electrostatic forces resulting from the degree of acetylation. The water mobility and orientation around the polysaccharide chains affects the stability of the intramolecular O3- HO3(n) ... O5(n+ 1) hydrogen bond, which in turn controls particle aggregation.

  2. Role of Histone Acetylation in Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Koprinarova, Miglena; Schnekenburger, Michael; Diederich, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Core histone acetylation is a key prerequisite for chromatin decondensation and plays a pivotal role in regulation of chromatin structure, function and dynamics. The addition of acetyl groups disturbs histone/DNA interactions in the nucleosome and alters histone/histone interactions in the same or adjacent nucleosomes. Acetyl groups can also provide binding sites for recruitment of bromodomain (BRD)-containing non-histone readers and regulatory complexes to chromatin allowing them to perform distinct downstream functions. The presence of a particular acetylation pattern influences appearance of other histone modifications in the immediate vicinity forming the "histone code". Although the roles of the acetylation of particular lysine residues for the ongoing chromatin functions is largely studied, the epigenetic inheritance of histone acetylation is a debated issue. The dynamics of local or global histone acetylation is associated with fundamental cellular processes such as gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair or chromatin condensation. Therefore, it is an essential part of the epigenetic cell response to processes related to internal and external signals. PMID:26303420

  3. BRG-1 Is Recruited to Estrogen-Responsive Promoters and Cooperates with Factors Involved in Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    DiRenzo, James; Shang, Yongfeng; Phelan, Michael; Sif, Säid; Myers, Molly; Kingston, Robert; Brown, Myles

    2000-01-01

    Several factors that mediate activation by nuclear receptors also modify the chemical and structural composition of chromatin. Prominent in this diverse group is the steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) family, which interact with agonist-bound nuclear receptors, thereby coupling them to multifunctional transcriptional coregulators such as CREB-binding protein (CBP), p300, and PCAF, all of which have potent histone acetyltransferase activity. Additionally factors including the Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG-1) that are involved in the structural remodeling of chromatin also mediate hormone-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors. Here, we provide evidence that these two distinct mechanisms of coactivation may operate in a collaborative manner. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor (ER) requires functional BRG-1 and that the coactivation of estrogen signaling by either SRC-1 or CBP is BRG-1 dependent. We find that in response to estrogen, ER recruits BRG-1, thereby targeting BRG-1 to the promoters of estrogen-responsive genes in a manner that occurs simultaneous to histone acetylation. Finally, we demonstrate that BRG-1-mediated coactivation of ER signaling is regulated by the state of histone acetylation within a cell. Inhibition of histone deacetylation by trichostatin A dramatically increases BRG-1-mediated coactivation of ER signaling, and this increase is reversed by overexpression of histone deacetylase 1. These studies support a critical role for BRG-1 in ER action in which estrogen stimulates an ER–BRG-1 association coupling BRG-1 to regions of chromatin at the sites of estrogen-responsive promoters and promotes the activity of other recruited factors that alter the acetylation state of chromatin. PMID:11003650

  4. Evidence for N----O acetyl migration as the mechanism for O acetylation of peptidoglycan in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, C; Clarke, A J

    1991-01-01

    O-acetylated peptidoglycan was purified from Proteus mirabilis grown in the presence of specifically radiolabelled glucosamine derivatives, and the migration of the radiolabel was monitored. Mild-base hydrolysis of the isolated peptidoglycan (to release ester-linked acetate) from cells grown in the presence of 40 microM [acetyl-3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in the release of [3H]acetate, as detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The inclusion of either acetate, pyruvate, or acetyl phosphate, each at 1 mM final concentration, did not result in a diminution of mild-base-released [3H]acetate levels. No such release of [3H]acetate was observed with peptidoglycan isolated from either Escherichia coli incubated with the same radiolabel or P. mirabilis grown with [1,6-3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or D-[1-14C]glucosamine. These observations support a hypothesis that O acetylation occurs by N----O acetyl transfer within the sacculus. A decrease in [3H]acetate release by mild-base hydrolysis was observed with the peptidoglycan of P. mirabilis cultures incubated in the presence of antagonists of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, penicillin G and D-cycloserine. The absence of free-amino sugars in the peptidoglycan of P. mirabilis but the detection of glucosamine in spent culture broths implies that N----O transacetylation is intimately associated with peptidoglycan turnover. PMID:2066331

  5. 9-O-Acetylation of sialic acids is catalysed by CASD1 via a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Anna-Maria T.; Bakkers, Mark J. G.; Buettner, Falk F. R.; Hartmann, Maike; Grove, Melanie; Langereis, Martijn A.; de Groot, Raoul J.; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids, terminal sugars of glycoproteins and glycolipids, play important roles in development, cellular recognition processes and host–pathogen interactions. A common modification of sialic acids is 9-O-acetylation, which has been implicated in sialoglycan recognition, ganglioside biology, and the survival and drug resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Despite many functional implications, the molecular basis of 9-O-acetylation has remained elusive thus far. Following cellular approaches, including selective gene knockout by CRISPR/Cas genome editing, we here show that CASD1—a previously identified human candidate gene—is essential for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. In vitro assays with the purified N-terminal luminal domain of CASD1 demonstrate transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-coenzyme A to CMP-activated sialic acid and formation of a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. Our study provides direct evidence that CASD1 is a sialate O-acetyltransferase and serves as key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans. PMID:26169044

  6. Application of reverse-phase HPLC to quantify oligopeptide acetylation eliminates interference from unspecific acetyl CoA hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Evjenth, Rune; Hole, Kristine; Ziegler, Mathias; Lillehaug, Johan R

    2009-01-01

    Protein acetylation is a common modification that plays a central role in several cellular processes. The most widely used methods to study these modifications are either based on the detection of radioactively acetylated oligopetide products or an enzyme-coupled reaction measuring conversion of the acetyl donor acetyl CoA to the product CoASH. Due to several disadvantages of these methods, we designed a new method to study oligopeptide acetylation. Based on reverse phase HPLC we detect both reaction products in a highly robust and reproducible way. The method reported here is also fully compatible with subsequent product analysis, e.g. by mass spectroscopy. The catalytic subunit, hNaa30p, of the human NatC protein N-acetyltransferase complex was used for N-terminal oligopeptide acetylation. We show that unacetylated and acetylated oligopeptides can be efficiently separated and quantified by the HPLC-based analysis. The method is highly reproducible and enables reliable quantification of both substrates and products. It is therefore well-suited to determine kinetic parameters of acetyltransferases. PMID:19660098

  7. 9-O-Acetylation of sialic acids is catalysed by CASD1 via a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Anna-Maria T; Bakkers, Mark J G; Buettner, Falk F R; Hartmann, Maike; Grove, Melanie; Langereis, Martijn A; de Groot, Raoul J; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids, terminal sugars of glycoproteins and glycolipids, play important roles in development, cellular recognition processes and host-pathogen interactions. A common modification of sialic acids is 9-O-acetylation, which has been implicated in sialoglycan recognition, ganglioside biology, and the survival and drug resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Despite many functional implications, the molecular basis of 9-O-acetylation has remained elusive thus far. Following cellular approaches, including selective gene knockout by CRISPR/Cas genome editing, we here show that CASD1--a previously identified human candidate gene--is essential for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. In vitro assays with the purified N-terminal luminal domain of CASD1 demonstrate transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-coenzyme A to CMP-activated sialic acid and formation of a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. Our study provides direct evidence that CASD1 is a sialate O-acetyltransferase and serves as key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans. PMID:26169044

  8. Acetylation of C/EBPα inhibits its granulopoietic function

    PubMed Central

    Bararia, Deepak; Kwok, Hui Si; Welner, Robert S.; Numata, Akihiko; Sárosi, Menyhárt B.; Yang, Henry; Wee, Sheena; Tschuri, Sebastian; Ray, Debleena; Weigert, Oliver; Levantini, Elena; Ebralidze, Alexander K.; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tenen, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBPα at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBPα DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBPα transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBPα is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBPα mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBPα-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBPα and demonstrate the importance of C/EBPα acetylation in myeloid differentiation. PMID:27005833

  9. Rapid test for acetyl-methyl-carbinol formation by Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, S M; Nichols, C W; Qadri, S G; Villarreal, A

    1978-01-01

    A modified Voges-Proskauer test is described which distinguishes within 4 to 8 hours between organisms that can produce acetyl-methyl-carbinol (acetoin) from glucose fermentation and those that cannot. PMID:363745

  10. Acetylation of C/EBPα inhibits its granulopoietic function.

    PubMed

    Bararia, Deepak; Kwok, Hui Si; Welner, Robert S; Numata, Akihiko; Sárosi, Menyhárt B; Yang, Henry; Wee, Sheena; Tschuri, Sebastian; Ray, Debleena; Weigert, Oliver; Levantini, Elena; Ebralidze, Alexander K; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tenen, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBPα at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBPα DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBPα transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBPα is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBPα mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBPα-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBPα and demonstrate the importance of C/EBPα acetylation in myeloid differentiation. PMID:27005833

  11. Data detailing the platelet acetyl-lysine proteome

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Joseph E.; David, Larry L.; McCarty, Owen J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Here we detail proteomics data that describe the acetyl-lysine proteome of blood platelets (Aslan et al., 2015 [1]). An affinity purification – mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach was used to identify proteins modified by Nε-lysine acetylation in quiescent, washed human platelets. The data provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms of platelet function mediated by protein lysine acetylation. Additionally, as platelets are anucleate and lack histone proteins, they offer a unique and valuable system to study the regulation of cytosolic proteins by lysine acetylation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaino et al., 2014 [2]) via with PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002332. PMID:26904711

  12. Data detailing the platelet acetyl-lysine proteome.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Joseph E; David, Larry L; McCarty, Owen J T

    2015-12-01

    Here we detail proteomics data that describe the acetyl-lysine proteome of blood platelets (Aslan et al., 2015 [1]). An affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach was used to identify proteins modified by Nε-lysine acetylation in quiescent, washed human platelets. The data provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms of platelet function mediated by protein lysine acetylation. Additionally, as platelets are anucleate and lack histone proteins, they offer a unique and valuable system to study the regulation of cytosolic proteins by lysine acetylation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaino et al., 2014 [2]) via with PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002332. PMID:26904711

  13. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  14. Protein kinase C coordinates histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Darieva, Zoulfia; Webber, Aaron; Warwood, Stacey; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The re-assembly of chromatin following DNA replication is a critical event in the maintenance of genome integrity. Histone H3 acetylation at K56 and phosphorylation at T45 are two important chromatin modifications that accompany chromatin assembly. Here we have identified the protein kinase Pkc1 as a key regulator that coordinates the deposition of these modifications in S. cerevisiae under conditions of replicative stress. Pkc1 phosphorylates the histone acetyl transferase Rtt109 and promotes its ability to acetylate H3K56. Our data also reveal novel cross-talk between two different histone modifications as Pkc1 also enhances H3T45 phosphorylation and this modification is required for H3K56 acetylation. Our data therefore uncover an important role for Pkc1 in coordinating the deposition of two different histone modifications that are important for chromatin assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09886.001 PMID:26468616

  15. Rapid test for acetyl-methyl-carbinol formation by Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Qadri, S M; Nichols, C W; Qadri, S G; Villarreal, A

    1978-10-01

    A modified Voges-Proskauer test is described which distinguishes within 4 to 8 hours between organisms that can produce acetyl-methyl-carbinol (acetoin) from glucose fermentation and those that cannot. PMID:363745

  16. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

  17. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false N-Acetyl-L-methionine. 172.372 Section 172.372 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.372 N-Acetyl-L-methionine....

  18. Olig1 Acetylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Oligodendrocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K.; Jin, Weilin

    2015-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig1 is critical for both oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in mice. Nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein occurs during brain development and in multiple sclerosis, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we report that Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation drive its active translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in both mouse and rat oligodendrocytes. We identified three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) localized in the basic helix-loop-helix domain and one specific acetylation site at Lys 150 (human Olig1) in NES1. Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation are regulated by the acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein and the histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC10. Acetylation of Olig1 decreased its chromatin association, increased its interaction with inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and facilitated its retention in the cytoplasm of mature oligodendrocytes. These studies establish that acetylation of Olig1 regulates its chromatin dissociation and subsequent translocation to the cytoplasm and is required for its function in oligodendrocyte maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein has been observed during mouse and human brain development and in multiple sclerosis in several studies, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we provide insight into the mechanism by which acetylation of Olig1 regulates its unique nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling during oligodendrocyte development and how the acetylation status of Olig1 modulates its distinct function in the nucleus versus the cytoplasm. The current study provides a unique example of a lineage-specific transcription factor that is actively translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm as the cell differentiates. Importantly, we demonstrate that this process is tightly controlled by acetylation at a single

  19. Nucleosome Dancing at the Tempo of Histone Tail Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Angélique; Thiriet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The impact of histone acetylation on transcription was revealed over 50 years ago by Allfrey and colleagues. However, it took decades for an understanding of the fine mechanism by which this posttranslational modification affects chromatin structure and promotes transcription. Here, we review breakthroughs linking histone tail acetylation, histone dynamics, and transcription. We also discuss the histone exchange during transcription and highlight the important function of a pool of non-chromatinized histones in chromatin dynamics. PMID:26184324

  20. Nuclear pyruvate kinase M2 complex serves as a transcriptional coactivator of arylhydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Shun; Adachi, Jun; Ihara, Masaru; Tanuma, Nobuhiro; Shima, Hiroshi; Kakizuka, Akira; Ikura, Masae; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Tomonari

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) regulate production of acetyl-CoA, which functions as an acetyl donor in diverse enzymatic reactions, including histone acetylation. However, the mechanism by which the acetyl-CoA required for histone acetylation is ensured in a gene context-dependent manner is not clear. Here we show that PKM2, the E2 subunit of PDC and histone acetyltransferase p300 constitute a complex on chromatin with arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor associated with xenobiotic metabolism. All of these factors are recruited to the enhancer of AhR-target genes, in an AhR-dependent manner. PKM2 contributes to enhancement of transcription of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), an AhR-target gene, acetylation at lysine 9 of histone H3 at the CYP1A1 enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis of PKM2 indicates that this enhancement of histone acetylation requires the pyruvate kinase activity of the enzyme. Furthermore, we reveal that PDC activity is present in nuclei. Based on these findings, we propose a local acetyl-CoA production system in which PKM2 and PDC locally supply acetyl-CoA to p300 from abundant PEP for histone acetylation at the gene enhancer, and our data suggest that PKM2 sensitizes AhR-mediated detoxification in actively proliferating cells such as cancer and fetal cells. PMID:26405201

  1. An acetylation switch controls TDP-43 function and aggregation propensity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Todd J; Hwang, Andrew W; Restrepo, Clark R; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M Y

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 pathology is a disease hallmark that characterizes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). Although a critical role for TDP-43 as an RNA-binding protein has emerged, the regulation of TDP-43 function is poorly understood. Here, we identify lysine acetylation as a novel post-translational modification controlling TDP-43 function and aggregation. We provide evidence that TDP-43 acetylation impairs RNA binding and promotes accumulation of insoluble, hyper-phosphorylated TDP-43 species that largely resemble pathological inclusions in ALS and FTLD-TDP. Moreover, biochemical and cell-based assays identify oxidative stress as a signalling cue that promotes acetylated TDP-43 aggregates that are readily engaged by the cellular defense machinery. Importantly, acetylated TDP-43 lesions are found in ALS patient spinal cord, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 acetylation and loss of RNA binding are linked to TDP-43 proteinopathy. Thus, modulating TDP-43 acetylation represents a plausible strategy to fine-tune TDP-43 activity, which could provide new therapeutic avenues for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25556531

  2. Effects of peptide acetylation and dimethylation on electrospray ionization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Cho; Kang, Jeong Won; Choi, Yuri; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Peptide acetylation and dimethylation have been widely used to derivatize primary amino groups (peptide N-termini and the ε-amino group of lysines) for chemical isotope labeling of quantitative proteomics or for affinity tag labeling for selection and enrichment of labeled peptides. However, peptide acetylation results in signal suppression during electrospray ionization (ESI) due to charge neutralization. In contrast, dimethylated peptides show increased ionization efficiency after derivatization, since dimethylation increases hydrophobicity and maintains a positive charge on the peptide under common LC conditions. In this study, we quantitatively compared the ESI efficiencies of acetylated and dimethylated model peptides and tryptic peptides of BSA. Dimethylated peptides showed higher ionization efficiency than acetylated peptides for both model peptides and tryptic BSA peptides. At the proteome level, peptide dimethylation led to better protein identification than peptide acetylation when tryptic peptides of mouse brain lysate were analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS. These results demonstrate that dimethylation of tryptic peptides enhanced ESI efficiency and provided up to two-fold improved protein identification sensitivity in comparison with acetylation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26889926

  3. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  4. An acetylation switch controls TDP-43 function and aggregation propensity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Todd J.; Hwang, Andrew W.; Restrepo, Clark R.; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 pathology is a disease hallmark that characterizes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). Although a critical role for TDP-43 as an RNA-binding protein has emerged, the regulation of TDP-43 function is poorly understood. Here we identify lysine acetylation as a novel post-translational modification controlling TDP-43 function and aggregation. We provide evidence that TDP-43 acetylation impairs RNA-binding and promotes accumulation of insoluble, hyper-phosphorylated TDP-43 species that largely resemble pathological inclusions in ALS and FTLD-TDP. Moreover, biochemical and cell-based assays identify oxidative stress as a signaling cue that promotes acetylated TDP-43 aggregates that are readily engaged by the cellular defense machinery. Importantly, acetylated TDP-43 lesions are found in ALS patient spinal cord, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 acetylation and loss of RNA binding are linked to TDP-43 proteinopathy. Thus, modulating TDP-43 acetylation represents a plausible strategy to fine-tune TDP-43 activity, which could provide new therapeutic avenues for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25556531

  5. Acetyl Radical Generation in Cigarette Smoke: Quantification and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10–150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commerial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass filber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acealdehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke. PMID:25253993

  6. Methods to detect NF-κB Acetylation and Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, JinJing; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-translational modifications of NF-κB, including acetylation and methylation, have emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for determining the duration and strength of NF-κB nuclear activity as well as its transcriptional output. Within the seven NF-κB family proteins, the RelA subunit of NF-κB is the most studied for its regulation by lysine acetylation and methylation. Acetylation or methylation at different lysine residues modulates distinct functions of NF-κB, including DNA binding and transcription activity, protein stability, and its interaction with NF-κB modulators. Here, we describe the experimental methods to monitor the in vitro and in vivo acetylated or methylated forms of NF-κB. These methods include radiolabeling the acetyl- or methyl- groups and immunoblotting with pan or site-specific acetyl- or methyl-lysine antibodies. Radiolabeling is useful in the initial validation of the modifications. Immunoblotting with antibodies provides a rapid and powerful approach to detect and analyze the functions of these modifications in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25736763

  7. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of a potent inhibitor of the neuropeptidase N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P F; Cole, D C; Slusher, B S; Stetz, S L; Ross, L E; Donzanti, B A; Trainor, D A

    1996-01-19

    A series of substituted phosphonate derivatives were designed and synthesized in order to study the ability of these compounds to inhibit the neuropeptidase N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase). The molecules were shown to act as inhibitors of the enzyme, with the most potent (compound 3) having a Ki of 0.275 nM. The potency of this compound is more than 1000 times greater than that of previously reported inhibitors of the enzyme. NAALADase is responsible for the catabolism of the abundant neuropeptide N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate (NAAG) into N-acetylaspartate and glutamate. NAAG has been proposed to be a neurotransmitter at a subpopulation of glutamate receptors; alternatively, NAAG has been suggested to act as a storage form of synaptic glutamate. As a result, inhibition of NAALADase may show utility as a therapeutic intervention in diseases in which altered levels of glutamate are thought to be involved. PMID:8558536

  8. sup. alpha. N-acetyl derivatives of. beta. -endorphin-(1-31) and -(1-27) regulate the supraspinal antinociceptive activity of different opioids in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P. )

    1991-01-01

    {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin(1-31) injected icv to mice antagonized the analgesic activity of {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) and morphine whereas the analgesia evoked by DADLE and DAGO was enhanced by this treatment. The modulatory activity of {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) was exhibited at remarkable low doses (fmols) reaching a maximum that persisted even though the dose was increased 100,000 times. The regulatory effect of a single dose of the acetylated neuropeptide lasted for 24h. The activity of {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin(1-31) was partially retained by the shorter peptide {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl human {beta}-endorphin-(1-27) and to a lesser extent by {beta}-endorphin-(1-27), {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) lacked this regulatory activity on opioid analgesia. Acetylated {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) displayed a biphasic curve when competing with 5 pM ({sup 125}I)-Tyr{sup 27} human {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) specific binding, the first step was abolished with an apparent IC{sub 50} of 0.35 nM, and the rest with an IC{sub 50} of 200 nM. It is suggested that {sup {alpha}}N-acetyl {beta}-endorphin-(1-31) changed the efficiency of the opioid analgesics by acting upon a specific substrate that is functionally coupled to the opioid receptor, presumably the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins G{sub i}/G{sub 0}.

  9. Valproic acid inhibits proliferation of HER2-expressing breast cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through Hsp70 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    MAWATARI, TOSHIKI; NINOMIYA, ITASU; INOKUCHI, MASAFUMI; HARADA, SHINICHI; HAYASHI, HIRONORI; OYAMA, KATSUNOBU; MAKINO, ISAMU; NAKAGAWARA, HISATOSHI; MIYASHITA, TOMOHARU; TAJIMA, HIDEHIRO; TAKAMURA, HIROYUKI; FUSHIDA, SACHIO; OHTA, TETSUO

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases at the molecular level. It is known that chemo-sensitivity of breast cancer depends on its molecular subtype. We investigated the growth inhibitory effect of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, and the mechanism of this inhibition on four breast cancer cell lines with different molecular subtypes. The growth inhibitory effect of VPA in the four different breast cancer cell lines was investigated. The alteration of levels of p21 WAF1, cleaved caspase-3, acetylated Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, acetylated Hsp70, and acetylated α-tubulin by VPA was examined in VPA-sensitive, human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing SKBR3 cells. The cell growth inhibition of breast cancer cell lines was dependent on the dose and exposure time of VPA. The cell growth of HER2-overexpressing SKBR3 cell line was inhibited by VPA to a much greater degree than other cell lines studied. In SKBR3 cell line, VPA upregulated expression of p21 WAF1 and cleaved caspase-3 in the early phase. VPA markedly increased Hsp70 acetylation in a time-dependent manner but did not increase Hsp90 acetylation. Our data demonstrated that VPA inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. This anti-proliferation effect might be the direct function of VPA as an HDAC inhibitor. We propose an alternative mechanism whereby acetylation of Hsp70 disrupts the function of Hsp90 and leads to downregulation of its client proteins, including HER2 that might be the indirect function of VPA, in the sense that non-histone proteins are acetylated. PMID:26497673

  10. Neuroprotection in rabbit retina with N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate and 2-phosphonyl-methyl pentanedioic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Henry D.; Yourick, Debra L.; Koenig, Michael K.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Meyerhoff, James L.

    1999-06-01

    Retinal tissue is subject to ischemia from diabetic retinopathy and other conditions that affect the retinal vasculature such as lupus erythematosus and temporal arteritis. There is evidence in animal models of reversible ischemia that a therapeutic window exists during early recovery when agents that reduce glutamate activity at its receptor sites can rescue neurons from injury. To model ischemia, we used sodium cyanide (NaCN), to inhibit oxidative metabolism, and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to inhibit glycolysis. Dissociated rabbit retina cells were studied to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (MAAG), which competes with glutamate as a low-potency agonist at the NMDA receptor complex. N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase; the NAAG-hydrolyzing enzyme) is responsible for the hydrolysis of NAAG into glutamate, a neurotransmitter and potent excitotoxin, and N-acetylaspartate. 2-Phosphonyl-methyl pentanedioic acid (PMPA) and β-linked NAAG (β-NAAG), inhibitors of NAALADase, were also tested, since inhibition of NAALADase could reduce synaptic glutamate and increase the concentration of NAAG. We found that metabolic inhibition with NaCN/2-DG for 1 hour caused 50% toxicity as assessed with the MTT assay. Co-treatment with NAAG resulted in dose-dependent protection of up to 55% (p<0.005). When the non-hydrolyzable, NAALADase inhibitor β-NAAG was employed dose-dependent protection of up to 37% was observed (p<0.001). PMPA also showed 48% protection (p<.05-.001) against these insults. These data suggest that NAAG may antagonize the effect of glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex in retina. Inhibition of NAALADase by PMPA and β-NAAG may increase the activity of endogenous NAAG.

  11. Identification of cellular factors binding to acetylated HIV-1 integrase.

    PubMed

    Allouch, Awatef; Cereseto, Anna

    2011-11-01

    The viral protein integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into the host cellular genome. We have recently demonstrated that IN is acetylated by a cellular histone acetyltransferase, p300, which modifies three lysines located in the C-terminus of the viral factor (Cereseto et al. in EMBO J 24:3070-3081, 2005). This modification enhances IN catalytic activity, as demonstrated by in vitro assays. Consistently, mutations introduced in the targeted lysines greatly decrease the efficiency of HIV-1 integration. Acetylation was proven to regulate protein functions by modulating protein-protein interactions. HIV-1 to efficiently complete its replication steps, including the integration reaction, requires interacting with numerous cellular factors. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether acetylation might modulate the interaction between IN and the cellular factors. To this aim we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening that differs from the screenings so far performed (Rain et al. in Methods 47:291-297, 2009; Studamire and Goff in Retrovirology 5:48, 2008) for using as bait IN constitutively acetylated. From this analysis we have identified thirteen cellular factors involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, nuclear transport, RNA binding, protein synthesis regulation and microtubule organization. To validate these interactions, binding assays were performed showing that acetylation increases the affinity of IN with specific factors. Nevertheless, few two-hybrid hits bind with the same affinity the acetylated and the unmodified IN. These results further underlie the relevance of IN post-translational modification by acetylation in HIV-1 replication cycle. PMID:20016921

  12. Reciprocal regulation of RORγt acetylation and function by p300 and HDAC1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingsi; Nie, Jia; Gao, Yayi; Xu, Peng; Sun, Qijuan; Yang, Jing; Han, Lei; Chen, Zuojia; Wang, Xiuwen; Lv, Ling; Tsun, Andy; Shen, Jijia; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells not only play critical roles in protecting against bacterial and fungal infections but are also involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (RORγt) is a key transcription factor involved in Th17 cell differentiation through direct transcriptional activation of interleukin 17(A) (IL-17). How RORγt itself is regulated remains unclear. Here, we report that p300, which has histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, interacts with and acetylates RORγt at its K81 residue. Knockdown of p300 downregulates RORγt protein and RORγt-mediated gene expression in Th17 cells. In addition, p300 can promote RORγt-mediated transcriptional activation. Interestingly, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) HDAC1 can also interact with RORγt and reduce its acetylation level. In summary, our data reveal previously unappreciated posttranslational regulation of RORγt, uncovering the underlying mechanism by which the histone acetyltransferase p300 and the histone deacetylase HDAC1 reciprocally regulate the RORγt-mediated transcriptional activation of IL-17. PMID:26549310

  13. Aspirin inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in HCT 116 cells through acetylation: Identification of aspirin-acetylated sites

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Alfonso, Lloyd F.; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, and generates ribose sugars, which are required for nucleic acid synthesis, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for neutralization of oxidative stress. The expression of G6PD is elevated in several types of tumor, including colon, breast and lung cancer, and has been implicated in cancer cell growth. Our previous study demonstrated that exposure of HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells to aspirin caused acetylation of G6PD, and this was associated with a decrease in its enzyme activity. In the present study, this observation was expanded to HT-29 colorectal cancer cells, in order to compare aspirin-mediated acetylation of G6PD and its activity between HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. In addition, the present study aimed to determine the acetylation targets of aspirin on recombinant G6PD to provide an insight into the mechanisms of inhibition. The results demonstrated that the extent of G6PD acetylation was significantly higher in HCT 116 cells compared with in HT-29 cells; accordingly, a greater reduction in G6PD enzyme activity was observed in the HCT 116 cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of aspirin-acetylated G6PD (isoform a) revealed that aspirin acetylated a total of 14 lysine residues, which were dispersed throughout the length of the G6PD protein. One of the important amino acid targets of aspirin included lysine 235 (K235, in isoform a) and this corresponds to K205 in isoform b, which has previously been identified as being important for catalysis. Acetylation of G6PD at several sites, including K235 (K205 in isoform b), may mediate inhibition of G6PD activity, which may contribute to the ability of aspirin to exert anticancer effects through decreased synthesis of ribose sugars and NADPH. PMID:27356773

  14. Olig1 Acetylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Oligodendrocyte Development.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K; Jin, Weilin; Macklin, Wendy B

    2015-12-01

    The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig1 is critical for both oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in mice. Nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein occurs during brain development and in multiple sclerosis, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we report that Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation drive its active translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in both mouse and rat oligodendrocytes. We identified three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) localized in the basic helix-loop-helix domain and one specific acetylation site at Lys 150 (human Olig1) in NES1. Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation are regulated by the acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein and the histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC10. Acetylation of Olig1 decreased its chromatin association, increased its interaction with inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and facilitated its retention in the cytoplasm of mature oligodendrocytes. These studies establish that acetylation of Olig1 regulates its chromatin dissociation and subsequent translocation to the cytoplasm and is required for its function in oligodendrocyte maturation. PMID:26631469

  15. Determination of NAT2 acetylation status in the Greenlandic population.

    PubMed

    Geller, Frank; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders; Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Birch, Emilie; Nordholm, Anne Christine; Johansen, Marie Mila Broby; Børresen, Malene Landbo; Feenstra, Bjarke; Melbye, Mads

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a well-studied phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme relevant in drug metabolism and cancerogenesis. NAT2 activity is largely determined by genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of the corresponding gene. We investigated NAT2 acetylation status in 1556 individuals from Greenland based on four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels and the tagging SNP rs1495741. There was good concordance between the NAT2 status inferred by the different SNP combinations. Overall, the fraction of slow acetylators was low with 17.5 % and varied depending on the degree of Inuit ancestry; in individuals with <50 % Inuit ancestry, we observed more than 25 % slow acetylators reflecting European ancestry. Greenland has a high incidence of tuberculosis, and individual dosing of isoniazid according to NAT2 status has been shown to improve treatment and reduce side effects. Our findings could be a first step in pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Greenland. PMID:25794903

  16. Synthetic biology for engineering acetyl coenzyme A metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

  17. Synthesis of polyrotaxanes from acetyl-β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, I. S.; Nikolić, L.; Nikolić, V.; Ilić, D.; Budinski-Simendić, J.

    2011-12-01

    Polyrotaxanes are intermediary products in the synthesis of topological gels. They are created by inclusion complex formation of hydrophobic linear macromolecules with cyclodextrins or their derivatives. Then, pairs of cyclodextrin molecules with covalently linkage were practically forming the nodes of the semi-flexible polymer network. Such gels are called topological gels and they can absorb huge quantities of water due to the net flexibility allowing the poly(ethylene oxide) chains to slide through the cyclodextrin cavities, without being pulled out altogether. For polyrotaxane formation poly(ethylene oxide) was used like linear macromolecules. There are hydroxyl groups at poly(ethylene oxide) chains, whereby the linking of the voluminous molecules should be made. To avoid the reaction of cyclodextrin OH groups with stoppers, they should be protected by, e.g., acetylation. In this work, the acetylation of the OH groups of β-cyclodextrin was performed by acetic acid anhydride with iodine as the catalyst. The acetylation reaction was assessed by the FTIR and HPLC method. By the HPLC analysis was found that the acetylation was completed in 20 minutes. Inserting of poly(ethylene oxide) with 4000 g/mol molecule mass into acetyl-β-cyclodextrin with 2:1 poly(ethylene oxide) monomer unit to acetyl-β-cyclodextrin ratio was also monitored by FTIR, and it was found that the process was completed in 12 h at the temperature of 10°C. If the process is performed at temperatures above 10°C, or for periods longer than 12 hours, the process of uncontrolled hydrolysis of acetate groups was initiated.

  18. Interaction of RNA polymerase II with acetylated nucleosomal core particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pineiro, M.; Gonzalez, P.J.; Hernandez, F.; Palacian, E. )

    1991-05-31

    Chemical acetylation of nucleosomal cores is accompanied by an increase in their efficiency as in vitro transcription templates. Low amounts of acetic anhydride cause preferential modification of the amino-terminal tails of core histones. Modification of these domains, which causes moderate structural effects, is apparently correlated with the observed stimulation of RNA synthesis. In contrast, extensive modification of the globular regions of core histones, which is accompanied by a large structural relaxation of the particle, causes little additional effect on transcription. Acetylation of the amino-terminal domains of histones might stimulate transcription by changing the interaction of the histone tails with components of the transcriptional machinery.

  19. Histone acetylation: a switch between repressive and permissive chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Eberharter, Anton; Becker, Peter B.

    2002-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic chromatin has a major impact on all nuclear processes involving DNA substrates. Gene expression is affected by the positioning of individual nucleosomes relative to regulatory sequence elements, by the folding of the nucleosomal fiber into higher-order structures and by the compartmentalization of functional domains within the nucleus. Because site-specific acetylation of nucleosomal histones influences all three aspects of chromatin organization, it is central to the switch between permissive and repressive chromatin structure. The targeting of enzymes that modulate the histone acetylation status of chromatin, in synergy with the effects mediated by other chromatin remodeling factors, is central to gene regulation. PMID:11882541

  20. Acetylated Tau Obstructs KIBRA-Mediated Signaling in Synaptic Plasticity and Promotes Tauopathy-Related Memory Loss.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Tara E; Sohn, Peter Dongmin; Minami, S Sakura; Wang, Chao; Min, Sang-Won; Li, Yaqiao; Zhou, Yungui; Le, David; Lo, Iris; Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Cong, Xin; Schilling, Birgit; Ellerby, Lisa M; Huganir, Richard L; Gan, Li

    2016-04-20

    Tau toxicity has been implicated in the emergence of synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism by which tau alters synapse physiology and leads to cognitive decline is unclear. Here we report abnormal acetylation of K274 and K281 on tau, identified in AD brains, promotes memory loss and disrupts synaptic plasticity by reducing postsynaptic KIdney/BRAin (KIBRA) protein, a memory-associated protein. Transgenic mice expressing human tau with lysine-to-glutamine mutations to mimic K274 and K281 acetylation (tauKQ) exhibit AD-related memory deficits and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). TauKQ reduces synaptic KIBRA levels and disrupts activity-induced postsynaptic actin remodeling and AMPA receptor insertion. The LTP deficit was rescued by promoting actin polymerization or by KIBRA expression. In AD patients with dementia, we found enhanced tau acetylation is linked to loss of KIBRA. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which pathogenic tau causes synaptic dysfunction and cognitive decline in AD pathogenesis. PMID:27041503

  1. Central N-acetyl aspartylglutamate deficit: a possible pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2005-09-01

    The "glutamate hypothesis" of schizophrenia has emerged from the finding that phencyclidine (PCP) induces psychotic-like behaviors in rodents, possibly by blocking the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor, thereby causing increased glutamate release. N-acetyl aspartylglutamate (NAAG), an endogenous peptide abundant in mammalian nervous systems, is localized in certain brain cells, including cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. NAAG is synthesized from N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate, and NAA availability may limit the rate of NAAG synthesis. Although NAAG is known to have some neurotransmitter-like functions, NAA does not. NAAG is a highly selective agonist of the type 3 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR3, a presynaptic autoreceptor) and can inhibit glutamate release. In addition, at low levels, NAAG is an NMDA receptor antagonist, and blocking of NMDA receptors may increase glutamate release. Taken together, low central NAAG levels may antagonize the effect of glutamate at NMDA receptors and decrease its agonistic effect on presynaptic mGluR3; both activities could increase glutamate release, similar to the increase demonstrated in the PCP model of schizophrenia. In this report, it is suggested that the central NAAG deficit, possibly through decreased synthesis or increased degradation of NAAG, may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Evidence is presented and discussed from magnetic resonance, postmortem, animal model, schizophrenia treatment, and genetic studies. The central NAAG deficit model of schizophrenia could explain the disease process, from the perspectives of both neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration, and may point to potential treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:16127367

  2. Molecular characterization of a new acetyl xylan esterase (AXEII) from edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea with both de-O-acetylation and de-N-acetylation activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiufeng; Ding, Shaojun

    2009-06-01

    A new Volvariella volvacea gene encoding a carbohydrate esterase (CE) family 4 acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) (designated as VvaxeII) was cloned and characterized. The coded polypeptide had 253 amino acid residues, with the first 19 serving as a secretion signal peptide. The VvaxeII transcript levels were high when the fungus was grown on oat spelt xylan, cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, lactose, galactose, and chitin from crab as carbon sources. The recombinant VvAXEII produced by expression of VvaxeII in Pichia pastoris exhibited activity toward acetylated oat spelt xylan and various chitinous substrates, but was totally inactive against artificial aromatic acetates such as beta-nitrophenyl, 4-methylumbelliferyl, and alpha-naphthyl acetates. Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis was maximal at pH 7.0 and 60 degrees C, and reciprocal plots revealed an apparent K(m) value of 1.42 mg mL(-1) and a V(max) value of 833 IU micromol(-1) protein using glycol chitin as a substrate. The recombinant VvAXEII requires activation by bivalent cations such as Co2+ and Mg2+. Interestingly, the recombinant VvAXEII showed no deacetylation activity to fully acetylated monosaccharides such as xylose tetraacetate. PMID:19473250

  3. N-acetyltransferase 2, exposure to aromatic and heterocyclic amines, and receptor-defined breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Haas, Susanne; Weiss, Tobias; Spickenheuer, Anne; Pierl, Christiane; Justenhoven, Christina; Illig, Thomas; Vollmert, Caren; Baisch, Christian; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Hamann, Ute; Brauch, Hiltrud; Pesch, Beate

    2010-03-01

    The role of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphism in breast cancer is still unclear. We explored the associations between potential sources of exposure to aromatic and heterocyclic amines (AHA), acetylation status and receptor-defined breast cancer in 1020 incident cases and 1047 population controls of the German GENICA study. Acetylation status was assessed as slow or fast. Therefore, NAT2 haplotypes were estimated using genotype information from six NAT2 polymorphisms. Most probable haplotypes served as alleles for the deduction of NAT2 acetylation status. The risks of developing estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive or negative tumors were estimated for tobacco smoking, consumption of red meat, grilled food, coffee, and tea, as well as expert-rated occupational exposure to AHA with logistic regression conditional on age and adjusted for potential confounders. Joint effects of these factors and NAT2 acetylation status were investigated. Frequent consumption of grilled food and coffee showed higher risks in slow acetylators for receptor-negative tumors [grilled food: ER-: odds ratio (OR) 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-6.14 for regular vs. rare; coffee: ER-: OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.22-5.33 for >or=4 vs. 0 cups/day]. We observed slightly higher risks for never smokers that are fast acetylators for receptor-positive tumors compared with slow acetylators (ER-: OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.00-1.73). Our results support differing risk patterns for receptor-defined breast cancer. However, the modifying role of NAT2 for receptor-defined breast cancer is difficult to interpret in the light of complex mixtures of exposure to AHA. PMID:19996973

  4. Tubulin acetylation: responsible enzymes, biological functions and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules have important functions ranging from maintenance of cell morphology to subcellular transport, cellular signaling, cell migration, and formation of cell polarity. At the organismal level, microtubules are crucial for various biological processes, such as viral entry, inflammation, immunity, learning and memory in mammals. Microtubules are subject to various covalent modifications. One such modification is tubulin acetylation, which is associated with stable microtubules and conserved from protists to humans. In the past three decades, this reversible modification has been studied extensively. In mammals, its level is mainly governed by opposing actions of α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (ATAT1) and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Knockout studies of the mouse enzymes have yielded new insights into biological functions of tubulin acetylation. Abnormal levels of this modification are linked to neurological disorders, cancer, heart diseases and other pathological conditions, thereby yielding important therapeutic implications. This review summarizes related studies and concludes that tubulin acetylation is important for regulating microtubule architecture and maintaining microtubule integrity. Together with detyrosination, glutamylation and other modifications, tubulin acetylation may form a unique 'language' to regulate microtubule structure and function. PMID:26227334

  5. Mass spectrometry-based detection of protein acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Silva, Jeffrey C.; Skinner, Mary E.; Lombard, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Improved sample preparation techniques and increasingly sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) analysis have revolutionized the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). Here, we describe a general approach for immunopurification and MS-based identification of acetylated proteins in biological samples. This approach is useful characterizing changes in the acetylome in response to biological interventions (1). PMID:24014401

  6. Prebiotically plausible oligoribonucleotide ligation facilitated by chemoselective acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Frank R.; Chan, Christopher K. W.; Duffy, Colm D.; Gerland, Béatrice; Islam, Saidul; Powner, Matthew W.; Sutherland, John D.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-05-01

    The recent synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleoside-2‧,3‧-cyclic phosphates under prebiotically plausible conditions has strengthened the case for the involvement of ribonucleic acid (RNA) at an early stage in the origin of life. However, a prebiotic conversion of these weakly activated monomers, and their purine counterparts, to the 3‧,5‧-linked RNA polymers of extant biochemistry has been lacking (previous attempts led only to short oligomers with mixed linkages). Here we show that the 2‧-hydroxyl group of oligoribonucleotide-3‧-phosphates can be chemoselectively acetylated in water under prebiotically credible conditions, which allows rapid and efficient template-directed ligation. The 2‧-O-acetyl group at the ligation junction of the product RNA strand can be removed under conditions that leave the internucleotide bonds intact. Remarkably, acetylation of mixed oligomers that possess either 2‧- or 3‧-terminal phosphates is selective for the 2‧-hydroxyl group of the latter. This newly discovered chemistry thus suggests a prebiotic route from ribonucleoside-2‧,3‧-cyclic phosphates to predominantly 3‧,5‧-linked RNA via partially 2‧-O-acetylated RNA.

  7. Monitoring sterol uptake, acetylation, and export in yeast.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Vineet; Schneiter, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are essential lipid components of eukaryotic membranes. They are synthesized in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) from where they are efficiently transported to the plasma membrane, which harbors ~90% of the free sterol pool of the cell. The molecular mechanisms that govern this lipid transport, however, are not well characterized and are challenging to analyze. Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers the opportunity to circumvent some of the technical limitations associated with studying this forward transport of sterols from the ER to the plasma membrane, because the organism can also take up sterols from the environment, incorporate them into the plasma membrane and transport them back to the ER, where the free sterol is converted to steryl esters. This reverse sterol transport, however, occurs only under anaerobic conditions, where the cells become sterol auxotroph, or in mutant cells that cannot synthesize heme. The reverse sterol transport pathway, however, is more amenable to experimental studies, because arrival of the sterol in the ER membrane can be monitored unambiguously by following the formation of steryl esters. Apart from sterol acylation, we have recently described a reversible sterol acetylation cycle that is operating in the lumen of the ER. Acetylation occurs on both cholesterol and pregnenolone, a steroid precursor, and serves as a signal for export of the acetylated sterols into the culture media. The time-dependent appearance of acetylated sterols in the culture supernatant thus provides a new means to monitor the forward transport of chemically modified sterols out of the ER. PMID:19784602

  8. Acetylation regulates DNA repair mechanisms in human cells.

    PubMed

    Piekna-Przybylska, Dorota; Bambara, Robert A; Balakrishnan, Lata

    2016-06-01

    The p300-mediated acetylation of enzymes involved in DNA repair and replication has been previously shown to stimulate or inhibit their activities in reconstituted systems. To explore the role of acetylation on DNA repair in cells we constructed plasmid substrates carrying inactivating damages in the EGFP reporter gene, which should be repaired in cells through DNA mismatch repair (MMR) or base excision repair (BER) mechanisms. We analyzed efficiency of repair within these plasmid substrates in cells exposed to deacetylase and acetyltransferase inhibitors, and also in cells deficient in p300 acetyltransferase. Our results indicate that protein acetylation improves DNA mismatch repair in MMR-proficient HeLa cells and also in MMR-deficient HCT116 cells. Moreover, results suggest that stimulated repair of mismatches in MMR-deficient HCT116 cells is done though a strand-displacement synthesis mechanism described previously for Okazaki fragments maturation and also for the EXOI-independent pathway of MMR. Loss of p300 reduced repair of mismatches in MMR-deficient cells, but did not have evident effects on BER mechanisms, including the long patch BER pathway. Hypoacetylation of the cells in the presence of acetyltransferase inhibitor, garcinol generally reduced efficiency of BER of 8-oxoG damage, indicating that some steps in the pathway are stimulated by acetylation. PMID:27104361

  9. An Acetylation Switch Regulates SUMO-Dependent Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, Rebecca; Chien, Christopher D.; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Muller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The attachment of the SUMO modifier to proteins controls cellular signaling pathways through noncovalent binding to SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs). Canonical SIMs contain a core of hydrophobic residues that bind to a hydrophobic pocket on SUMO. Negatively charged residues of SIMs frequently contribute to binding by interacting with a basic surface on SUMO. Here we define acetylation within this basic interface as a central mechanism for the control of SUMO-mediated interactions. The acetyl-mediated neutralization of basic charges on SUMO prevents binding to SIMs in PML, Daxx, and PIAS family members but does not affect the interaction between RanBP2 and SUMO. Acetylation is controlled by HDACs and attenuates SUMO- and PIAS-mediated gene silencing. Moreover, it affects the assembly of PML nuclear bodies and restrains the recruitment of the corepressor Daxx to these structures. This acetyl-dependent switch thus expands the regulatory repertoire of SUMO signaling and determines the selectivity and dynamics of SUMO-SIM interactions. PMID:22578841

  10. Protein Acetylation Is Involved in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yu; Ren, Jie; Ni, Jinjing; Tao, Jing; Lu, Jie; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella causes a range of diseases in different hosts, including enterocolitis and systemic infection. Lysine acetylation regulates many eukaryotic cellular processes, but its function in bacteria is largely unexplored. The acetyltransferase Pat and NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase CobB are involved in the reversible protein acetylation in Salmonella Typhimurium. Here, we used cell and animal models to evaluate the virulence of pat and cobB deletion mutants in S. Typhimurium and found that pat is critical for bacterial intestinal colonization and systemic infection. Next, to understand the underlying mechanism, genome-wide transcriptome was analyzed. RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) is partially dependent on pat In addition, we found that HilD, a key transcriptional regulator of SPI-1, is a substrate of Pat. The acetylation of HilD by Pat maintained HilD stability and was essential for the transcriptional activation of HilA. Taken together, these results suggest that a protein acetylation system regulates SPI-1 expression by controlling HilD in a posttranslational manner to mediate S. Typhimurium virulence. PMID:26810370

  11. Nucleosome competition reveals processive acetylation by the SAGA HAT module.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Alison E; Cieniewicz, Anne M; Taverna, Sean D; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2015-10-01

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) coactivator complex hyperacetylates histone tails in vivo in a manner that depends upon histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), a histone mark enriched at promoters of actively transcribed genes. SAGA contains a separable subcomplex known as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) module that contains the HAT, Gcn5, bound to Sgf29, Ada2, and Ada3. Sgf29 contains a tandem Tudor domain that recognizes H3K4me3-containing peptides and is required for histone hyperacetylation in vivo. However, the mechanism by which H3K4me3 recognition leads to lysine hyperacetylation is unknown, as in vitro studies show no effect of the H3K4me3 modification on histone peptide acetylation by Gcn5. To determine how H3K4me3 binding by Sgf29 leads to histone hyperacetylation by Gcn5, we used differential fluorescent labeling of histones to monitor acetylation of individual subpopulations of methylated and unmodified nucleosomes in a mixture. We find that the SAGA HAT module preferentially acetylates H3K4me3 nucleosomes in a mixture containing excess unmodified nucleosomes and that this effect requires the Tudor domain of Sgf29. The H3K4me3 mark promotes processive, multisite acetylation of histone H3 by Gcn5 that can account for the different acetylation patterns established by SAGA at promoters versus coding regions. Our results establish a model for Sgf29 function at gene promoters and define a mechanism governing crosstalk between histone modifications. PMID:26401015

  12. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal how ornithine acetyl transferase binds acidic and basic amino acid substrates.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Aman; Clifton, Ian J; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Ivison, David; Domene, Carmen; Schofield, Christopher J

    2011-09-21

    Structural and biochemical analyses reveal how ornithine acetyl-transferases catalyse the reversible transfer of an acetyl-group from a basic (ornithine) to an acidic (glutamate) amino acid by employing a common mechanism involving an acetyl-enzyme intermediate but using different side chain binding modes. PMID:21796301

  13. Leptin Effect on Acetylation and Phosphorylation of Pgc1α in Muscle Cells Associated With Ampk and Akt Activation in High-Glucose Medium.

    PubMed

    García-Carrizo, Francisco; Nozhenko, Yuriy; Palou, Andreu; Rodríguez, Ana M

    2016-03-01

    Leptin is crucial in energy metabolism, including muscle regulation. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC1α) orchestrates energy metabolism and is tightly controlled by post-translational covalent modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. We aimed to further the knowledge of PGC1α control by leptin (at physiological levels) in muscle cells by time-sequentially analysing the activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) and Akt (Protein kinase B)--all known to phosphorylate PGC1α and to be involved in the regulation of its acetylation status--in C2C12 myotubes placed in a high-glucose serum-free medium. We also studied the protein levels of PGC1α, Sirtuin 1, adiponectin, COX IV, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4). Our main findings suggest an important role of leptin regulating AMPK and Akt phosphorylation, Mfn2 induction and PGC1α acetylation status, with the novelty that the latter in transitorily increased in response to leptin, an effect dependent, at least in part, on AMPK regulation. These post-translational reversible changes in PGC1α in response to leptin, especially the increase in acetylation status, may be related to the physiological role of the hormone in modulating muscle cell response to the physiological/nutritional status. PMID:26218179

  14. Complex O-acetylation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharide: evidence for a novel site of O-acetylation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Håkan H; Li, Jianjun; Richards, James C; Hood, Derek W; Moxon, E Richard; Schweda, Elke K H

    2005-12-12

    The structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae strain 723 has been elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) on O-deacylated LPS and core oligosaccharide material (OS), as well as ESI-MSn on permethylated dephosphorylated OS. It was found that the LPS contains the common structural element of H. influenzae, l-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->2)-[PEtn-->6]-l-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->3)-[beta-D-Glcp-(1-->4)]-l-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->5)-[PPEtn-->4]-alpha-Kdo-(2-->6)-Lipid A, in which the beta-D-Glcp residue (GlcI) is substituted by phosphocholine at O-6 and the distal heptose residue (HepIII) by PEtn at O-3, respectively. In a subpopulation of glycoforms O-2 of HepIII was substituted by beta-D-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-(1--> or beta-D-Glcp-(1-->. Considerable heterogeneity of the LPS was due to the extent of substitution by O-acetyl groups (Ac) and ester-linked glycine of the core oligosaccharide. The location for glycine was found to be at Kdo. Prominent acetylation sites were found to be at GlcI, HepIII, and the proximal heptose (HepI) residue of the triheptosyl moiety. Moreover, GlcI was acetylated at O-3 and/or O-4 and HepI was acetylated at O-2 as evidenced by capillary electrophoresis ESI-MSn in combination with NMR analyses. This is the first study to show that an acetyl group can substitute HepI of the inner-core region of H. influenzae LPS. PMID:16199021

  15. Altered acetylation and succinylation profiles in Corynebacterium glutamicum in response to conditions inducing glutamate overproduction.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuta; Nagano-Shoji, Megumi; Kubo, Shosei; Kawamura, Yumi; Yoshida, Ayako; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Nishiyama, Makoto; Yoshida, Minoru; Kosono, Saori

    2016-02-01

    The bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is utilized during industrial fermentation to produce amino acids such as L-glutamate. During L-glutamate fermentation, C. glutamicum changes the flux of central carbon metabolism to favor L-glutamate production, but the molecular mechanisms that explain these flux changes remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the profiles of two major lysine acyl modifications were significantly altered upon glutamate overproduction in C. glutamicum; acetylation decreased, whereas succinylation increased. A label-free semi-quantitative proteomic analysis identified 604 acetylated proteins with 1328 unique acetylation sites and 288 succinylated proteins with 651 unique succinylation sites. Acetylation and succinylation targeted enzymes in central carbon metabolic pathways that are directly related to glutamate production, including the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC), a key enzyme regulating glutamate overproduction. Structural mapping revealed that several critical lysine residues in the ODHC components were susceptible to acetylation and succinylation. Furthermore, induction of glutamate production was associated with changes in the extent of acetylation and succinylation of lysine, suggesting that these modifications may affect the activity of enzymes involved in glutamate production. Deletion of phosphotransacetylase decreased the extent of protein acetylation in nonproducing condition, suggesting that acetyl phosphate-dependent acetylation is active in C. glutamicum. However, no effect was observed on the profiles of acetylation and succinylation in glutamate-producing condition upon disruption of acetyl phosphate metabolism or deacetylase homologs. It was considered likely that the reduced acetylation in glutamate-producing condition may reflect metabolic states where the flux through acid-producing pathways is very low, and substrates for acetylation do not accumulate in the cell. Succinylation would occur more

  16. Role of Carnitine Acetyltransferases in Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.; Andrianopoulos, Alex; Davis, Meryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The flow of carbon metabolites between cellular compartments is an essential feature of fungal metabolism. During growth on ethanol, acetate, or fatty acids, acetyl units must enter the mitochondrion for metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the cytoplasm is essential for the biosynthetic reactions and for protein acetylation. Acetyl-CoA is produced in the cytoplasm by acetyl-CoA synthetase during growth on acetate and ethanol while β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-CoA in peroxisomes. The acetyl-carnitine shuttle in which acetyl-CoA is reversibly converted to acetyl-carnitine by carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT) enzymes is important for intracellular transport of acetyl units. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, a cytoplasmic CAT, encoded by facC, is essential for growth on sources of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA while a second CAT, encoded by the acuJ gene, is essential for growth on fatty acids as well as acetate. We have shown that AcuJ contains an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS) and is localized to both peroxisomes and mitochondria, independent of the carbon source. Mislocalization of AcuJ to the cytoplasm does not result in loss of growth on acetate but prevents growth on fatty acids. Therefore, while mitochondrial AcuJ is essential for the transfer of acetyl units to mitochondria, peroxisomal localization is required only for transfer from peroxisomes to mitochondria. Peroxisomal AcuJ was not required for the import of acetyl-CoA into peroxisomes for conversion to malate by malate synthase (MLS), and export of acetyl-CoA from peroxisomes to the cytoplasm was found to be independent of FacC when MLS was mislocalized to the cytoplasm. PMID:21296915

  17. Histone H3 acetylation in the postmortem Parkinson's disease primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kibrom G; Rademacher, David J

    2016-08-01

    Although the role of epigenetics in Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been extensively studied, α-synuclein, the main component of Lewy bodies, decreased histone H3 acetylation. Here, we determined if there were histone acetylation changes in the primary motor cortex which, according to the Braak model, is one of the last brain regions affected in PD. Net histone H3 acetylation, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14), histone H3 lysine 18 (H3K18), and histone H3 lysine 23 (H3K23) acetylation was assessed in the primary motor cortex of those affected and unaffected by PD. There was net increase in histone H3 acetylation due to increased H3K14 and H3K18 acetylation. There was a decrease in H3K9 acetylation. No between-groups difference was detected in H3K23 acetylation. Relationships between Unified Lewy Body Staging scores and histone H3 acetylation and substantia nigra depigmentation scores and histone H3 acetylation were observed. No relationships were detected between postmortem interval and histone H3 acetylation and expired age and histone H3 acetylation. These correlational data support the notion that the histone H3 acetylation changes observed here are not due to the postmortem interval or aging. Instead, they are due to PD and/or factors that covary with PD. The data suggest enhanced gene transcription in the primary motor cortex of the PD brain due to increase H3K14 and H3K18 acetylation. This effect is partially offset by a decreased H3K9 acetylation, which might repress gene transcription. PMID:27241718

  18. Thanatos-associated protein 7 associates with template activating factor-Ibeta and inhibits histone acetylation to repress transcription.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Todd; Parker, J Brandon; Nagata, Kyosuke; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2006-02-01

    The posttranslational modifications of histones on chromatin or a lack thereof is critical in transcriptional regulation. Emerging studies indicate a role for histone-binding proteins in transcriptional activation and repression. We have previously identified template-activating factor-Ibeta (TAF-Ibeta, also called PHAPII, SET, and I(2)(pp2A)) as a component of a cellular complex called inhibitor of acetyltransferases (INHAT) that masks histone acetylation in vitro and blocks histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-dependent transcription in living cells. TAF-Ibeta has also been shown to associate with transcription factors, including nuclear receptors, to regulate their activities. To identify novel interactors of TAF-Ibeta, we employed a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified a previously uncharacterized human protein called thanatos-associated protein-7 (THAP7), a member of a large family of THAP domain-containing putative DNA-binding proteins. In this study we demonstrate that THAP7 associates with TAF-Ibeta in vitro and map their association domains to a C-terminal predicted coiled-coil motif on THAP7 and the central region of TAF-Ibeta. Similarly, stably transfected THAP7 associates with endogenous TAF-Ibeta in intact cells. Like TAF-Ibeta, THAP7 associates with histone H3 and histone H4 and inhibits histone acetylation. The histone-interacting domain of THAP7 is sufficient for this activity in vitro. Promoter-targeted THAP7 can also recruit TAF-Ibeta and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors/nuclear hormone receptor corepressor (NCoR) proteins to promoters, and knockdown of TAF-Ibeta by small interfering RNA relieves THAP7-mediated repression, indicating that, like nuclear hormone receptors, THAP7 may represent a novel class of transcription factor that uses TAF-Ibeta as a corepressor to maintain histones in a hypoacetylated, repressed state. PMID:16195249

  19. Multiple Mass Isotopomer Tracing of Acetyl-CoA Metabolism in Langendorff-perfused Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingling; Deng, Shuang; Ibarra, Rafael A.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Brunengraber, Henri; Zhang, Guo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    We developed an isotopic technique to assess mitochondrial acetyl-CoA turnover (≈citric acid flux) in perfused rat hearts. Hearts are perfused with buffer containing tracer [13C2,2H3]acetate, which forms M5 + M4 + M3 acetyl-CoA. The buffer may also contain one or two labeled substrates, which generate M2 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [13C6]glucose or [1,2-13C2]palmitate) or/and M1 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [1-13C]octanoate). The total acetyl-CoA turnover and the contributions of fuels to acetyl-CoA are calculated from the uptake of the acetate tracer and the mass isotopomer distribution of acetyl-CoA. The method was applied to measurements of acetyl-CoA turnover under different conditions (glucose ± palmitate ± insulin ± dichloroacetate). The data revealed (i) substrate cycling between glycogen and glucose-6-P and between glucose-6-P and triose phosphates, (ii) the release of small excess acetyl groups as acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies, and (iii) the channeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA from pyruvate dehydrogenase to carnitine acetyltransferase. Because of this channeling, the labeling of acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies released by the heart are not proxies of the labeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:25645937

  20. ATRA transcriptionally induces nSMase2 through CBP/p300-mediated histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher J; Shamseddine, Achraf A; Jacob, Joseph J; Khalife, Gabrielle; Burns, Tara A; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2016-05-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2) is a key ceramide-producing enzyme in cellular stress responses. While many posttranslational regulators of nSMase2 are known, emerging evidence suggests a more protracted regulation of nSMase2 at the transcriptional level. Previously, we reported that nSMase2 is induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in MCF7 cells and implicated nSMase2 in ATRA-induced growth arrest. Here, we further investigated how ATRA regulates nSMase2. We find that ATRA regulates nSMase2 transcriptionally through the retinoic acid receptor-α, but this is independent of previously identified transcriptional regulators of nSMase2 (Sp1, Sp3, Runx2) and is not through increased promoter activity. Epigenetically, the nSMase2 gene is not repressively methylated in MCF7 cells. However, inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with trichostatin A (TSA) induced nSMase2 comparably to ATRA; furthermore, combined ATRA and TSA treatment was not additive, suggesting ATRA regulates nSMase2 through direct modulation of histone acetylation. Confirming this, the histone acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein and p300 were required for ATRA induction of nSMase2. Finally, use of class-specific HDAC inhibitors suggested that HDAC4 and/or HDAC5 are negative regulators of nSMase2 expression. Collectively, these results identify a novel pathway of nSMase2 regulation and suggest that physiological or pharmacological modulation of histone acetylation can directly affect nSMase2 levels. PMID:27013100

  1. [Spectrophotometric evaluation of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase in urine].

    PubMed

    Potere, C; Di Cosmo, C; Riario-Sforza, G; Di Silverio, F; Albertazzi, A; Cappelli, P

    1982-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the assay of N-Acetyl-beta-Glucosaminidase activity in human undiluted urines is described. The application of this method is recommended for its sensitivity (2,6 X 10(-4)M) and its rapid performance, because it represents a good alternative to current methods and essentially to the fluorimetric technique with which it has a significant statistical correlation. Estimates of normal individuals aged between 1-70 years are reported. PMID:7168631

  2. Selective recognition of acetylated histones by bromodomains in transcriptional co-activators

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ahmed H.; Awad, Salma; Al-Natour, Zeina; Othman, Samah; Mustafa, Farah; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2006-01-01

    Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated proteins such as the SWI/SNF and RSC chromatin remodelling and the SAGA HAT (histone acetyltransferase) complexes, and can bind to acetylated lysine residues in the N-terminal tails of the histones. Lysine acetylation is a histone modification that forms a stable epigenetic mark on chromatin for bromodomain-containing proteins to dock and in turn regulate gene expression. In order to better understand how bromodomains read the ‘histone code’ and interact with acetylated histones, we have tested the interactions of several bromodomains within transcriptional co-activators with differentially acetylated histone tail peptides and HAT-acetylated histones. Using GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down assays, we show specificity of binding of some bromodomains to differentially acetylated H3 and H4 peptides as well as HAT-acetylated histones. Our results reveal that the Swi2/Snf2 bromodomain interacts with various acetylated H3 and H4 peptides, whereas the Gcn5 bromodomain interacts only with acetylated H3 peptides and tetra-acetylated H4 peptides. Additionally we show that the Spt7 bromodomain interacts with acetylated H3 peptides weakly, but not with acetylated H4 peptides. Some bromodomains such as the Bdf1-2 do not interact with most of the acetylated peptides tested. Results of the peptide experiments are confirmed with tests of interactions between these bromodomains and HAT-acetylated histones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Swi2/Snf2 bromodomain is important for the binding and the remodelling activity of the SWI/SNF complex on hyperacetylated nucleosomes. The selective recognition of the bromodomains observed in the present study accounts for the broad effects of bromodomain-containing proteins observed on binding to histones. PMID:17049045

  3. Mechanism of action of clostridial glycine reductase: Isolation and characterization of a covalent acetyl enzyme intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Arkowitz, R.A.; Abeles, R.H. )

    1991-04-23

    Clostridial glycine reductase consists of proteins A, B, and C and catalyzes the reaction glycine + P{sub i} + 2e{sup {minus}} {yields} acetyl phosphate + NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Evidence was previously obtained that is consistent with the involvement of an acyl enzyme intermediate in this reaction. The authors now demonstrate that protein C catalyzes exchange of ({sup 32}P)P{sub i} into acetyl phosphate, providing additional support for an acetyl enzyme intermediate on protein C. Furthermore, they have isolated acetyl protein C and shown that it is qualitatively, catalytically competent. Acetyl protein C can be obtained through the forward reaction from protein C and Se-(carboxymethyl)selenocysteine-protein A, which is generated by the reaction of glycine with proteins A and B. Acetyl protein C can also be generated through the reverse reaction by the addition of acetyl phosphate to protein C. Both procedures lead to the same acetyl enzyme. The acetyl enzyme reacts with P{sub i} to give acetyl phosphate. When ({sup 14}C)acetyl protein C is denaturated with TCA and redissolved with urea, radioactivity remained associated with the protein. Treatment with KBH{sub 4} removes all the radioactivity associated with protein C, resulting in the formation of ({sup 14}C)ethanol. They conclude that a thiol group on protein C is acetylated. Proteins A and C together catalyze the exchange of tritium atoms from ({sup 3}H)H{sub 2}O into acetyl phosphate. This exchange reaction supports the proposal that an enol of the acetyl enzyme is an intermediate in the reaction sequence.

  4. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  5. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  6. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  7. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Affects Histone Acetylation and Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Verdone, Loredana; La Fortezza, Marco; Ciccarone, Fabio; Caiafa, Paola; Zampieri, Michele; Caserta, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a posttranslational protein modification catalyzed by members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme family. PARylation regulates a wide variety of biological processes in most eukaryotic cells including energy metabolism and cell death, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure and transcription. Inside the nucleus, cross-talk between PARylation and other epigenetic modifications, such as DNA and histone methylation, was already described. In the present work, using PJ34 or ABT888 to inhibit PARP activity or over-expressing poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), we show decrease of global histone H3 and H4 acetylation. This effect is accompanied by a reduction of the steady state mRNA level of p300, Pcaf, and Tnfα, but not of Dnmt1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses, performed at the level of the Transcription Start Site (TSS) of these four genes, reveal that changes in histone acetylation are specific for each promoter. Finally, we demonstrate an increase of global deacetylase activity in nuclear extracts from cells treated with PJ34, whereas global acetyltransferase activity is not affected, suggesting a role for PARP in the inhibition of histone deacetylases. Taken together, these results show an important link between PARylation and histone acetylation regulated transcription. PMID:26636673

  8. Selective cleavage enhanced by acetylating the side chain of lysine.

    PubMed

    Fu, Leixiaomeng; Chen, Tingting; Xue, Gaiqing; Zu, Lily; Fang, Weihai

    2013-01-01

    Selective cleavage is of great interest in mass spectrometry studies as it can help sequence identification by promoting simple fragmentation pattern of peptides and proteins. In this work, the collision-induced dissociation of peptides containing internal lysine and acetylated lysine residues were studied. The experimental and computational results revealed that multiple fragmentation pathways coexisted when the lysine residue was two amino acid residues away from N-terminal of the peptide. After acetylation of the lysine side-chain, b(n)+ ions were the most abundant primary fragment products and the Lys(Ac)-Gly amide bond became the dominant cleavage site via an oxazolone pathway. Acetylating the side-chain of lysine promoted the selective cleavage of Lys-Xxx amide bond and generated much more information of the peptide backbone sequence. The results re-evaluate the selective cleavage due to the lysine basic side-chain and provide information for studying the post-translational modification of proteins and other bio-molecules containing Lys residues. PMID:23303756

  9. Chromatin decondensed by acetylation shows an elevated radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Nackerdien, Z.; Michie, J.; Boehm, L.

    1989-02-01

    V-79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts exposed to 5 mM n-sodium butyrate were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays and cell survival was determined by the cell colony assay. In a separate set of experiments the acetylated chromatin obtained from these cells was irradiated and the change of molecular weight of the DNA was evaluated by alkaline sucrose density centrifugation. At a survival level of 10(-2) to 10(-4) cells exposed to butyrate were found to be 1.3-1.4 times more radiosensitive than control cells. Exposure of isolated chromatin to 100 Gy of 60Co gamma irradiation generated 0.9 +/- 0.03 single-strand breaks (ssb) per 10 Gy per 10(8) Da and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ssb/10 Gy/10(8) Da for control and acetylated chromatin, respectively. The elevated radiation sensitivity of chromatin relaxed by acetylation is in good agreement with previous results on chromatin expanded by histone H1 depletion. Packing and accessibility of DNA in chromatin appear to be major factors which influence the radiation sensitivity. The intrinsic radiation sensitivity of chromatin in various packing states is discussed in light of the variation of radiation sensitivity of whole cells in the cell cycle which incorporates repair.

  10. Carbon isotope fractionation and the acetyl-CoA pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Martin; Conrad, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria can catalyze the reductive synthesis of acetate from CO2 via the acetyl-CoA pathway. Besides this unifying property homoacetogenic bacteria constitute a metabolically and phylogenetically diverse bacteriological group. Therefore their environmental role is difficult to address. It has been recognized that in methanogenic environments homoacetogenic bacteria contribute to the degradation of organic matter. The natural abundance of 13C may be used to understand the functional impact of homoacetogenic bacteria in the soil environment. To distinguish the acetyl-CoA pathway from other dominant processes, the isotopic composition of acetate and CO2 can be determined and the fractionation factors of the individual processes may be used to discriminate between the dominant pathways. To characterize the fractionation factor associated with the acetyl-CoA pathway the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity needs to be considered. Therefore the fractionation factor of substrate utilization and product formation of different homoacetogens (Acetobacterium woodii, Sporomusa ovata, Thermoanaerobacter kivui, Morella thermoautotrophica) has been studied under pure culture conditions in two defined minimal medium with H2/CO2 as sole source of carbon and energy. It became obvious that the cultivation conditions have a major impact on the obtained fractionation factors.

  11. Crystal structure of tabtoxin resistance protein complexed with acetyl coenzyme A reveals the mechanism for {beta}-lactam acetylation.

    SciTech Connect

    He, H.; Ding, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Sun, F.; Le, Y.; Qin, X.; Tang, H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Liu, J.; Zhao, N.; Rao, Z.; Biosciences Division; Tsinghua Univ.; Chinese Academy of Science

    2003-01-31

    Tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) is an enzyme that renders tabtoxin-producing pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, tolerant to their own phytotoxins. Here, we report the crystal structure of TTR complexed with its natural cofactor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to 1.55 {angstrom} resolution. The binary complex forms a characteristic 'V' shape for substrate binding and contains the four motifs conserved in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, which also includes the histone acetyltransferases (HATs). A single-step mechanism is proposed to explain the function of three conserved residues, Glu92, Asp130 and Tyr141, in catalyzing the acetyl group transfer to its substrate. We also report that TTR possesses HAT activity and suggest an evolutionary relationship between TTR and other GNAT members.

  12. In vivo differentiation of N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate from N-acetyl aspartate at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Edden, Richard A E; Pomper, Martin G; Barker, Peter B

    2007-06-01

    A method is described that allows the in vivo differentiation of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) from N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) by in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 Tesla (3T). The method, which is based on MEGA-point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) editing, selectively targets the aspartyl spin system of one species while deliberately removing the other species from the spectrum. This allows quantitative measurements of NAA and NAAG without the need for fitting of unresolved peaks. White matter concentrations of NAA (6.7 +/- 0.3 mM) and NAAG (2.2 +/- 0.3 mM) were measured in 10 healthy volunteers to demonstrate the method. PMID:17534922

  13. The Recognition Unit of FIBCD1 Organizes into a Noncovalently Linked Tetrameric Structure and Uses a Hydrophobic Funnel (S1) for Acetyl Group Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Theresa; Moeller, Jesper B.; Schlosser, Anders; Sorensen, Grith L.; Moestrup, Soren K.; Palaniyar, Nades; Wallis, Russell; Mollenhauer, Jan; Holmskov, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    We have recently identified FIBCD1 (Fibrinogen C domain containing 1) as a type II transmembrane endocytic receptor located primarily in the intestinal brush border. The ectodomain of FIBCD1 comprises a coiled coil, a polycationic region, and a C-terminal FReD (fibrinogen-related domain) that assembles into disulfide-linked homotetramers. The FIBCD1-FReD binds Ca2+ dependently to acetylated structures like chitin, N-acetylated carbohydrates, and amino acids. FReDs are present in diverse innate immune pattern recognition proteins including the ficolins and horseshoe crab TL5A. Here, we use chemical cross-linking, combined with analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy of the negatively stained recombinant FIBCD1-FReD to show that it assembles into noncovalent tetramers in the absence of the coiled coil. We use surface plasmon resonance, carbohydrate binding, and pulldown assays combined with site-directed mutagenesis to define the binding site involved in the interaction of FIBCD1 with acetylated structures. We show that mutations of central residues (A432V and H415G) in the hydrophobic funnel (S1) abolish the binding of FIBCD1 to acetylated bovine serum albumin and chitin. The double mutations (D393N/D395A) at the putative calcium-binding site reduce the ability of FIBCD1 to bind ligands. We conclude that the FReDs of FIBCD1 forms noncovalent tetramers and that the acetyl-binding site of FReDs of FIBCD1 is homologous to that of tachylectin 5A and M-ficolin but not to the FReD of L-ficolin. We suggest that the spatial organization of the FIBCD1-FReDs determine the molecular pattern recognition specificity and subsequent biological functions. PMID:19892701

  14. The recognition unit of FIBCD1 organizes into a noncovalently linked tetrameric structure and uses a hydrophobic funnel (S1) for acetyl group recognition.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Theresa; Moeller, Jesper B; Schlosser, Anders; Sorensen, Grith L; Moestrup, Soren K; Palaniyar, Nades; Wallis, Russell; Mollenhauer, Jan; Holmskov, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    We have recently identified FIBCD1 (Fibrinogen C domain containing 1) as a type II transmembrane endocytic receptor located primarily in the intestinal brush border. The ectodomain of FIBCD1 comprises a coiled coil, a polycationic region, and a C-terminal FReD (fibrinogen-related domain) that assembles into disulfide-linked homotetramers. The FIBCD1-FReD binds Ca(2+) dependently to acetylated structures like chitin, N-acetylated carbohydrates, and amino acids. FReDs are present in diverse innate immune pattern recognition proteins including the ficolins and horseshoe crab TL5A. Here, we use chemical cross-linking, combined with analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy of the negatively stained recombinant FIBCD1-FReD to show that it assembles into noncovalent tetramers in the absence of the coiled coil. We use surface plasmon resonance, carbohydrate binding, and pulldown assays combined with site-directed mutagenesis to define the binding site involved in the interaction of FIBCD1 with acetylated structures. We show that mutations of central residues (A432V and H415G) in the hydrophobic funnel (S1) abolish the binding of FIBCD1 to acetylated bovine serum albumin and chitin. The double mutations (D393N/D395A) at the putative calcium-binding site reduce the ability of FIBCD1 to bind ligands. We conclude that the FReDs of FIBCD1 forms noncovalent tetramers and that the acetyl-binding site of FReDs of FIBCD1 is homologous to that of tachylectin 5A and M-ficolin but not to the FReD of L-ficolin. We suggest that the spatial organization of the FIBCD1-FReDs determine the molecular pattern recognition specificity and subsequent biological functions. PMID:19892701

  15. Leucine-684: A conserved residue of an AMP-acetyl CoA synthetase (AceCS) from Leishmania donovani is involved in substrate recognition, catalysis and acetylation.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Neelagiri; Tandan, Hitendra; Damre, Mangesh V; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T; Singh, Sushma

    2016-04-15

    AMP-acetyl CoA synthetase (AMP-AceCS) is a key enzyme which catalyzes the activation of acetate to acetyl CoA, an important intermediate at the cross roads of various anabolic and catabolic pathways. Multiple sequence alignment of Leishmania donovani AceCS with other organisms revealed the presence of a highly conserved leucine residue at 684 position which is known to be crucial for acetylation by protein acetyl transferases in other organisms. In an attempt to understand the role of leucine residue at 684 position in L. donovani acetyl CoA synthetase (LdAceCS), it was mutated to proline (P) by site directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis of the L684P-LdAceCS mutant revealed approximately two fold increased binding affinity with acetate, whereas fivefold decreased affinity was observed with ATP. There was insignificant change in secondary structure as revealed by CD however, two fold decreased fluorescence intensity was observed at an emission maxima of 340nm. Interestingly, L684P mutation abolished the acetylation of the mutant enzyme indicating the importance of L684 in acetylation of the enzyme. Changes in biochemical parameters of the mutant protein were validated by homology modeling of the wild type and mutant LdAceCS enzyme using Salmonella enterica AceCS crystal structure as template. Our data provides evidence for the role of leucine 684 residue in substrate recognition, catalysis and acetylation of the AceCS enzyme. PMID:26794803

  16. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  17. Acetylation mimic of lysine 280 exacerbates human Tau neurotoxicity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Marianna Karina; Burnouf, Sylvie; Dols, Jacqueline; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction and accumulation of the microtubule-associated human Tau (hTau) protein into intraneuronal aggregates is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Reversible lysine acetylation has recently emerged as a post-translational modification that may play an important role in the modulation of hTau pathology. Acetylated hTau species have been observed within hTau aggregates in human AD brains and multi-acetylation of hTau in vitro regulates its propensity to aggregate. However, whether lysine acetylation at position 280 (K280) modulates hTau-induced toxicity in vivo is unknown. We generated new Drosophila transgenic models of hTau pathology to evaluate the contribution of K280 acetylation to hTau toxicity, by analysing the respective toxicity of pseudo-acetylated (K280Q) and pseudo-de-acetylated (K280R) mutant forms of hTau. We observed that mis-expression of pseudo-acetylated K280Q-hTau in the adult fly nervous system potently exacerbated fly locomotion defects and photoreceptor neurodegeneration. In addition, modulation of K280 influenced total hTau levels and phosphorylation without changing hTau solubility. Altogether, our results indicate that pseudo-acetylation of the single K280 residue is sufficient to exacerbate hTau neurotoxicity in vivo, suggesting that acetylated K280-hTau species contribute to the pathological events leading to neurodegeneration in AD. PMID:26940749

  18. Proteome-wide analysis reveals widespread lysine acetylation of major protein complexes in the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Cobbold, Simon A.; Santos, Joana M.; Ochoa, Alejandro; Perlman, David H.; Llinás, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in many organisms including the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, yet the full extent of acetylation across the parasite proteome remains unresolved. Moreover, the functional significance of acetylation or how specific acetyl-lysine sites are regulated is largely unknown. Here we report a seven-fold expansion of the known parasite ‘acetylome’, characterizing 2,876 acetylation sites on 1,146 proteins. We observe that lysine acetylation targets a diverse range of protein complexes and is particularly enriched within the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) DNA-binding protein family. Using quantitative proteomics we determined that artificial perturbation of the acetate/acetyl-CoA balance alters the acetyl-lysine occupancy of several ApiAP2 DNA-binding proteins and related transcriptional proteins. This metabolic signaling could mediate significant downstream transcriptional responses, as we show that acetylation of an ApiAP2 DNA-binding domain ablates its DNA-binding propensity. Lastly, we investigated the acetyl-lysine targets of each class of lysine deacetylase in order to begin to explore how each class of enzyme contributes to regulating the P. falciparum acetylome. PMID:26813983

  19. Variations in O-antigen biosynthesis and O-acetylation associated with altered phage sensitivity in Escherichia coli 4s.

    PubMed

    Knirel, Yuriy A; Prokhorov, Nikolai S; Shashkov, Alexander S; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Liu, Bin; Kostryukova, Elena S; Larin, Andrey K; Golomidova, Alla K; Letarov, Andrey V

    2015-03-01

    The O polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (O antigen) of Gram-negative bacteria often serves as a receptor for bacteriophages that can make the phage dependent on a given O-antigen type, thus supporting the concept of the adaptive significance of the O-antigen variability in bacteria. The O-antigen layer also modulates interactions of many bacteriophages with their hosts, limiting the access of the viruses to other cell surface receptors. Here we report variations of O-antigen synthesis and structure in an environmental Escherichia coli isolate, 4s, obtained from horse feces, and its mutants selected for resistance to bacteriophage G7C, isolated from the same fecal sample. The 4s O antigen was found to be serologically, structurally, and genetically related to the O antigen of E. coli O22, differing only in side-chain α-D-glucosylation in the former, mediated by a gtr locus on the chromosome. Spontaneous mutations of E. coli 4s occurring with an unusually high frequency affected either O-antigen synthesis or O-acetylation due to the inactivation of the gene encoding the putative glycosyltransferase WclH or the putative acetyltransferase WclK, respectively, by the insertion of IS1-like elements. These mutations induced resistance to bacteriophage G7C and also modified interactions of E. coli 4s with several other bacteriophages conferring either resistance or sensitivity to the host. These findings suggest that O-antigen synthesis and O-acetylation can both ensure the specific recognition of the O-antigen receptor following infection by some phages and provide protection of the host cells against attack by other phages. PMID:25512310

  20. Acetylator genotype-dependent formation of 2-aminofluorene-hemoglobin adducts in rapid and slow acetylator Syrian hamsters congenic at the NAT2 locus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Rustan, T D; Ferguson, R J; Doll, M A; Hein, D W

    1994-01-01

    Arylamine-hemoglobin adducts are a valuable dosimeter for assessing arylamine exposures and carcinogenic risk. The effects of age, sex, time-course, dose, and acetylator genotype on levels of 2-aminofluorene-hemoglobin adducts were investigated in homozygous rapid (Bio. 82.73/H-Patr) and slow (Bio. 82.73/H-Pats) acetylator hamsters congenic at the polymorphic (NAT2) acetylator locus. Following administration of a single ip dose of [3H]2-aminofluorene, peak 2-aminofluorene-hemoglobin adduct levels were achieved at 12-18 hr and retained a plateau up to 72 hr postinjection in both rapid and slow acetylator congenic hamsters. 2-Aminofluorene-hemoglobin adduct levels did not differ significantly between young (5-6 weeks) and old (32-49 weeks) hamsters or between male and female hamsters within either acetylator genotype. 2-Aminofluorene-hemoglobin adduct levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.95, p = 0.0001) and were consistently higher in slow versus rapid acetylator congenic hamsters in studies of both time-course and dose-effect. The magnitude of the acetylator genotype-dependent difference was a function of dose; 2-aminofluorene-hemoglobin adduct levels were 1.5-fold higher in slow acetylator congenic hamsters following a 60 mg/kg 2-aminofluorene dose (p = 0.0013) but 2-fold higher following a 100 mg/kg 2-aminofluorene dose (p < 0.0001). These results show a specific and significant role for NAT2 acetylator genotype in formation of arylamine-hemoglobin adducts, which may reflect the relationship between acetylator genotype and the incidence of different cancers from arylamine exposures. PMID:8291051

  1. New short and general synthesis of three key Maillard flavour compounds: 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine.

    PubMed

    Deblander, Jurgen; Van Aeken, Sam; Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert; Abbaspour Tehrani, Kourosch

    2015-02-01

    A new general synthetic route towards three key Maillard flavour compounds, namely 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 6-acetyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine and 5-acetyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-1,4-thiazine, was developed. The key step in the process is the methylenation reaction of azaheterocyclic carboxylic esters by means of dimethyltitanocene, giving rise to intermediate vinyl ethers which can be considered as excellent and stable precursors for the title compounds, as a simple acidic treatment of these precursors suffices to release the characteristic Maillard flavours. PMID:25172717

  2. Receptor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    One on the most persistent problems with long-term space flight is atrophy of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is unique as a tissue in the body in that its ability to undergo atrophy or hypertrophy is controlled exclusively by cues from the extracellular environment. The mechanism of communication between muscle cells and their environment is through a group of membrane-bound and soluble receptors, each of which carries out unique, but often interrelated, functions. The primary receptors include acetyl choline receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, insulin receptors, growth hormone (i.e., somatotropin) receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptors, and steroid receptors. This project has been initiated to develop an integrated approach toward muscle atrophy and hypertrophy that takes into account information on the populations of the entire group of receptors (and their respective hormone concentrations), and it is hypothesized that this information can form the basis for a predictive computer model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. The conceptual basis for this project is illustrated in the figure below. The individual receptors are shown as membrane-bound, with the exception of the glucocorticoid receptor which is a soluble intracellular receptor. Each of these receptors has an extracellular signalling component (e.g., innervation, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, etc.), and following the interaction of the extracellular component with the receptor itself, an intracellular signal is generated. Each of these intracellular signals is unique in its own way; however, they are often interrelated.

  3. O-acetylated oligosaccharides from pectins of potato tuber cell walls.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T

    1997-01-01

    Acetylated trigalacturonides and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I)-derived oligosaccharides were isolated from a Driselase digest of potato tuber cell walls by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The oligosaccharides were structurally characterized by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and glycosyl-linkage composition analysis. One trigalacturonide contained a single acetyl group at O-3 of the reducing galacturonic acid residue. A second trigalacturonide contained two acetyl substituents, which were located on O-3 or O-4 of the nonreducing galacturonic acid residue and O-3 of the reducing galacturonic acid residue. RG-I backbone-derived oligomers had acetyl groups at O-2 of the galacturonic acid residues. Some of these galacturonic acid residues were O-acetylated at both O-2 and O-3 positions. Rhamnosyl residues of RG-I oligomers were not acetylated. PMID:9112775

  4. Acetylated starch nanocrystals: Preparation and antitumor drug delivery study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huaxi; Yang, Tao; Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Fengxiang; Chen, Yuejiao

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we developed a new nanoparticulate system for acetylated starch nanocrystals (ASN) using broken rice. ASN with different degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.04, 0.08 and 0.14 were prepared using acetic anhydride as acetylating agent through reaction with starch nanocrystals (SN). The resulting ASN were investigated for the capability to load and release doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), and the antitumor activities of DOX-loaded SN and DOX-loaded ASN were evaluated as potential drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanocrystals and the DOX-loaded nanocrystals were investigated using fluorescence microscopy and a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. Compared with acetylated starches (AS) and native starches (NS), ASN with DS 0.14 loaded up to 6.07% of DOX with a higher loading efficiency of 91.1% and had steadier drug-release rates. Toxicity analysis using the rat hepatocytes model suggested that ASN was biocompatible and could be used for drug delivery. Furthermore, ASN were taken up by cancer cells in vitro and significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX against HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. The IC50 value of DOX-loaded ASN-DS 0.14 was 3.8μg/mL for 24h of treatment, which was significantly lower than that of free DOX (21μg/mL). These results indicate that the prepared ASN using broken rice is a promising vehicle for the controlled delivery of DOX for cancer therapy. PMID:27156696

  5. Autoimmune regulator is acetylated by transcription coactivator CBP/p300

    SciTech Connect

    Saare, Mario; Rebane, Ana; Rajashekar, Balaji; Vilo, Jaak; Peterson, Paert

    2012-08-15

    The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is a regulator of transcription in the thymic medulla, where it controls the expression of a large set of peripheral-tissue specific genes. AIRE interacts with the transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase CBP and synergistically cooperates with it in transcriptional activation. Here, we aimed to study a possible role of AIRE acetylation in the modulation of its activity. We found that AIRE is acetylated in tissue culture cells and this acetylation is enhanced by overexpression of CBP and the CBP paralog p300. The acetylated lysines were located within nuclear localization signal and SAND domain. AIRE with mutations that mimicked acetylated K243 and K253 in the SAND domain had reduced transactivation activity and accumulated into fewer and larger nuclear bodies, whereas mutations that mimicked the unacetylated lysines were functionally similar to wild-type AIRE. Analogously to CBP, p300 localized to AIRE-containing nuclear bodies, however, the overexpression of p300 did not enhance the transcriptional activation of AIRE-regulated genes. Further studies showed that overexpression of p300 stabilized the AIRE protein. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that AIRE, with mutations mimicking K243/K253 acetylation in SAND, was able to activate gene expression, although the affected genes were different and the activation level was lower from those regulated by wild-type AIRE. Our results suggest that the AIRE acetylation can influence the selection of AIRE activated genes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE is acetylated by the acetyltransferases p300 and CBP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation occurs between CARD and SAND domains and within the SAND domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases the size of AIRE nuclear dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases AIRE protein stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE acetylation mimic regulates a different set of AIRE

  6. Tubulin Acetylation Alone Does Not Affect Kinesin-1 Velocity and Run Length In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Wilhelm J.; Beránek, Václav; Fischermeier, Elisabeth; Diez, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin-1 plays a major role in anterograde transport of intracellular cargo along microtubules. Currently, there is an ongoing debate of whether α-tubulin K40 acetylation directly enhances the velocity of kinesin-1 and its affinity to the microtubule track. We compared motor motility on microtubules reconstituted from acetylated and deacetylated tubulin. For both, single- and multi-motor in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate that tubulin acetylation alone does not affect kinesin-1 velocity and run length. PMID:22870307

  7. Therapeutics Targeting Protein Acetylation Perturb Latency of Human Viruses.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Ryan J; Ott, Melanie

    2016-03-18

    Persistent viral infections are widespread and represent significant public health burdens. Some viruses endure in a latent state by co-opting the host epigenetic machinery to manipulate viral gene expression. Small molecules targeting epigenetic pathways are now in the clinic for certain cancers and are considered as potential treatment strategies to reverse latency in HIV-infected individuals. In this review, we discuss how drugs interfering with one epigenetic pathway, protein acetylation, perturb latency of three families of pathogenic human viruses-retroviruses, herpesviruses, and papillomaviruses. PMID:26845514

  8. Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin☆

    PubMed Central

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Rosenberg, Erwin; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins. PMID:25170180

  9. Epigenetic Readers of Lysine Acetylation Regulate Cocaine-Induced Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Gregory C.; Powell, Samuel K.; Brothers, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic “reader” proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity. The role of BET proteins in cocaine-induced plasticity, however, remains elusive. Here, we used behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular techniques to examine the involvement of BET bromodomains in cocaine reward. Of the BET proteins, BRD4, but not BRD2 or BRD3, was significantly elevated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice and rats following repeated cocaine injections and self-administration. Systemic and intra-accumbal inhibition of BRD4 with the BET inhibitor, JQ1, attenuated the rewarding effects of cocaine in a conditioned place preference procedure but did not affect conditioned place aversion, nor did JQ1 alone induce conditioned aversion or preference. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we found that repeated cocaine injections enhanced the binding of BRD4, but not BRD3, to the promoter region of Bdnf in the NAc, whereas systemic injection of JQ1 attenuated cocaine-induced expression of Bdnf in the NAc. JQ1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRD4 in vitro also reduced expression of Bdnf. These findings indicate that disrupting the interaction between BET proteins and their acetylated lysine substrates may provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of drug addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Proteins involved in the “readout” of lysine acetylation marks, referred to as BET bromodomain proteins (including BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT), have been shown to be key regulators of chromatin dynamics and disease, and

  10. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  11. Aspirin acetylates wild type and mutant p53 in colon cancer cells: identification of aspirin acetylated sites on recombinant p53.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-05-01

    Aspirin's ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines is considered to be an important mechanism for its anti-cancer effects. We previously demonstrated that aspirin acetylated the tumor suppressor protein p53 at lysine 382 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we extended these observations to human colon cancer cells, HCT 116 harboring wild type p53, and HT-29 containing mutant p53. We demonstrate that aspirin induced acetylation of p53 in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Aspirin-acetylated p53 was localized to the nucleus. In both cell lines, aspirin induced p21(CIP1). Aspirin also acetylated recombinant p53 (rp53) in vitro suggesting that it occurs through a non-enzymatic chemical reaction. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting identified 10 acetylated lysines on rp53, and molecular modeling showed that all lysines targeted by aspirin are surface exposed. Five of these lysines are localized to the DNA-binding domain, four to the nuclear localization signal domain, and one to the C-terminal regulatory domain. Our results suggest that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may involve acetylation and activation of wild type and mutant p53 and induction of target gene expression. This is the first report attempting to characterize p53 acetylation sites targeted by aspirin. PMID:26596838

  12. Inhibition of the acetyl lysine-binding pocket of bromodomain and extraterminal domain proteins interferes with adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Kadri, Zahra; Granger-Locatelli, Marine; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Prost, Stéphane; Leboulch, Philippe; Chrétien, Stany

    2016-04-15

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain family proteins are epigenetic modulators involved in the reading of acetylated lysine residues. The first BET protein inhibitor to be identified, (+)-JQ1, a thienotriazolo-1, 4-diazapine, binds selectively to the acetyl lysine-binding pocket of BET proteins. We evaluated the impact on adipogenesis of this druggable targeting of chromatin epigenetic readers, by investigating the physiological consequences of epigenetic modifications through targeting proteins binding to chromatin. JQ1 significantly inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into white and brown adipocytes by down-regulating the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, particularly those encoding the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ), the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) and, STAT5A and B. The expression of a constitutively activated STAT5B mutant did not prevent inhibition by JQ1. Thus, the association of BET/STAT5 is required for adipogenesis but STAT5 transcription activity is not the only target of JQ1. Treatment with JQ1 did not lead to the conversion of white adipose tissue into brown adipose tissue (BAT). BET protein inhibition thus interferes with generation of adipose tissue from progenitors, confirming the importance of the connections between epigenetic mechanisms and specific adipogenic transcription factors. PMID:26972250

  13. p53 targets simian virus 40 large T antigen for acetylation by CBP.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Danielle L; Kung, Andrew L; DeCaprio, James A

    2004-08-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (T Ag) interacts with the tumor suppressor p53 and the transcriptional coactivators CBP and p300. Binding of these cellular proteins in a ternary complex has been implicated in T Ag-mediated transformation. It has been suggested that the ability of CBP/p300 to modulate p53 function underlies p53's regulation of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we provide further evidence that CBP activity may be mediated through its synergistic action with p53. We demonstrate that SV40 T Ag is acetylated in vivo in a p53-dependent manner and T Ag acetylation is largely mediated by CBP. The acetylation of T Ag is dependent on its interaction with p53 and on p53's interaction with CBP. We have mapped the site of acetylation on T Ag to the C-terminal lysine residue 697. This acetylation site is conserved between the T antigens of the human polyomaviruses JC and BK, which are also known to interact with p53. We show that both JC and BK T antigens are also acetylated at corresponding sites in vivo. While other proteins are known to be acetylated by CBP/p300, none are known to depend on p53 for acetylation. T Ag acetylation may provide a regulatory mechanism for T Ag binding to a cellular factor or play a role in another aspect of T Ag function. PMID:15254196

  14. First Comprehensive Proteome Analyses of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation in Seedling Leaves of Brachypodium distachyon L.

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shoumin; Deng, Xiong; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Gengrui; Cao, Hui; Yuan, Linlin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Protein acetylation and succinylation are the most crucial protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we present the first lysine-acetylation and lysine-succinylation proteome analysis of seedling leaves in Brachypodium distachyon L (Bd). Using high accuracy nano LC-MS/MS combined with affinity purification, we identified a total of 636 lysine-acetylated sites in 353 proteins and 605 lysine-succinylated sites in 262 proteins. These proteins participated in many biology processes, with various molecular functions. In particular, 119 proteins and 115 sites were found to be both acetylated and succinylated, simultaneously. Among the 353 acetylated proteins, 148 had acetylation orthologs in Oryza sativa L., Arabidopsis thaliana, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and Glycine max L. Among the 262 succinylated proteins, 170 of them were found to have homologous proteins in Oryza sativa L., Escherichia coli, Sacchayromyces cerevisiae, or Homo sapiens. Motif-X analysis of the acetylated and succinylated sites identified two new acetylated motifs (K---K and K-I-K) and twelve significantly enriched succinylated motifs for the first time, which could serve as possible binding loci for future studies in plants. Our comprehensive dataset provides a promising starting point for further functional analysis of acetylation and succinylation in Bd and other plant species. PMID:27515067

  15. Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of glutamine synthetases reveals an autofeedback loop in nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    You, Di; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Li, Zhi-Hai; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Wen-Bang; Zuo, Peng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-06-14

    In cells of all domains of life, reversible lysine acetylation modulates the function of proteins involved in central cellular processes such as metabolism. In this study, we demonstrate that the nitrogen regulator GlnR of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea directly regulates transcription of the acuA gene (SACE_5148), which encodes a Gcn5-type lysine acetyltransferase. We found that AcuA acetylates two glutamine synthetases (GlnA1 and GlnA4) and that this lysine acetylation inactivated GlnA4 (GSII) but had no significant effect on GlnA1 (GSI-β) activity under the conditions tested. Instead, acetylation of GlnA1 led to a gain-of-function that modulated its interaction with the GlnR regulator and enhanced GlnR-DNA binding. It was observed that this regulatory function of acetylated GSI-β enzymes is highly conserved across actinomycetes. In turn, GlnR controls the catalytic and regulatory activities (intracellular acetylation levels) of glutamine synthetases at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, indicating an autofeedback loop that regulates nitrogen metabolism in response to environmental change. Thus, this GlnR-mediated acetylation pathway provides a signaling cascade that acts from nutrient sensing to acetylation of proteins to feedback regulation. This work presents significant new insights at the molecular level into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of protein acetylation and nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes. PMID:27247389

  16. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Lv, Binna; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Delong; Liang, Wenxing; Song, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including K(ac)Y, K(ac)H, K(ac)***R, K(ac)F, FK(ac) and K(ac)***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. PMID:27381557

  17. Acetylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is mediated by GCN5

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Juhyung; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Chiho; Song, Min-Young; Park, Kang-Sik; Oh, Young J.

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is present as an acetylated form. • CDK5 is acetylated by GCN5. • CDK5’s acetylation site is mapped at Lys33. • Its acetylation may affect CDK5’s kinase activity. - Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a member of atypical serine/threonine cyclin-dependent kinase family, plays a crucial role in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Its kinase activity and substrate specificity are regulated by several independent pathways including binding with its activator, phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. In the present study, we report that acetylation of CDK5 comprises an additional posttranslational modification within the cells. Among many candidates, we confirmed that its acetylation is enhanced by GCN5, a member of the GCN5-related N-acetyl-transferase family of histone acetyltransferase. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and fluorescent localization study indicated that GCN5 physically interacts with CDK5 and they are co-localized at the specific nuclear foci. Furthermore, liquid chromatography in conjunction with a mass spectrometry indicated that CDK5 is acetylated at Lys33 residue of ATP binding domain. Considering this lysine site is conserved among a wide range of species and other related cyclin-dependent kinases, therefore, we speculate that acetylation may alter the kinase activity of CDK5 via affecting efficacy of ATP coordination.

  18. Proteome-wide analysis of lysine acetylation in the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Binna; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Delong; Liang, Wenxing; Song, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including KacY, KacH, Kac***R, KacF, FKac and Kac***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. PMID:27381557

  19. Two N-Terminal Acetyltransferases Antagonistically Regulate the Stability of a Nod-Like Receptor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Gannon, Patrick; Linster, Eric; Huber, Monika; Kapos, Paul; Bienvenut, Willy; Giglione, Carmela; Zhang, Yuelin; Chen, She

    2015-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) serve as immune receptors in plants and animals. The stability of NLRs is tightly regulated, though its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show the crucial impact of N-terminal acetylation on the turnover of one plant NLR, Suppressor of NPR1, Constitutive 1 (SNC1), in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and biochemical analyses of SNC1 uncovered its multilayered regulation by different N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) complexes. SNC1 exhibits a few distinct N-terminal isoforms generated through alternative initiation and N-terminal acetylation. Its first Met is acetylated by N-terminal acetyltransferase complex A (NatA), while the second Met is acetylated by N-terminal acetyltransferase complex B (NatB). Unexpectedly, the NatA-mediated acetylation serves as a degradation signal, while NatB-mediated acetylation stabilizes the NLR protein, thus revealing antagonistic N-terminal acetylation of a single protein substrate. Moreover, NatA also contributes to the turnover of another NLR, RESISTANCE TO P. syringae pv maculicola 1. The intricate regulation of protein stability by Nats is speculated to provide flexibility for the target protein in maintaining its homeostasis. PMID:25966763

  20. Comparative analysis of pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-dl-leucine (Tanganil) and its two isomers (N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine) on vestibular compensation: Behavioral investigation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Tighilet, Brahim; Leonard, Jacques; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Lacour, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Head roll tilt, postural imbalance and spontaneous nystagmus are the main static vestibular deficits observed after an acute unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). In the UVL cat model, these deficits are fully compensated over 6 weeks as the result of central vestibular compensation. N-Acetyl-dl-leucine is a drug prescribed in clinical practice for the symptomatic treatment of acute UVL patients. The present study investigated the effects of N-acetyl-dl-leucine on the behavioral recovery after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the cat, and compared the effects of each of its two isomers N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine. Efficacy of these three drug treatments has been evaluated with respect to a placebo group (UVN+saline water) on the global sensorimotor activity (observation grids), the posture control (support surface measurement), the locomotor balance (maximum performance at the rotating beam test), and the spontaneous vestibular nystagmus (recorded in the light). Whatever the parameters tested, the behavioral recovery was strongly and significantly accelerated under pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-dl-leucine and N-acetyl-L-leucine. In contrast, the N-acetyl-D-leucine isomer had no effect at all on the behavioral recovery, and animals of this group showed the same recovery profile as those receiving a placebo. It is concluded that the N-acetyl-L-leucine isomer is the active part of the racemate component since it induces a significant acceleration of the vestibular compensation process similar (and even better) to that observed under treatment with the racemate component only. PMID:26607469

  1. Post-translational modifications of nuclear receptors and human disease

    PubMed Central

    Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Huderson, Brandy; Murphy, Leigh; Rowan, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NR) impact a myriad of physiological processes including homeostasis, reproduction, development, and metabolism. NRs are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTM) that markedly impact receptor function. Recent studies have identified NR PTMs that are involved in the onset and progression of human diseases, including cancer. The majority of evidence linking NR PTMs with disease has been demonstrated for phosphorylation, acetylation and sumoylation of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Phosphorylation of AR has been associated with hormone refractory prostate cancer and decreased disease-specific survival. AR acetylation and sumoylation increased growth of prostate cancer tumor models. AR phosphorylation reduced the toxicity of the expanded polyglutamine AR in Kennedy’s Disease as a consequence of reduced ligand binding. A comprehensive evaluation of ERα phosphorylation in breast cancer revealed several sites associated with better clinical outcome to tamoxifen therapy, whereas other phosphorylation sites were associated with poorer clinical outcome. ERα acetylation and sumoylation may also have predictive value for breast cancer. GR phosphorylation and acetylation impact GR responsiveness to glucocorticoids that are used as anti-inflammatory drugs. PPARγ phosphorylation can regulate the balance between growth and differentiation in adipose tissue that is linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Sumoylation of PPARγ is linked to repression of inflammatory genes important in patients with inflammatory diseases. NR PTMs provide an additional measure of NR function that can be used as both biomarkers of disease progression, and predictive markers for patient response to NR-directed treatments. PMID:22438791

  2. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Schmeitzl, Clemens; Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachová, Alexandra; Berthiller, Franz; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON) and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON), and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G) and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S) as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G) is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G). This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives. PMID:26274975

  3. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Schmeitzl, Clemens; Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachová, Alexandra; Berthiller, Franz; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON) and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON), and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G) and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S) as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G) is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G). This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives. PMID:26274975

  4. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control. PMID:27073141

  5. Microtubule acetylation promotes kinesin-1 binding and transport.

    PubMed

    Reed, Nathan A; Cai, Dawen; Blasius, T Lynne; Jih, Gloria T; Meyhofer, Edgar; Gaertig, Jacek; Verhey, Kristen J

    2006-11-01

    Long-distance intracellular delivery is driven by kinesin and dynein motor proteins that ferry cargoes along microtubule tracks . Current models postulate that directional trafficking is governed by known biophysical properties of these motors-kinesins generally move to the plus ends of microtubules in the cell periphery, whereas cytoplasmic dynein moves to the minus ends in the cell center. However, these models are insufficient to explain how polarized protein trafficking to subcellular domains is accomplished. We show that the kinesin-1 cargo protein JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) is localized to only a subset of neurites in cultured neuronal cells. The mechanism of polarized trafficking appears to involve the preferential recognition of microtubules containing specific posttranslational modifications (PTMs) by the kinesin-1 motor domain. Using a genetic approach to eliminate specific PTMs, we show that the loss of a single modification, alpha-tubulin acetylation at Lys-40, influences the binding and motility of kinesin-1 in vitro. In addition, pharmacological treatments that increase microtubule acetylation cause a redirection of kinesin-1 transport of JIP1 to nearly all neurite tips in vivo. These results suggest that microtubule PTMs are important markers of distinct microtubule populations and that they act to control motor-protein trafficking. PMID:17084703

  6. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control. PMID:27073141

  7. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control.

  8. Two Arabidopsis Proteins Synthesize Acetylated Xylan in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Urbanowicz, Breeanna R.; Peña, Maria J.; Moniz, Heather A.; Moremen, Kelley W.; York, William S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Xylan is the third most abundant glycopolymer on earth after cellulose and chitin. As a major component of wood, grain and forage, this natural biopolymer has far-reaching impacts on human life. This highly acetylated cell wall polysaccharide is a vital component of the plant cell wall, which functions as a molecular scaffold, providing plants with mechanical strength and flexibility. Mutations that impair synthesis of the xylan backbone give rise to plants that fail to grow normally due to collapsed xylem cells in the vascular system. Phenotypic analysis of these mutants has implicated many proteins in xylan biosynthesis. However, the enzymes directly responsible for elongation and acetylation of the xylan backbone have not been unambiguously identified. Here we provide direct biochemical evidence that two Arabidopsis thaliana proteins, IRREGULAR XYLEM 10-L (IRX10-L) and ESKIMO1/ TRICOME BIREFRINGENCE 29 (ESK1/TBL29), catalyze these respective processes in vitro. By identifying the elusive xylan synthase and establishing ESK1/TBL29 as the archetypal plant polysaccharide O-acetyltransferase, we have resolved two long-standing questions in plant cell wall biochemistry. These findings shed light on integral steps in the molecular pathways utilized by plants to synthesize a major component of the world's biomass and expand our toolkit for producing glycopolymers with valuable properties. PMID:25141999

  9. Preparation and characterization of N-benzoyl-O-acetyl-chitosan.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinping; Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Chengsheng; Fan, Bing; Yan, Jingquan; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    A novel amphipathic chitosan derivative, N-benzoyl-O-acetyl-chitosan (BACS), was prepared by using the selective partial acylation of chitosan (CS), benzoyl chloride, and acetic acid under high-intensity ultrasound. The chemical structure and physical properties of BACS were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, TGA, and XRD techniques. The degrees of substitution of benzoyl and acetyl for the chitosan derivatives were 0.26 and 1.15, respectively, which were calculated from the peak areas in NMR spectra by using the combined integral methods. The foaming properties of CS and BACS were determined and the results suggested BACS had better foam capacity and stability than those of chitosan. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of CS and BACS were also investigated against two species of bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungus (Aspergillus niger), the results indicated that the antibacterial and antifungal activities of BACS were much stronger than those of the parent chitosan. These findings suggested that BACS was preferable for use as a food additive with a dual role of both foaming agent and food preservative. PMID:25783016

  10. Polymorphic acetylation of arylamines and DNA-adduct formation.

    PubMed

    Weber, W W; Levy, G N; Martell, K J

    1990-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains congenic for rapid and slow N-acetyltransferase (NAT) (A.B6, rapid and B6.A, slow) were used to separate the effect of the NAT polymorphism from the influence of other genetically polymorphic enzymes on DNA adduct formation induced by exposure to arylamine carcinogens. Adduct formation was measured by HPLC analysis of 32P-postlabeled nucleotides from DNA of the urinary bladder and liver. Acetylator phenotype was a significant determinant of DNA damage in females as slow acetylators had higher levels of bladder DNA adducts than rapids. This correlation was the reverse of that seen with liver DNA. Older mice (20-23 weeks) formed much higher bladder DNA adduct levels than young mice (7 week). The increase in bladder adduct formation with age was seen in both sexes of all mouse strains. The older male B6 mice showed a 26-fold increase in bladder adducts and the older females showed no more than a 2-fold increase. In addition, the older male B6 mice produced significant amounts of an unidentified, early eluting adduct peak. Biochemical studies of liver NAT and O-acetyltransferase (OAT) activities showed a direct correlation between the levels of liver 2-aminofluorene (AF) NAT activity and levels of liver DNA-adduct formation, but the role of OAT activity in adduct formation in the mouse remains unclear. These results indicate that the NAT phenotype, age and sex are all important determinants of arylamine-DNA adduct formation in mice. PMID:2134671

  11. Autotrophic acetyl coenzyme A biosynthesis in Methanococcus maripaludis.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, J; Whitman, W B

    1988-01-01

    To detect autotrophic CO2 assimilation in cell extracts of Methanococcus maripaludis, lactate dehydrogenase and NADH were added to convert pyruvate formed from autotrophically synthesized acetyl coenzyme A to lactate. The lactate produced was determined spectrophotometrically. When CO2 fixation was pulled in the direction of lactate synthesis, CO2 reduction to methane was inhibited. Bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a potent inhibitor of methanogenesis, enhanced lactate synthesis, and methyl coenzyme M inhibited it in the absence of BES. Lactate synthesis was dependent on CO2 and H2, but H2 + CO2-independent synthesis was also observed. In cell extracts, the rate of lactate synthesis was about 1.2 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1. When BES was added, the rate of lactate synthesis increased to 2.3 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1. Because acetyl coenzyme A did not stimulate lactate synthesis, pyruvate synthase may have been the limiting activity in these assays. Radiolabel from 14CO2 was incorporated into lactate. The percentages of radiolabel in the C-1, C-2, and C-3 positions of lactate were 73, 33, and 11%, respectively. Both carbon monoxide and formaldehyde stimulated lactate synthesis. 14CH2O was specifically incorporated into the C-3 of lactate, and 14CO was incorporated into the C-1 and C-2 positions. Low concentrations of cyanide also inhibited autotrophic growth, CO dehydrogenase activity, and autotrophic lactate synthesis. These observations are in agreement with the acetogenic pathway of autotrophic CO2 assimilation. PMID:3133359

  12. Distinct effects of ketamine and acetyl L-carnitine on the dopamine system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bonnie L; Dumas, Melanie; Cuevas, Elvis; Gu, Qiang; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist is commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic. We have previously shown that acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents ketamine toxicity in zebrafish embryos. In mammals, ketamine is known to modulate the dopaminergic system. NMDA receptor antagonists are considered as promising anti-depressants, but the exact mechanism of their function is unclear. Here, we measured the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), in the zebrafish embryos exposed to ketamine in the presence and absence of 0.5 mM ALCAR. Ketamine, at lower doses (0.1-0.3 mM), did not produce significant changes in DA, DOPAC or HVA levels in 52 h post-fertilization embryos treated for 24 h. In these embryos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression remained unchanged. However, 2 mM ketamine (internal embryo exposure levels equivalent to human anesthetic plasma concentration) significantly reduced DA level and TH mRNA indicating that DA synthesis was adversely affected. In the presence or absence of 2 mM ketamine, ALCAR showed similar effects on DA level and TH mRNA, but increased DOPAC level compared to control. ALCAR reversed 2 mM ketamine-induced reduction in HVA levels. With ALCAR alone, the expression of genes encoding the DA metabolizing enzymes, MAO (monoamine oxidase) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), was not affected. However, ketamine altered MAO mRNA expression, except at the 0.1 mM dose. COMT transcripts were reduced in the 2 mM ketamine-treated group. These distinct effects of ketamine and ALCAR on the DA system may shed some light on the mechanism on how ketamine can work as an anti-depressant, especially at sub-anesthetic doses that do not affect DA metabolism and suppress MAO gene expression. PMID:26898327

  13. Distinct effects of ketamine and acetyl l-carnitine on the dopamine system in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Bonnie L.; Dumas, Melanie; Cuevas, Elvis; Gu, Qiang; Paule, Merle G.; Ali, Syed F.; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist is commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic. We have previously shown that acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents ketamine toxicity in zebrafish embryos. In mammals, ketamine is known to modulate the dopaminergic system. NMDA receptor antagonists are considered as promising anti-depressants, but the exact mechanism of their function is unclear. Here, we measured the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), in the zebrafish embryos exposed to ketamine in the presence and absence of 0.5 mM ALCAR. Ketamine, at lower doses (0.1–0.3 mM), did not produce significant changes in DA, DOPAC or HVA levels in 52 h post-fertilization embryos treated for 24 h. In these embryos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression remained unchanged. However, 2 mM ketamine (internal embryo exposure levels equivalent to human anesthetic plasma concentration) significantly reduced DA level and TH mRNA indicating that DA synthesis was adversely affected. In the presence or absence of 2 mM ketamine, ALCAR showed similar effects on DA level and TH mRNA, but increased DOPAC level compared to control. ALCAR reversed 2 mM ketamine-induced reduction in HVA levels. With ALCAR alone, the expression of genes encoding the DA metabolizing enzymes, MAO (monoamine oxidase) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), was not affected. However, ketamine altered MAO mRNA expression, except at the 0.1 mM dose. COMT transcripts were reduced in the 2 mM ketamine-treated group. These distinct effects of ketamine and ALCAR on the DA system may shed some light on the mechanism on how ketamine can work as an anti-depressant, especially at sub-anesthetic doses that do not affect DA metabolism and suppress MAO gene expression. PMID:26898327

  14. Glutathione precursor, N-acetyl-cysteine, improves mismatch negativity in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Suzie; Murray, Micah M; Deppen, Patricia; Knyazeva, Maria G; Berk, Michael; Boulat, Olivier; Bovet, Pierre; Bush, Ashley I; Conus, Philippe; Copolov, David; Fornari, Eleonora; Meuli, Reto; Solida, Alessandra; Vianin, Pascal; Cuénod, Michel; Buclin, Thierry; Do, Kim Q

    2008-08-01

    In schizophrenia patients, glutathione dysregulation at the gene, protein and functional levels, leads to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction. These patients also exhibit deficits in auditory sensory processing that manifests as impaired mismatch negativity (MMN), which is an auditory evoked potential (AEP) component related to NMDA receptor function. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor, was administered to patients to determine whether increased levels of brain glutathione would improve MMN and by extension NMDA function. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over protocol was conducted, entailing the administration of NAC (2 g/day) for 60 days and then placebo for another 60 days (or vice versa). 128-channel AEPs were recorded during a frequency oddball discrimination task at protocol onset, at the point of cross-over, and at the end of the study. At the onset of the protocol, the MMN of patients was significantly impaired compared to sex- and age- matched healthy controls (p=0.003), without any evidence of concomitant P300 component deficits. Treatment with NAC significantly improved MMN generation compared with placebo (p=0.025) without any measurable effects on the P300 component. MMN improvement was observed in the absence of robust changes in assessments of clinical severity, though the latter was observed in a larger and more prolonged clinical study. This pattern suggests that MMN enhancement may precede changes to indices of clinical severity, highlighting the possible utility AEPs as a biomarker of treatment efficacy. The improvement of this functional marker may indicate an important pathway towards new therapeutic strategies that target glutathione dysregulation in schizophrenia. PMID:18004285

  15. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 Affect Xylan Acetylation and Secondary Wall Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Haghighat, Marziyeh; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be mono- and di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reduction in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-O-monoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. These results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls. PMID:26745802

  16. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 affect xylan acetylation and secondary wall deposition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Haghighat, Marziyeh; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng -Hua; Zhang, Jin -Song

    2016-01-08

    Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be monoand di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reductionmore » in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-Omonoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls.« less

  17. Generation of mature Nα-terminal acetylated thymosin α 1 by cleavage of recombinant prothymosin α.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Gong, Xin; Chang, Shaohong; Sun, Peng; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    N(α)-terminal acetylation of peptides plays an important biological role but is rarely observed in prokaryotes. N(α)-terminal acetylated thymosin α1 (Tα1), a 28-amino-acid peptide, is an immune modifier that has been used in the clinic to treat hepatitis B and C virus (HBV/HCV) infections. We previously documented N(α)-terminal acetylation of recombinant prothymosin α (ProTα) in E. coli. Here we present a method for production of N(α)-acetylated Tα1 from recombinant ProTα. The recombinant ProTα was cleaved by human legumain expressed in Pichia pastoris to release Tα1 in vitro. The N(α)-acetylated Tα1 peptide was subsequently purified by reverse phase and cation exchange chromatography. Mass spectrometry indicated that the molecular mass of recombinant N(α)-acetylated Tα1 was 3108.79 in, which is identical to the mass of N(α)-acetylated Tα1 produced by total chemical synthesis. This mass corresponded to the nonacetylated Tα1 mass with a 42 Da increment. The retention time of recombinant N(α)-acetylated Tα1 and chemosynthetic N(α)-acetylated Tα1 were both 15.4 min in RP-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These data support the use of an E. coli expression system for the production of recombinant human N(α)-acetylated Tα1 and also will provide the basis for the preparation of recombinant acetylated peptides in E. coli. PMID:24288480

  18. Identification of the Acetylation and Ubiquitin-Modified Proteome during the Progression of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Daniel J.; Judge, Sarah M.; Beharry, Adam W.; Farnsworth, Charles L.; Silva, Jeffrey C.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a consequence of several physiological and pathophysiological conditions including muscle disuse, aging and diseases such as cancer and heart failure. In each of these conditions, the predominant mechanism contributing to the loss of skeletal muscle mass is increased protein turnover. Two important mechanisms which regulate protein stability and degradation are lysine acetylation and ubiquitination, respectively. However our understanding of the skeletal muscle proteins regulated through acetylation and ubiquitination during muscle atrophy is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to conduct an unbiased assessment of the acetylation and ubiquitin-modified proteome in skeletal muscle during a physiological condition of muscle atrophy. To induce progressive, physiologically relevant, muscle atrophy, rats were cast immobilized for 0, 2, 4 or 6 days and muscles harvested. Acetylated and ubiquitinated peptides were identified via a peptide IP proteomic approach using an anti-acetyl lysine antibody or a ubiquitin remnant motif antibody followed by mass spectrometry. In control skeletal muscle we identified and mapped the acetylation of 1,326 lysine residues to 425 different proteins and the ubiquitination of 4,948 lysine residues to 1,131 different proteins. Of these proteins 43, 47 and 50 proteins were differentially acetylated and 183, 227 and 172 were differentially ubiquitinated following 2, 4 and 6 days of disuse, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified contractile proteins as being enriched among proteins decreased in acetylation and increased in ubiquitination, whereas histone proteins were enriched among proteins increased in acetylation and decreased in ubiquitination. These findings provide the first proteome-wide identification of skeletal muscle proteins exhibiting changes in lysine acetylation and ubiquitination during any atrophy condition, and provide a basis for future mechanistic studies into how the

  19. Acetylation of Gly1 and Lys2 Promotes Aggregation of Human γD-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human lens contains three major protein families: α-, β-, and γ-crystallin. Among the several variants of γ-crystallin in the human lens, γD-crystallin is a major form. γD-Crystallin is primarily present in the nuclear region of the lens and contains a single lysine residue at the second position (K2). In this study, we investigated the acetylation of K2 in γD-crystallin in aging and cataractous human lenses. Our results indicated that K2 is acetylated at an early age and that the amount of K2-acetylated γD-crystallin increased with age. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that in addition to K2, glycine 1 (G1) was acetylated in γD-crystallin from human lenses and in γD-crystallin acetylated in vitro. The chaperone ability of α-crystallin for acetylated γD-crystallin was lower than that for the nonacetylated protein. The tertiary structure and the microenvironment of the cysteine residues were significantly altered by acetylation. The acetylated protein exhibited higher surface hydrophobicity, was unstable against thermal and chemical denaturation, and exhibited a higher propensity to aggregate at 80 °C in comparison to the nonacetylated protein. Acetylation enhanced the GdnHCl-induced unfolding and slowed the subsequent refolding of γD-crystallin. Theoretical analysis indicated that the acetylation of K2 and G1 reduced the structural stability of the protein and brought the distal cysteine residues (C18 and C78) into close proximity. Collectively, these results indicate that the acetylation of G1 and K2 residues in γD-crystallin likely induced a molten globule-like structure, predisposing it to aggregation, which may account for the high content of aggregated proteins in the nucleus of aged and cataractous human lenses. PMID:25393041

  20. An Artificial Reaction Promoter Modulates Mitochondrial Functions via Chemically Promoting Protein Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Yutaka; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hotta, Kohji; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Oka, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation, which modulates protein function, is an important process in intracellular signalling. In mitochondria, protein acetylation regulates a number of enzymatic activities and, therefore, modulates mitochondrial functions. Our previous report showed that tributylphosphine (PBu3), an artificial reaction promoter that promotes acetylransfer reactions in vitro, also promotes the reaction between acetyl-CoA and an exogenously introduced fluorescent probe in mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that PBu3 induces the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins and a decrease in acetyl-CoA concentration in PBu3-treated HeLa cells. This indicates that PBu3 can promote the acetyltransfer reaction between acetyl-CoA and mitochondrial proteins in living cells. PBu3-induced acetylation gradually reduced mitochondrial ATP concentrations in HeLa cells without changing the cytoplasmic ATP concentration, suggesting that PBu3 mainly affects mitochondrial functions. In addition, pyruvate, which is converted into acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and transiently increases ATP concentrations in the absence of PBu3, elicited a further decrease in mitochondrial ATP concentrations in the presence of PBu3. Moreover, the application and removal of PBu3 reversibly alternated mitochondrial fragmentation and elongation. These results indicate that PBu3 enhances acetyltransfer reactions in mitochondria and modulates mitochondrial functions in living cells. PMID:27374857

  1. N-Ace: using solvent accessibility and physicochemical properties to identify protein N-acetylation sites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzong-Yi; Hsu, Justin Bo-Kai; Lin, Feng-Mao; Chang, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Po-Chiang; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2010-11-30

    Protein acetylation, which is catalyzed by acetyltransferases, is a type of post-translational modification and crucial to numerous essential biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, and cytokine signaling. As the experimental identification of protein acetylation sites is time consuming and laboratory intensive, several computational approaches have been developed for identifying the candidates of experimental validation. In this work, solvent accessibility and the physicochemical properties of proteins are utilized to identify acetylated alanine, glycine, lysine, methionine, serine, and threonine. A two-stage support vector machine was applied to learn the computational models with combinations of amino acid sequences, and the accessible surface area and physicochemical properties of proteins. The predictive accuracy thus achieved is 5% to 14% higher than that of models trained using only amino acid sequences. Additionally, the substrate specificity of the acetylated site was investigated in detail with reference to the subcellular colocalization of acetyltransferases and acetylated proteins. The proposed method, N-Ace, is evaluated using independent test sets in various acetylated residues and predictive accuracies of 90% were achieved, indicating that the performance of N-Ace is comparable with that of other acetylation prediction methods. N-Ace not only provides a user-friendly input/output interface but also is a creative method for predicting protein acetylation sites. This novel analytical resource is now freely available at http://N-Ace.mbc.NCTU.edu.tw/. PMID:20839302

  2. Nε−Lysine Acetylation of a Bacterial Transcription Factor Inhibits Its DNA-Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Sandy; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Zhu, Heng; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that eukaryotes and archaea use reversible Nε-lysine (Nε-Lys) acetylation to modulate gene expression has been reported, but evidence for bacterial use of Nε-Lys acetylation for this purpose is lacking. Here, we report data in support of the notion that bacteria can control gene expression by modulating the acetylation state of transcription factors (TFs). We screened the E. coli proteome for substrates of the bacterial Gcn5-like protein acetyltransferase (Pat). Pat acetylated four TFs, including the RcsB global regulatory protein, which controls cell division, and capsule and flagellum biosynthesis in many bacteria. Pat acetylated residue Lys180 of RcsB, and the NAD+-dependent Sir2 (sirtuin)-like protein deacetylase (CobB) deacetylated acetylated RcsB (RcsBAc), demonstrating that Nε-Lys acetylation of RcsB is reversible. Analysis of RcsBAc and variant RcsB proteins carrying substitutions at Lys180 provided biochemical and physiological evidence implicating Lys180 as a critical residue for RcsB DNA-binding activity. These findings further the likelihood that reversible Nε-Lys acetylation of transcription factors is a mode of regulation of gene expression used by all cells. PMID:21217812

  3. Roles of Arabidopsis TBL34 and TBL35 in xylan acetylation and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Xylan is one of the major polymers in lignocellulosic biomass and about 60% of its xylosyl residues are acetylated at O-2 and/or O-3. Because acetylation of cell wall polymers contributes to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production, it is important to investigate the biochemical mechanism underlying xylan acetylation, the knowledge of which could be applied to custom-design biomass composition tailored for biofuel production. In this report, we investigated the functions of Arabidopsis TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE 34 (TBL34) and TBL35, two DUF231-containing proteins, in xylan acetylation. The TBL34 gene was found to be specifically expressed in xylem cells in stems and root-hypocotyls, and both TBL34 and TBL35 were shown to be localized in the Golgi, where xylan biosynthesis occurs. Chemical analysis revealed that simultaneous mutations of TBL34 and TBL35 caused a mild decrease in xylan acetyl content and a specific reduction in xylan 3-O-monoacetylation and 2,3-di-O-acetylation. Furthermore, simultaneous mutations of TBL34, TBL35 and ESKIMO1 (ESK1) resulted in severely collapsed xylem vessels with altered secondary wall structure, and an extremely retarded plant growth. These findings indicate that TBL34 and TBL35 are putative acetyltransferases required for xylan 3-O-monoacetylation and 2,3-di-O-acetylation and that xylan acetylation is essential for normal secondary wall deposition and plant growth. PMID:26795157

  4. Novel Family of Carbohydrate Esterases, Based on Identification of the Hypocrea jecorina Acetyl Esterase Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cell walls have been shown to contain acetyl groups in hemicelluloses and pectin. The gene, ae1, encoding the acetyl esterase (Ae1) of Hypocrea jecorina was identified by amino terminal sequencing, peptide mass spectrometry, and genomic sequence analyses. The coded polypeptide had 348 amino ...

  5. The Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Administration on Persons with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    2006-01-01

    Since previous investigations reported improvements in cognition of patients with dementia after acetyl-L-carnitine therapy and since there is an increased risk for persons with Down syndrome to develop Alzheimer disease, this study was designed to investigate the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine administration on neurological, intellectual, and…

  6. Histone Acetylation is Recruited in Consolidation as a Molecular Feature of Stronger Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federman, Noel; Fustinana, Maria Sol; Romano, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression is a key process for memory consolidation. Recently, the participation of epigenetic mechanisms like histone acetylation was evidenced in long-term memories. However, until now the training strength required and the persistence of the chromatin acetylation recruited are not well characterized. Here we studied whether histone…

  7. Polymorphic acetylation of the antibacterials, sulfamethazine and dapsone, in South Indian subjects.

    PubMed

    Peters, J H; Gordon, G R; Karat, A B

    1975-07-01

    A group of South Indian subjects was studied for their capacities to acetylate sulfamethazine (SMZ) and dapsone (DDS) and to clear DDS from the circulation. An apparent trimodal distribution of acetylator phenotypes was found in 49 subjects (51% slow, 12% intermediate, and 37% rapid acetylators) from measurements of the percentage acetylation of SMZ in 6-hour plasma samples after administration of 10 mg SMZ/kg. The intermediate phenotype was not discernible from either the percentage acetylation of SMZ in urine (collected concurrently with the plasma after SMZ) or that of DDS in plasma after the ingestion of 50 mg DDS by the same subjects. The latter two measurements yielded a bimodal distribution of 59% slow and 41% rapid acetylators, nearly identical to earlier reported distributions of isoniazid inactivator phenotypes in larger numbers of South Indian tuberculosis patients. In the current group, acetylation of DDS and SMZ was positively correlated. The half-time of disappearance (T 1/2) of DDS, an expression of the rate of clearance from the plasma, ranged from 13 to 40 hours. No correlation was found between the subject's capacity to acetylate DDS and the T 1/2 value for DDS. These results were generally consistent with earlier observations made during similar studies of American and Filipino subjects. PMID:1155699

  8. Global profiling of lysine acetylation in human histoplasmosis pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Longxiang; Fang, Wenjie; Deng, Wanyan; Yu, Zhaoxiao; Li, Juan; Chen, Min; Liao, Wanqing; Xie, Jianping; Pan, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of human histoplasmosis, which can cause respiratory and systemic mycosis in immune-compromised individuals. Lysine acetylation, a protein posttranslational protein modification, is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Although increasing evidence suggests that lysine acetylation may play critical roles in fungus physiology, very little is known about its extent and function in H. capsulatum. To comprehensively profile protein lysine acetylation in H. capsulatum, we performed a global acetylome analysis through peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and LC-MS/MS analysis, identifying 775 acetylation sites on 456 acetylated proteins; and functionally analysis showing their involvement in different biological processes. We defined six types of acetylation site motifs, and the results imply that lysine residue of polypeptide with tyrosine at the -1 and +1 positions, histidine at the +1 position, and phenylalanine (F) at the +1 and +2 position is a preferred substrate of lysine acetyltransferase. Moreover, some virulence factors candidates including calmodulin and DnaK are acetylated. In conclusion, our data set may serve as an important resource for the elucidation of associations between functional protein lysine acetylation and virulence in H. capsulatum. PMID:26806293

  9. An Artificial Reaction Promoter Modulates Mitochondrial Functions via Chemically Promoting Protein Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Yutaka; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hotta, Kohji; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Oka, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation, which modulates protein function, is an important process in intracellular signalling. In mitochondria, protein acetylation regulates a number of enzymatic activities and, therefore, modulates mitochondrial functions. Our previous report showed that tributylphosphine (PBu3), an artificial reaction promoter that promotes acetylransfer reactions in vitro, also promotes the reaction between acetyl-CoA and an exogenously introduced fluorescent probe in mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that PBu3 induces the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins and a decrease in acetyl-CoA concentration in PBu3-treated HeLa cells. This indicates that PBu3 can promote the acetyltransfer reaction between acetyl-CoA and mitochondrial proteins in living cells. PBu3-induced acetylation gradually reduced mitochondrial ATP concentrations in HeLa cells without changing the cytoplasmic ATP concentration, suggesting that PBu3 mainly affects mitochondrial functions. In addition, pyruvate, which is converted into acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and transiently increases ATP concentrations in the absence of PBu3, elicited a further decrease in mitochondrial ATP concentrations in the presence of PBu3. Moreover, the application and removal of PBu3 reversibly alternated mitochondrial fragmentation and elongation. These results indicate that PBu3 enhances acetyltransfer reactions in mitochondria and modulates mitochondrial functions in living cells. PMID:27374857

  10. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  11. Functional Analyses of Two Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthetases in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghoon; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Min, Kyunghun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2011-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a crucial metabolite for energy metabolism and biosynthetic pathways and is produced in various cellular compartments with spatial and temporal precision. Our previous study on ATP citrate lyase (ACL) in Gibberella zeae revealed that ACL-dependent acetyl-CoA production is important for histone acetylation, especially in sexual development, but is not involved in lipid synthesis. In this study, we deleted additional acetyl-CoA synthetic genes, the acetyl-CoA synthetases (ACS genes ACS1 and ACS2), to identify alternative acetyl-CoA production mechanisms for ACL. The ACS1 deletion resulted in a defect in sexual development that was mainly due to a reduction in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol production, which is required for perithecium development and maturation. Another ACS coding gene, ACS2, has accessorial functions for ACS1 and has compensatory functions for ACL as a nuclear acetyl-CoA producer. This study showed that acetate is readily generated during the entire life cycle of G. zeae and has a pivotal role in fungal metabolism. Because ACSs are components of the pyruvate-acetaldehyde-acetate pathway, this fermentation process might have crucial roles in various physiological processes for filamentous fungi. PMID:21666077

  12. Per-O-acetylation of cellulose in dimethyl sulfoxide with catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-04-16

    Cellulose acetylation was investigated in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with isopropenyl acetate (IPA) as acetylating reagent and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as catalyst at 70-130 °C for 3-12 h. The degree of substitution (DS) of acetylated cellulose was comparatively determined by titration and ¹H NMR and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The results indicated that per-O-acetylation was achieved at >90 °C for a relatively long duration. The three well-resolved peaks of carbonyl carbons in ¹³C NMR spectra also provided evidence of per-O-acetylation. The solubility of cellulose acetates in common organic solvents was examined, and the result showed that chloroform can be an alternative choice as a solvent for fully acetylated cellulose formed in this study besides DMSO. The intrinsic viscosity of acetylated cellulose solution implied almost no degradation of cellulose during acetylation in DMSO except at higher temperature (130 °C) for a long time. PMID:24678805

  13. Requirements for Carnitine Shuttle-Mediated Translocation of Mitochondrial Acetyl Moieties to the Yeast Cytosol

    PubMed Central

    van Rossum, Harmen M.; Kozak, Barbara U.; Niemeijer, Matthijs S.; Dykstra, James C.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acid-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous studies indicate that carnitine shuttle-mediated export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the yeast cytosol does not occur in vivo. This apparent unidirectionality was investigated by constitutively expressing genes encoding carnitine shuttle-related proteins in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain, in which cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthesis could be switched off by omitting lipoic acid from growth media. Laboratory evolution of this strain yielded mutants whose growth on glucose, in the absence of lipoic acid, was l-carnitine dependent, indicating that in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the cytosol occurred via the carnitine shuttle. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was identified as the predominant source of acetyl-CoA in the evolved strains. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (MCT1), nuclear-mitochondrial communication (RTG2), and encoding a carnitine acetyltransferase (YAT2). Introduction of these mutations into the nonevolved parental strain enabled l-carnitine-dependent growth on glucose. This study indicates intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA concentration and constitutive expression of carnitine shuttle genes as key factors in enabling in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units via the carnitine shuttle. PMID:27143389

  14. Effects of acetylation on the emulsifying properties of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjun; Hu, Xinzhong; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen

    2016-06-25

    In the present study, polysaccharides extracted from Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. seeds (ASKP) were acetylated to improve the emulsifying properties of the macromolecules. Several methods were applied for the acetylation purpose, among which the acetic anhydride-pyridine method with formamide as solvent was found to be the most effective one. Acetylated ASKPs with various degree of substitution (DS) were successfully produced and structurally characterized using HPSEC-MALS, FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques in this study. Results showed that acetylation treatment could cause the degradation of ASKP. Moreover, with the increase of DS, both the molecular weight and radius of gyration increased, as well as the molecular conformation trended to be more compact. Low DS (DS: 0.04 and 0.13) conferred acetylated ASKP a lower viscosity than that of ASKP. With the increase of DS, the viscosity of acetylated ASKPs increased and exceeded that of ASKP. Compared with ASKP, acetylated ASKPs could reduce the surface tension to a greater extent and demonstrated a much smaller droplet size (ZD) in an oil/water emulsion system. Acetylated ASKPs were capable of stabilizing the oil/water emulsion for 3 days at 60°C, whose performance was as good as that of gum acacia. In conclusion, such a hydrophobic modification on ASKP conferred it better emulsifying properties. PMID:27083845

  15. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in biosynthesis of antibiotics in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Guangyuan; Song, Limin; Lv, Binna; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, a Gram-positive bacterium, is very effective for the control of plant pathogens. However, very little is known about the function of lysine acetylation in this organism. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in B. amyloliquefaciens through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC−MS/MS. Overall, we identified 3268 lysine acetylation sites in 1254 proteins, which account for 32.9% of the total proteins in this bacterium. Till date, this is the highest ratio of acetylated proteins that have been identified in bacteria. Acetylated proteins are associated with a variety of biological processes and a large fraction of these proteins are involved in metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, we found that about 71.1% (27/38) and 78.6% (22/28) of all the proteins tightly related to the synthesis of three types of pepketides and five families of lipopeptides were acetylated, respectively. These findings suggest that lysine acetylation plays a critical role in the regulation of antibiotics biosynthesis. These data serves as an important resource for further elucidation of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in B. amyloliquefaciens. PMID:26822828

  16. Lysine acetylation stabilizes SP2 protein in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Chengcheng; Sheng, Qing; Jiang, Caiying; Chen, Qin; Lv, Zhengbing; Yao, Juming; Nie, Zuoming

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a vital post-translational modification that plays an important role in many cellular processes in organisms. In the present study, the nutrient storage proteins in hemolymph were first found to be highly acetylated-particularly SP2 protein, which contains 20 potential Kac sites. Further results confirmed that lysine acetylation could stabilize and up-regulate the protein level of anti-apoptosis protein SP2, thereby improving the survival of H2O2-treated BmN cells and suppressing the apoptosis induced by H2O2. The potential mechanism involved in the inhibition of ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation by crosstalk between lysine acetylation and ubiquitination. Our results showed that the increase in the acetylation level by TSA could decrease the ubiquitination and improve the protein level of SP2, indicating that lysine acetylation could influence the SP2 protein level through competition between ubiquitination and the suppression of ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, thereby stabilizing the protein. SP2 is a major nutrient storage protein from hemolymph for amino acid storage and utilization. The crosstalk between lysine acetylation and ubiquitination of SP2 might imply an important role of lysine acetylation for nutrient storage and utilization in silkworm. PMID:27374983

  17. Acetylation of RNA Processing Proteins and Cell Cycle Proteins in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Carol; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Huang, Feilei; Pan, Jing; Josic, Djuro; Yu-Lee, Li-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Mitosis is a highly regulated process in which errors can lead to genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. During this phase of the cell cycle, transcription is silent and RNA translation is inhibited. Thus, mitosis is largely driven by posttranslational modification of proteins, including phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation. Here, we show that protein acetylation is prevalent during mitosis. To identify proteins that are acetylated, we synchronized HeLa cells in early prometaphase and immunoprecipitated lysine-acetylated proteins with anti-acetyl-lysine antibody. The immunoprecipitated proteins were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These include proteins involved in RNA translation, RNA processing, cell cycle regulation, transcription, chaperone function, DNA damage repair, metabolism, immune response and cell structure. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analyses confirmed that two RNA processing proteins, eIF4G and RNA helicase A, and several cell cycle proteins, including APC1, anillin and NudC, were acetylated in mitosis. We further showed that acetylation of APC1 and NudC was enhanced by apicidin treatment, suggesting that their acetylation was regulated by histone deacetylase. Moreover, treating mitotic cells with apicidin or trichostatin A induced spindle abnormalities and cytokinesis failure. These studies suggest that protein acetylation/deacetylation is likely an important regulatory mechanism in mitosis. PMID:20812760

  18. A bioinformatics-based overview of protein Lys-Ne-acetylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among posttranslational modifications, there are some conceptual similarities between Lys-N'-acetylation and Ser/Thr/Tyr O-phosphorylation. Herein we present a bioinformatics-based overview of reversible protein Lys-acetylation, including some comparisons with reversible protein phosphorylation. T...

  19. Myc-dependent mitochondrial generation of acetyl-CoA contributes to fatty acid biosynthesis and histone acetylation during cell cycle entry.

    PubMed

    Morrish, Fionnuala; Noonan, Jhoanna; Perez-Olsen, Carissa; Gafken, Philip R; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Kelleher, Joanne; VanGilst, Marc; Hockenbery, David

    2010-11-19

    Cell reprogramming from a quiescent to proliferative state requires coordinate activation of multiple -omic networks. These networks activate histones, increase cellular bioenergetics and the synthesis of macromolecules required for cell proliferation. However, mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of these interconnected networks are not fully understood. The oncogene c-Myc (Myc) activates cellular metabolism and global chromatin remodeling. Here we tested for an interconnection between Myc regulation of metabolism and acetylation of histones. Using [(13)C(6)]glucose and a combination of GC/MS and LC/ESI tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the fractional incorporation of (13)C-labeled 2-carbon fragments into the fatty acid palmitate, and acetyl-lysines at the N-terminal tail of histone H4 in myc(-/-) and myc(+/+) Rat1A fibroblasts. Our data demonstrate that Myc increases mitochondrial synthesis of acetyl-CoA, as the de novo synthesis of (13)C-labeled palmitate was increased 2-fold in Myc-expressing cells. Additionally, Myc induced a forty percent increase in (13)C-labeled acetyl-CoA on H4-K16. This is linked to the capacity of Myc to increase mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA, as we show that mitochondria provide 50% of the acetyl groups on H4-K16. These data point to a key role for Myc in directing the interconnection of -omic networks, and in particular, epigenetic modification of proteins in response to proliferative signals. PMID:20813845

  20. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens. PMID:27412925

  1. Investigation of acetylated kapok fibers on the sorption of oil in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jintao; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

    2013-02-01

    Kapok fibers have been acetylated for oil spill cleanup in the aqueous environment. The structures of raw and acetylated kapok fiber were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Without severe damage to the lumen structures, the kapok fibers were successfully acetylated and the resulting fibers exhibited a better oil sorption capacity than raw fibers for diesel and soybean oil. Compared with high viscosity soybean oil, low viscosity diesel shows a better affinity to the surface of acetylated fibers. Sorption kinetics is fitted well by the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium data can be described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The results implied that acetylated kapok fiber can be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials. PMID:23596942

  2. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens. PMID:27412925

  3. Effect of Acetyl Group on Mechanical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan Nanocrystal: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Junhe; Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2016-01-01

    Chitin fiber is the load-bearing component in natural chitin-based materials. In these materials, chitin is always partially deacetylated to different levels, leading to diverse material properties. In order to understand how the acetyl group enhances the fracture resistance capability of chitin fiber, we constructed atomistic models of chitin with varied acetylation degree and analyzed the hydrogen bonding pattern, fracture, and stress-strain behavior of these models. We notice that the acetyl group can contribute to the formation of hydrogen bonds that can stabilize the crystalline structure. In addition, it is found that the specimen with a higher acetylation degree presents a greater resistance against fracture. This study describes the role of the functional group, acetyl groups, in crystalline chitin. Such information could provide preliminary understanding of nanomaterials when similar functional groups are encountered. PMID:26742033

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of native and acetylated wheat starches.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangli; Zhou, Xin; Sui, Zhongquan; Bao, Jinsong

    2016-10-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical and crystalline properties of the native and acetylated wheat starches were investigated. Peak, hot paste, cool paste and setback viscosities of both native and acetylated wheat starches decreased continuously and significantly with the increase of the irradiation dose, whereas breakdown viscosity increased after irradiation. However, gamma irradiation only exerted slight effects on thermal and retrogradation properties of both native and acetylated wheat starches. X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that acetylation modification had considerable effects on the molecular structure of wheat starch, and the crystallinity of both untreated and acetylated starches increased slightly with the increase of irradiation dose. However, the V-type crystallinity of amylose-lipid complex was not affected by gamma irradiation treatments with doses up to 9kGy. PMID:27344953

  5. HATs and HDACs in neurodegeneration: a tale of disconcerted acetylation homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, RN; Pahan, K

    2007-01-01

    Gradual disclosure of the molecular basis of selective neuronal apoptosis during neurodegenerative diseases reveals active participation of acetylating and deacetylating agents during the process. Several studies have now successfully manipulated neuronal vulnerability by influencing the dose and enzymatic activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes regulating acetylation homeostasis within the nucleus, thus focusing on the importance of balanced acetylation status in neuronal vitality. It is now increasingly becoming clear that acetylation balance is greatly impaired during neurodegenerative conditions. Herein, we attempt to illuminate molecular means by which such impairment is manifested and how the compromised acetylation homeostasis is intimately coupled to neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of reinstating the HAT–HDAC balance to ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:16167067

  6. Histone octamer acetylation affects the free energy of nucleosome formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Alex; Manohar, Mridula; Edon, Annick; Nakkula, Robin; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nucleosomes, histone octamer-DNA complexes, form the fundamental repeating units of eukaryotic chromatin. Numerous post-translational modifications of histone octamers are found in vivo and are known to play roles in gene regulation and DNA repair, but the molecular functions of these modifications are not well understood. In this study we consider the effects of acetylating histone protein H3 residues Lys^115 and Lys^122. These modifications reduce the positive surface charge of the histone octamer at contact points with the negatively charged DNA phosphate backbone and add steric bulk in the dyad region. We report results from competitive reconstitutions that show the free energy of nucleosome formation between wild-type and modified histone octamer binding to a strong nucleosome positioning sequence is reduced. These results suggest that these modifications may be involved in nucleosome assembly and disassembly.

  7. Acetylated Hyaluronic Acid: Enhanced Bioavailability and Biological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Saturnino, Carmela; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Puoci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a macropolysaccharidic component of the extracellular matrix, is common to most species and it is found in many sites of the human body, including skin and soft tissue. Not only does HA play a variety of roles in physiologic and in pathologic events, but it also has been extensively employed in cosmetic and skin-care products as drug delivery agent or for several biomedical applications. The most important limitations of HA are due to its short half-life and quick degradation in vivo and its consequently poor bioavailability. In the aim to overcome these difficulties, HA is generally subjected to several chemical changes. In this paper we obtained an acetylated form of HA with increased bioavailability with respect to the HA free form. Furthermore, an improved radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity has been evidenced, respectively, on ABTS radical cation and murine monocyte/macrophage cell lines (J774.A1). PMID:25114930

  8. Toxoplasma histone acetylation remodelers as novel drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Laura; Jeffers, Victoria; Bogado, Silvina S; Dalmasso, Maria C; Sullivan, William J; Angel, Sergio O

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of neurological birth defects and a serious opportunistic pathogen. The authors and others have found that Toxoplasma uses a unique nucleosome composition supporting a fine gene regulation together with other factors. Post-translational modifications in histones facilitate the establishment of a global chromatin environment and orchestrate DNA-related biological processes. Histone acetylation is one of the most prominent post-translational modifications influencing gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases have been intensively studied as potential drug targets. In particular, histone deacetylase inhibitors have activity against apicomplexan parasites, underscoring their potential as a new class of antiparasitic compounds. In this review, we summarize what is known about Toxoplasma histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases, and discuss the inhibitors studied to date. Finally, the authors discuss the distinct possibility that the unique nucleosome composition of Toxoplasma, which harbors a nonconserved H2Bv variant histone, might be targeted in novel therapeutics directed against this parasite. PMID:23199404

  9. Acetylated flavonoid glycosides potentiating NGF action from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yushan; Chen, Xigui; Satake, Masayuki; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-04-01

    Three new acetylated flavonoid glycosides, 5,6,4'-trihydroxyflavone 7-O-alpha-L-2,3-di-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-3-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-2,3-di-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from Scoparia dulcis together with the known compound eugenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 showed an enhancing activity of nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. PMID:15104516

  10. Acetylated dammarane-type bisdesmosides from Combretum inflatum.

    PubMed

    Williams, Russell B; Norman, Vanessa L; Goering, Matt G; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Eldridge, Gary R; Starks, Courtney M

    2013-09-27

    The first study of the chemical constituents of Combretum inflatum has resulted in the isolation of seven new acetylated dammarane-type bisdesmosides (1-7). Their structures were determined from microgram quantities on hand using Bruker BioSpin TCI 1.7 mm MicroCryoProbe technology, ESIMS, and comparison to data found in the literature. Compounds 1-7 were screened for inhibition of an Escherichia coli strain UTI89 biofilm, MRSA inhibition, and cytotoxicity in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells. Compounds 3-7 reduced the growth of MRSA at 16 μg/mL by 71-45%, and compound 7 had an IC₅₀ value of 3.9 μM in NCI-H460. PMID:23978065

  11. Mechanism of the lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl coenzyme A: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:..cap alpha..-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase is a lysosomal membrane enzyme, deficient in the genetic disease Sanfilippo C syndrome. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to terminal ..cap alpha..-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate within the organelle. The reaction mechanism was examined using high purified lysosomal membranes from rat liver and human fibroblasts. The N-acetyltransferase reaction is optimal above pH 5.5 and a 2-3 fold stimulation of activity is observed in the presence of 0.1% taurodeoxycholate. Double reciprocal analysis and product inhibition studies indicate that the enzyme works by a Di-Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism. The binding of acetyl-CoA to the enzyme is measured by exchange label from (/sup 3/H)CoA to acetyl-CoA, and is optimal at pH's above 7.0. The acetyl-enzyme intermediate is formed by incubating membranes with (/sup 3/H)acetyl-CoA. The acetyl group can be transferred to glucosamine, forming (/sup 3/H)N-acetylglucosamine; the transfer is optimal between pH 4 and 5. Lysosomal membranes from Sanfilippo C fibroblasts confirm that these half reactions carried out by the N-acetyltransferase. The enzyme is inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and diethylpyrocarbonate, indicating that a histidine is involved in the reaction. These results suggest that the histidine residue is at the active site of the enzyme. The properties of the N-acetyltransferase in the membrane, the characterization of the enzyme kinetics, the chemistry of a histidine mediated acetylation and the pH difference across the lysosomal membrane all support a transmembrane acetylation mechanism.

  12. Alterations of the degree of xylan acetylation in Arabidopsis xylan mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanhui; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide in secondary walls of dicot plants and one of its structural features is the high degree of acetylation of xylosyl residues. In Arabidopsis, about 60% of xylosyl residues in xylan are acetylated and the biochemical mechanisms controlling xylan acetylation are largely unknown. A recent report by Yuan et al. (2013) revealed the essential role of a DUF231 domain-containing protein, ESKIMO1 (ESK1), in xylan acetylation in Arabidopsis as the esk1 mutation caused specific reductions in the degree of xylan 2-O or 3-O-monoacetylation and in the activity of xylan acetyltransferase. Interestingly, the esk1 mutation also resulted in an elevation of glucuronic acid (GlcA) substitutions in xylan. Since GlcA substitutions in xylan occur at the O-2 position of xylosyl residues, it is plausible that the increase in GlcA substitutions in the esk1 mutant is attributed to the reduction in acetylation at O-2 of xylosyl residues, which renders more O-2 positions available for GlcA substitutions. Here, we investigated the effect of removal of GlcA substitutions on the degree of xylan acetylation. We found that a complete loss of GlcA substitutions in the xylan of the gux1/2/3 triple mutant led to a significant increase in the degree of xylan acetylation, indicating that xylan acetyltransferases and glucuronyltransferases compete with each other for xylosyl residues for their acetylation or GlcA substitutions in planta. In addition, detailed structure analysis of xylan from the rwa1/2/3/4 quadruple mutant revealed that it had a uniform reduction of acetyl substitutions at different positions of the xylosyl residues, which is consistent with the proposed role of RWAs as acetyl coenzyme A transporters. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:24518588

  13. The acetyl group deficit at the onset of contraction in ischaemic canine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul A; Loxham, Susan J G; Poucher, Simon M; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2002-10-15

    Considerable debate surrounds the identity of the precise cellular site(s) of inertia that limit the contribution of mitochondrial ATP resynthesis towards a step increase in workload at the onset of muscular contraction. By detailing the relationship between canine gracilis muscle energy metabolism and contractile function during constant-flow ischaemia, in the absence (control) and presence of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation by dichloroacetate, the present study examined whether there is a period at the onset of contraction when acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) availability limits mitochondrial ATP resynthesis, i.e. whether a limitation in mitochondrial acetyl group provision exists. Secondly, assuming it does exist, we also aimed to identify the mechanism by which dichloroacetate overcomes this "acetyl group deficit". No increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation or acetyl group availability occurred during the first 20 s of contraction in the control condition, with strong trends for both acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine to actually decline (indicating the existence of an acetyl group deficit). Dichloroacetate increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation, acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine by approximately 20-fold (P < 0.01), approximately 3-fold (P < 0.01) and approximately 4-fold (P < 0.01), respectively, and overcame the acetyl group deficit at the onset of contraction. As a consequence, the reliance upon non-oxidative ATP resynthesis was reduced by approximately 40 % (P < 0.01) and tension development was increased by approximately 20 % (P < 0.05) following 5 min of contraction. The present study has demonstrated, for the first time, the existence of an acetyl group deficit at the onset of contraction and has confirmed the metabolic and functional benefits to be gained from overcoming this inertia. PMID:12381829

  14. Acetylated Lysozyme as Impurity in Lysozyme Crystals: Constant Distribution Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, B. R.; Chernov, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was acetylated to modify molecular charge keeping the molecular size and weight nearly constant. Two derivatives, A and B, more and less acetylated, respectively, were obtained, separated, purified and added to the solution from which crystals of tetragonal HEWL crystals were grown. Amounts of the A or B impurities added were 0.76, 0.38 and 0.1 milligram per millimeter while HEWL concentration were 20, 30 and 40 milligram per milliliter. The crystals grown in 18 experiments for each impurity were dissolved and quantities of A or B additives in these crystals were analyzed by cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography. All the data for each set of 18 samples with the different impurity and regular HEWL concentrations is well described by one distribution coefficient K = 2.15 plus or minus 0.13 for A and K = 3.42 plus or minus 0.25 for B. The observed independence of the distribution coefficient on both the impurity concentration and supersaturation is explained by the dilution model described in this paper. It shows that impurity adsorption and incorporation rate is proportional to the impurity concentration and that the growth rate is proportional to the crystallizing protein in solution. With the kinetic coefficient for crystallization, beta = 5.10(exp -7) centimeters per second, the frequency at which an impurity molecule near the growing interface irreversibly joins a molecular site on the crystal was found to be 3 1 per second, much higher than the average frequency for crystal molecules. For best quality protein crystals it is better to have low microheterogeneous protein impurity concentration and high supers aturation.

  15. Pro-autophagic polyphenols reduce the acetylation of cytoplasmic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pietrocola, Federico; Mariño, Guillermo; Lissa, Delphine; Vacchelli, Erika; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Zamzami, Naoufal; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol contained in red wine that has been amply investigated for its beneficial effects on organismal metabolism, in particular in the context of the so-called “French paradox,” i.e., the relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease exhibited by a population with a high dietary intake of cholesterol and saturated fats. At least part of the beneficial effect of resveratrol on human health stems from its capacity to promote autophagy by activating the NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1. However, the concentration of resveratrol found in red wine is excessively low to account alone for the French paradox. Here, we investigated the possibility that other mono- and polyphenols contained in red wine might induce autophagy while affecting the acetylation levels of cellular proteins. Phenolic compounds found in red wine, including anthocyanins (oenin), stilbenoids (piceatannol), monophenols (caffeic acid, gallic acid) glucosides (delphinidin, kuronamin, peonidin) and flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin), were all capable of stimulating autophagy, although with dissimilar potencies. Importantly, a robust negative correlation could be established between autophagy induction and the acetylation levels of cytoplasmic proteins, as determined by a novel immunofluorescence staining protocol that allows for the exclusion of nuclear components from the analysis. Inhibition of sirtuin 1 by both pharmacological and genetic means abolished protein deacetylation and autophagy as stimulated by resveratrol, but not by piceatannol, indicating that these compounds act through distinct molecular pathways. In support of this notion, resveratrol and piceatannol synergized in inducing autophagy as well as in promoting cytoplasmic protein deacetylation. Our results highlight a cause-effect relationship between the deacetylation of cytoplasmic proteins and autophagy induction by red wine components. PMID:23070521

  16. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveals Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Heidi A; Pelletier, Dale A; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein acetylation is widespread in prokaryotes. Results: Six new acyl-CoA synthetases whose activities are controlled by acetylation were identified, and their substrate preference established. A new protein acetyltransferase was also identified and its substrate specificity determined. Conclusion: Protein acetyltransferases acetylate a conserved lysine residue in protein substrates. Significance: The R. palustris Pat enzyme specifically acetylates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases and regulates fatty acid metabolism.

  17. 40 CFR 180.1089 - Poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine; exemption from the requirement of tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1089 Poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine; exemption from the requirement... biochemical nematicide poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine on a variety of agricultural crops....

  18. Developmental activation of the lysozyme gene in chicken macrophage cells is linked to core histone acetylation at its enhancer elements.

    PubMed

    Myers, Fiona A; Lefevre, Pascal; Mantouvalou, Evangelia; Bruce, Kimberley; Lacroix, Claire; Bonifer, Constanze; Thorne, Alan W; Crane-Robinson, Colyn

    2006-01-01

    Native chromatin IP assays were used to define changes in core histone acetylation at the lysozyme locus during developmental maturation of chicken macrophages and stimulation to high-level expression by lipo-polysaccharide. In pluripotent precursors the lysozyme gene (Lys) is inactive and there is no acetylation of core histones at the gene, its promoter or at the upstream cis-control elements. In myeloblasts, where there is a very low level of Lys expression, H4 acetylation appears at the cis-control elements but not at the Lys gene or its promoter: neither H3 nor H2B become significantly acetylated in myeloblasts. In mature macrophages, Lys expression increases 5-fold: H4, H2B and H2A.Z are all acetylated at the cis-control elements but H3 remains unacetylated except at the -2.4 S silencer. Stimulation with LPS increases Lys expression a further 10-fold: this is accompanied by a rise in H3 acetylation throughout the cis-control elements; H4 and H2B acetylation remain substantial but acetylation at the Lys gene and its promoter remains low. Acetylation is thus concentrated at the cis-control elements, not at the Lys gene or its immediate promoter. H4 acetylation precedes H3 acetylation during development and H3 acetylation is most directly linked to high-level Lys expression. PMID:16914441

  19. Extensive lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways and parasite-specific functions during Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jun; Lawrence, Matthew; Jeffers, Victoria; Zhao, Fangqing; Parker, Daniel; Ge, Ying; Sullivan, William J.; Cui, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Lysine acetylation has emerged as a major posttranslational modification involved in diverse cellular functions. Using a combination of immunoisolation and liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry, we determined the first acetylome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during its active proliferation in erythrocytes with 421 acetylation sites identified in 230 proteins. Lysine-acetylated proteins are distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, and apicoplast. Whereas occurrence of lysine acetylation in a similarly wide range of cellular functions suggests conservation of lysine acetylation through evolution, the Plasmodium acetylome also revealed significant divergence from those of other eukaryotes and even the closely-related parasite Toxoplasma. This divergence is reflected in the acetylation of a large number of Plasmodium-specific proteins and different acetylation sites in evolutionarily conserved acetylated proteins. A prominent example is the abundant acetylation of proteins in the glycolysis pathway but relatively deficient acetylation of enzymes in the citrate cycle. Using specific transgenic lines and inhibitors, we determined that the acetyltransferase PfMYST and lysine deacetylases play important roles in regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic protein acetylation. The Plasmodium acetylome provides an exciting start point for further exploration of functions of acetylation in the biology of malaria parasites. PMID:23796209

  20. Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Sirisha; Grossmann, Ruth E; Brenner, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Hormone systems evolved over 500 million years of animal natural history to motivate feeding behavior and convert excess calories to fat. These systems produced vertebrates, including humans, who are famine-resistant but sensitive to obesity in environments of persistent overnutrition. We looked for cell-intrinsic metabolic features, which might have been subject to an evolutionary drive favoring lipogenesis. Mitochondrial protein acetylation appears to be such a system. Because mitochondrial acetyl-coA is the central mediator of fuel oxidation and is saturable, this metabolite is postulated to be the fundamental indicator of energy excess, which imprints a memory of nutritional imbalances by covalent modification. Fungal and invertebrate mitochondria have highly acetylated mitochondrial proteomes without an apparent mitochondrially targeted protein lysine acetyltransferase. Thus, mitochondrial acetylation is hypothesized to have evolved as a nonenzymatic phenomenon. Because the pKa of a nonperturbed Lys is 10.4 and linkage of a carbonyl carbon to an ε amino group cannot be formed with a protonated Lys, we hypothesize that acetylation occurs on residues with depressed pKa values, accounting for the propensity of acetylation to hit active sites and suggesting that regulatory Lys residues may have been under selective pressure to avoid or attract acetylation throughout animal evolution. In addition, a shortage of mitochondrial oxaloacetate under ketotic conditions can explain why macronutrient insufficiency also produces mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Reduced mitochondrial activity during times of overnutrition and undernutrition would improve fitness by virtue of resource conservation. Micronutrient insufficiency is predicted to exacerbate mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Nicotinamide riboside and Sirt3 activity are predicted to relieve mitochondrial inhibition. PMID:24050258

  1. Aspirin inhibits glucose‑6‑phosphate dehydrogenase activity in HCT 116 cells through acetylation: Identification of aspirin-acetylated sites.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, and generates ribose sugars, which are required for nucleic acid synthesis, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for neutralization of oxidative stress. The expression of G6PD is elevated in several types of tumor, including colon, breast and lung cancer, and has been implicated in cancer cell growth. Our previous study demonstrated that exposure of HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells to aspirin caused acetylation of G6PD, and this was associated with a decrease in its enzyme activity. In the present study, this observation was expanded to HT‑29 colorectal cancer cells, in order to compare aspirin‑mediated acetylation of G6PD and its activity between HCT 116 and HT‑29 cells. In addition, the present study aimed to determine the acetylation targets of aspirin on recombinant G6PD to provide an insight into the mechanisms of inhibition. The results demonstrated that the extent of G6PD acetylation was significantly higher in HCT 116 cells compared with in HT‑29 cells; accordingly, a greater reduction in G6PD enzyme activity was observed in the HCT 116 cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of aspirin‑acetylated G6PD (isoform a) revealed that aspirin acetylated a total of 14 lysine residues, which were dispersed throughout the length of the G6PD protein. One of the important amino acid targets of aspirin included lysine 235 (K235, in isoform a) and this corresponds to K205 in isoform b, which has previously been identified as being important for catalysis. Acetylation of G6PD at several sites, including K235 (K205 in isoform b), may mediate inhibition of G6PD activity, which may contribute to the ability of aspirin to exert anticancer effects through decreased synthesis of ribose sugars and NADPH. PMID:27356773

  2. Mechanism and Regulation of Acetylated Histone Binding by the Tandem PHD Finger of DPF3b

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lei; Zhang, Qiang; Li, SiDe; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Walsh, Martin J.; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Histone lysine acetylation and methylation are important during gene transcription in a chromatin context1,2. Our knowledge about the types of protein modules that can interact with acetyl-lysine has so far been limited to bromodomains1. Recently, a tandem PHD (plant homeodomain) finger3 (PHD12) of human DPF3b, which functions in association with the BAF chromatin remodelling complex to initiate transcription in the heart and muscle development, was reported to bind histones H3 and H4 in an acetylation sensitive manner4, making it a first alternative to bromodomains for acetyl-lysine binding5. Here, we report the structural mechanism of acetylated histone binding by the double PHD fingers of DPF3b. Our three-dimensional solution structures and biochemical analysis of DPF3b illuminate the molecular basis of the integrated tandem PHD finger, which acts as one functional unit in the sequence-specific recognition of lysine 14-acetylated histone H3 (H3K14ac). Whereas the interaction with H3 is promoted by acetylation at lysine 14, it is inhibited by methylation at lysine 4, and these opposing influences are important during transcriptional activation of DPF3b target genes Pitx2 and Jmjd1c. Binding of this tandem protein module to chromatin can thus be regulated by different histone modifications during the initiation of gene transcription. PMID:20613843

  3. Acetylation at lysine 71 inactivates superoxide dismutase 1 and sensitizes cancer cells to genotoxic agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junyan; Xie, Zuoquan; Sun, Wenyi; Luo, Cheng; Ding, Jian; Yuan, Shengtao; Geng, Meiyu; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by a high dependency on antioxidant enzymes to cope with the elevated rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Impairing antioxidant capacity in cancer cells disturbs the ROS homeostasis and exposes cancer cells to massive oxidative stress. In this study, we have discovered that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a major player in maintaining the cellular redox status, was acetylated at lysine 71. This acetylation, which was primarily deacetylated by Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), suppressed the enzymatic activity of SOD1 via disrupting its association with copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS). More importantly, genotoxic agents, such as camptothecin (CPT), induced SOD1 acetylation by disrupting its binding with SIRT1. CPT-induced SOD1 acetylation was stimulated by its provoked ROS, suggesting a positive feedback loop, in which ROS per se impairs the antioxidative defence of cancer cells and reinforces oxidative stress stimulated by anticancer agents. The intrinsic abundance of SOD1 acetylation varied among cancer cells, and high level of SOD1 acetylation was correlated with elevated sensitivity to CPT. Together, our findings gained mechanistic insights into how cytotoxic agents fine tune the intracellular ROS homeostasis to strengthen their anticancer effects, and suggested SOD1 acetylation as a candidate biomarker for predicting response to CPT-based chemotherapy. PMID:26008972

  4. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A.; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J.; Poirier, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as “readers,” which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  5. Improved Species-Specific Lysine Acetylation Site Prediction Based on a Large Variety of Features Set

    PubMed Central

    Wuyun, Qiqige; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yanping; Ruan, Jishou; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification. It plays a vital role in numerous essential biological processes, such as gene expression and metabolism, and is related to some human diseases. To fully understand the regulatory mechanism of acetylation, identification of acetylation sites is first and most important. However, experimental identification of protein acetylation sites is often time consuming and expensive. Therefore, the alternative computational methods are necessary. Here, we developed a novel tool, KA-predictor, to predict species-specific lysine acetylation sites based on support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We incorporated different types of features and employed an efficient feature selection on each type to form the final optimal feature set for model learning. And our predictor was highly competitive for the majority of species when compared with other methods. Feature contribution analysis indicated that HSE features, which were firstly introduced for lysine acetylation prediction, significantly improved the predictive performance. Particularly, we constructed a high-accurate structure dataset of H.sapiens from PDB to analyze the structural properties around lysine acetylation sites. Our datasets and a user-friendly local tool of KA-predictor can be freely available at http://sourceforge.net/p/ka-predictor. PMID:27183223

  6. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2015-12-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as "readers," which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  7. Impact of Cell Wall Acetylation on Corn Stover Hydrolysis by Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. J.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of variously pretreated corn stover samples showed neutral to mildly acidic pretreatments were more effective at removing xylan from corn stover and more likely to maintain the acetyl to xylopyranosyl ratios present in untreated material than were alkaline treatments. Retention of acetyl groups in the residual solids resulted in greater resistance to hydrolysis by endoxylanase alone, although the synergistic combination of endoxylanase and acetyl xylan esterase enzymes permitted higher xylan conversions to be observed. Acetyl xylan esterase alone did little to improve hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes, although a direct relationship was observed between the enzymatic removal of acetyl groups and improvements in the enzymatic conversion of xylan present in substrates. In all cases, effective xylan conversions were found to significantly improve glucan conversions achievable by cellulolytic enzymes. Additionally, acetyl and xylan removal not only enhanced the respective initial rates of xylan and glucan conversion, but also the overall extents of conversion. This work emphasizes the necessity for xylanolytic enzymes during saccharification processes and specifically for the optimization of acetyl esterase and xylanase synergies when biomass processes include milder pretreatments, such as hot water or sulfite steam explosion.

  8. Improved Species-Specific Lysine Acetylation Site Prediction Based on a Large Variety of Features Set.

    PubMed

    Wuyun, Qiqige; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yanping; Ruan, Jishou; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification. It plays a vital role in numerous essential biological processes, such as gene expression and metabolism, and is related to some human diseases. To fully understand the regulatory mechanism of acetylation, identification of acetylation sites is first and most important. However, experimental identification of protein acetylation sites is often time consuming and expensive. Therefore, the alternative computational methods are necessary. Here, we developed a novel tool, KA-predictor, to predict species-specific lysine acetylation sites based on support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We incorporated different types of features and employed an efficient feature selection on each type to form the final optimal feature set for model learning. And our predictor was highly competitive for the majority of species when compared with other methods. Feature contribution analysis indicated that HSE features, which were firstly introduced for lysine acetylation prediction, significantly improved the predictive performance. Particularly, we constructed a high-accurate structure dataset of H.sapiens from PDB to analyze the structural properties around lysine acetylation sites. Our datasets and a user-friendly local tool of KA-predictor can be freely available at http://sourceforge.net/p/ka-predictor. PMID:27183223

  9. Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis by Acetylation of PKM and PEPCK

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Y.; Lei, Q-Y.; Zhao, S.; Guan, K-L.

    2016-01-01

    Glycolysis is a catabolic process of glucose hydrolysis needed for energy and biosynthetic intermediates, whereas gluconeogenesis is a glucose production process important for maintaining blood glucose levels during starvation. Although they share many enzymes, these two processes are not simply the reverse of each other and are instead reciprocally regulated. Two key enzymes that regulate irreversible steps in these two processes are pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK), which catalyze the last and first step of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, respectively, and are both regulated by lysine acetylation. Acetylation at Lys305 of the PKM (muscle form of PK) decreases its activity and also targets it for chaperone-mediated autophagy and subsequent lysosome degradation. Acetylation of PEPCK, on the other hand, targets it for ubiquitylation by the HECT E3 ligase, UBR5/EDD1, and subsequent proteasomal degradation. These studies established a model in which acetylation regulates metabolic enzymes via different mechanisms and also revealed cross talk between acetylation and ubiquitination. Given that most metabolic enzymes are acetylated, we propose that acetylation is a major posttranslational modifier that regulates cellular metabolism. PMID:22096030

  10. Acetylation within the First 17 Residues of Huntingtin Exon 1 Alters Aggregation and Lipid Binding.

    PubMed

    Chaibva, Maxmore; Jawahery, Sudi; Pilkington, Albert W; Arndt, James R; Sarver, Olivia; Valentine, Stephen; Matysiak, Silvina; Legleiter, Justin

    2016-07-26

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) domain near the N-terminus of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Expanded polyQ leads to htt aggregation. The first 17 amino acids (Nt(17)) in htt comprise a lipid-binding domain that undergoes a number of posttranslational modifications that can modulate htt toxicity and subcellular localization. As there are three lysines within Nt(17), we evaluated the impact of lysine acetylation on htt aggregation in solution and on model lipid bilayers. Acetylation of htt-exon1(51Q) and synthetic truncated htt-exon 1 mimicking peptides (Nt(17)-Q35-P10-KK) was achieved using a selective covalent label, sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHSA). With this treatment, all three lysine residues (K6, K9, and K15) in Nt(17) were significantly acetylated. N-terminal htt acetylation retarded fibril formation in solution and promoted the formation of larger globular aggregates. Acetylated htt also bound lipid membranes and disrupted the lipid bilayer morphology less aggressively compared with the wild-type. Computational studies provided mechanistic insights into how acetylation alters the interaction of Nt(17) with lipid membranes. Our results highlight that N-terminal acetylation influences the aggregation of htt and its interaction with lipid bilayers. PMID:27463137

  11. Study of acetylation on Ser/Thr/Tyr/Lys, and trimethylation on Lys using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Ball, Haydn L.

    2009-03-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTM) corresponding to a gain in mass of 42 Da are of increasing interest. It has been widely recognized that acetylation and trimethylation on Lys regulates gene transcription and silencing. In addition, it was recently discovered that acetylation of Ser and Thr residues on a signaling kinase can block its activation. In this paper, three series of model peptides were chemically synthesized to generate comparative MS data. Electrospray collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry was used to characterize the fragmentation pattern of acetylation on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues. In separate experiments, the fragmentation pattern and efficiency were studied for acetylation and trimethylation on Lys. Our results confirmed those previously reported, that a characteristic immonium ion at m/z 126 corresponds to an acetylated Lys, and we further differentiated acetylation from trimethylation by their effects on peptide fragmentation efficiency. With the same primary sequence, a trimethylated peptide requires higher energy to fragment compared to the acetylated analogue. For peptides containing acetylated Ser, the y-60 and b-60 ions are commonly observed when the acetylation site is at, or close to, the C-terminus or N-terminus of the daughter ion, respectively; for acetylated Thr, in addition to y-60 and b-60 ions, y-42 ions are usually dominant. The loss of 42 Da and 60 Da can correspond to the loss of CH2CO through deacetylation and CH3COOH through [beta]-elimination, respectively. Meanwhile, loss of 42 Da and 18 Da individually can also contribute to the loss of 60 Da. When peptide containing acetylated Tyr/Lys is fragmented, the acetyl group remains attached to their respective side-chains. The fragmentation pattern was similar whether the acetylation site was close to C-terminus or N-terminus of the peptide. This study provides a better understanding of the MSMS fragmentation character of peptides with acetylation on Ser, Thr

  12. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  13. Aspirin-mediated acetylation induces structural alteration and aggregation of bovine pancreatic insulin.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Reza; Taheri, Behnaz; Alavi, Parnian; Shahsavani, Mohammad Bagher; Asadi, Zahra; Ghahramani, Maryam; Niazi, Ali; Alavianmehr, Mohammad Mehdi; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The simple aggregation of insulin under various chemical and physical stresses is still an important challenge for both pharmaceutical production and clinical formulation. In the storage form, this protein is subjected to various chemical modifications which alter its physicochemical and aggregation properties. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) which is the most widely used medicine worldwide has been indicated to acetylate a large number of proteins both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, as insulin treated with aspirin at 37°C, a significant level of acetylation was observed by flourescamine and o-phthalaldehyde assay. Also, different spectroscopic techniques, gel electrophoresis, and microscopic assessment were applied to compare the structural variation and aggregation/fibrillation propensity among acetylated and non-acetylated insulin samples. The results of spectroscopic assessments elucidate that acetylation induces insulin unfolding which is accompanied with the exposure of protein hydrophobic patches, a transition from alpha-helix to beta-sheet and increased propensity of the protein for aggregation. The kinetic studies propose that acetylation increases aggregation rate of insulin under both thermal and chemical stresses. Also, gel electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering experiments suggest that acetylation induces insulin oligomerization. Additionally, the results of Thioflavin T fluorescence study, Congo red absorption assessment, and microscopic analysis suggest that acetylation with aspirin enhances the process of insulin fibrillation. Overall, the increased susceptibility of acetylated insulin for aggregation may reflect the fact that this type of modification has significant structural destabilizing effect which finally makes the protein more vulnerable for pathogenic aggregation/fibrillation. PMID:25994118

  14. Aurora B is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation during mitosis in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fadri-Moskwik, Maria; Weiderhold, Kimberly N.; Deeraksa, Arpaporn; Chuang, Carol; Pan, Jing; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Protein acetylation has been implicated in playing an important role during mitotic progression. Aurora B kinase is known to play a critical role in mitosis. However, whether Aurora B is regulated by acetylation is not known. Using IP with an anti-acetyl lysine antibody, we identified Aurora B as an acetylated protein in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of HDAC3 or inhibiting HDAC3 deacetylase activity led to a significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) in Aurora B acetylation as compared to siLuc or vehicle-treated controls. Increased Aurora B acetylation is correlated with a 30% reduction in Aurora B kinase activity in vitro and resulted in significant defects in Aurora B-dependent mitotic processes, including kinetochore-microtubule attachment and chromosome congression. Furthermore, Aurora B transiently interacts with HDAC3 at the kinetochore-microtubule interface of congressing chromosomes during prometaphase. This window of interaction corresponded with a transient but significant reduction (P=0.02) in Aurora B acetylation during early mitosis. Together, these results indicate that Aurora B is more active in its deacetylated state and further suggest a new mechanism by which dynamic acetylation/deacetylation acts as a rheostat to fine-tune Aurora B activity during mitotic progression.—Fadri-Moskwik, M., Weiderhold, K. N., Deeraksa, A., Chuang, C., Pan, J., Lin, S.-H., Yu-Lee, L.-Y. Aurora B is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation during mitosis in prostate cancer cells. PMID:22751009

  15. Identification of Lysine Acetylation in Mycobacterium abscessus Using LC-MS/MS after Immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jintao; Wang, Changwei; Han, Yi; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Tian; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yang; Tan, Yaoju; Cai, Xinshan; Cao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Bangxing; Zhang, Buchang; Liu, Chunping; Tan, Shouyong; Zhang, Tianyu

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB), which manifests in the pulmonary system, is one of the neglected causes of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. Treatment against MAB is difficult, characterized by its intrinsic antibiotic drug resistance. Lysine acetylation can alter the physiochemical property of proteins in living organisms. This study aimed to determine if this protein post-translational modification (PTM) exists in a clinical isolate M. abscessus GZ002. We used the antiacetyl-lysine immunoprecipitation to enrich the low-abundant PTM proteins, followed by the LC-MS/MS analysis. The lysine acetylome of M. abscessus GZ002 was determined. There were 459 lysine acetylation sites found in 289 acetylated proteins. Lysine acetylation occurred in 5.87% of the M. abscessus GZ002 proteome, and at least 25% of them were growth essential. Aerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolic pathways of M. abscessus GZ002 were enriched with lysine acetylation. Through bioinformatics analysis, we identified four major acetyl motif logos (K(ac)Y, K(ac)F, K(ac)H, and DK(ac)). Further comparison of the reported M. tuberculosis (MTB) acetylomes and that of MAB GZ002 revealed several common features between these two species. The lysine residues of several antibiotic-resistance, virulence, and persistence-related proteins were acetylated in both MAB GZ002 and MTB. There were 51 identical acetylation sites in 37 proteins found in common between MAB GZ002 and MTB. Overall, we demonstrate a profile of lysine acetylation in MAB GZ002 proteome that shares similarities with MTB. Interventions that target at these conserved sections may be valuable as anti-NTM or anti-TB therapies. PMID:27323652

  16. Effects of methyl acetyl phosphate, a covalent antisickling agent, on the density profiles of sickle erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Yatco, E; Benjamin, L J; Manning, J M

    1992-07-01

    Methyl acetyl phosphate specifically acetylates valine-1, lysine-82, and lysine-144 in the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding cleft of hemoglobin S, thereby inhibiting its gelation (greater than 32 gm/dl) at pH 7.4. To extend these findings, the effect of methyl acetyl phosphate on the density of sickle cells has been evaluated by phthalate ester gradient centrifugation and by Larex-Percoll density centrifugation. After treatment with methyl acetyl phosphate (40% modification of the intracellular hemoglobin S), oxygenated sickle erythrocytes had a lowered density profile, as measured in a phthalate ester gradient. Thus 83% of untreated oxygenated sickle cells had densities greater than 1.098 gm/ml, whereas after treatment with methyl acetyl phosphate, 52% of the cells were in this density range. Under anaerobic conditions, methyl acetyl phosphate was even more effective in lowering cell density. For example, 50% of untreated deoxygenated cells had densities greater than 1.098 gm/ml, but none of the cells treated with methyl acetyl phosphate were this dense. For studies with Larex-Percoll density gradients, sickle erythrocytes were first separated into two fractions (densities greater than and less than 1.1 gm/ml) by Percoll-Hypaque centrifugation. The amount of oxygenated sickle cells exhibiting densities greater than 1.074 gm/ml decreased by about 32% on treatment with methyl acetyl phosphate. For deoxygenated sickle cells, treatment with methyl acetyl phosphate resulted in an average decrease of approximately 24% in the number of cells with densities greater than 1.074 gm/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1613320

  17. Meta-analysis of the relationship between slow acetylation of N-acetyl transferase 2 and the risk of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    An, Y; Li, H; Wang, K J; Liu, X H; Qiu, M X; Liao, Y; Huang, J L; Wang, X S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer is closely associated with exposure to aromatic amines, that can cause cancer only after metabolic activation regulated by N-acetyl transferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2). Many studies have indicated that slow acetylation of NAT2 increases the risk of bladder cancer. The major risk factor is tobacco smoke; however, some studies have failed to prove this. This study attempted to explore the correlation between NAT2 slow acetylation and bladder cancer risk through a meta-analysis of published case-control studies. Studies detecting NAT2 gene status in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane, EMchrane, CBM, and CNKI. We retrieved the data of cited articles and publications to identify and compare NAT2 gene in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls. The variables within and between the studies were also considered. The META module in the Stata v.6.0 software was used for data analysis. Twenty independent studies were enrolled in our meta-analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Individual differences in the bladder cancer susceptibility were, in part, attributed to the effect of carcinogens. The merged odds ratio of the effect of slow acetylation on bladder cancer was 1.31 (95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.55). In conclusion, NAT2 slow acetylation state was associated with bladder cancer risk, and was shown to modestly increase the risk of bladder cancer. PMID:26681036

  18. Inhibition by acetyl-CoA of hepatic carnitine acyltransferase and fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, K; Notar-Francesco, V J; Sriwatanakul, K

    1983-01-01

    At micromolar concentrations, acetyl-CoA inhibited hepatic carnitine acyltransferase activity and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The inhibitory effects were not nearly as potent on a molar basis as those of malonyl-CoA; nevertheless, the cytosolic concentrations of acetyl-CoA, as yet unknown, may be sufficient (greater than 30 microM) to curtail appreciably the mitochondrial transfer of long-chain acyl-CoA units and fatty acid oxidation. Hence acetyl-CoA may also partially regulate hepatic ketogenesis. PMID:6661211

  19. The "Gatekeeper" Residue Influences the Mode of Binding of Acetyl Indoles to Bromodomains.

    PubMed

    Unzue, Andrea; Zhao, Hongtao; Lolli, Graziano; Dong, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Zechner, Melanie; Dolbois, Aymeric; Caflisch, Amedeo; Nevado, Cristina

    2016-04-14

    Small-molecule hits for the bromodomains of CREBBP and BAZ2B have been identified by scaffold hopping followed by docking of a set of ∼200 compounds containing the acetyl indole scaffold. Chemical synthesis of nearly 30 derivatives has resulted in ligands of representatives of three subfamilies of human bromodomains with favorable ligand efficiency. The X-ray crystal structures of three different bromodomains (CREBBP, BAZ2B, and BRPF1b) in complex with acetyl indole derivatives reveal the influence of the gatekeeper residue on the orientation of small-molecule ligands in the acetyl lysine binding site. PMID:26982797

  20. Opposing effects of ketamine and acetyl L-carnitine on the serotonergic system of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Bonnie L.; Dumas, Melanie; Paule, Merle G.; Ali, Syed F.; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Studies show that ketamine is neurotoxic in developing mammals and zebrafish. In both mammals and zebrafish, acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR) has been shown to be protective against ketamine toxicity. Ketamine is known to modulate the serotonergic system in mammals. Here, we measured the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the embryos exposed to ketamine in the presence and absence of ALCAR. Ketamine, at lower doses, did not produce significant changes in the 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels in 3 dpf (day post-fertilization) embryos. However, 2 mM ketamine (internal embryo exposure levels comparable to human anesthetic plasma concentration) significantly reduced 5-HT level, and 5-HIAA was not detectable indicating that 5-HT metabolism was abolished. In the presence or absence of 2 mM ketamine, ALCAR by itself did not significantly alter 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels compared to the control. Ratios of metabolite/5-HT indicated that 2 mM ketamine inhibited 5-HT metabolism to 5-HIAA whereas lower doses (0.1–0.3 mM) of ketamine did not have any effect. ALCAR reversed the effects of 2 mM ketamine not only by restoring 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels but also 5-HT turnover rate to control levels. Whole mount immunohistochemical studies showed that 2 mM ketamine reduced the serotonergic area in the brain whereas ALCAR expanded it with increased axonal sprouting and branching. These results indicate that ketamine and ALCAR have opposing effects on the zebrafish serotonergic system. PMID:26365406

  1. Interactions between the nitrogen signal transduction protein PII and N-acetyl glutamate kinase in organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Burillo, Sergio; Luque, Ignacio; Fuentes, Inmaculada; Contreras, Asunción

    2004-06-01

    PII, one of the most conserved signal transduction proteins, is believed to be a key player in the coordination of nitrogen assimilation and carbon metabolism in bacteria, archaea, and plants. However, the identity of PII receptors remains elusive, particularly in photosynthetic organisms. Here we used yeast two-hybrid approaches to identify new PII receptors and to explore the extent of conservation of PII signaling mechanisms between eubacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes. Screening of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 libraries with PII as bait resulted in identification of N-acetyl glutamate kinase (NAGK), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of arginine. The integrity of Ser49, a residue conserved in PII proteins from organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis, appears to be essential for NAGK binding. The effect of glnB mutations on NAGK activity is consistent with positive regulation of NAGK by PII. Phylogenetic and yeast two-hybrid analyses strongly suggest that there was conservation of the NAGK-PII regulatory interaction in the evolution of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, providing insight into the function of eukaryotic PII-like proteins. PMID:15150219

  2. [Steroid receptors and mechanism of action of sex steroids].

    PubMed

    Guiochon-Mantel, A; Milgrom, E

    1999-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors define a large family of proteins. Recently, a new estradiol receptor has been identified. This discovery suggests the existence of a previously unrecognized pathway of estrogen signalling. Moreover, it implies important pharmacological consequences. Receptors activation induces the modulation of transcription of specific genes. Proteins involved in this effect have been identified: coactivators, corepressors and cointegrators. Their mechanism of action have been characterized. They modify histone acetylation of the corresponding promotor. Sex steroid receptors are located in the nucleus. This nuclear localization is in fact a dynamic situation, resulting from a continuous shuttling of the receptor between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Non genomic effects of steroids have also been described. PMID:10542957

  3. Computational study of the three-dimensional structure of N-acetyltransferase 2-acetyl coenzyme a complex.

    PubMed

    Oda, Akifumi; Kobayashi, Kana; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2010-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is one of the most important polymorphic drug-metabolizing enzymes and plays a significant role in individual differences of drug efficacies and/or side effects. Coenzyme A (CoA) is a cofactor in the experimentally determined crystal structure of NAT2, although the acetyl source of acetylation reactions catalyzed by NAT is not CoA, but rather acetyl CoA. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of NAT2, including acetyl CoA, was calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. By substituting acetyl CoA for CoA the amino acid residue Gly286, which is known to transform into a glutamate residue by NAT2*7A and NAT2*7B, comes close to the cofactor binding site. In addition, the binding pocket around the sulfur atom of acetyl CoA expanded in the NAT2-acetyl CoA complex. PMID:20930369

  4. Acetylation Targets the M2 Isoform of Pyruvate Kinase for Degradation through Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy and Promotes Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Lei; Li, Dong; Zhao, Di; Lin, Ruiting; Chu, Yajing; Zhang, Heng; Zha, Zhengyu; Liu, Ying; Li, Zi; Xu, Yanping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yiran; Xiong, Yue; Guan, Kun-Liang; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most tumor cells take up more glucose than normal cells but metabolize glucose via glycolysis even in the presence of normal levels of oxygen, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Tumor cells commonly express the embryonic M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) that may contribute to the metabolism shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis. Here we show that PKM2 is acetylated on lysine 305 and that this acetylation is stimulated by high glucose concentration. PKM2 K305 acetylation decreases PKM2 enzyme activity and promotes its lysosomal-dependent degradation via chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Acetylation increases PKM2 interaction with HSC70, a chaperone for CMA, and association with lysosomes. Ectopic expression of an acetylation mimetic K305Q mutant accumulates glycolytic intermediates and promotes cell proliferation and tumor growth. These results reveal an acetylation regulation of pyruvate kinase and the link between lysine acetylation and CMA. PMID:21700219

  5. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals oral Lactobacillus promotion of increases in brain GABA, N-acetyl aspartate and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Janik, Rafal; Thomason, Lynsie A M; Stanisz, Andrew M; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John; Stanisz, Greg J

    2016-01-15

    The gut microbiome has been shown to regulate the development and functions of the enteric and central nervous systems. Its involvement in the regulation of behavior has attracted particular attention because of its potential translational importance in clinical disorders, however little is known about the pathways involved. We previously have demonstrated that administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) to healthy male BALB/c mice, promotes consistent changes in GABA-A and -B receptor sub-types in specific brain regions, accompanied by reductions in anxiety and depression-related behaviors. In the present study, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we quantitatively assessed two clinically validated biomarkers of brain activity and function, glutamate+glutamine (Glx) and total N-acetyl aspartate+N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid (tNAA), as well as GABA, the chief brain inhibitory neurotransmitter. Mice received 1×10(9) cfu of JB-1 per day for 4weeks and were subjected to MRS weekly and again 4weeks after cessation of treatment to ascertain temporal changes in these neurometabolites. Baseline concentrations for Glx, tNAA and GABA were equal to 10.4±0.3mM, 8.7±0.1mM, and 1.2±0.1mM, respectively. Delayed increases were first seen for Glx (~10%) and NAA (~37%) at 2weeks which persisted only to the end of treatment. However, Glx was still elevated 4weeks after treatment had ceased. Significantly elevated GABA (~25%) was only seen at 4weeks. These results suggest specific metabolic pathways in our pursuit of mechanisms of action of psychoactive bacteria. They also offer through application of standard clinical neurodiagnostic techniques, translational opportunities to assess biomarkers accompanying behavioral changes induced by alterations in the gut microbiome. PMID:26577887

  6. N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine abrogates fibrogenic properties of fibroblasts isolated from Dupuytren's disease by blunting TGF-β signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Jürgen; Seyhan, Harun; Müller, Bastian; Lanczak, Johanna; Pausch, Elke; Gressner, Axel M; Dooley, Steven; Horch, Raymund E

    2006-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease, a benign fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fascia, represents an ideal model to study tissue fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream Smad signalling system is well established as a key player during fibrogenesis. Thus, targeting this basic pathomechanism seems suitable to establish new treatment strategies. One such promising treatment involves the substance N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), shown to have antifibrotic properties in hepatic stellate cells and rat fibroblasts. In order to investigate antifibrotic effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), fibroblasts were isolated from surgically resected fibrotic palmar tissues (Dupuytren fibroblasts, DF) and exposed to different concentrations of NAC and recombinant TGF-β1. Fibroblasts isolated from tendon pulleys served as controls (control fibroblasts, CF). Smad signalling was investigated by a Smad binding element driven reporter gene analysis. Both cell types express TGF-β1, indicating autocrine signalling in DF and CF. This was confirmed by comparing reporter gene activity from LacZ and Smad7 adenovirus infected cells. NAC treatment resulted in abrogation of Smad mediated signalling comparable to ectopically overexpressed Smad7, even when the cells were stimulated with recombinant TGF-β1 or ectopically expressed a constitutively active TGF-β receptor type I. Additionally, NAC dose-dependently decreased expression of three major indicators of impaired fibrotic matrix turnover, namely alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), α 1 type I procollagen (CollA1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-type I (PAI-1). Our results suggest that TGF-β signalling and subsequent expression of fibrogenesis related proteins in Dupuytren's disease is abrogated by NAC thus providing a basis for a therapeutic strategy in Dupuytren's disease and other fibroproliferative disorders. PMID:16563228

  7. Efficacy of N-Acetyl Cysteine in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Eakin, Katharine; Baratz-Goldstein, Renana; Pick, Chiam G.; Zindel, Ofra; Balaban, Carey D.; Hoffer, Michael E.; Lockwood, Megan; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, using two different injury models in two different species, we found that early post-injury treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) reversed the behavioral deficits associated with the TBI. These data suggest generalization of a protocol similar to our recent clinical trial with NAC in blast-induced mTBI in a battlefield setting [1], to mild concussion from blunt trauma. This study used both weight drop in mice and fluid percussion injury in rats. These were chosen to simulate either mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). For mice, we used novel object recognition and the Y maze. For rats, we used the Morris water maze. NAC was administered beginning 30–60 minutes after injury. Behavioral deficits due to injury in both species were significantly reversed by NAC treatment. We thus conclude NAC produces significant behavioral recovery after injury. Future preclinical studies are needed to define the mechanism of action, perhaps leading to more effective therapies in man. PMID:24740427

  8. Enhancement of stress resilience through Hdac6-mediated regulation of glucocorticoid receptor chaperone dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Jeanine; Teegarden, Sarah L; Chen, Yong; Boulden, Janette; Challis, Collin; Ben-Dor, Gabriel A; Kim, Sangwon F; Berton, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetylation of Hsp90 regulates downstream hormone signaling via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), but the role of this molecular mechanism in stress homeostasis remains poorly understood. We tested whether acetylation of Hsp90 in the brain predicts and modulates the behavioral sequelae of a mouse model of social stress. Methods Mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) were stratified into resilient and vulnerable subpopulations. HPA axis function was probed using a DEX/CRF test. Hsp90 acetylation, Hsp90-GR interactions and GR translocation were measured in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). To manipulate Hsp90 acetylation, we pharmacologically inhibited Hdac6, a known deacetylase of Hsp90 or overexpressed a point-mutant that mimics the hyperacetylated state of Hsp90 at lysine K294 Results Lower acetylated Hsp90, higher GR-Hsp90 association and enhanced GR translocation were observed in DRN of vulnerable mice after CSDS. Administration of ACY-738, an Hdac6-selective inhibitor, led to Hsp90 hyperacetylation in brain and in neuronal culture. In cell-based assays, ACY-738 increased the relative association of Hsp90 with FKBP51 versus FKBP52 and inhibited hormone-induced GR translocation. This effect was replicated by overexpressing the acetylation-mimic point-mutant of Hsp90. In vivo, ACY-738 promoted resilience to CSDS and serotonin-selective viral overexpression of the acetylation-mimic mutant of Hsp90 in raphe neurons reproduced the behaviroral effect of ACY-738. Conclusions Hyperacetylation of Hsp90 is a predictor and causal molecular determinant of stress resilience in mice. Brain-penetrant Hdac6 inhibitors increase Hsp90 acetylation and modulate GR chaperone dynamics offering a promising strategy to curtail deleterious socioaffective effects of stress and glucocorticoids. PMID:25442004

  9. Does non-acetylated salicylate inhibit thromboxane biosynthesis in human platelets?

    PubMed

    Danesh, B J; McLaren, M; Russell, R I; Lowe, G D; Forbes, C D

    1988-08-01

    Ingestion of aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid: ASA) may promote bleeding complications due to inhibition of thromboxane biosynthesis, which results in the prolongation of bleeding time. The effect is believed to be achieved by the irreversible acetylation of the enzyme cyclooxygenase by aspirin. This alteration in platelet function by aspirin prohibits its use in patients with bleeding disorders such as haemophiliacs. Choline magnesium trisalicylate (CMT; Napp Laboratories Ltd) is a non-acetylated salicylate with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects similar to that of aspirin. However, despite a comparable salicylate absorption from the two drugs, CMT is found to have no inhibitory action in platelet aggregation and to cause less gastric mucosal damage and gastrointestinal blood loss than aspirin. To investigate the role of the acetyl moiety in the inhibition of platelet thromboxane biosynthesis, we studied the effect of CMT and ASA on bleeding time, serum thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and thromboxane (Tx) generation in healthy volunteers. PMID:3187504

  10. Lysine Acetylation: Elucidating the Components of an Emerging Global Signaling Pathway in Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Victoria Lucia; Serra, Esteban Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In the past ten years the number of acetylated proteins reported in literature grew exponentially. Several authors have proposed that acetylation might be a key component in most eukaryotic signaling pathways, as important as phosphorylation. The enzymes involved in this process are starting to emerge; acetyltransferases and deacetylases are found inside and outside the nuclear compartment and have different regulatory functions. In trypanosomatids several of these enzymes have been described and are postulated to be novel antiparasitic targets for the rational design of drugs. In this paper we overview the most important known acetylated proteins and the advances made in the identification of new acetylated proteins using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Also, we summarize what is known so far about the acetyltransferases and deacetylases in eukaryotes, focusing on trypanosomes and their potential use as chemotherapeutic targets. PMID:23093844

  11. An autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl intoxication caused by insufflation of 'designer drugs'.

    PubMed

    Takase, Izumi; Koizumi, Takako; Fujimoto, Ihoko; Yanai, Aya; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    We present a fatal case of intoxication due to insufflation of acetyl fentanyl. His blood concentration of acetyl fentanyl was 270ng/mL, and the manner of death was classified as an accident. This is the first report of an autopsy case of acetyl fentanyl delivered by insufflation, rather than intravenous administration. He had been snoring loudly for at least 12h prior to death, and transport to a hospital during this time and treatment with naloxone may have saved his life. In this sense, it can be said that his death was preventable. This case reemphasizes the risk of death associated with drug overdose and the narrow range of acetyl fentanyl between the effective dose (ED50) and lethal dose (LD50). The case should also raise awareness among medical professionals of the effectiveness of naloxone and the need to establish a comprehensive system for toxicological analysis while keeping the possibility of use of 'designer drugs' in mind. PMID:27497332

  12. In vivo treatment by diallyl disulfide increases histone acetylation in rat colonocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie . E-mail: Nathalie.Pecollo@jouy.inra.fr; Chaumontet, Catherine; Pagniez, Anthony; Vaugelade, Pierre; Bruneau, Aurelia; Thomas, Muriel; Cherbuy, Claire; Duee, Pierre-Henri; Martel, Paule

    2007-03-02

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is an organosulfur compound from garlic which exhibits various anticarcinogenic properties including inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. DADS antiproliferative effects were previously associated with an increase in histone acetylation in two human tumor colon cell lines, suggesting that DADS-induced histone hyperacetylation could be one of the mechanisms involved in its protective properties on colon carcinogenesis. The effects of DADS on histone H4 and H3 acetylation levels were investigated in vivo in colonocytes isolated from non-tumoral rat. Administrated by intracaecal perfusion or gavage, DADS increases histone H4 and H3 acetylation in colonocytes. Moreover, data generated using cDNA expression arrays suggest that DADS could modulate the expression of a subset of genes. These results suggest the involvement of histone acetylation in modulation of gene expression by DADS in normal rat colonocytes, which might play a role in its biological effects as well as in its anticarcinogenic properties in vivo.

  13. Evidence for two immunologically distinct acetyl-coenzyme A synthetases in yeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Mandel, A. D.; Klein, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented that clearly establishes the presence of two acetyl-CoA synthetases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one elaborated under 'aerobic' conditions, the other under 'nonaerobic' conditions. The antibody produced by each enzyme is immunologically specific.

  14. Dietary, Metabolic, and Potentially Environmental Modulation of the Lysine Acetylation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Go-Woon; Gocevski, Goran; Wu, Chao-Jung; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2010-01-01

    Healthy lifestyles and environment produce a good state of health. A number of scientific studies support the notion that external stimuli regulate an individual's epigenomic profile. Epigenetic changes play a key role in defining gene expression patterns under both normal and pathological conditions. As a major posttranslational modification, lysine (K) acetylation has received much attention, owing largely to its significant effects on chromatin dynamics and other cellular processes across species. Lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases, two opposing families of enzymes governing K-acetylation, have been intimately linked to cancer and other diseases. These enzymes have been pursued by vigorous efforts for therapeutic development in the past 15 years or so. Interestingly, certain dietary components have been found to modulate acetylation levels in vivo. Here we review dietary, metabolic, and environmental modulators of the K-acetylation machinery and discuss how they may be of potential value in the context of disease prevention. PMID:20976254

  15. An Acute Acetyl Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report With Postmortem Concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Malamatos, Mark; Lucas, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of acetyl fentanyl in a fatality attributed to the drug. A young man who had a history of heroin abuse was found deceased at his parents' home. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by ELISA, subsequently confirmed acetyl fentanyl by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. No other drugs or medications, including fentanyl, were detected. The acetyl fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantified at 260 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 250 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 1,000 ng/kg, the vitreous was 240 ng/mL and the urine was 2,600 ng/mL. The cause of death was certified due to acute acetyl fentanyl intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as an accident. PMID:25917447

  16. Tri3, Which Controls Trichothecene C-15 Acetylation, is Functional in 3ADON Chemotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three different trichothecene chemotypes have been identified in U.S. strains of Fusarium graminearum: 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON), and nivalenol (NIV), although grain is typically contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) or nivalenol rather than the acetylated ...

  17. Manipulation of the host protein acetylation network by human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Mark Y.; Ali, Ibraheem; Ott, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, protein acetylation has emerged as a globally important post-translational modification that fine-tunes major cellular processes in many life forms. This dynamic regulatory system is critical both for complex eukaryotic cells and for the viruses that infect them. HIV-1 accesses the host acetylation network by interacting with several key enzymes, thereby promoting infection at multiple steps during the viral life cycle. Inhibitors of host histone deacetylases and bromodomain-containing proteins are now being pursued as therapeutic strategies to enhance current antiretroviral treatment. As more acetylation-targeting compounds are reaching clinical trials, it is timely to review the role of reversible protein acetylation in HIV-infected CD4+ T cells. PMID:26329395

  18. Histone Acetylation Modifiers in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; Wang, Li; Yu, Caijia; Yu, Daohai; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming more evident that histone acetylation, as one of the epigenetic modifications or markers, plays a key role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Histone acetylases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the well-known covalent enzymes that modify the reversible acetylation of lysine residues in histone amino-terminal domains. In AD, however, the roles of these enzymes are controversial. Some recent studies indicate that HDAC inhibitors are neuroprotective by regulating memory and synaptic dysfunctions in cellular and animal models of AD; while on the other hand, increase of histone acetylation have been implicated in AD pathology. In this review, we focus on the recent advances on the roles of histone acetylation covalent enzymes in AD and discuss how targeting these enzymes can ultimately lead to therapeutic approaches for treating AD. PMID:26136662

  19. Data for global lysine-acetylation analysis in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yehui; Zhang, Kai; Cheng, Zhongyi; Wang, Guo-Liang; Liu, Wende

    2016-06-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops for human consumption and is a staple food for over half of the world׳s population (Yu et al., 2002) [1]. A systematic identification of the lysine acetylome was performed by our research (Xiong et al., 2016) [2]. Rice plant samples were collected from 5 weeks old seedlings (Oryza sativa, Nipponbare). After the trypsin digestion and immunoaffinity precipitation, LC-MS/MS approach was used to identify acetylated peptides. After the collected MS/MS data procession and GO annotation, the InterProScan was used to annotate protein domain. Subcellular localization of the identified acetylated proteins was predicted by WoLF PSORT. The KEGG pathway database was used to annotate identified acetylated protein interactions, reactions, and relations. The data, supplied in this article, are related to "A comprehensive catalog of the lysine-acetylation targets in rice (O. sativa) based on proteomic analyses" by Xiong et al. (2016) [2]. PMID:26977447

  20. Phosphatase inhibitor 2 promotes acetylation of tubulin in the primary cilium of human retinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiping; Brautigan, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Primary cilia are flagella-like projections from the centriole of mammalian cells that have a key role in cell signaling. Human diseases are linked to defects in primary cilia. Microtubules make up the axoneme of cilia and are selectively acetylated and this is thought to contribute to the stability of the structure. However, mechanisms to regulate tubulin acetylation in cilia are poorly understood. Results Endogenous phosphatase inhibitor-2 (I-2) was found concentrated in cilia of human epithelial cells, and was localized to cilia early in the process of formation, prior to the full acetylation of microtubules. Knockdown of I-2 by siRNA significantly reduced the acetylation of microtubules in cilia, without a net decrease in whole cell tubulin acetylation. There was a reduction in the percentage of I-2 knockdown cells with a primary cilium, but no apparent alteration in the cilium length, suggesting no change in microtubule-based transport processes. Inhibition of either histone deacetylases with trichostatin A, or protein phosphatase-1 with calyculin A in I-2 knockdown cells partially rescued the acetylation of microtubules in cilia and the percentage of cells with a primary cilium. Conclusion The regulatory protein I-2 localizes to the primary cilium where it affects both Ser/Thr phosphorylation and is required for full tubulin acetylation. Rescue of tubulin acetylation in I-2 knockdown cells by different chemical inhibitors shows that deacetylases and phosphatases are functionally interconnected to regulate microtubules. As a multifunctional protein, I-2 may link cell cycle progression to structure and stability of the primary cilium. PMID:19036150

  1. AMPK/Snf1 signaling regulates histone acetylation: Impact on gene expression and epigenetic functions.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its yeast homolog, Snf1, are critical regulators in the maintenance of energy metabolic balance not only stimulating energy production but also inhibiting energy-consuming processes. The AMPK/Snf1 signaling controls energy metabolism by specific phosphorylation of many metabolic enzymes and transcription factors, enhancing or suppressing their functions. The AMPK/Snf1 complexes can be translocated from cytoplasm into nuclei where they are involved in the regulation of transcription. Recent studies have indicated that AMPK/Snf1 activation can control histone acetylation through different mechanisms affecting not only gene transcription but also many other epigenetic functions. For instance, AMPK/Snf1 enzymes can phosphorylate the histone H3S10 (yeast) and H2BS36 (mammalian) sites which activate specific histone acetyltransferases (HAT), consequently enhancing histone acetylation. Moreover, nuclear AMPK can phosphorylate type 2A histone deacetylases (HDAC), e.g. HDAC4 and HDAC5, triggering their export from nuclei thus promoting histone acetylation reactions. AMPK activation can also increase the level of acetyl CoA, e.g. by inhibiting fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses. Acetyl CoA is a substrate for HATs, thus increasing their capacity for histone acetylation. On the other hand, AMPK can stimulate the activity of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) which increases the level of NAD(+). NAD(+) is a substrate for nuclear sirtuins, especially for SIRT1 and SIRT6, which deacetylate histones and transcription factors, e.g. those regulating ribosome synthesis and circadian clocks. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic modification which subsequently can affect chromatin remodeling, e.g. via bromodomain proteins. We will review the signaling mechanisms of AMPK/Snf1 in the control of histone acetylation and subsequently clarify their role in the epigenetic regulation of ribosome synthesis and circadian clocks

  2. A colorimetric and fluorescent probe for fluoride ions based on 6-acetyl-2-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Hou, Peng; Chen, Song; Song, Xiangzhi

    2014-08-01

    A colorimetric and turn-on fluorescent probe for fluoride ions, tert-butyldimethylsilane 6-acetyl-2-naphtholate, was readily synthesized from 6-acetyl-2-naphthol and tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (TBSCl). The probe exhibits high sensitivity and good selectivity for fluoride ions in acetonitrile. The inherent mechanism involves the cleavage of the Si-O bond in the probe, which induced yellow color formation and prominent fluorescence enhancement. PMID:23881573

  3. Adjunctive N-acetyl-L-cysteine in treatment of murine pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Högen, Tobias; Demel, Cornelia; Giese, Armin; Angele, Barbara; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Koedel, Uwe; Klein, Matthias

    2013-10-01

    Despite antibiotic therapy, acute and long-term complications are still frequent in pneumococcal meningitis. One important trigger of these complications is oxidative stress, and adjunctive antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine was suggested to be protective in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. However, studies of effects on neurological long-term sequelae are limited. Here, we investigated the impact of adjunctive N-acetyl-l-cysteine on long-term neurological deficits in a mouse model of meningitis. C57BL/6 mice were intracisternally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Eighteen hours after infection, mice were treated with a combination of ceftriaxone and placebo or ceftriaxone and N-acetyl-l-cysteine, respectively. Two weeks after infection, neurologic deficits were assessed using a clinical score, an open field test (explorative activity), a t-maze test (memory function), and auditory brain stem responses (hearing loss). Furthermore, cochlear histomorphological correlates of hearing loss were assessed. Adjunctive N-acetyl-l-cysteine reduced hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis, but the effect was minor. There was no significant benefit of adjunctive N-acetyl-l-cysteine treatment in regard to other long-term complications of pneumococcal meningitis. Cochlear morphological correlates of meningitis-associated hearing loss were not reduced by adjunctive N-acetyl-l-cysteine. In conclusion, adjunctive therapy with N-acetyl-l-cysteine at a dosage of 300 mg/kg of body weight intraperitoneally for 4 days reduced hearing loss but not other neurologic deficits after pneumococcal meningitis in mice. These results make a clinical therapeutic benefit of N-acetyl-l-cysteine in the treatment of patients with pneumococcal meningitis questionable. PMID:23877681

  4. Neonatal Isoflurane Exposure Induces Neurocognitive Impairment and Abnormal Hippocampal Histone Acetylation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Tao; Guo, Qulian; Zou, Wangyuan; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Song, Zongbin; Sun, Bei; He, Xin; Yang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal exposure to isoflurane may induce long-term memory impairment in mice. Histone acetylation is an important form of chromatin modification that regulates the transcription of genes required for memory formation. This study investigated whether neonatal isoflurane exposure-induced neurocognitive impairment is related to dysregulated histone acetylation in the hippocampus and whether it can be attenuated by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.75% isoflurane three times (each for 4 h) at postnatal days 7, 8, and 9. Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) was tested at 3 months after anesthesia administration. TSA was intraperitoneally injected 2 h before CFC training. Hippocampal histone acetylation levels were analyzed following CFC training. Levels of the neuronal activation and synaptic plasticity marker c-Fos were investigated at the same time point. Results Mice that were neonatally exposed to isoflurane showed significant memory impairment on CFC testing. These mice also exhibited dysregulated hippocampal H4K12 acetylation and decreased c-Fos expression following CFC training. TSA attenuated isoflurane-induced memory impairment and simultaneously increased histone acetylation and c-Fos levels in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA)1 area 1 h after CFC training. Conclusions Memory impairment induced by repeated neonatal exposure to isoflurane is associated with dysregulated histone H4K12 acetylation in the hippocampus, which probably affects downstream c-Fos gene expression following CFC training. The HDAC inhibitor TSA successfully rescued impaired contextual fear memory, presumably by promoting histone acetylation and histone acetylation-mediated gene expression. PMID:25928815

  5. Use of high-performance liquid chromatography in the measurement of in vitro acetylation in man.

    PubMed

    Baty, J D; Lindsay, R M; Sharp, S

    1986-02-26

    Liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the study of the in vitro acetylation of the sulphonamide drug sulphamethazine and a series of aniline derivatives. The sensitivity of the methods have allowed data on the activity of the N-acetyltransferase enzyme(s) in man to be obtained. The use of bonded-phase columns with a series of organic mobile phases has been compared with reversed-phase separation of the acetanilide derivatives, produced in the acetylation reaction. PMID:3700517

  6. Quantitating the specificity and selectivity of Gcn5-mediated acetylation of histone H3.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yin-Ming; Andrews, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) play a unique role in regulating gene transcription as well as maintaining the epigenetic state of the cell. KATs such as Gcn5 and p300/CBP can modify multiple residues on a single histone; however, order and specificity of acetylation can be altered by factors such as histone chaperones, subunit proteins or external stimulus. While the importance of acetylation is well documented, it has been difficult to quantitatively measure the specificity and selectivity of acetylation at different residues within a histone. In this paper, we demonstrate a label-free quantitative high throughput mass spectrometry-based assay capable of quantitatively monitoring all known acetylation sites of H3 simultaneously. Using this assay, we are able to analyze the steady-state enzyme kinetics of Gcn5, an evolutionarily conserved KAT. In doing so, we measured Gcn5-mediated acetylation at six residues (K14>K9 ≈ K23> K18> K27 ≈ K36) and the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for K9, K14, K18, and K23 as well as the nonenzymatic acetylation rate. We observed selectivity differences of up to -4 kcal/mol between K14 and K18, the highest and lowest measurable k(cat)/K(m). These data provide a first look at quantitating the specificity and selectivity of multiple lysines on a single substrate (H3) by Gcn5. PMID:23437046

  7. Urinary mutagenicity and N-acetylation phenotype in textile industry workers exposed to arylamines

    SciTech Connect

    Sinues, B.; Perez, J.; Bernal, M.L.; Saenz, M.A.; Lanuza, J.; Bartolome, M. )

    1992-09-15

    Primary aromatic amines have been identified epidemiologically as human carcinogens. It has been suggested that the target organ affected by aromatic amines is dependent on the rate of metabolic activation. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low acetyl transferase activity and bladder cancer risk. On this basis, our working hypothesis was that the slow acetylators could follow in a higher extent the metabolic pathway independent of N-acetylation, leading to the excretion of conjugates of electrophyles with glucuronic acid. The instability of these glucuronides could be responsible for the association between arylamine-induced bladder cancer and slow acetylator phenotype. A total of 153 individuals were included in this study: 70 exposed to arylamines (working in textile industry) and 83 nonexposed. The following parameters were determined in urine: mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation, S9; mutagenic index in the presence of S9; and the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase. All individuals were phenotyped according to their capacity of N-acetylation by using isoniazid as drug test. The results show that the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase is statistically higher in exposed subjects when compared with nonexposed individuals (P less than 0.001), this parameter being statistically higher among exposed subjects who were slow acetylators than among rapid metabolizers, independent of the fact that they were smokers or nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between groups for the mutagenicity in urine not incubated with beta-glucuronidase.

  8. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  9. Acetylation in vitro of constituent polypeptides by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and Golgi membrane fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Sambasivam, H.; Murray, R.K.

    1986-05-01

    Many polypeptides of the membranes of the ER are phosphorylated. To determine if any such polypeptides are acetylated, microsomal and other classical subcellular fractions were incubated with (/sup 3/H) acetyl-CoA; the specific activity of the microsomal fraction (MF) was the greatest. SDS-PAGE revealed that some 20 polypeptides of the MF were acetylated; 2-D electrophoretograms extended this number to approximately 60. Separation of the MF into smooth (S) and rough (R) fractions showed that the great majority of the labelled polypeptides belonged to the former. Isolation of a Golgi fraction revealed that its acetylation activity was approximately 3-fold greater than the SER fraction. Extensive proteolytic digestion of the MF followed by radiochromatography disclosed some 9 components whose precise nature (acetylated amino acids and/or sialic acids, etc.) is under study. Assuming that the majority of the radioactivity is in the former components and that a similar process occurs in vivo, the authors suggest that the Golgi apparatus may be a major site of acetylation of membrane and possibly other proteins.

  10. Inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by two classes of grass-selective herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Rendina, A.R.; Craig-Kennard, A.C.; Beaudoin, J.D.; Breen, M.K. )

    1990-05-01

    The selective grass herbicides diclofop, haloxyfop, and trifop (((aryloxy)phenoxy)propionic acids) and alloxydim, sethoxydim, and clethodim (cyclohexanediones) are potent, reversible inhibitors of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) partially purified from barley, corn, and wheat. Although inhibition of the wheat enzyme by clethodim and diclofop is noncompetitive versus each of the substrates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), diclofop and clethodim are nearly competitive versus acetyl-CoA since the level of inhibition is most sensitive to the concentration of acetyl-CoA (K{sub is} < K{sub ii}). To conclusively show whether the herbicides interact at the biotin carboxylation site or the carboxyl transfer site, the inhibition of isotope exchange and partial reactions catalyzed at each site was studied with the wheat enzyme. Only the ({sup 14}C)acetyl-CoA-malonyl-CoA exchange and decarboxylation of ({sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA reactions are strongly inhibited by clethodim and diclofop, suggesting that the herbicides interfere with the carboxyl transfer site rather than the biotin carboxylation site of the enzyme. Double-inhibition studies with diclofop and clethodim suggest that the ((aryloxy)phenoxy)propionic acid and cyclohexanedione herbicides may bind to the same region of the enzyme.

  11. Acetylation-Mediated Proteasomal Degradation of Core Histones during DNA Repair and Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Min-Xian; Pang, Ye; Liu, Cui Hua; Haratake, Kousuke; Du, Bo-Yu; Ji, Dan-Yang; Wang, Guang-Fei; Zhu, Qian-Qian; Song, Wei; Yu, Yadong; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Huang, Hai-Tao; Miao, Shiying; Chen, Lian-Bin; Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Shan; Cha, Hwangho; Yang, Dong; Zhai, Yonggong; Komatsu, Takuo; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Li, Haitao; Cao, Cheng; Li, Wei; Li, Guo-Hong; Cheng, Yifan; Chiba, Tomoki; Wang, Linfang; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Shen, Yan; Qiu, Xiao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone acetylation plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Proteasomes usually catalyze ATP- and polyubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Here we show that the proteasomes containing the activator PA200 catalyze the polyubiquitin-independent degradation of histones. Most proteasomes in mammalian testes (“spermatoproteasomes”) contain a spermatid/sperm-specific α-subunit α4s/PSMA8 and/or the catalytic β-subunits of immunoproteasomes in addition to PA200. Deletion of PA200 in mice abolishes acetylation-dependent degradation of somatic core histones during DNA double-strand breaks, and delays core histone disappearance in elongated spermatids. Purified PA200 greatly promotes ATP-independent proteasomal degradation of the acetylated core histones, but not polyubiquitinated proteins. Furthermore, acetylation on histones is required for their binding to the bromodomain-like regions in PA200 and its yeast ortholog, Blm10. Thus, PA200/Blm10 specifically targets the core histones for acetylation-mediated degradation by proteasomes, providing mechanisms by which acetylation regulates histone degradation, DNA repair, and spermatogenesis. PMID:23706739

  12. Determination of DNA damage in experimental liver intoxication and role of N-acetyl cysteine.

    PubMed

    Aksit, Hasan; Bildik, Aysegül

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed at detecting DNA damage and fragmentation as well as histone acetylation depending on oxidative stress caused by CCl4 intoxication. Also, the protective role of N-acetyl cysteine, a precursor for GSH, in DNA damage is investigated. Sixty rats were used in this study. In order to induce liver toxicity, CCl4 in was dissolved in olive oil (1/1) and injected intraperitoneally as a single dose (2 ml/kg). N-acetyl cysteine application (intraperitoneal, 50 mg/kg/day) was started 3 days prior to CCl4 injection and continued during the experimental period. Control groups were given olive oil and N-acetyl cysteine. After 6 and 72 h of CCl4 injection, blood and liver tissue were taken under ether anesthesia. Nuclear extracts were prepared from liver. Changes in serum AST and ALT activities as well as MDA, TAS, and TOS levels showed that CCl4 caused lipid peroxidation and liver damage. However, lipid peroxidation and liver damage were reduced in the N-acetyl cysteine group. Increased levels in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine and histone acetyltransferase activities, decreased histone deacetylase activities, and DNA breakage detected in nuclear extracts showed that CCl4 intoxication induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that N-acetyl cysteine has a protective effect on CCl4-induced DNA damage. PMID:24819310

  13. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  14. Loss of N-terminal Acetylation Suppresses A Prion Phenotype By Modulating Global Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, William M.; Mannakee, Brian K.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Serio, Tricia R.

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation is among the most ubiquitous of protein modifications in eukaryotes. While loss of N-terminal acetylation is associated with many abnormalities, the molecular basis of these effects is known for only a few cases, where acetylation of single factors has been linked to binding avidity or metabolic stability. In contrast, the impact of N-terminal acetylation for the majority of the proteome, and its combinatorial contributions to phenotypes, are unknown. Here, by studying the yeast prion [PSI+], an amyloid of the Sup35 protein, we show that loss of N-terminal acetylation promotes general protein misfolding, a redeployment of chaperones to these substrates, and a corresponding stress response. These proteostasis changes, combined with the decreased stability of unacetylated Sup35 amyloid, reduce the size of prion aggregates and reverse their phenotypic consequences. Thus, loss of N-terminal acetylation, and its previously unanticipated role in protein biogenesis, globally resculpts the proteome to create a unique phenotype. PMID:25023910

  15. Application of the MIDAS approach for analysis of lysine acetylation sites.

    PubMed

    Evans, Caroline A; Griffiths, John R; Unwin, Richard D; Whetton, Anthony D; Corfe, Bernard M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Reaction Monitoring Initiated Detection and Sequencing (MIDAS™) is a mass spectrometry-based technique for the detection and characterization of specific post-translational modifications (Unwin et al. 4:1134-1144, 2005), for example acetylated lysine residues (Griffiths et al. 18:1423-1428, 2007). The MIDAS™ technique has application for discovery and analysis of acetylation sites. It is a hypothesis-driven approach that requires a priori knowledge of the primary sequence of the target protein and a proteolytic digest of this protein. MIDAS essentially performs a targeted search for the presence of modified, for example acetylated, peptides. The detection is based on the combination of the predicted molecular weight (measured as mass-charge ratio) of the acetylated proteolytic peptide and a diagnostic fragment (product ion of m/z 126.1), which is generated by specific fragmentation of acetylated peptides during collision induced dissociation performed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Sequence information is subsequently obtained which enables acetylation site assignment. The technique of MIDAS was later trademarked by ABSciex for targeted protein analysis where an MRM scan is combined with full MS/MS product ion scan to enable sequence confirmation. PMID:23381851

  16. Autoregulation of the Rsc4 Tandem Bromodomain by Gcn5 Acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    VanDemark,A.; Kasten, M.; Ferris, E.; Heroux, A.; Hill, C.; Cairns, B.

    2007-01-01

    An important issue for chromatin remodeling complexes is how their bromodomains recognize particular acetylated lysine residues in histones. The Rsc4 subunit of the yeast remodeler RSC contains an essential tandem bromodomain (TBD) that binds acetylated K14 of histone H3 (H3K14ac). We report a series of crystal structures that reveal a compact TBD that binds H3K14ac in the second bromodomain and, remarkably, binds acetylated K25 of Rsc4 itself in the first bromodomain. Endogenous Rsc4 is acetylated only at K25, and Gcn5 is identified as necessary and sufficient for Rsc4 K25 acetylation in vivo and in vitro. Rsc4 K25 acetylation inhibits binding to H3K14ac, and mutation of Rsc4 K25 results in altered growth rates. These data suggest an autoregulatory mechanism in which Gcn5 performs both the activating (H3K14ac) and inhibitory (Rsc4 K25ac) modifications, perhaps to provide temporal regulation. Additional regulatory mechanisms are indicated as H3S10 phosphorylation inhibits Rsc4 binding to H3K14ac peptides.

  17. Histone H3 globular domain acetylation identifies a new class of enhancers.

    PubMed

    Pradeepa, Madapura M; Grimes, Graeme R; Kumar, Yatendra; Olley, Gabrielle; Taylor, Gillian C A; Schneider, Robert; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2016-06-01

    Histone acetylation is generally associated with active chromatin, but most studies have focused on the acetylation of histone tails. Various histone H3 and H4 tail acetylations mark the promoters of active genes. These modifications include acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac), which blocks Polycomb-mediated trimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3). H3K27ac is also widely used to identify active enhancers, and the assumption has been that profiling H3K27ac is a comprehensive way of cataloguing the set of active enhancers in mammalian cell types. Here we show that acetylation of lysine residues in the globular domain of histone H3 (lysine 64 (H3K64ac) and lysine 122 (H3K122ac)) marks active gene promoters and also a subset of active enhancers. Moreover, we find a new class of active functional enhancers that is marked by H3K122ac but lacks H3K27ac. This work suggests that, to identify enhancers, a more comprehensive analysis of histone acetylation is required than has previously been considered. PMID:27089178

  18. PPARα Activation Induces Nε-Lys-Acetylation of Rat Liver Peroxisomal Multifunctional Enzyme Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Miguel A.; Alzate, Oscar; Singh, Avtar K.

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous subcellular organelles that participate in metabolic and disease processes, with few of its proteins undergoing posttranslational modifications. As the role of lysine-acetylation has expanded into the cellular intermediary metabolism, we used a combination of differential centrifugation, organelle isolation by linear density gradient centrifugation, western blot analysis, and peptide fingerprinting and amino acid sequencing by mass spectrometry to investigate protein acetylation in control and ciprofibrate-treated rat liver peroxisomes. Organelle protein samples isolated by density gradient centrifugation from PPARα-agonist treated rat liver screened with an anti-Nε-acetyl lysine antibody revealed a single protein band of 75 kDa. Immunoprecipitation with this antibody resulted in the precipitation of a protein from the protein pool of ciprofibrate-induced peroxisomes, but not from the protein pool of non-induced peroxisomes. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis identified the protein as the peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 1. In addition, mass spectrometry-based amino acid sequencing resulted in the identification of unique peptides containing 4 acetylated-Lys residues (K155, K173, K190, and K583). This is the first report that demonstrates posttranslational acetylation of a peroxisomal enzyme in PPARα-dependent proliferation of peroxisomes in rat liver. PMID:24092543

  19. Acetylation of glucokinase regulatory protein decreases glucose metabolism by suppressing glucokinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-Man; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Jo, Seong-Ho; Kim, Mi-Young; Ahn, Yong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK), mainly expressed in the liver and pancreatic β-cells, is critical for maintaining glucose homeostasis. GK expression and kinase activity, respectively, are both modulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Post-translationally, GK is regulated by binding the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), resulting in GK retention in the nucleus and its inability to participate in cytosolic glycolysis. Although hepatic GKRP is known to be regulated by allosteric mechanisms, the precise details of modulation of GKRP activity, by post-translational modification, are not well known. Here, we demonstrate that GKRP is acetylated at Lys5 by the acetyltransferase p300. Acetylated GKRP is resistant to degradation by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway, suggesting that acetylation increases GKRP stability and binding to GK, further inhibiting GK nuclear export. Deacetylation of GKRP is effected by the NAD+-dependent, class III histone deacetylase SIRT2, which is inhibited by nicotinamide. Moreover, the livers of db/db obese, diabetic mice also show elevated GKRP acetylation, suggesting a broader, critical role in regulating blood glucose. Given that acetylated GKRP may affiliate with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), understanding the mechanism of GKRP acetylation in the liver could reveal novel targets within the GK-GKRP pathway, for treating T2DM and other metabolic pathologies. PMID:26620281

  20. Intrinsic Tau Acetylation Is Coupled to Auto-Proteolytic Tau Fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Todd J.; Constance, Brian H.; Hwang, Andrew W.; James, Michael; Yuan, Chao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Tau proteins are abnormally aggregated in a range of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, tau has emerged as an extensively post-translationally modified protein, among which lysine acetylation is critical for normal tau function and its pathological aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that tau isoforms have different propensities to undergo lysine acetylation, with auto-acetylation occurring more prominently within the lysine-rich microtubule-binding repeats. Unexpectedly, we identified a unique intrinsic property of tau in which auto-acetylation induces proteolytic tau cleavage, thereby generating distinct N- and C-terminal tau fragments. Supporting a catalytic reaction-based mechanism, mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that tau cysteines, which are required for acetyl group transfer, are also essential for auto-proteolytic tau processing. Further mass spectrometry analysis identified the C-terminal 2nd and 4th microtubule binding repeats as potential sites of auto-cleavage. The identification of acetylation-mediated auto-proteolysis provides a new biochemical mechanism for tau self-regulation and warrants further investigation into whether auto-catalytic functions of tau are implicated in AD and other tauopathies. PMID:27383765

  1. The HTLV-1-encoded protein HBZ directly inhibits the acetyl transferase activity of p300/CBP

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Torsten; Wright, Diana G.; Polakowski, Nicholas; Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Lemasson, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The homologous cellular coactivators p300 and CBP contain intrinsic lysine acetyl transferase (termed HAT) activity. This activity is responsible for acetylation of several sites on the histones as well as modification of transcription factors. In a previous study, we found that HBZ, encoded by the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), binds to multiple domains of p300/CBP, including the HAT domain. In this study, we found that HBZ inhibits the HAT activity of p300/CBP through the bZIP domain of the viral protein. This effect correlated with a reduction of H3K18 acetylation, a specific target of p300/CBP, in cells expressing HBZ. Interestingly, lower levels of H3K18 acetylation were detected in HTLV-1 infected cells compared to non-infected cells. The inhibitory effect of HBZ was not limited to histones, as HBZ also inhibited acetylation of the NF-κB subunit, p65, and the tumor suppressor, p53. Recent studies reported that mutations in the HAT domain of p300/CBP that cause a defect in acetylation are found in certain types of leukemia. These observations suggest that inhibition of the HAT activity by HBZ is important for the development of adult T-cell leukemia associated with HTLV-1 infection. PMID:22434882

  2. Acetylated tau neuropathology in sporadic and hereditary tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David J; Cohen, Todd J; Grossman, Murray; Arnold, Steven E; McCarty-Wood, Elisabeth; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2013-08-01

    We have recently shown acetylation of tau at lysine residue 280 (AC-K280) to be a disease-specific modification in Alzheimer disease (AD), corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy, likely representing a major regulatory tau modification. Herein, we extend our observations using IHC with a polyclonal antibody specific for AC-K280. Thirty brain regions were examined in argyrophilic grain disease (AGD; n = 5), tangle-predominant senile dementia (TPSD; n = 5), Pick disease (n = 4), familial AD (FAD; n = 2; PSEN1 p.G206A and p.S170P), and frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome-17 (FTDP-17; n = 2; MAPT p.P301L and IVS10 + 16). All AGD, TPSD, FAD, and FTDP-17 cases had significant AC-K280 reactivity that was similar in severity and distribution to phosphorylated tau. AC-K280 robustly labeled grain pathological characteristics in AGD and was predominantly associated with thioflavin-S-positive neurofibrillary tangles and less reactive in neuropil threads and extracellular tangles in TPSD and FAD. Thioflavin-S-negative neuronal and glial inclusions of patients with FTDP-17 were robustly AC-K280 reactive. A low degree of AC-K280 was found in a subset of 4-repeat tau-containing lesions in Pick disease. AC-K280 is a prominent feature of both neuronal and glial tau aggregations in tauopathies of various etiologies. The close association of AC-K280 with amyloid and pre-amyloid conformations of tau suggests a potential role in tangle maturation and, thus, could serve as a useful biomarker or therapeutic target in a variety of tauopathies. PMID:23885714

  3. Acetyl salicylic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gitau, Samuel Chege; Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Dandan; Guo, Zhenfeng; Liang, Haihai; Qian, Ming; Lv, Lifang; Li, Tianshi; Xu, Bozhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chaoqian; Lu, Yanjie; Du, Zhiming; Shan, Hongli; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation. The TAC-operated mice were treated with the human equivalent of low-dose aspirin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); the remaining mice received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline with 0.65% ethanol, which was used as a vehicle. A cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model induced by angiotensin II (10 nmol·L(-1)) was treated with the human equivalent of low (10 or 100 μmol·L(-1)) and high (1000 μmol·L(-1)) aspirin concentrations in plasma. Changes in the cardiac structure and function were assessed through echocardiography and transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression was determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results indicated that aspirin treatment abrogated the increased thickness of the left ventricular anterior and posterior walls, the swelling of mitochondria, and the increased surface area in in vivo and in vitro hypertrophy models. Aspirin also normalized the upregulated hypertrophic biomarkers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Aspirin efficiently reversed the upregulation of β-catenin and P-Akt expression and the TAC- or ANG II-induced downregulation of GSK-3β. Therefore, low-dose aspirin possesses significant anti-hypertrophic properties at clinically relevant concentrations for anti-thrombotic therapy. The downregulation of β-catenin and Akt may be the underlying signaling mechanism of the effects of aspirin. PMID:26626190

  4. Crystal structure of human interferon-γ receptor 2 reveals the structural basis for receptor specificity.

    PubMed

    Mikulecký, Pavel; Zahradník, Jirí; Kolenko, Petr; Černý, Jiří; Charnavets, Tatsiana; Kolářová, Lucie; Nečasová, Iva; Pham, Phuong Ngoc; Schneider, Bohdan

    2016-09-01

    Interferon-γ receptor 2 is a cell-surface receptor that is required for interferon-γ signalling and therefore plays a critical immunoregulatory role in innate and adaptive immunity against viral and also bacterial and protozoal infections. A crystal structure of the extracellular part of human interferon-γ receptor 2 (IFNγR2) was solved by molecular replacement at 1.8 Å resolution. Similar to other class 2 receptors, IFNγR2 has two fibronectin type III domains. The characteristic structural features of IFNγR2 are concentrated in its N-terminal domain: an extensive π-cation motif of stacked residues KWRWRH, a NAG-W-NAG sandwich (where NAG stands for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) and finally a helix formed by residues 78-85, which is unique among class 2 receptors. Mass spectrometry and mutational analyses showed the importance of N-linked glycosylation to the stability of the protein and confirmed the presence of two disulfide bonds. Structure-based bioinformatic analysis revealed independent evolutionary behaviour of both receptor domains and, together with multiple sequence alignment, identified putative binding sites for interferon-γ and receptor 1, the ligands of IFNγR2. PMID:27599734

  5. Acetylated α-Tubulin Regulated by N-Acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline(Ac-SDKP) Exerts the Anti-fibrotic Effect in Rat Lung Fibrosis Induced by Silica.

    PubMed

    Xiaojun, Wang; Yan, Liu; Hong, Xu; Xianghong, Zhang; Shifeng, Li; Dingjie, Xu; Xuemin, Gao; Lijuan, Zhang; Bonan, Zhang; Zhongqiu, Wei; Ruimin, Wang; Brann, Darrell; Fang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is the most serious occupational disease in China. The objective of this study was to screen various proteins related to mechanisms of the pathogenesis of silicosis underlying the anti-fibrotic effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) using proteomic profile analysis. We also aimed to explore a potential mechanism of acetylated α-tubulin (α-Ac-Tub) regulation by Ac-SDKP. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) were used to assess the different protein expression profiles between control and silicosis rats treated with or without Ac-SDKP. Twenty-nine proteins were identified to be potentially involved in the progression of silicosis and the anti-fibrotic effect of Ac-SDKP. Our current study finds that 1) the lost expression of Ac-Tub-α may be a new mechanism in rat silicosis; 2) treatment of silicotic rats with N-acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline (Ac-SDKP) inhibits myofibroblast differentiation and collagen deposition accompanied by stabilizing the expression of α-Ac-Tub in vivo and in vitro, which is related with deacetylase family member 6 (HDAC6) and α-tubulin acetyl transferase (α-TAT1). Our data suggest that α-Ac-Tub regulation by Ac-SDKP may potentially be a new anti-fibrosis mechanism. PMID:27577858

  6. Acetylated α-Tubulin Regulated by N-Acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline(Ac-SDKP) Exerts the Anti-fibrotic Effect in Rat Lung Fibrosis Induced by Silica

    PubMed Central

    Xiaojun, Wang; Yan, Liu; Hong, Xu; Xianghong, Zhang; Shifeng, Li; Dingjie, Xu; Xuemin, Gao; Lijuan, Zhang; Bonan, Zhang; Zhongqiu, Wei; Ruimin, Wang; Brann, Darrell; Fang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is the most serious occupational disease in China. The objective of this study was to screen various proteins related to mechanisms of the pathogenesis of silicosis underlying the anti-fibrotic effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) using proteomic profile analysis. We also aimed to explore a potential mechanism of acetylated α-tubulin (α-Ac-Tub) regulation by Ac-SDKP. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) were used to assess the different protein expression profiles between control and silicosis rats treated with or without Ac-SDKP. Twenty-nine proteins were identified to be potentially involved in the progression of silicosis and the anti-fibrotic effect of Ac-SDKP. Our current study finds that 1) the lost expression of Ac-Tub-α may be a new mechanism in rat silicosis; 2) treatment of silicotic rats with N-acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline (Ac-SDKP) inhibits myofibroblast differentiation and collagen deposition accompanied by stabilizing the expression of α-Ac-Tub in vivo and in vitro, which is related with deacetylase family member 6 (HDAC6) and α-tubulin acetyl transferase (α-TAT1). Our data suggest that α-Ac-Tub regulation by Ac-SDKP may potentially be a new anti-fibrosis mechanism. PMID:27577858

  7. Pyridoxine supplementation protects mice from suppression of contact hypersensitivity induced by 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), ultraviolet B radiation (280-320 nm), or cis-urocanic acid.

    PubMed

    Reeve, V E; Bosnic, M; Boehm-Wilcox, C; Cope, R B

    1995-03-01

    Evidence exists implicating the epidermal ultraviolet B (UVB) photoproduct cis-urocanic acid as an immunogenic mediator of the systemic suppression of T cell-mediated immunity by UVB exposure. Cis-urocanic acid appears to act via histamine receptor pathways, and histamine receptor antagonists and other imidazole ring compounds may modify its immune suppressing action. A component of the food coloring substance ammonia caramel, 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), which is known to cause lymphopenia in rats, appears to suppress immunity by a similar pathway when the contact hypersensitivity reaction has been the immune function assay in mice. The induction of lymphopenia in rats by THI is inhibited by the vitamin pyridoxine. This study demonstrates that the suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice by UVB radiation, cis-urocanic acid, or THI is strongly inhibited by supplemental pyridoxine, fed at 30 mg/kg diet, in comparison with the normal diet, which supplies 7 mg pyridoxine/kg diet. These results suggest that pyridoxine competes with cis-urocanic acid and THI for the same binding site or receptor, which we postulate to be a histamine-like T lymphocyte receptor, and that a role may exist for the control of photoimmunosuppression by this vitamin. PMID:7872221

  8. The size of the primary cilium and acetylated tubulin are modulated during adipocyte differentiation: Analysis of HDAC6 functions in these processes.

    PubMed

    Forcioli-Conti, Nicolas; Estève, David; Bouloumié, Anne; Dani, Christian; Peraldi, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    The primary cilium is an organelle present in most of the cells of the organism. Ciliopathies, such as the Bardet Biedl and the Alstrom syndromes are associated with obesity. We, and others, have shown that the primary cilium undergoes size modifications during adipocyte differentiation of human adipose stromal cells. We show here that the levels of acetylated α-tubulin, a constituent of the primary cilium, and the expression of HDAC6, the enzyme that deacetylates α-tubulin and is responsible for the loss of the cilium during mitosis, are modulated during adipogenesis. Moreover, during adipocyte differentiation cells that express higher level of HDAC6 are the first to lose their primary cilium. We have investigated the function of HDAC6 on adipocyte differentiation and on the primary cilium. We observe that inhibition of HDAC6 activity leads to a decrease in adipocyte differentiation. This is associated with an inhibition of the initial elongation of the cilium. Interestingly, overexpression of HDAC6 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and blunts the elongation of the primary cilium. In both situations, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation was not associated with an inhibition of the glucocorticoid receptor activity. This indicates that HDAC6 controls adipogenesis through the levels of acetylated α-tubulin. Moreover, we show that although HDAC6 expression increases during adipocyte differentiation it is not sufficient to provoke the loss of the cilium. This suggests the existence of a novel mechanism for the loss of the cilium. Together, these data indicate that HDAC6, and acetylated α-tubulin, are important regulator of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26363102

  9. 17-β Oestradiol prevents cardiovascular dysfunction in post-menopausal metabolic syndrome by affecting SIRT1/AMPK/H3 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bendale, Dhaval Sharad; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Chhabra, Richa; Shete, Sachin Prabhakarrao; Shah, Heta; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oestrogen therapy is known to induce cardioprotection in post-menopausal metabolic syndrome (PMS). Hence, we investigated the effect of 17-β oestradiol (E2) on functional responses to angiotensin II and cardiovascular dysfunction in a rat model of PMS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH PMS was induced in ovariectomized rats by feeding a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. Isometric tension responses of aortic rings to angiotensin II were recorded using an isometric force transducer. TUNEL assay and immunoblotting was performed to assess apoptosis and protein expression respectively in PMS. KEY RESULTS Endothelial dysfunction in PMS was characterized by enhanced angiotensin II-induced contractile responses and impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation. This was associated with an increased protein expression of AT1 receptors in the aorta and heart in PMS. PMS induced cardiac apoptosis by activating Bax and PARP protein expression. These changes were associated with a down-regulation in the expression of silent information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1)/P-AMP-activated PK (AMPK) and increased H3 acetylation in aorta and heart. E2 partially suppressed angiotensin II-induced contractions, restored the protein expression of SIRT1/P-AMPK and suppressed H3 acetylation. The role of SIRT1/AMPK was further highlighted by administration of sirtinol and compound C (ex vivo), which enhanced angiotensin II contractile responses and ablated the protective effect of E2 on PMS. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Our results provide novel mechanisms for PMS-induced cardiovascular dysfunction involving SIRT1/AMPK/ histone H3 acetylation, which was prevented by E2. The study suggests that therapies targeting SIRT1/AMPK/epigenetic modifications may be beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:23826814

  10. Transformation of 1-O-(indole-3-acetyl)-beta-D-glucose into di-O-(indole-3-acetyl)-D-glucose catalysed by enzyme preparations from corn seedlings.

    PubMed

    Szmidt-Jaworska, A; Kesy, J; Kopcewicz, J

    1997-01-01

    A new enzymatic activity, which catalyses formation in vitro of di-O-(indole-3-acetyl)-D-glucose from 1-O-(indole-3-acetyl)-beta-D-glucose has been found in extracts of Zea mays seedlings. The structure of di-O-(indole-3-acetyl)-D-glucose, not as yet described, has been assigned by GC-MS, 1H NMR and ammonolysis. PMID:9360710

  11. Acetylation: A Lysine Modification with Neuroprotective Effects in Ischemic Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Alsarraf, Oday; Fan, Jie; Dahrouj, Mohammad; Chou, C. James; Menick, Donald R.; Crosson, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Neuroretinal ischemic injury contributes to several degenerative diseases in the eye and the resulting pathogenic processes involving a series of necrotic and apoptotic events. This study investigates the time and extent of changes in acetylation, and whether this influences function and survival of neuroretinal cells following injury. Methods Studies evaluated the time course of changes in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, histone-H3 acetylation and caspase-3 activation levels as well as retinal morphology and function (electroretinography) following ischemia. In addition, the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin-A and valproic acid were also investigated. Results In normal eyes, retinal ischemia produced a significant increase in HDAC activity within 2 hours that was followed by a corresponding significant decrease in protein acetylation by 4 hours. Activated caspase-3 levels were significantly elevated by 24 hours. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors blocked the early decrease in protein acetylation and activation of caspase-3. Retinal immunohistochemistry demonstrated that systemic administration of trichostatin-A or valproic acid, resulted in hyperacetylation of all retinal layers after systemic treatment. In addition, HDAC inhibitors provided a significant functional and structural neuroprtection at seven days following injury relative to vehicle-treated eyes. Conclusions These results provide evidence that increases in HDAC activity is an early event following retinal ischemia, and are accompanied by corresponding decreases in acetylation in advance of caspase-3 activation. In addition to preserving acetylation status, the administration of HDAC inhibitors suppressed caspase activation and provided structural and functional neuroprotection in model of ischemic retinal injury. Taken together these data provide evidence that decrease in retinal acetylation status is a central event in ischemic retinal injury, and the hyperacetylation induced by

  12. Obesity-induced lysine acetylation increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation and impairs insulin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Alrob, Osama Abo; Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Ma, Cary; Wagg, Cory S.; Fillmore, Natasha; Jaswal, Jagdip S.; Sack, Michael N.; Lehner, Richard; Gupta, Mahesh P.; Michelakis, Evangelos D.; Padwal, Raj S.; Johnstone, David E.; Sharma, Arya M.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Lysine acetylation is a novel post-translational pathway that regulates the activities of enzymes involved in both fatty acid and glucose metabolism. We examined whether lysine acetylation controls heart glucose and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet (HFD) obese and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice. Methods and results C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a HFD (60% fat) or a low-fat diet (LFD; 4% fat) for 16 or 18 weeks. Cardiac fatty acid oxidation rates were significantly increased in HFD vs. LFD mice (845 ± 76 vs. 551 ± 87 nmol/g dry wt min, P < 0.05). Activities of the fatty acid oxidation enzymes, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) were increased in hearts from HFD vs. LFD mice, and were associated with LCAD and β-HAD hyperacetylation. Cardiac protein hyperacetylation in HFD-fed mice was associated with a decrease in SIRT3 expression, while expression of the mitochondrial acetylase, general control of amino acid synthesis 5 (GCN5)-like 1 (GCN5L1), did not change. Interestingly, SIRT3 deletion in mice also led to an increase in cardiac fatty acid oxidation compared with wild-type (WT) mice (422 ± 29 vs. 291 ± 17 nmol/g dry wt min, P < 0.05). Cardiac lysine acetylation was increased in SIRT3 KO mice compared with WT mice, including increased acetylation and activity of LCAD and β-HAD. Although the HFD and SIRT3 deletion decreased glucose oxidation, pyruvate dehydrogenase acetylation was unaltered. However, the HFD did increase Akt acetylation, while decreasing its phosphorylation and activity. Conclusion We conclude that increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation in response to high-fat feeding is controlled, in part, via the down-regulation of SIRT3 and concomitant increased acetylation of mitochondrial β-oxidation enzymes. PMID:24966184

  13. Acetylation: a lysine modification with neuroprotective effects in ischemic retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Alsarraf, Oday; Fan, Jie; Dahrouj, Mohammad; Chou, C James; Menick, Donald R; Crosson, Craig E

    2014-10-01

    Neuroretinal ischemic injury contributes to several degenerative diseases in the eye and the resulting pathogenic processes involving a series of necrotic and apoptotic events. This study investigates the time and extent of changes in acetylation, and whether this influences function and survival of neuroretinal cells following injury. Studies evaluated the time course of changes in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, histone-H3 acetylation and caspase-3 activation levels as well as retinal morphology and function (electroretinography) following ischemia. In addition, the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin-A and valproic acid were also investigated. In normal eyes, retinal ischemia produced a significant increase in HDAC activity within 2 h that was followed by a corresponding significant decrease in protein acetylation by 4 h. Activated caspase-3 levels were significantly elevated by 24 h. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors blocked the early decrease in protein acetylation and activation of caspase-3. Retinal immunohistochemistry demonstrated that systemic administration of trichostatin-A or valproic acid, resulted in hyperacetylation of all retinal layers after systemic treatment. In addition, HDAC inhibitors provided a significant functional and structural neuroprotection at seven days following injury relative to vehicle-treated eyes. These results provide evidence that increases in HDAC activity is an early event following retinal ischemia, and are accompanied by corresponding decreases in acetylation in advance of caspase-3 activation. In addition to preserving acetylation status, the administration of HDAC inhibitors suppressed caspase activation and provided structural and functional neuroprotection in model of ischemic retinal injury. Taken together these data provide evidence that decrease in retinal acetylation status is a central event in ischemic retinal injury, and the hyperacetylation induced by HDAC inhibition can provide acute

  14. Expression of fungal acetyl xylan esterase in Arabidopsis thaliana improves saccharification of stem lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Chong, Sun-Li; Gómez, Leonardo D; Miedes, Eva; Banasiak, Alicja; Ratke, Christine; Gaertner, Cyril; Mouille, Grégory; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Molina, Antonio; Sellstedt, Anita; Tenkanen, Maija; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall hemicelluloses and pectins are O-acetylated at specific positions, but the significance of these substitutions is poorly understood. Using a transgenic approach, we investigated how reducing the extent of O-acetylation in xylan affects cell wall chemistry, plant performance and the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to saccharification. The Aspergillus niger acetyl xylan esterase AnAXE1 was expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either the constitutively expressed 35S CAMV promoter or a woody-tissue-specific GT43B aspen promoter, and the protein was targeted to the apoplast by its native signal peptide, resulting in elevated acetyl esterase activity in soluble and wall-bound protein extracts and reduced xylan acetylation. No significant alterations in cell wall composition were observed in the transgenic lines, but their xylans were more easily digested by a β-1,4-endoxylanase, and more readily extracted by hot water, acids or alkali. Enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose after hot water and alkali pretreatments produced up to 20% more reducing sugars in several lines. Fermentation by Trametes versicolor of tissue hydrolysates from the line with a 30% reduction in acetyl content yielded ~70% more ethanol compared with wild type. Plants expressing 35S:AnAXE1 and pGT43B:AnAXE1 developed normally and showed increased resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, probably due to constitutive activation of defence pathways. However, unintended changes in xyloglucan and pectin acetylation were only observed in 35S:AnAXE1-expressing plants. This study demonstrates that postsynthetic xylan deacetylation in woody tissues is a promising strategy for optimizing lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. PMID:25960248

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF HISTONE H3 LYSINE 36 ACETYLATION AS A HIGHLY CONSERVED HISTONE MODIFICATION*

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephanie A.; Rao, Bhargavi; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Hake, Sandra B.; Diaz, Robert L.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Allis, C. David; Lieb, Jason D.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Histone lysine (K) acetylation is a major mechanism by which cells regulate the structure and function of chromatin, and new sites of acetylation continue to be discovered. Here we identify and characterize histone H3K36 acetylation (H3K36ac). By mass spectrometric analyses of H3 purified from Tetrahymena thermophila and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), we find that H3K36 can be acetylated or methylated. Using an antibody specific to H3K36ac, we show that this modification is conserved in mammals. In yeast, genome-wide ChIP-chip experiments show that H3K36ac is localized predominantly to the promoters of RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes, a pattern inversely related to that of H3K36 methylation. The pattern of H3K36ac localization is similar to that of other sites of H3 acetylation, including H3K9ac and H3K14ac. Using histone acetyltransferase complexes purified from yeast, we show that the Gcn5-containing SAGA complex that regulates transcription specifically acetylates H3K36 in vitro. Deletion of GCN5 completely abolishes H3K36ac in vivo. These data expand our knowledge of the genomic targets of Gcn5, show H3K36ac is highly conserved, and raise the intriguing possibility that the transition between H3K36ac and H3K36me acts as an “acetyl/methyl switch” governing chromatin function along transcription units. PMID:17189264

  16. The Intracellular Concentration of Acetyl Phosphate in Escherichia coli Is Sufficient for Direct Phosphorylation of Two-Component Response Regulators▿

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Adam H.; Shulla, Ana; Reimann, Sylvia A.; Keating, David H.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    Acetyl phosphate, the intermediate of the AckA-Pta pathway, acts as a global signal in Escherichia coli. Although acetyl phosphate clearly signals through two-component response regulators, it remains unclear whether acetyl phosphate acts as a direct phospho donor or functions through an indirect mechanism. We used two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography to measure the relative concentrations of acetyl phosphate, acetyl coenzyme A, ATP, and GTP over the course of the entire growth curve. We estimated that the intracellular concentration of acetyl phosphate in wild-type cells reaches at least 3 mM, a concentration sufficient to activate two-component response regulators via direct phosphoryl transfer. PMID:17545286

  17. Characterization of nucleolin K88 acetylation defines a new pool of nucleolin colocalizing with pre-mRNA splicing factors.

    PubMed

    Das, Sadhan; Cong, Rong; Shandilya, Jayasha; Senapati, Parijat; Moindrot, Benoit; Monier, Karine; Delage, Hélène; Mongelard, Fabien; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kundu, Tapas K; Bouvet, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    Nucleolin is a multifunctional protein that carries several post-translational modifications. We characterized nucleolin acetylation and developed antibodies specific to nucleolin K88 acetylation. Using this antibody we show that nucleolin is acetylated in vivo and is not localized in the nucleoli, but instead is distributed throughout the nucleoplasm. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that acetylated nucleolin is co-localized with the splicing factor SC35 and partially with Y12. Acetylated nucleolin is expressed in all tested proliferating cell types. Our findings show that acetylation defines a new pool of nucleolin which support a role for nucleolin in the regulation of mRNA maturation and transcription by RNA polymerase II. PMID:23353999

  18. Post-transcriptional regulation of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, W H; Weisblum, B

    1984-01-01

    The +1 site for initiation of inducible chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) mRNA encoded by plasmid pC194 was determined experimentally by using [alpha-32P]ATP-labeled runoff transcripts partially digested with T1 RNase. By partial digestion of the in vitro transcripts with S1, T1, and cobra venom nucleases as probes of mRNA conformation, single- and double-stranded regions, respectively, were also identified. Thus, a prominent inverted complementary repeat sequence was demonstrated spanning the +14 to +50 positions, which contain the complementary sequences CCUCC and GGAGG (the Shine and Dalgarno sequence for synthesis of CAT) symmetrically apposed and paired as part of a perfect 12-base-pair inverted complementary repeat sequence (-19.5 kcal [ca. -81.7 kJ] per mol). The CAT mRNA was stable to digestion by T1 RNase at the four guanosine residues in the Shine and Dalgarno sequence GGAGG , even at 60 degrees C, suggesting that nascent CAT mRNA allows ribosomes to initiate protein synthesis inefficiently and that induction involves post-transcriptional unmasking of the Shine and Dalgarno sequence. Consistent with this model of regulation, we found that cells carrying pC194 , induced with chloramphenicol, contain about the same concentration of pulse-labeled CAT-specific RNA as do uninduced cells. Induction of CAT synthesis by the non- acetylatable chloramphenicol analog fluorothiamphenicol was tested by using minicells of Bacillus subtilis carrying pC194 as well as minicells containing the cloned pC194 derivatives in which parts of the CAT structural gene were deleted in vitro with BAL 31 exonuclease. Optimal induction of both full-length (active) and deleted (inactive) CAT required similar concentrations of fluorothiamphenicol, whereas induction by chloramphenicol required a higher concentration for the wild-type full-length (active) CAT than for the (inactive) deleted CAT. Because synthesis of deleted CAT was inducible, we infer that CAT plays no direct role

  19. The Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase in Fatty Acid Synthesis in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jinshan; Behal, Robert H.; Back, Stephanie L.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Oliver, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) formed within the plastid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and, through them, a range of important biomolecules. The source of acetyl-CoA in the plastid is not known, but two enzymes are thought to be involved: acetyl-CoA synthetase and plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To determine the importance of these two enzymes in synthesizing acetyl-CoA during lipid accumulation in developing Arabidopsis seeds, we isolated cDNA clones for acetyl-CoA synthetase and for the ptE1α- and ptE1β-subunits of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported acetyl-CoA synthetase sequence from a plant source. The Arabidopsis acetyl-CoA synthetase preprotein has a calculated mass of 76,678 D, an apparent plastid targeting sequence, and the mature protein is a monomer of 70 to 72 kD. During silique development, the spatial and temporal patterns of the ptE1β mRNA level are very similar to those of the mRNAs for the plastidic heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits. The pattern of ptE1β mRNA accumulation strongly correlates with the formation of lipid within the developing embryo. In contrast, the level of mRNA for acetyl-CoA synthetase does not correlate in time and space with lipid accumulation. The highest level of accumulation of the mRNA for acetyl-CoA synthetase during silique development is within the funiculus. These mRNA data suggest a predominant role for plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase in acetyl-CoA formation during lipid synthesis in seeds. PMID:10859180

  20. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveal Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2012-01-01

    N-Lysine acetylation is a posttranslational modification that has been well studied in eukaryotes and is likely widespread in prokaryotes as well. The central metabolic enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase is regulated in both bacteria and eukaryotes by acetylation of a conserved lysine residue in the active site. In the purple photosynthetic α-proteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, two protein acetyltransferases (RpPat and the newly identified RpKatA) and two deacetylases (RpLdaA and RpSrtN) regulate the activities of AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases. In this work, we used LC/MS/MS to identify other proteins regulated by the N-lysine acetylation/deacetylation system of this bacterium. Of the 24 putative acetylated proteins identified, 14 were identified more often in a strain lacking both deacetylases. Nine of these proteins were members of the AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase family. RpPat acetylated all nine of the acyl-CoA synthetases identified by this work, and RpLdaA deacetylated eight of them. In all cases, acetylation occurred at the conserved lysine residue in the active site, and acetylation decreased activity of the enzymes by >70%. Our results show that many different AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases are regulated by N-lysine acetylation. Five non-acyl-CoA synthetases were identified as possibly acetylated, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Rpa1177, a putative 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. Neither RpPat nor RpKatA acetylated either of these proteins in vitro. It has been reported that Salmonella enterica Pat (SePat) can acetylate a number of metabolic enzymes, including GAPDH, but we were unable to confirm this claim, suggesting that the substrate range of SePat is not as broad as suggested previously. PMID:22416131

  1. A LysM Receptor-like Kinase Plays a Critical Role in Chitin Signaling and Fungal Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, is found in fungal cell walls, but not in plants. Plant cells are capable of perceiving chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) to trigger plant defense. We identified a LysM receptor-like protein (AtLysM RLK1) that is required for the perception of chit...

  2. A LysM receptor-like kinase plays a critical role in chitin signaling and fungal resistance in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, is found in fungal cell walls, but not in plants. Plant cells are capable of perceiving chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) to trigger plant defense. We identified a LysM receptor-like protein (AtLysM RLK1) that is required for the perception of chit...

  3. Light-dependent gene activation in Aspergillus nidulans is strictly dependent on phytochrome and involves the interplay of phytochrome and white collar-regulated histone H3 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Hedtke, Maren; Rauscher, Stefan; Röhrig, Julian; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Yu, Zhenzhong; Fischer, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    The ability for light sensing is found from bacteria to humans but relies only on a small number of evolutionarily conserved photoreceptors. A large number of fungi react to light, mostly to blue light. Aspergillus nidulans also responds to red light using a phytochrome light sensor, FphA, for the control of hundreds of light-regulated genes. Here, we show that photoinduction of one light-induced gene, ccgA, occurs mainly through red light. Induction strictly depends on phytochrome and its histidine-kinase activity. Full light activation also depends on the Velvet protein, VeA. This putative transcription factor binds to the ccgA promoter in an fphA-dependent manner but independent of light. In addition, the blue light receptor LreA binds to the ccgA promoter in the dark but is released after blue or red light illumination and together with FphA modulates gene expression through histone H3 modification. LreA interacts with the acetyltransferase GcnE and with the histone deacetylase HdaA. ccgA induction is correlated to an increase of the acetylation level of lysine 9 in histone H3. Our results suggest regulation of red light-induced genes at the transcriptional level involving transcription factor(s) and epigenetic control through modulation of the acetylation level of histone H3. PMID:25980340

  4. Kinetic studies on the acid hydrolysis of the methyl ketoside of unsubstituted and O-acetylated N-acetylneuraminic acid

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, A.; Ratcliffe, Wendy A.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrolysis of the model compound 2-O-methyl-4,7,8,9-tetra-O-acetyl-N-acetyl-α-d-neuraminic acid and neuraminidase (Vibrio cholerae) closely resembled that of the O-acetylated sialic acid residues of rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein. This confirmed that O-acetylation was responsible for the unusually slow rate of acid hydrolysis of O-acetylated sialic acid residues observed in rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein and their resistance to hydrolysis by neuraminidase. The first-order rate constant of hydrolysis of 2-methyl-N-acetyl-α-d-neuraminic acid by 0.05m-H2SO4 was 56-fold greater than that of 2-O-methyl-4,7,8,9-tetra-O-acetyl-N-acetyl -α-d-neuraminic acid. Kinetic studies have shown that in the pH range 1.00–3.30, the observed rate of hydrolysis of 2-methyl-N-acetyl-α-d-neuraminic acid can be attributed to acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the negatively charged CO2− form of the methyl ketoside. PMID:4748825

  5. Acetylation of raw cotton for oil spill cleanup application: an FTIR and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Moses O; Frost, Ray L

    2004-08-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the acetylation of raw cotton samples with acetic anhydride without solvents in the presence of different amounts of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalyst. This is a continuation of our previous investigation of acetylation of commercial cotton in an effort to develop hydrophobic, biodegradable, cellulosic sorbent materials for cleaning up oil spills. The FTIR data have again provided a clear evidence for successful acetylation. The NMR results further confirm the successful acetylation. The extent of acetylation was quantitatively determined using the weight percent gain (WPG) due to acetylation and by calculating the ratio R between the intensity of the acetyl C=O stretching band at 1740-1745 cm(-1) and the intensity of C-O stretching vibration of the cellulose backbone at about 1020-1040 cm(-1). The FTIR technique was found to be highly sensitive and reliable for the determination of the extent of acetylation. The level of acetylation of the raw cotton samples was found to be much higher than that of cotton fabrics and the previously studied commercial cotton. The variation of the R and WPG with reaction time, amount of DMAP catalyst and different samples of raw cotton is discussed. PMID:15249021

  6. Acetyl Coenzyme A Stimulates RNA Polymerase II Transcription and Promoter Binding by Transcription Factor IID in the Absence of Histones

    PubMed Central

    Galasinski, Shelly K.; Lively, Tricia N.; Grebe de Barron, Alexandra; Goodrich, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Protein acetylation has emerged as a means of controlling levels of mRNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) stimulates RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro in the absence of histones. The effect of acetyl-CoA on basal and activated transcription was studied in a human RNA polymerase II transcription system reconstituted from recombinant and highly purified transcription factors. Both basal and activated transcription were stimulated by the addition of acetyl-CoA to transcription reaction mixtures. By varying the concentrations of general transcription factors in the reaction mixtures, we found that acetyl-CoA decreased the concentration of TFIID required to observe transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting revealed that acetyl-CoA increased the affinity of the general transcription factor TFIID for promoter DNA in a TBP-associated factor (TAF)-dependent manner. Interestingly, acetyl-CoA also caused a conformational change in the TFIID-TFIIA-promoter complex as assessed by DNase I footprinting. These results show that acetyl-CoA alters the DNA binding activity of TFIID and indicate that this biologically important cofactor functions at multiple levels to control gene expression. PMID:10688640

  7. Studies of conformation and interaction of the cyclohexenone and acetyl group of progesterone with liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bueno, A; Watanabe, S; Sancho, M J; Saito, T

    1991-02-01

    The conformations of the A-ring and the 17-acetyl groups of progesterone were examined within liposomes, which were prepared from L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine in the presence or absence of cholesterol in the buffer, using qualitative nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism of the progesterone spectra in the wavelength regions of 260-360 nm. The preferred conformational assignments, in the rotational conformations of the 17-acetyl group and invertible conformations of the cyclohexenone of progesterone were discussed on the basis of the elliptical strength of the Cotton effect and an energy estimation of the preferred conformers. Energetically unstable conformers of the acetyl group and alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclohexenone of progesterone remarkably increased with an increase in the concentration of the liposomes. The liposomes containing 10% cholesterol were similar to the effect of the liposomes lacking cholesterol on the 17-acetyl group and the alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclohexenone but those containing 50% cholesterol showed an increase in the number of energetically stable conformers of the alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclohexenone. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal from liposomes together with the progesterone indicated the existence of the progesterone adjacent to a double bond or ester moiety in the lipid molecule. Therefore, it was apparent that the liposomes and the cholesterol within the liposomes regulated the conformational populations of both the cyclohexone and acetyl groups of the progesterone molecule. PMID:2004040

  8. Characterization of acetylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H2B by mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kangling

    2008-11-01

    Following the identification of histone H3 modifications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [K. Zhang, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 269 (2008) 101-111], here, we report a detailed characterization of post-translational modifications by LC/MS/MS analysis of tryptic and Glu-C digests of H2B proteins isolated from S. cerevisiae. We show that both H2B.1 and H2B.2 are acetylated at K6, K11, K16, K21 and K22 while H2B.2 has an additional acetylation site at K3. All the acetylation sites of yeast H2B except K3 of H2B.2 are located at the same positions on aligned protein sequences of Arabidopsis H2B variants that were reported previously to be acetylated at K6, K11, K27, K32, K38 and K39. A unique acetylation motif AEK is observed in the H2B variants of these two species, indicating a plant/yeast H2B specific acetyltransferase may exist.

  9. Boric acid-dependent decrease in regulatory histone H3 acetylation is not mutagenic in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pointer, Benjamin R; Schmidt, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast commonly found on human mucosal membranes that switches from yeast to hyphal morphology in response to environmental factors. The change to hyphal growth requires histone H3 modifications by the yeast-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109. In addition to its role in morphogenesis, Rtt109-dependent acetylation of histone H3 lysine residues 9 and 56 has regulatory functions during DNA replication and repair. Boric acid (BA) is a broad-spectrum agent that specifically inhibits C. albicans hyphal growth, locking the fungus in its harmless commensal yeast state. The present study characterizes the effect of BA on C. albicans histone acetylation in respect to specificity, time-course and significance. We demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of BA reduce H3K9/H3K56 acetylation, both on a basal level and in response to genotoxic stress. Acetylation at other selected histone sites were not affected by BA. qRT-PCR expression analysis of the DNA repair gene Rad51 indicated no elevated level of genotoxic stress during BA exposure. A forward-mutation analysis demonstrated the BA does not increase spontaneous or induced mutations. The findings suggest that DNA repair remains effective even when histone H3 acetylation decreases and dispels the notion that BA treatment impairs genome integrity in yeast. PMID:27190149

  10. Global proteomic analysis of protein acetylation affecting metabolic regulation in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Kwang; Sim, Juhee; Kim, Sun Ju; Oh, Hye Ryeung; Nam, Doo Hyun; Lee, Sangkyu

    2016-02-01

    Daphnia (Daphnia pulex) is a small planktonic crustacean and a key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. It is generally used as a model organism to study environmental toxic problems. In the past decade, genomic and proteomic datasets of Daphnia have been developed. The proteomic dataset allows for the investigation of toxicological effects in the context of "Daphnia proteomics," resulting in greater insights for toxicological research. To exploit Daphnia for ecotoxicological research, information on the post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is necessary, as this is a critical regulator of biological processes. Acetylation of lysine (Kac) is a reversible and highly regulated PTM that is associated with diverse biological functions. However, a comprehensive description of Kac in Daphnia is not yet available. To understand the cellular distribution of lysine acetylation in Daphnia, we identified 98 acetylation sites in 65 proteins by immunoprecipitation using an anti-acetyllysine antibody and a liquid chromatography system supported by mass spectroscopy. We identified 28 acetylated sites related to metabolic proteins and six acetylated enzymes associated with the TCA cycle in Daphnia. From GO and KEGG enrichment analyses, we showed that Kac in D. pulex is highly enriched in proteins associated with metabolic processes. Our data provide the first global analysis of Kac in D. pulex and is an important resource for the functional analysis of Kac in this organism. PMID:26700148

  11. Histone acetylation and gene expression analysis of sex lethal mutants in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Bhadra, U; Pal-Bhadra, M; Birchler, J A

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of sex determination mechanisms is often accompanied by reduction in dosage of genes on a whole chromosome. Under these circumstances, negatively acting regulatory genes would tend to double the expression of the genome, which produces compensation of the single-sex chromosome and increases autosomal gene expression. Previous work has suggested that to reduce the autosomal expression to the female level, these dosage effects are modified by a chromatin complex specific to males, which sequesters a histone acetylase to the X. The reduced autosomal histone 4 lysine 16 (H4Lys16) acetylation results in lowered autosomal expression, while the higher acetylation on the X is mitigated by the male-specific lethal complex, preventing overexpression. In this report, we examine how mutations in the principal sex determination gene, Sex lethal (Sxl), impact the H4 acetylation and gene expression on both the X and autosomes. When Sxl expression is missing in females, we find that the sequestration occurs concordantly with reductions in autosomal H4Lys16 acetylation and gene expression on the whole. When Sxl is ectopically expressed in Sxl(M) mutant males, the sequestration is disrupted, leading to an increase in autosomal H4Lys16 acetylation and overall gene expression. In both cases we find relatively little effect upon X chromosomal gene expression. PMID:10835396

  12. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  13. Radioisotopic assays of CoASH and carnitine and their acetylated forms in human skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Cederblad, G.; Carlin, J.I.; Constantin-Teodosiu, D.; Harper, P.; Hultman, E. )

    1990-03-01

    Radioisotopic assays for the determination of acetyl-CoA, CoASH, and acetylcarnitine have been modified for application to the amount of human muscle tissue that can be obtained by needle biopsy. In the last step common to all three methods, acetyl-CoA is condensed with (14C)oxaloacetate by citrate synthase to give (14C)-citrate. For determination of CoASH, CoASH is reacted with acetylphosphate in a reaction catalyzed by phosphotransacetylase to yield acetyl-CoA. In the assay for acetylcarnitine, acetylcarnitine is reacted with CoASH in a reaction catalyzed by carnitine acetyltransferase to form acetyl-CoA. Inclusion of new simple steps in the acetylcarnitine assay and conditions affecting the reliability of all three methods are also described. Acetylcarnitine and free carnitine levels in human rectus abdominis muscle were 3.0 +/- 1.5 (SD) and 13.5 +/- 4.0 mumol/g dry wt, respectively. Values for acetyl-CoA and CoASH were about 500-fold lower, 6.7 +/- 1.8 and 21 +/- 8.9 nmol/g dry wt, respectively. A strong correlation between acetylcarnitine (y) and short-chain acylcarnitine (x), determined as the difference between total and free carnitine, was found in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle obtained during intense muscular effort, y = 1.0x + 0.5; r = 0.976.

  14. Atomic resolution structure of human α-tubulin acetyltransferase bound to acetyl-CoA

    PubMed Central

    Taschner, Michael; Vetter, Melanie; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues is an important posttranslational modification found in all domains of life. α-tubulin is specifically acetylated on lysine 40, a modification that serves to stabilize microtubules of axons and cilia. Whereas histone acetyltransferases have been extensively studied, there is no structural and mechanistic information available on α-tubulin acetyltransferases. Here, we present the structure of the human α-tubulin acetyltransferase catalytic domain bound to its cosubstrate acetyl-CoA at 1.05 Å resolution. Compared with other lysine acetyltransferases of known structure, α-tubulin acetyltransferase displays a relatively well-conserved cosubstrate binding pocket but is unique in its active site and putative α-tubulin binding site. Using acetylation assays with structure-guided mutants, we map residues important for acetyl-CoA binding, substrate binding, and catalysis. This analysis reveals a basic patch implicated in substrate binding and a conserved glutamine residue required for catalysis, demonstrating that the family of α-tubulin acetyltransferases uses a reaction mechanism different from other lysine acetyltransferases characterized to date. PMID:23071318

  15. Biochemical and cellular analysis of Ogden syndrome reveals downstream Nt-acetylation defects

    PubMed Central

    Myklebust, Line M.; Van Damme, Petra; Støve, Svein I.; Dörfel, Max J.; Abboud, Angèle; Kalvik, Thomas V.; Grauffel, Cedric; Jonckheere, Veronique; Wu, Yiyang; Swensen, Jeffrey; Kaasa, Hanna; Liszczak, Glen; Marmorstein, Ronen; Reuter, Nathalie; Lyon, Gholson J.; Gevaert, Kris; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The X-linked lethal Ogden syndrome was the first reported human genetic disorder associated with a mutation in an N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) gene. The affected males harbor an Ser37Pro (S37P) mutation in the gene encoding Naa10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major human NAT involved in the co-translational acetylation of proteins. Structural models and molecular dynamics simulations of the human NatA and its S37P mutant highlight differences in regions involved in catalysis and at the interface between Naa10 and the auxiliary subunit hNaa15. Biochemical data further demonstrate a reduced catalytic capacity and an impaired interaction between hNaa10 S37P and Naa15 as well as Naa50 (NatE), another interactor of the NatA complex. N-Terminal acetylome analyses revealed a decreased acetylation of a subset of NatA and NatE substrates in Ogden syndrome cells, supporting the genetic findings and our hypothesis regarding reduced Nt-acetylation of a subset of NatA/NatE-type substrates as one etiology for Ogden syndrome. Furthermore, Ogden syndrome fibroblasts display abnormal cell migration and proliferation capacity, possibly linked to a perturbed retinoblastoma pathway. N-Terminal acetylation clearly plays a role in Ogden syndrome, thus revealing the in vivo importance of N-terminal acetylation in human physiology and disease. PMID:25489052

  16. Acetylation of C/EBPε is a prerequisite for terminal neutrophil differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Marije; Govers, Anita M; Fleskens, Veerle; Lourenço, Ana Rita; Pals, Cornelieke E; Vervoort, Stephin J; van Gent, Rogier; Brenkman, Arjan B; Bierings, Marc B; Ackerman, Steven J; van Loosdregt, Jorg; Coffer, Paul J

    2015-03-12

    C/EBPε, a member of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors, is exclusively expressed in myeloid cells and regulates transition from the promyelocytic stage to the myelocytic stage of neutrophil development, being indispensable for secondary and tertiary granule formation. Knowledge concerning the functional role of C/EBPε posttranslational modifications is limited to studies concerning phosphorylation and sumoylation. In the current study, using ectopic expression and ex vivo differentiation of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells, we demonstrate that C/EBPε is acetylated, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis, identifying 4 acetylated lysines in 3 distinct functional domains. Regulation of C/EBPε acetylation levels by the p300 acetyltransferase and the sirtuin 1 deacetylase controls transcriptional activity, which can at least in part be explained by modulation of DNA binding. During neutrophil development, acetylation of lysines 121 and 198 were found to be crucial for terminal neutrophil differentiation and the expression of neutrophil-specific granule proteins, including lactoferrin and collagenase. Taken together, our data illustrate a critical role for acetylation in the functional regulation of C/EBPε activity during terminal neutrophil development. PMID:25568349

  17. 3,5-Dimethylisoxazoles Act As Acetyl-lysine-mimetic Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Histone–lysine acetylation is a vital chromatin post-translational modification involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Bromodomains bind acetylated lysines, acting as readers of the histone-acetylation code. Competitive inhibitors of this interaction have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. With 57 distinct bromodomains known, the discovery of subtype-selective inhibitors of the histone–bromodomain interaction is of great importance. We have identified the 3,5-dimethylisoxazole moiety as a novel acetyl-lysine bioisostere, which displaces acetylated histone-mimicking peptides from bromodomains. Using X-ray crystallographic analysis, we have determined the interactions responsible for the activity and selectivity of 4-substituted 3,5-dimethylisoxazoles against a selection of phylogenetically diverse bromodomains. By exploiting these interactions, we have developed compound 4d, which has IC50 values of <5 μM for the bromodomain-containing proteins BRD2(1) and BRD4(1). These compounds are promising leads for the further development of selective probes for the bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family and CREBBP bromodomains. PMID:21851057

  18. Radiolysis of N-acetyl amino acids as model compounds for radiation degradation of polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne Garrett, R.; Hill, David J. T.; Ho, Sook-Ying; O'Donnell, James H.; O'Sullivan, Paul W.; Pomery, Peter J.

    Radiation chemical yields of (i) the volatile radiolysis products and (ii) the trapped free radicals from the y-radiolysis of the N-acetyl derivatives of glycine, L-valine, L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine in the polycrystalline state have been determined at room temperature (303 K). Carbon dioxide was found to be the major molecular product for all these compounds with G(CO 2) varying from 0.36 for N-acetyl-L-tyrosine to 8 for N-acetyl-L-valine. There was evidence for some scission of the N-C α bond, indicated by the production of acetamide and the corresponding aliphatic acid, but the determination reaction was found to be of much lesser importance than the decarboxylation reaction. A protective effect of the aromatic ring in N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine and in N-acetyl-L-tyrosine was indicated by the lower yields of volatile products for these compounds. The yields of trapped free radicals were found to vary with the nature of the amino acid side chain, increasing with chain length and chain branching. The radical yields were decreased by incorporation of an aromatic moiety in the side chain, this effect being greater for the tyrosyl side chain than for the phenyl side chain. The G(R·) values showed a good correlation with G(CO 2) indicating that a common reaction may be involved in radical production and carbon dioxide formation.

  19. The extracellular release of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 nuclear protein is mediated by acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Coutinho Carneiro, Vitor; Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Isabel; Furtado Madeira da Costa, Rodrigo; Neto Paiva, Claudia; Torres Bozza, Marcelo; Rosado Fantappie, Marcelo

    2009-12-25

    Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) was revealed to be a substrate for the parasite histone acetyltransferases SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. We found that full-length SmHMGB1, as well as its HMG-box B (but not HMG-box A) were acetylated in vitro by SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. However, SmCBP1 was able to acetylate both substrates more efficiently than SmGCN5. Interestingly, the removal of the C-terminal acidic tail of SmHMGB1 (SmHMGB1{Delta}C) resulted in increased acetylation of the protein. We showed by mammalian cell transfection assays that SmHMGB1 and SmHMGB1{Delta}C were transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment. Importantly, after NaB treatment, SmHMGB1 was also present outside the cell. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of SmHMGB1 plays a role in cellular trafficking, culminating with its secretion to the extracellular milieu. The possible role of SmHMGB1 acetylation in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is discussed.

  20. Acetylation curtails nucleosome binding, not stable nucleosome remodeling, by FoxO1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatta, M.; Liu, F.; Cirillo, L.A.

    2009-02-20

    Transcriptional activity of FoxO factors is controlled through the actions of multiple growth factors signaling through protein kinase B, whereby phosphorylation of FoxO factors inhibits FoxO-mediated transactivation by promoting nuclear export. Phosphorylation of FoxO factors is enhanced by p300-mediated acetylation, which decreases their affinity for DNA. The negative effect of acetylation on FoxO DNA binding, together with nuclear FoxO mobility, is eliminated by over-expression of the de-acetylase Sirt1, suggesting that acetylation mobilizes FoxO factors in chromatin for inducible gene expression. Here, we show that acetylation significantly curtails the affinity of FoxO1 for its binding sites in nucleosomal DNA but has no effect on either stable nucleosome binding or remodeling by this factor. We suggest that, while acetylation provides a first, essential step toward mobilizing FoxO factors for inducible gene repression, additional mechanisms exist for overcoming their inherent capacity to stably bind and remodel nuclear chromatin.

  1. Alteration of Forkhead Box O (Foxo4) Acetylation Mediates Apoptosis of Podocytes in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Peter Y.; Dai, Yan; Liu, Ruijie; He, Helen; Kretzler, Matthias; Jim, Belinda; Cohen, Clemens D.; He, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The number of kidney podocytes is reduced in diabetic nephropathy. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in patients with diabetes and promote the apoptosis of podocyte by activating the forkhead box O4 (Foxo4) transcription factor to increase the expression of a pro-apoptosis gene, Bcl2l11. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) enhances Foxo4 binding to a forkhead binding element in the promoter of Bcl2lll. AGE-BSA also increases the acetylation of Foxo4. Lysine acetylation of Foxo4 is required for Foxo4 binding and transcription of Bcl2l11 in podocytes treated with AGE-BSA. The expression of a protein deacetylase that targets Foxo4 for deacetylation, sirtuin (Sirt1), is down regulated in cultured podocytes by AGE-BSA treatment and in glomeruli of diabetic patients. SIRT1 over expression in cultured murine podocytes prevents AGE-induced apoptosis. Glomeruli isolated from diabetic db/db mice have increased acetylation of Foxo4, suppressed expression of Sirt1, and increased expression of Bcl2l11 compared to non-diabetic littermates. Together, our data provide evidence that alteration of Foxo4 acetylation and down regulation of Sirt1 expression in diabetes promote podocyte apoptosis. Strategies to preserve Sirt1 expression or reduce Foxo4 acetylation could be used to prevent podocyte loss in diabetes. PMID:21858169

  2. Histone Acetylation Regulation in Sleep Deprivation-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ruifeng; Liu, Xiaohua; Wang, Tianhui; Wu, Lei; Gao, Xiujie; Zhang, Zhiqing

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disorders negatively affect cognition and health. Recent evidence has indicated that chromatin remodeling via histone acetylation regulates cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the possible roles of histone acetylation in sleep deprivation (SD)-induced cognitive impairment. Results of the Morris water maze test showed that 3 days of SD can cause spatial memory impairment in Wistar rats. SD can also decrease histone acetylation levels, increase histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression, and decrease histone acetyltransferase (CBP) expression. Furthermore, SD can reduce H3 and H4 acetylation levels in the promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene and thus significantly downregulate BDNF expression and impair the activity of key BDNF signaling pathways (pCaMKII, pErk2, and pCREB). However, treatment with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A attenuated all the negative effects induced by SD. Therefore, BDNF and its histone acetylation regulation may play important roles in SD-induced spatial memory impairment, whereas HDAC inhibition possibly confers protection against SD-induced impairment in spatial memory and hippocampal functions. PMID:27161370

  3. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings.

    PubMed

    Momonoki, Y S

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol. PMID:11537873

  4. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang; and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  5. Regulation of Plant Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase by Adenylate Nucleotides 1

    PubMed Central

    Eastwell, Kenneth C.; Stumpf, Paul K.

    1983-01-01

    The assay of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2) does not follow ideal zero-order kinetics when assayed in a crude extract from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germ. Our results show that the lack of ideality is the consequence of contamination by ATPase and adenylate kinase. These enzyme activities generate significant amounts of ADP and AMP in the assay mixture, thus limiting the availability of ATP for the carboxylase reaction. Moreover, ADP and AMP are competitive inhibitors, with respect to ATP, of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Similar relationships between adenylate nucleotides and acetyl-CoA carboxylase are found in isolated chloroplasts. There is no evidence that acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in the extracts of the plant systems examined is altered by covalent modification, such as a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle. A scheme is presented that illustrates the dependency of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthesis on the energy demands of the chloroplasts in vivo. PMID:16662980

  6. N-acetylation of aromatic amines: implication for skin and immune cells.

    PubMed

    Bonifas, Jutta; Blomeke, Brunhilde

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, aromatic amine (AA) contact to the skin occurs via occupational or 'life style' exposure to hair dye intermediates and couplers, usually monocyclic p-phenylenediamines and meta-substituted aminophenols. The transport of AA from the outer surface to the systemic circulation predominantly follows the intracellular route. Skin tends to have relatively higher phase II compared to phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme capacity, and levels are generally regarded as lower than those in liver. Inside skin cells AA are primarily N-acetylated and detoxified by N-acetyltransferase 1. AA activation via hydroxylation or chemical oxidation competes with acetylation and is only of importance under circumstances when N-acetylation capacities are limited. The reactive AA derivatives are able to elicit effects by virtue of their modifications of skin proteins resulting in irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Overall, the effective acetylation of topically applied AAs in skin cells emphasizes a protective role of cutaneous acetylation mediating a classical "first-pass" effect, which attenuates systemic exposure. PMID:25553379

  7. Histone H4 lysine 20 acetylation is associated with gene repression in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Harada, Akihito; Fukuda, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Satoko; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Matsuda, Ryo; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Koji; Obuse, Chikashi; Nozaki, Naohito; Takahara, Shiro; Takao, Toshifumi; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Hiroshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is generally associated with gene activation and chromatin decondensation. Recent mass spectrometry analysis has revealed that histone H4 lysine 20, a major methylation site, can also be acetylated. To understand the function of H4 lysine 20 acetylation (H4K20ac), we have developed a specific monoclonal antibody and performed ChIP-seq analysis using HeLa-S3 cells. H4K20ac was enriched around the transcription start sites (TSSs) of minimally expressed genes and in the gene body of expressed genes, in contrast to most histone acetylation being enriched around the TSSs of expressed genes. The distribution of H4K20ac showed little correlation with known histone modifications, including histone H3 methylations. A motif search in H4K20ac-enriched sequences, together with transcription factor binding profiles based on ENCODE ChIP-seq data, revealed that most transcription activators are excluded from H4K20ac-enriched genes and a transcription repressor NRSF/REST co-localized with H4K20ac. These results suggest that H4K20ac is a unique acetylation mark associated with gene repression. PMID:27064113

  8. NUCLEOPHOSMIN/B23 NEGATIVELY REGULATES GCN5-DEPENDENT HISTONE ACETYLATION AND TRANSACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yonglong; Wu, Jun; Giannone, Richard J; Boucher, Lorrie; Du, Hansen; Huang, Ying; Johnson, Dabney K; Liu, Yie; Wang, Yisong

    2007-01-01

    Nucleophosmin/B23 is a multifunctional phosphoprotein that is overexpressed in cancer cells and has been shown to be involved in both positive and negative regulation of transcription. In this study, we first identified GCN5 acetyltransferase as a B23-interacting protein by mass spectrometry, which was then confirmed by in vivo co-immunoprecipitation. In vitro assay demonstrated that B23 bound the PCAF-N domain of GCN5 and inhibited GCN5-mediated acetylation of both free and mononucleosomal histones, probably through interfering with GCN5 and masking histones from being acetylated. Mitotic B23 exhibited higher inhibitory activity on GCN5-mediated histone acetylation than interphase B23. Immunodepletion experiments of mitotic extracts revealed that phosphorylation of B23 at Thr199 enhanced the inhibition of GCN5-mediated histone acetylation. Moreover, luciferase reporter and microarray analyses suggested that B23 attenuated GCN5-mediated transactivation in vivo. Taken together, our studies suggest a molecular mechanism of B23 in the mitotic inhibition of GCN5-mediated histone acetylation and transactivation.

  9. Critical role of acetylation in tau-mediated neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Min, Sang-Won; Chen, Xu; Tracy, Tara E; Li, Yaqiao; Zhou, Yungui; Wang, Chao; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Minami, S Sakura; Defensor, Erwin; Mok, Sue Ann; Sohn, Peter Dongmin; Schilling, Birgit; Cong, Xin; Ellerby, Lisa; Gibson, Bradford W; Johnson, Jeffrey; Krogan, Nevan; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Gestwicki, Jason; Masliah, Eliezer; Verdin, Eric; Gan, Li

    2015-10-01

    Tauopathies, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), are neurodegenerative diseases in which tau fibrils accumulate. Recent evidence supports soluble tau species as the major toxic species. How soluble tau accumulates and causes neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here we identify tau acetylation at Lys174 (K174) as an early change in AD brains and a critical determinant in tau homeostasis and toxicity in mice. The acetyl-mimicking mutant K174Q slows tau turnover and induces cognitive deficits in vivo. Acetyltransferase p300-induced tau acetylation is inhibited by salsalate and salicylate, which enhance tau turnover and reduce tau levels. In the PS19 transgenic mouse model of FTD, administration of salsalate after disease onset inhibited p300 activity, lowered levels of total tau and tau acetylated at K174, rescued tau-induced memory deficits and prevented hippocampal atrophy. The tau-lowering and protective effects of salsalate were diminished in neurons expressing K174Q tau. Targeting tau acetylation could be a new therapeutic strategy against human tauopathies. PMID:26390242

  10. Effect of (L-Carnitine) on acetyl-L-carnitine production by heart mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Bieber, L.L.; Lilly, K.; Lysiak, W.

    1986-05-01

    The authors recently reported a large efflux of acetyl-L-carnitine from rat heart mitochondria during state 3 respiration with pyruvate as substrate both in the presence and absence of malate. In this series of experiments, the effect of the concentration of L-carnitine on the efflux of acetyl-L-carnitine and on the production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from 2-/sup 14/C-pyruvate was determined. Maximum acetylcarnitine production (approximately 25 n moles/min/mg protein) was obtained at 3-5 mM L-carnitine in the absence of added malate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production decreased as the concentration of L-carnitine increased; it plateaued at 3-5 mM L-carnitine. These data indicate carnitine can stimulate flux of pyruvate through pyruvate dehydrogenase and can reduce flux of acetyl CoA through the Krebs cycle by acting as an acceptor of the acetyl moieties of acetyl CoA generated by pyruvate dehydrogenase.

  11. Relation between the content of acetyl-coenzyme A and acetylcholine in brain slices.

    PubMed Central

    Rícný, J; Tucek, S

    1980-01-01

    Slices of rat caudate nuclei were incubated in vitro in media containing, among other constituents, three different concentrations of glucose (0.5, 2 and 10 mM), 0.2 mM-choline, paraoxon as an inhibitor of cholinesterase, and 5 mM- or 30 mM-K+. After 30 and 60 min of incubation, the concentrations of acetyl-CoA, acetylcholine and choline in the tissue and of acetylcholine in the incubation medium were measured. The content of acetyl-CoA in the sliced varied in direct relation to the concentration of glucose in the incubation medium. The content of acetylcholine in the slices and, in experiments with high K+, also the amount of acetylcholine released into the incubation medium varied in direct relation to the concentration of glucose in the incubation medium and to the concentration of acetyl-CoA in the slices; the relation between the concentrations of acetyl-CoA and of acetylcholine in the slices was linear. It was concluded that the availability of acetyl-CoA had a decisive influence on both the rate of synthesis of acetylcholine and its steady-state concentration. The observations accord with the view that, at the ultimate level, the synthesis of acetylcholine is controlled by the Law of Mass Action. PMID:7470027

  12. Acetyl-L-carnitine-mediated neuroprotection during hypoxia is attributed to ERK1/2-Nrf2-regulated mitochondrial biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hota, Kalpana Barhwal; Hota, Sunil Kumar; Chaurasia, Om Prakash; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2012-04-01

    Neuronal damage in hypoxia and several neurodegenerative disorders is invariably associated with oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on the other hand attenuates neuronal damage, prevents apoptosis, and improves energy status in hypoxic stress through less understood mechanisms. Becasue mitochondrial biogenesis could be a possible mechanism for ALCAR-induced improvement in bioenergetics in neurons, the present study aimed at exploring signaling pathways of ALCAR-induced neuroprotection in hypoxia and possible occurrence of mitochondrial biogenesis. To create global hypoxia, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a simulated altitude of 7,620 m at standard temperature and humidity conditions. We here demonstrate that administration of ALCAR to hypoxic rats for a period of 2 weeks effectively protected hippocampal neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. ALCAR administration resulted in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor-1-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, the expression of which was regulated by an extracellular-related kinase-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (ERK-Nrf2)-mediated mechanism. Most notably, calcium buffering into nonfunctional mitochondria ameliorated excitotoxicity and improved bioenergetic status of the hippocampal neurons. Together, the data reveal the immense therapeutic potential of ALCAR for the treatment of ischemia, stroke, and other neurodegenerative disorders associated with hypoxic stress and excitotoxicity. PMID:21542052

  13. The ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to glutamate correlates with disease duration of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sako, Wataru; Abe, Takashi; Izumi, Yuishin; Harada, Masafumi; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate (Glu)-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated in the neuronal loss of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To test the hypothesis that Glu in the primary motor cortex contributes to disease severity and/or duration, the Glu level was investigated using MR spectroscopy. Seventeen patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were diagnosed according to the El Escorial criteria for suspected, possible, probable or definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and enrolled in this cross-sectional study. We measured metabolite concentrations, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine, choline, inositol, Glu and glutamine, and performed partial correlation between each metabolite concentration or NAA/Glu ratio and disease severity or duration using age as a covariate. Considering our hypothesis that Glu is associated with neuronal cell death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we investigated the ratio of NAA to Glu, and found a significant correlation between NAA/Glu and disease duration (r=-0.574, p=0.02). The "suspected" amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients showed the same tendency as possible, probable and definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients in regard to correlation of NAA/Glu ratio with disease duration. The other metabolites showed no significant correlation. Our findings suggested that glutamatergic neurons are less vulnerable compared to other neurons and this may be because inhibitory receptors are mainly located presynaptically, which supports the notion of Glu-induced excitotoxicity. PMID:26765768

  14. Aberrant lysine acetylation in tumorigenesis: Implications in the development of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kaypee, Stephanie; Sudarshan, Deepthi; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Mukherjee, Debanjan; Sethi, Gautam; Kundu, Tapas K

    2016-06-01

    The 'language' of covalent histone modifications translates environmental and cellular cues into gene expression. This vast array of post-translational modifications on histones are more than just covalent moieties added onto a protein, as they also form a platform on which crucial cellular signals are relayed. The reversible lysine acetylation has emerged as an important post-translational modification of both histone and non-histone proteins, dictating numerous epigenetic programs within a cell. Thus, understanding the complex biology of lysine acetylation and its regulators is essential for the development of epigenetic therapeutics. In this review, we will attempt to address the complexities of lysine acetylation in the context of tumorigenesis, their role in cancer progression and emphasize on the modalities developed to target lysine acetyltransferases towards cancer treatment. PMID:26808162

  15. Roles of dynamic and reversible histone acetylation in plant development and polyploidy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z. Jeffrey; Tian, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes is not simply determined by the DNA sequence, but rather mediated through dynamic chromatin modifications and remodeling. Recent studies have shown that reversible and rapid changes in histone acetylation play an essential role in chromatin modification, induce genome-wide and specific changes in gene expression, and affect a variety of biological processes in response to internal and external signals, such as cell differentiation, growth, development, light, temperature, and abiotic and biotic stresses. Moreover, histone acetylation and deacetylation are associated with RNA interference and other chromatin modifications including DNA and histone methylation. The reversible changes in histone acetylation also contribute to cell cycle regulation and epigenetic silencing of rDNA and redundant genes in response to interspecific hybridization and polyploidy. PMID:17556080

  16. Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunch via a one step heterogeneous acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan Daud, Wan Rosli; Djuned, Fauzi Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA. PMID:26256348

  17. Acetylation regulates subcellular localization of the Wnt signaling nuclear effector POP-1

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Frédérique; Calvo, Dominica; Lo, Miao-Chia; Ceron, Julian; Maduro, Morris; Lin, Rueyling; Shi, Yang

    2003-01-01

    Lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor (LEF/TCF) are transcription factors that mediate the Wnt signaling pathway, and have crucial roles during embryonic development in various organisms. Here we report that acetylation enhances nuclear retention of POP-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans LEF/TCF homolog, through increasing nuclear import and blocking nuclear export. We identify three lysines that are acetylated in vivo, and demonstrate their essential requirement for proper nuclear localization and biological activity of POP-1 during C. elegans embryogenesis. The conservation of these lysines among other LEF/TCF family members suggests that acetylation may be an important, evolutionarily conserved mechanism regulating subcellular distribution of LEF/TCF factors. PMID:12651889

  18. Catalytic Depolymerization of Chitin with Retention of N-Acetyl Group.

    PubMed

    Yabushita, Mizuho; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kuroki, Kyoichi; Ito, Shogo; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine units with β-1,4-glycosidic linkages, is the most abundant marine biomass. Chitin monomers containing N-acetyl groups are useful precursors to various fine chemicals and medicines. However, the selective conversion of robust chitin to N-acetylated monomers currently requires a large excess of acid or a long reaction time, which limits its application. We demonstrate a fast catalytic transformation of chitin to monomers with retention of N-acetyl groups by combining mechanochemistry and homogeneous catalysis. Mechanical-force-assisted depolymerization of chitin with a catalytic amount of H2SO4 gave soluble short-chain oligomers. Subsequent hydrolysis of the ball-milled sample provided N-acetylglucosamine in 53% yield, and methanolysis afforded 1-O-methyl-N-acetylglucosamine in yields of up to 70%. Our process can greatly reduce the use of acid compared to the conventional process. PMID:26538108

  19. Molecular mechanism for USP7-mediated DNMT1 stabilization by acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingdong; Yang, Huirong; Fang, Jian; Ma, Lixiang; Gong, Rui; Wang, Ping; Li, Ze; Xu, Yanhui

    2015-05-01

    DNMT1 is an important epigenetic regulator that plays a key role in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Here we determined the crystal structure of DNMT1 in complex with USP7 at 2.9 Å resolution. The interaction between the two proteins is primarily mediated by an acidic pocket in USP7 and Lysine residues within DNMT1's KG linker. This intermolecular interaction is required for USP7-mediated stabilization of DNMT1. Acetylation of the KG linker Lysine residues impair DNMT1-USP7 interaction and promote the degradation of DNMT1. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors results in an increase in acetylated DNMT1 and decreased total DNMT1 protein. This negative correlation is observed in differentiated neuronal cells and pancreatic cancer cells. Our studies reveal that USP7-mediated stabilization of DNMT1 is regulated by acetylation and provide a structural basis for the design of inhibitors, targeting the DNMT1-USP7 interaction surface for therapeutic applications.

  20. Preparation and characterization of acetylated corn starch-(PVOH)/clay nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Katerinopoulou, Katerina; Giannakas, Aris; Grigoriadi, Kalouda; Barkoula, Nektaria M; Ladavos, Athanasios

    2014-02-15

    Acetylated corn starch (ACS)-based clay (NaMMT) nanocomposite films, with or without addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), were prepared by casting with glycerol as a plasticizer. The obtained nanocomposite structure was ascertained by XRD study for all polymer-clay nanocomposites. XRD patterns are indicative of an intercalated nanocomposite structure. Mechanical and thermomechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites were studied. The addition of clay induces significant reinforcing effects in the thermoplastic ACS systems. Replacement of glycerol with PVOH in the ACS-NaMMT system results in superior mechanical strength, due to the creation of hydrogen bonds between the ACS and the PVOH chains. Enhancement in water barrier properties was observed for all nanocomposite films, which reaches up to 67% for acetylated starch-PVOH-clay nanocomposites in comparison to acetylated thermoplastic starch, as indicated by water vapor transmission measurements. PMID:24507275

  1. Genome-wide analysis of H4K5 acetylation associated with fear memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histone acetylation has been implicated in learning and memory in the brain, however, its function at the level of the genome and at individual genetic loci remains poorly investigated. This study examines a key acetylation mark, histone H4 lysine 5 acetylation (H4K5ac), genome-wide and its role in activity-dependent gene transcription in the adult mouse hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning. Results Using ChIP-Seq, we identified 23,235 genes in which H4K5ac correlates with absolute gene expression in the hippocampus. However, in the absence of transcription factor binding sites 150 bp upstream of the transcription start site, genes were associated with higher H4K5ac and expression levels. We further establish H4K5ac as a ubiquitous modification across the genome. Approximately one-third of all genes have above average H4K5ac, of which ~15% are specific to memory formation and ~65% are co-acetylated for H4K12. Although H4K5ac is prevalent across the genome, enrichment of H4K5ac at specific regions in the promoter and coding region are associated with different levels of gene expression. Additionally, unbiased peak calling for genes differentially acetylated for H4K5ac identified 114 unique genes specific to fear memory, over half of which have not previously been associated with memory processes. Conclusions Our data provide novel insights into potential mechanisms of gene priming and bookmarking by histone acetylation following hippocampal memory activation. Specifically, we propose that hyperacetylation of H4K5 may prime genes for rapid expression following activity. More broadly, this study strengthens the importance of histone posttranslational modifications for the differential regulation of transcriptional programs in cognitive processes. PMID:23927422

  2. Modulation of p300/CBP Acetylation of Nucleosomes by Bromodomain Ligand I-CBP112.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, Beth E; Luef, Birgit; Xu, Wei; Henry, Ryan A; Nodelman, Ilana M; Bowman, Gregory D; Andrews, Andrew J; Cole, Philip A

    2016-07-12

    The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes p300 and CBP are closely related paralogs that serve as transcriptional coactivators and have been found to be dysregulated in cancer and other diseases. p300/CBP is a multidomain protein and possesses a highly conserved bromodomain that has been shown to bind acetylated Lys residues in both proteins and various small molecules, including I-CBP112 and CBP30. Here we show that the ligand I-CBP112 can stimulate nucleosome acetylation up to 3-fold while CBP30 does not. Activation of p300/CBP by I-CBP112 is not observed with the isolated histone H3 substrate but requires a nucleosome substrate. I-CBP112 does not impact nucleosome acetylation by the isolated p300 HAT domain, and the effects of I-CBP112 on p300/CBP can be neutralized by CBP30, suggesting that I-CBP112 likely allosterically activates p300/CBP through bromodomain interactions. Using mass spectrometry and Western blots, we have found that I-CBP112 particularly stimulates acetylation of Lys18 of histone H3 (H3K18) in nucleosomes, an established in vivo site of p300/CBP. In addition, we show that I-CBP112 enhances H3K18 acetylation in acute leukemia and prostate cancer cells in a concentration range commensurate with its antiproliferative effects. Our findings extend the known pharmacology of bromodomain ligands in the regulation of p300/CBP and suggest a novel approach to modulating histone acetylation in cancer. PMID:27332697

  3. Polyamine acetylation modulates polyamine metabolic flux, a prelude to broader metabolic consequences.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Debora L; Diegelman, Paula; Jell, Jason; Vujcic, Slavoljub; Merali, Salim; Porter, Carl W

    2008-02-15

    Recent studies suggest that overexpression of the polyamine-acetylating enzyme spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) significantly increases metabolic flux through the polyamine pathway. The concept derives from the observation that SSAT-induced acetylation of polyamines gives rise to a compensatory increase in biosynthesis and presumably to increased flow through the pathway. Despite the strength of this deduction, the existence of heightened polyamine flux has not yet been experimentally demonstrated. Here, we use the artificial polyamine precursor 4-fluoro-ornithine to measure polyamine flux by tracking fluorine unit permeation of polyamine pools in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. Conditional overexpression of SSAT was accompanied by a massive increase in intracellular and extracellular acetylated spermidine and by a 6-20-fold increase in biosynthetic enzyme activities. In the presence of 300 microM 4-fluoro-ornithine, SSAT overexpression led to the sequential appearance of fluorinated putrescine, spermidine, acetylated spermidine, and spermine. As fluorinated polyamines increased, endogenous polyamines decreased, so that the total polyamine pool size remained relatively constant. At 24 h, 56% of the spermine pool in the induced SSAT cells was fluorine-labeled compared with only 12% in uninduced cells. Thus, SSAT induction increased metabolic flux by approximately 5-fold. Flux could be interrupted by inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis but not by inhibition of polyamine oxidation. Overall, the findings are consistent with a paradigm whereby flux is initiated by SSAT acetylation of spermine and particularly spermidine followed by a marked increase in key biosynthetic enzymes. The latter sustains the flux cycle by providing a constant supply of polyamines for subsequent acetylation by SSAT. The broader metabolic implications of this futile metabolic cycling are discussed in detail. PMID:18089555

  4. Mucolipidosis III β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A. Purification and properties

    PubMed Central

    Kress, Barry C.; Hirani, Shirish; Freeze, Hudson H.; Little, Laureen; Miller, Arnold L.

    1982-01-01

    Mucolipidosis III acid hydrolases possess an altered carbohydrate recognition marker needed for their lysosomal localization. As a result of this alteration, a portion of these enzymes is secreted from the cell to the extracellular spaces. The structural changes that may have occurred to one of these secreted enzymes, β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A (EC 3.2.1.52) were investigated. Normal and mucolipidosis III urinary β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A were purified to apparent homogeneity by using affinity [Sepharose-2-acetamido-N-(ε-aminocaproyl)-2-deoxy-β- d-glucopyranosylamine] and ion-exchange (DEAE- and CM-cellulose) chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-slab-gel electrophoresis showed that both enzymes had similar subunit patterns consisting of apparent mol.wts. of 68000, 60000–58000, 55000 and 29000. Differences, however, were noted in the relative proportions of the protein bands where the normal urinary β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A contained predominantly the smaller subunits, whereas the mucolipidosis III enzyme had a predominance of the larger subunits. The binding of mucolipidosis III β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A to Ricinus communis lectin and concanavalin A with and without endo-β-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase H treatment indicated that the mutation leads to a modification of a portion of the normally occurring high-mannose-type oligosaccharide units to the complex-type. This was further supported by carbohydrate compositional analysis, which revealed a mannose/galactose ratio of 2.1 for the mucolipidosis III β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A compared with a ratio of 3.5 for the normal enzyme. Our results indicate that as a result of their inability to be properly localized to the lysosome the majority of the mucolipidosis III lysosomal hydrolase high-mannose oligosaccharide units are further processed to the complex-type before secretion of predominantly higher-molecular-weight subunits from the cell. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:6219664

  5. Changes to biological activity following acetylation of dendrotoxin I from Dendroaspis polylepis (black mamba).

    PubMed

    Harvey, A L; Rowan, E G; Vatanpour, H; Engström, A; Westerlund, B; Karlsson, E

    1997-08-01

    The potassium channel blocker dendrotoxin I was acetylated with acetic anhydride. Mono-acetyl derivatives of all seven lysine residues (N-terminus blocked) and a di-derivative were isolated by chromatography on the cation-exchanger Bio-Rex 70 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The derivative acetyl-Lys 29 and the di-derivative of Tyr 24 and Lys 28 had more than 1000 times lower affinity than the native toxin as determined by inhibition of the 125I-dendrotoxin binding to synaptosomal membranes from rat brain. Lys 29 is part of the triplet Lys-Lys-Lys (28-30) which also occurs in the homologous alpha-dendrotoxin where the triplet is not in the functional site, as shown by site-directed mutagenesis. Acetylation of Lys 29 may have produced large structural perturbations that inactivated the toxin. Acetylation of Lys 28 alone had little effect, but the toxin became almost inactive when both Lys 28 and Tyr 24 were modified. Ten experiments were conducted under similar conditions, but a derivative of Tyr 24 was obtained only three times. In these cases the toxin apparently had a different structure, with Tyr 24 accessible to the reagent. This may depend on freeze-drying, which can alter the structure of proteins. The third derivative with low activity was acetyl-Lys 5, with affinity decreased 20-fold. Lys 5 has a protruding side-chain that does not interact with any other group in the toxin molecule. Therefore, Lys 5 is probably part of the functional site for dendrotoxin's binding to the voltage-dependent K+ channels. PMID:9278975

  6. MicroRNA-29a Promotion of Nephrin Acetylation Ameliorates Hyperglycemia-Induced Podocyte Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Liang; Lee, Pei-Hsien; Hsu, Yung-Chien; Lei, Chen-Chou; Ko, Jih-Yang; Chuang, Pei-Chin; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Shao-Yu; Wu, Shin-Long; Chen, Yu-Shan; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Reiser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Podocyte dysfunction is a detrimental feature in diabetic nephropathy, with loss of nephrin integrity contributing to diabetic podocytopathy. MicroRNAs (miRs) reportedly modulate the hyperglycemia-induced perturbation of renal tissue homeostasis. This study investigated whether regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) actions and nephrin acetylation by miR-29 contributes to podocyte homeostasis and renal function in diabetic kidneys. Hyperglycemia accelerated podocyte injury and reduced nephrin, acetylated nephrin, and miR-29a levels in primary renal glomeruli from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic miR-29a transgenic mice had better nephrin levels, podocyte viability, and renal function and less glomerular fibrosis and inflammation reaction compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Overexpression of miR-29a attenuated the promotion of HDAC4 signaling, nephrin ubiquitination, and urinary nephrin excretion associated with diabetes and restored nephrin acetylation. Knockdown of miR-29a by antisense oligonucleotides promoted HDAC4 action, nephrin loss, podocyte apoptosis, and proteinuria in nondiabetic mice. In vitro, interruption of HDAC4 signaling alleviated the high glucose–induced apoptosis and inhibition of nephrin acetylation in podocyte cultures. Furthermore, HDAC4 interference increased the acetylation status of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9Ac), the enrichment of H3K9Ac in miR-29a proximal promoter, and miR-29a transcription in high glucose–stressed podocytes. In conclusion, hyperglycemia impairs miR-29a signaling to intensify HDAC4 actions that contribute to podocyte protein deacetylation and degradation as well as renal dysfunction. HDAC4, via epigenetic H3K9 hypoacetylation, reduces miR-29a transcription. The renoprotective effects of miR-29a in diabetes-induced loss of podocyte integrity and renal homeostasis highlights the importance of post-translational acetylation reactions in podocyte microenvironments. Increasing miR-29a action may

  7. Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus , a New Twist on ATP Formation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    James, Kimberly L.; Ríos-Hernández, Luis A.; Wofford, Neil Q.; Mouttaki, Housna; Sieber, Jessica R.; Sheik, Cody S.; Nguyen, Hong H.; Yang, Yanan; Xie, Yongming; Erde, Jonathan; et al

    2016-08-16

    Syntrophus aciditrophicusis a model syntrophic bacterium that degrades key intermediates in anaerobic decomposition, such as benzoate, cyclohexane-1-carboxylate, and certain fatty acids, to acetate when grown with hydrogen-/formate-consuming microorganisms. ATP formation coupled to acetate production is the main source for energy conservation byS. aciditrophicus. However, the absence of homologs for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase in the genome ofS. aciditrophicusleaves it unclear as to how ATP is formed, as most fermentative bacteria rely on these two enzymes to synthesize ATP from acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and phosphate. Here, we combine transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and enzymatic approaches to show thatS. aciditrophicususes AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs1)more » for ATP synthesis from acetyl-CoA.acs1mRNA and Acs1 were abundant in transcriptomes and proteomes, respectively, ofS. aciditrophicusgrown in pure culture and coculture. Cell extracts ofS. aciditrophicushad low or undetectable acetate kinase and phosphate acetyltransferase activities but had high acetyl-CoA synthetase activity under all growth conditions tested. Both Acs1 purified fromS. aciditrophicusand recombinantly produced Acs1 catalyzed ATP and acetate formation from acetyl-CoA, AMP, and pyrophosphate. High pyrophosphate levels and a high AMP-to-ATP ratio (5.9 ± 1.4) inS. aciditrophicuscells support the operation of Acs1 in the acetate-forming direction. Thus,S. aciditrophicushas a unique approach to conserve energy involving pyrophosphate, AMP, acetyl-CoA, and an AMP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase. We find bacteria use two enzymes, phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, to make ATP from acetyl-CoA, while acetate-forming archaea use a single enzyme, an ADP-forming, acetyl-CoA synthetase, to synthesize ATP and acetate from acetyl-CoA.Syntrophus aciditrophicusapparently relies on a different approach to conserve energy during acetyl-CoA metabolism, as

  8. ATP-Citrate Lyase Is Required for Production of Cytosolic Acetyl Coenzyme A and Development in Aspergillus nidulans▿

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of cellular molecules. A source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA is essential for the production of fatty acids and sterols and for protein acetylation, including histone acetylation in the nucleus. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetyl-CoA is produced from acetate by cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, while in plants and animals acetyl-CoA is derived from citrate via ATP-citrate lyase. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, tandem divergently transcribed genes (aclA and aclB) encode the subunits of ATP-citrate lyase, and we have deleted these genes. Growth is greatly diminished on carbon sources that do not result in cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as glucose and proline, while growth is not affected on carbon sources that result in the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as acetate and ethanol. Addition of acetate restores growth on glucose or proline, and this is dependent on facA, which encodes cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, but not on the regulatory gene facB. Transcription of aclA and aclB is repressed by growth on acetate or ethanol. Loss of ATP-citrate lyase results in severe developmental effects, with the production of asexual spores (conidia) being greatly reduced and a complete absence of sexual development. This is in contrast to Sordaria macrospora, in which fruiting body formation is initiated but maturation is defective in an ATP-citrate lyase mutant. Addition of acetate does not repair these defects, indicating a specific requirement for high levels of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA during differentiation. Complementation in heterokaryons between aclA and aclB deletions for all phenotypes indicates that the tandem gene arrangement is not essential. PMID:20495057

  9. ATP-citrate lyase is required for production of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A and development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Michael J; Murray, Sandra L

    2010-07-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of cellular molecules. A source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA is essential for the production of fatty acids and sterols and for protein acetylation, including histone acetylation in the nucleus. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetyl-CoA is produced from acetate by cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, while in plants and animals acetyl-CoA is derived from citrate via ATP-citrate lyase. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, tandem divergently transcribed genes (aclA and aclB) encode the subunits of ATP-citrate lyase, and we have deleted these genes. Growth is greatly diminished on carbon sources that do not result in cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as glucose and proline, while growth is not affected on carbon sources that result in the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as acetate and ethanol. Addition of acetate restores growth on glucose or proline, and this is dependent on facA, which encodes cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, but not on the regulatory gene facB. Transcription of aclA and aclB is repressed by growth on acetate or ethanol. Loss of ATP-citrate lyase results in severe developmental effects, with the production of asexual spores (conidia) being greatly reduced and a complete absence of sexual development. This is in contrast to Sordaria macrospora, in which fruiting body formation is initiated but maturation is defective in an ATP-citrate lyase mutant. Addition of acetate does not repair these defects, indicating a specific requirement for high levels of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA during differentiation. Complementation in heterokaryons between aclA and aclB deletions for all phenotypes indicates that the tandem gene arrangement is not essential. PMID:20495057

  10. Characterization of Semisynthetic and Naturally Nα-Acetylated α-Synuclein in Vitro and in Intact Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fauvet, Bruno; Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Samuel, Filsy; Dikiy, Igor; Tandon, Anurag; Eliezer, David; Lashuel, Hilal A.

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a very common post-translational modification, although its role in regulating protein physical properties and function remains poorly understood. α-Synuclein (α-syn), a protein that has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, is constitutively Nα-acetylated in vivo. Nevertheless, most of the biochemical and biophysical studies on the structure, aggregation, and function of α-syn in vitro utilize recombinant α-syn from Escherichia coli, which is not N-terminally acetylated. To elucidate the effect of Nα-acetylation on the biophysical and biological properties of α-syn, we produced Nα-acetylated α-syn first using a semisynthetic methodology based on expressed protein ligation (Berrade, L., and Camarero, J. A. (2009) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 66, 3909–3922) and then a recombinant expression strategy, to compare its properties to unacetylated α-syn. We demonstrate that both WT and Nα-acetylated α-syn share a similar secondary structure and oligomeric state using both purified protein preparations and in-cell NMR on E. coli overexpressing Nα-acetylated α-syn. The two proteins have very close aggregation propensities as shown by thioflavin T binding and sedimentation assays. Furthermore, both Nα-acetylated and WT α-syn exhibited similar ability to bind synaptosomal membranes in vitro and in HeLa cells, where both internalized proteins exhibited prominent cytosolic subcellular distribution. We then determined the effect of attenuating Nα-acetylation in living cells, first by using a nonacetylable mutant and then by silencing the enzyme responsible for α-syn Nα-acetylation. Both approaches revealed similar subcellular distribution and membrane binding for both the nonacetylable mutant and WT α-syn, suggesting that N-terminal acetylation does not significantly affect its structure in vitro and in intact cells. PMID:22718772

  11. Conformational studies of bacterial peptidoglycan: structure and stereochemistry of N-acetyl-β- D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-β- D-muramic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, P. N. S.; Rai, D. K.; Yadav, J. S.

    1989-03-01

    The energies of various conformations of N-acetyl-β- D-glucosamine (NAG) and its 3-O- D-lactic acid derivative N-acetyl-β- D-muramic acid (NAM) have been calculated by geometry optimization using the molecular mechanics program MM2. The geometries of these systems have been analyzed in the light of ring torsion, bond lengths, bond angles and conformational states of side groups of the pyranosyl ring and compared with available experimental data of similar pyranose derivatives. The present study indicates the presence of hydrogen bonds to stabilize the side group conformations. Discrepancies with experimental data that are seen in a few cases are ascribed to the nature of the side groups and their geometry.

  12. Sensitivity to non-acetylated salicylates in a patient with asthma, nasal polyps, and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chudwin, D S; Strub, M; Golden, H E; Frey, C; Richmond, G W; Luskin, A T

    1986-08-01

    A woman experienced exacerbations of bronchial asthma after taking aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for rheumatoid arthritis. On oral challenges, she developed an urticarial reaction after tartrazine; urticarial and bronchospastic reactions after salicylsalicylic acid; and urticarial and bronchospastic reactions after choline magnesium trisalicylate. Non-acetylated salicylates have been recommended for use in aspirin- and/or tartrazine-sensitive patients. The results of sensitivity studies of our patient indicates that such patients may also be sensitive to non-acetylated salicylates. PMID:3740556

  13. Mutants of Phycomyces blakesleeanus Defective in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

    PubMed

    Garre; Torres-Martinez

    1996-03-01

    Nine mutants of the filamentous fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus have been isolated on the basis of their resistance to fluoroacetate. None of the isolates uses acetate as the sole carbon source. Genetic complementation experiments revealed that all the mutants belong to the same complementation group. Biochemical analysis indicated that the acetate-induced acetyl-CoA synthetase activity is abolished in all nine mutants, thus suggesting that they are affected in the gene coding for acetyl-CoA synthetase (facA). PMID:8812287

  14. Isolation of the facA (acetyl-CoA synthetase) gene of Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    PubMed

    Garre, V; Murillo, F J; Torres-Martínez, S

    1994-08-01

    A 5.6 kb DNA fragment from the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus has been cloned and sequenced. The fragment contains a gene that probably codes for the enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (facA). The amino acid sequence deduced for the P. blakesleeanus protein is highly homologous to those of acetyl-coA-synthetases from other organisms. When placed under the control of a constitutive promoter from Aspergillus nidulans, the cloned gene complemented a facA- mutation of this organism. In P. blakesleeanus, the expression of facA is induced by acetate. PMID:7914670

  15. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  16. Deacylation reactions of 20-acetyl dinorcholanic lactones and 20,23-diacetyl furost-22-enes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Linares, Ma Guadalupe; Sandoval-Ramírez, Jesús; Meza-Reyes, Socorro; Montiel-Smith, Sara; Fernández-Herrera, María A; Bernès, Sylvain

    2010-03-01

    We report the deacylation of (20R)-20-acetyl-23,24-dinorcholanic lactones by hydrazine hydrate, under microwave irradiation in high yields. The elimination of the 20-acetyl group proceeded with retention of configuration which contrast with other proved deacylation methods that yield a mixture of diastereoisomers. In this way, unnatural (20R)-23,24-dinorcholanic lactones can be produced rapidly on a large scale. Both (20R)- and (20S)-lactones were prepared starting from diosgenin, hecogenin and sarsasapogenin, in 72-80% overall yields. PMID:20034505

  17. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hummelen, Ruben; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Reid, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use. PMID:22254046

  18. Structural Basis for the De-N-acetylation of Poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in Gram-positive Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Little, Dustin J.; Bamford, Natalie C.; Pokrovskaya, Varvara; Robinson, Howard; Nitz, Mark; Howell, P. Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides are required for the development and integrity of biofilms produced by a wide variety of bacteria. In staphylococci, partial de-N-acetylation of the exopolysaccharide poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) by the extracellular protein IcaB is required for biofilm formation. To understand the molecular basis for PNAG de-N-acetylation, the structure of IcaB from Ammonifex degensii (IcaBAd) has been determined to 1.7 Å resolution. The structure of IcaBAd reveals a (β/α)7 barrel common to the family four carbohydrate esterases (CE4s) with the canonical motifs circularly permuted. The metal dependence of IcaBAd is similar to most CE4s showing the maximum rates of de-N-acetylation with Ni2+, Co2+, and Zn2+. From docking studies with β-1,6-GlcNAc oligomers and structural comparison to PgaB from Escherichia coli, the Gram-negative homologue of IcaB, we identify Arg-45, Tyr-67, and Trp-180 as key residues for PNAG binding during catalysis. The absence of these residues in PgaB provides a rationale for the requirement of a C-terminal domain for efficient deacetylation of PNAG in Gram-negative species. Mutational analysis of conserved active site residues suggests that IcaB uses an altered catalytic mechanism in comparison to other characterized CE4 members. Furthermore, we identified a conserved surface-exposed hydrophobic loop found only in Gram-positive homologues of IcaB. Our data suggest that this loop is required for membrane association and likely anchors IcaB to the membrane during polysaccharide biosynthesis. The work presented herein will help guide the design of IcaB inhibitors to combat biofilm formation by staphylococci. PMID:25359777

  19. Reconstitution of TGFBR2 in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells causes increased LFNG expression and enhanced N-acetyl-d-glucosamine incorporation into Notch1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Katzenmaier, Eva-Maria; Kopitz, Jürgen; Gebert, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a key role in regulating normal cell growth and differentiation, and mutations affecting members of this pathway contribute to cancer development and metastasis. In DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colorectal cancers that exhibit the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype, biallelic frameshift mutations in the transforming growth factor β receptor type 2 (TGFBR2) gene occur at high frequency that lead to altered signal transduction and downstream target gene expression. Although recent evidence suggests that altered TGF-β signaling can modulate protein glycosylation patterns in MSI-high colorectal tumor cells, affected genes have not been identified. Here, we investigated in a more systematic approach, expression changes of TGFBR2-regulated genes, involved in glycosylation using a TGFBR2-reconstituted colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116-TGFBR2) and Glyco-Gene Chip analysis. Based on this oligonucleotide array of about 1000 human glycosylation-related genes, several candidates including HES1, PDGFB, JUNB and LFNG were found to be upregulated in a TGFBR2-dependent manner and subsequently validated by real-time RT-PCR analyses. Focusing on the glycosyltransferase LFNG and its target signaling protein Notch1, dual labeling with [3H]-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine ([3H]-GlcNAc) and [35S]-l-methionine revealed a significant increase in N-acetyl-d-glucosamine incorporation into immunoprecipitated Notch1 receptor upon TGFBR2 expression whereas the protein level remained unaffected. These data suggest that TGFBR2 signaling can affect Notch1 glycosylation via regulation of glycosyltransferase LFNG expression and provide a first mechanistic example for altered glycosylation in MSI colorectal tumor cells. PMID:27156840

  20. Analysis of urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase using 2,4-dinitrophenyl-1-thio N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide as the substrate.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Magohei; Fujita, Toshio

    2003-01-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenyl-1-thio N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide was examined as a new substrate for analyzing the level of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in the urine of patients suffering from renal diseases. The analysis is based on the fact that the substrate, when hydrolyzed in the presence of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, liberates 2,4-dinitrothiophenol as the chromogen. The optimum pH for the enzyme reaction is 4.6, which is covered by the optimal range for the UV absorbance of the chromogen. The first-order rate of increase of the absorbance at this pH was linear to the enzyme concentration up to 600 U/L, with a high sensitivity. Analytical reagents with glucosaminides of 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol are less stable than the reagent with glucosaminide of 2,4-dinitrothiophenol. The optimum pH for the absorbance of p-nitrophenol and 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol does not match that for the enzyme reaction. PMID:12784261

  1. Temporal Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis Acetylome and Evidence for a Role of MreB Acetylation in Cell Wall Growth

    PubMed Central

    Carabetta, Valerie J.; Greco, Todd M.; Tanner, Andrew W.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Dubnau, David

    2016-01-01

    Nε-Lysine acetylation has been recognized as a ubiquitous regulatory posttranslational modification that influences a variety of important biological processes in eukaryotic cells. Recently, it has been realized that acetylation is also prevalent in bacteria. Bacteria contain hundreds of acetylated proteins, with functions affecting diverse cellular pathways. Still, little is known about the regulation or biological relevance of nearly all of these modifications. Here we characterize the cellular growth-associated regulation of the Bacillus subtilis acetylome. Using acetylation enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry, we investigate the logarithmic and stationary growth phases, identifying over 2,300 unique acetylation sites on proteins that function in essential cellular pathways. We determine an acetylation motif, EK(ac)(D/Y/E), which resembles the eukaryotic mitochondrial acetylation signature, and a distinct stationary-phase-enriched motif. By comparing the changes in acetylation with protein abundances, we discover a subset of critical acetylation events that are temporally regulated during cell growth. We functionally characterize the stationary-phase-enriched acetylation on the essential shape-determining protein MreB. Using bioinformatics, mutational analysis, and fluorescence microscopy, we define a potential role for the temporal acetylation of MreB in restricting cell wall growth and cell diameter. IMPORTANCE The past decade highlighted Nε-lysine acetylation as a prevalent posttranslational modification in bacteria. However, knowledge regarding the physiological importance and temporal regulation of acetylation has remained limited. To uncover potential regulatory roles for acetylation, we analyzed how acetylation patterns and abundances change between growth phases in B. subtilis. To demonstrate that the identification of cell growth-dependent modifications can point to critical regulatory acetylation events, we further characterized MreB, the

  2. Identification and Analysis of the Acetylated Status of Poplar Proteins Reveals Analogous N-Terminal Protein Processing Mechanisms with Other Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Cai; Zhu, Hang-Yong; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Ning, De-Li; Wang, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei-Hua; Yang, Chuan-Ping; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background The N-terminal protein processing mechanism (NPM) including N-terminal Met excision (NME) and N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation) represents a common protein co-translational process of some eukaryotes. However, this NPM occurred in woody plants yet remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To reveal the NPM in poplar, we investigated the Nα-acetylation status of poplar proteins during dormancy by combining tandem mass spectrometry with TiO2 enrichment of acetylated peptides. We identified 58 N-terminally acetylated (Nα-acetylated) proteins. Most proteins (47, >81%) are subjected to Nα-acetylation following the N-terminal removal of Met, indicating that Nα-acetylation and NME represent a common NPM of poplar proteins. Furthermore, we confirm that poplar shares the analogous NME and Nα-acetylation (NPM) to other eukaryotes according to analysis of N-terminal features of these acetylated proteins combined with genome-wide identification of the involving methionine aminopeptidases (MAPs) and N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) enzymes in poplar. The Nα-acetylated reactions and the involving enzymes of these poplar proteins are also identified based on those of yeast and human, as well as the subcellular location information of these poplar proteins. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the first extensive investigation of Nα-acetylation events in woody plants, the results of which will provide useful resources for future unraveling the regulatory mechanisms of Nα-acetylation of proteins in poplar. PMID:23536812

  3. The role of the plant-specific ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 protein in Arabidopsis cell wall polysaccharide O-acetylation.

    PubMed

    Schultink, Alex; Naylor, Dan; Dama, Murali; Pauly, Markus

    2015-04-01

    A mutation in the ALTERED XYLOGLUCAN9 (AXY9) gene was found to be causative for the decreased xyloglucan acetylation phenotype of the axy9.1 mutant, which was identified in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants. The axy9.1 mutant also exhibits decreased O-acetylation of xylan, implying that the AXY9 protein has a broad role in polysaccharide acetylation. An axy9 insertional mutant exhibits severe growth defects and collapsed xylem, demonstrating the importance of wall polysaccharide O-acetylation for normal plant growth and development. Localization and topological experiments indicate that the active site of the AXY9 protein resides within the Golgi lumen. The AXY9 protein appears to be a component of the plant cell wall polysaccharide acetylation pathway, which also includes the REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION and TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins. The AXY9 protein is distinct from the TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE proteins, reported to be polysaccharide acetyltransferases, but does share homology with them and other acetyltransferases, suggesting that the AXY9 protein may act to produce an acetylated intermediate that is part of the O-acetylation pathway. PMID:25681330

  4. Quantitative Measurement of Histone Tail Acetylation Reveals Stage-Specific Regulation and Response to Environmental Changes during Drosophila Development.

    PubMed

    Henry, Ryan A; Singh, Tanu; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Biester, Alison; O'Keefe, Abigail; Lee, Sandy; Andrews, Andrew J; O'Reilly, Alana M

    2016-03-22

    Histone modification plays a major role in regulating gene transcription and ensuring the healthy development of an organism. Numerous studies have suggested that histones are dynamically modified during developmental events to control gene expression levels in a temporal and spatial manner. However, the study of histone acetylation dynamics using currently available techniques is hindered by the difficulty of simultaneously measuring acetylation of the numerous potential sites of modification present in histones. Here, we present a methodology that allows us to combine mass spectrometry-based histone analysis with Drosophila developmental genetics. Using this system, we characterized histone acetylation patterns during multiple developmental stages of the fly. Additionally, we utilized this analysis to characterize how treatments with pharmacological agents or environmental changes such as γ-irradiation altered histone acetylation patterns. Strikingly, γ-irradiation dramatically increased the level of acetylation at H3K18, a site linked to DNA repair via nonhomologous end joining. In mutant fly strains deficient in DNA repair proteins, however, this increase in the level of H3K18 acetylation was lost. These results demonstrate the efficacy of our combined mass spectrometry system with a Drosophila model system and provide interesting insight into the changes in histone acetylation during development, as well as the effects of both pharmacological and environmental agents on global histone acetylation. PMID:26836402

  5. Inhibition of Different Histone Acetyltransferases (HATs) Uncovers Transcription-Dependent and -Independent Acetylation-Mediated Mechanisms in Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merschbaecher, Katja; Hatko, Lucyna; Folz, Jennifer; Mueller, Uli

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation of histones changes the efficiency of the transcription processes and thus contributes to the formation of long-term memory (LTM). In our comparative study, we used two inhibitors to characterize the contribution of different histone acetyl transferases (HATs) to appetitive associative learning in the honeybee. For one we applied…

  6. Solid-Phase Synthesis and Hybrization Behavior of Partially 2′/3′-O-Acetylated RNA Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of partially 2′/3′-O-acetylated oligoribonucleotides has been accomplished by using a 2′/3′-O-acetyl orthogonal protecting group strategy in which non-nucleophilic strong-base (DBU) labile nucleobase protecting groups and a UV-light cleavable linker were used. Strong-base stability of the photolabile linker allowed on-column nucleobase and phosphate deprotection, followed by a mild cleavage of the acetylated oligonucleotides from the solid support with UV light. Two 17nt oligonucleotides, which were synthesized possessing one specific internal 2′- or 3′-acetyl group, were used as synthetic standards in a recent report from this laboratory detailing the prebiotically plausible ligation of RNA oligonucleotides. In order to further investigate the effect of 2′/3′-O-acetyl groups on the stability of RNA duplex structure, two complementary bis-acetylated RNA oligonucleotides were also expediently obtained with the newly developed protocols. UV melting curves of 2′-O-acetylated RNA duplexes showed a consistent ∼3.1 °C decrease in Tm per 2′-O-acetyl group. PMID:24666354

  7. Acetylation of Lysine 201 Inhibits the DNA-Binding Ability of PhoP to Regulate Salmonella Virulence.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Sang, Yu; Tan, Yongcong; Tao, Jing; Ni, Jinjing; Liu, Shuting; Fan, Xia; Zhao, Wei; Lu, Jie; Wu, Wenjuan; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The two-component system PhoP-PhoQ is highly conserved in bacteria and regulates virulence in response to various signals for bacteria within the mammalian host. Here, we demonstrate that PhoP could be acetylated by Pat and deacetylated by deacetylase CobB enzymatically in vitro and in vivo in Salmonella Typhimurium. Specifically, the conserved lysine residue 201(K201) in winged helix-turn-helix motif at C-terminal DNA-binding domain of PhoP could be acetylated, and its acetylation level decreases dramatically when bacteria encounter low magnesium, acid stress or phagocytosis of macrophages. PhoP has a decreased acetylation and increased DNA-binding ability in the deletion mutant of pat. However, acetylation of K201 does not counteract PhoP phosphorylation, which is essential for PhoP activity. In addition, acetylation of K201 (mimicked by glutamine substitute) in S. Typhimurium causes significantly attenuated intestinal inflammation as well as systemic infection in mouse model, suggesting that deacetylation of PhoP K201 is essential for Salmonella pathogenesis. Therefore, we propose that the reversible acetylation of PhoP K201 may ensure Salmonella promptly respond to different stresses in host cells. These findings suggest that reversible lysine acetylation in the DNA-binding domain, as a novel regulatory mechanism of gene expression, is involved in bacterial virulence across microorganisms. PMID:26943369

  8. Acetylation of Lysine 201 Inhibits the DNA-Binding Ability of PhoP to Regulate Salmonella Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yongcong; Tao, Jing; Ni, Jinjing; Liu, Shuting; Fan, Xia; Zhao, Wei; Lu, Jie; Wu, Wenjuan; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The two-component system PhoP-PhoQ is highly conserved in bacteria and regulates virulence in response to various signals for bacteria within the mammalian host. Here, we demonstrate that PhoP could be acetylated by Pat and deacetylated by deacetylase CobB enzymatically in vitro and in vivo in Salmonella Typhimurium. Specifically, the conserved lysine residue 201(K201) in winged helix–turn–helix motif at C-terminal DNA-binding domain of PhoP could be acetylated, and its acetylation level decreases dramatically when bacteria encounter low magnesium, acid stress or phagocytosis of macrophages. PhoP has a decreased acetylation and increased DNA-binding ability in the deletion mutant of pat. However, acetylation of K201 does not counteract PhoP phosphorylation, which is essential for PhoP activity. In addition, acetylation of K201 (mimicked by glutamine substitute) in S. Typhimurium causes significantly attenuated intestinal inflammation as well as systemic infection in mouse model, suggesting that deacetylation of PhoP K201 is essential for Salmonella pathogenesis. Therefore, we propose that the reversible acetylation of PhoP K201 may ensure Salmonella promptly respond to different stresses in host cells. These findings suggest that reversible lysine acetylation in the DNA-binding domain, as a novel regulatory mechanism of gene expression, is involved in bacterial virulence across microorganisms. PMID:26943369

  9. Identification of the major endogenous leukotriene metabolite in the bile of rats as N-acetyl leukotriene E4

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, W.; Denzlinger, C.; Rapp, S.; Weckbecker, G.; Keppler, D.

    1986-02-01

    Mercapturic acid formation, an established pathway in the detoxication of xenobiotics, is demonstrated for cysteinyl leukotrienes generated in rats in vivo after endotoxin treatment. The mercapturate N-acetyl-leukotriene E4 (N-acetyl-LTE4) represented a major metabolite eliminated into bile after injection of (/sup 3/H)LTC4 as shown by cochromatography with synthetic N-acetyl-LTE4 in four different HPLC solvent systems. The identity of endogenous N-acetyl-LTE4 elicited by endotoxin in vivo was additionally verified by enzymatic deacetylation followed by chemical N-acetylation. The deacetylation was catalyzed by penicillin amidase. Endogenous cysteinyl leukotrienes were quantified by radioimmunoassay after HPLC separation. A N-acetyl-LTE4 concentration of 80 nmol/l was determined in bile collected between 30 and 60 min after endotoxin injection. Under this condition, other cysteinyl leukotrienes detected in bile by radioimmunoassay amounted to less than 5% of N-acetyl-LTE4. The mercapturic acid pathway, leading from the glutathione conjugate LTC4 to N-acetyl-LTE4, thus plays an important role in the deactivation and elimination of these potent endogenous mediators.

  10. Reversible lysine acetylation is involved in DNA replication initiation by regulating activities of initiator DnaA in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiufen; Zhou, Aiping; Li, Shuxian; Ni, Jinjing; Tao, Jing; Lu, Jie; Wan, Baoshan; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Shimin; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Shao, Feng; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of chromosomal replication is critical and the activation of DnaA by ATP binding is a key step in replication initiation. However, it remains unclear whether and how the process of ATP-binding to DnaA is regulated. Here, we show that DnaA can be acetylated, and its acetylation level varies with cell growth and correlates with DNA replication initiation frequencies in E. coli. Specifically, the conserved K178 in Walker A motif of DnaA can be acetylated and its acetylation level reaches the summit at the stationary phase, which prevents DnaA from binding to ATP or oriC and leads to inhibition of DNA replication initiation. The deacetylation process of DnaA is catalyzed by deacetylase CobB. The acetylation process of DnaA is mediated by acetyltransferase YfiQ, and nonenzymatically by acetyl-phosphate. These findings suggest that the reversible acetylation of DnaA ensures cells to respond promptly to environmental changes. Since Walker A motif is universally distributed across organisms, acetylation of Walker A motif may present a novel regulatory mechanism conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. PMID:27484197

  11. Effects of selective inhibition of N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase) on mice in learning and memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Lukawski, Krzysztof; Kamiński, Rafał M; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2008-01-28

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 2-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA), a selective inhibitor of N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase, glutamate carboxypeptidase II), an enzyme catalyzing the cleavage of glutamate from the neuropeptide N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), on memory processes in mice. Long-term memory was evaluated in step-through passive avoidance task while alternation behavior, as a measure involving spatial working memory, was assessed in Y-maze task. Additionally, horizontal activity was evaluated by means of electronically monitored locomotor activity system. The mice were treated with either 2-PMPA (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg i.p.) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, (5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK-801) at doses of: 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 mg/kg i.p., as a comparator. In the passive avoidance task, the drugs were administered once before or immediately after training, and before retention test. 2-PMPA at the doses used did not affect retention of passive avoidance; however, it increased the latency to enter the dark box during the training day. In the Y-maze task, 2-PMPA (150 mg/kg i.p.) impaired spontaneous alternation and reduced locomotion while the lower dose of 100 mg/kg was ineffective. In the locomotor activity test, 2-PMPA (100 and 150 mg/kg i.p.) did not significantly affect horizontal activity. MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg i.p.) injected before training reduced retention in the passive avoidance task. In the Y-maze task, MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) impaired alternation behavior and considerably increased locomotion in the Y-maze and locomotor activity test. These results indicate that NAALADase inhibition may impair alternation behavior. PMID:18031726

  12. The receptor preference of influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Bo; Marriott, Anthony C.; Dimmock, Nigel J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Meng et al. (2010) The receptor preference of influenza viruses. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(3), 147–153. Objectives  The cell surface receptor used by an influenza virus to infect that cell is an N‐acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) residue terminally linked by an alpha2,3 or alpha2,6 bond to a carbohydrate moiety of a glycoprotein or glycolipid. Our aim was to determine a quick and technically simple method to determine cell receptor usage by whole influenza A virus particles. Methods  We employed surface plasmon resonance to detect the binding of viruses to fetuin, a naturally occurring glycoprotein that has both alpha2,3‐ and alpha2,6‐linked NANA, and free 3′‐sialyllactose or 6′‐sialyllactose to compete virus binding. All virus stocks were produced in embryonated chicken’s eggs. Results  The influenza viruses tested bound preferentially to NANAalpha2,3Gal or to NANAalpha2,6Gal, or showed no preference. Two PR8 viruses had different binding preferences. Binding preferences of viruses correlated well with their known biological properties. Conclusions  Our data suggest that it is not easy to predict receptor usage by influenza viruses. However, direct experimental determination as described here can inform experiments concerned with viral pathogenesis, biology and structure. In principle, the methodology can be used for any virus that binds to a terminal NANA residue. PMID:20409211

  13. Specific Synthesis of Neurostatin and Gangliosides O-Acetylated in the Outer Sialic Acids Using a Sialate Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo; García-Álvarez, Isabel; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Gilbert, Michel; Goneau, Marie-France; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, commonly found on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. O-acetylation of sialic acid hydroxyl groups is one of the most common modifications in gangliosides. Studies on the biological activity of O-acetylated gangliosides have been limited by their scarcity in nature. This comparatively small change in ganglioside structure causes major changes in their physiological properties. When the ganglioside GD1b was O-acetylated in the outer sialic acid, it became the potent inhibitor of astroblast and astrocytoma proliferation called Neurostatin. Although various chemical and enzymatic methods to O-acetylate commercial gangliosides have been described, O-acetylation was nonspecific and produced many side-products that reduced the yield. An enzyme with O-acetyltransferase activity (SOAT) has been previously cloned from the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni. This enzyme catalyzed the acetylation of oligosaccharide-bound sialic acid, with high specificity for terminal alpha-2,8-linked residues. Using this enzyme and commercial gangliosides as starting material, we have specifically O-acetylated the gangliosides’ outer sialic acids, to produce the corresponding gangliosides specifically O-acetylated in the sialic acid bound in alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,8 residues. We demonstrate here that O-acetylation occurred specifically in the C-9 position of the sialic acid. In summary, we present a new method of specific O-acetylation of ganglioside sialic acids that permits the large scale preparation of these modified glycosphingolipids, facilitating both, the study of their mechanism of antitumoral action and their use as therapeutic drugs for treating glioblastoma multiform (GBM) patients. PMID:23226505

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lysine acetylation and methylation in yeast histone H3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kangling

    2008-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications play important roles in cell functions and the modification patterns vary significantly among different organisms. It is important that histone modification patterns be identified. Flowing our previous work-identification of acetylation and methylation sites of histone H3 in a typical transcription most inactive chromatin isolated from chicken erythrocytes, here, we report using mass spectrometry to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze histone modification pattern of H3 in a typical transcription most active chromatin isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compared the modification patterns of histone H3 between these two functionally opposite chromatins and observed that acetylation level at K9, K14, K27, K56 and methylation level at K4 and K79 are significantly higher in S. cerevisiae than in chicken erythrocytes, methylation at K9 is higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae and methylation level at K36 is unchanged in these two chromatins. Contrary to other sites, acetylation levels at K18 and K23 are higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae. Our data revealed the difference of acetylation and methylation pattern of individual H3 lysine between two distinct chromatins, one with more inactive form versus the other with more active form.

  15. Chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein acetylation and oxidative stress in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Peter S.; Roy, Samantha R.; Coughlan, Christina; Orlicky, David J.; Liang, Yongliang; Shearn, Colin T.; Roede, James R.; Fritz, Kristofer S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present the novel findings that chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the kidney and correlates with significantly increased renal oxidative stress. A major proteomic footprint of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an increase in hepatic mitochondrial protein acetylation. Protein hyperacetylation has been shown to alter enzymatic function of numerous proteins and plays a role in regulating metabolic processes. Renal mitochondrial targets of hyperacetylation include numerous metabolic and antioxidant pathways, such as lipid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid metabolism, as well as glutathione and thioredoxin pathways. Disruption of protein lysine acetylation has the potential to impair renal function through metabolic dysregulation and decreased antioxidant capacity. Due to a significant elevation in ethanol-mediated renal oxidative stress, we highlight the acetylation of superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins, glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase enzymes. Since oxidative stress is a known factor in ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity, we examined biochemical markers of protein hyperacetylation and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate increased protein acetylation concurrent with depleted glutathione, altered Cys redox potential, and the presence of 4-HNE protein modifications in our 6-week model of early-stage alcoholic nephrotoxicity. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism causes an influx of mitochondrial metabolic substrate, resulting in mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation with the potential to impact mitochondrial metabolic and antioxidant processes. PMID:26177469

  16. N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine: an osmolyte synthesized by methanogenic archaebacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, K R; Robertson, D E; Noll, D; Gunsalus, R P; Roberts, M F

    1990-01-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified beta-amino acid that was identified as N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This beta-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined--Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N epsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique beta-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated. PMID:2123548

  17. Is lys-Ne-acetylation the next big thing in post-translational modifications?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lys-N'-acetylation (KAC) has recently ascended from a posttranslational modification (PTM) of limited distribution to one approaching the abundance of O-phosphorylation. Thousands of KAC-proteins have been identified in archaea, bacteria, and eukarya, and the KAC system of acetyltransferases, deace...

  18. Acetylated Deoxynivalenol Generates Differences of Gene Expression that Discriminate Trichothecene Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tadahiro; Iwahashi, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a toxic secondary metabolite generated by Fusarium species, is synthesized through two separate acetylation pathways. Both acetylation derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-DON (15ADON), also contaminate grain and corn widely. These derivatives are deacetylated via a variety of processes after ingestion, so it has been suggested that they have the same toxicity as DON. However, in the intestinal entry region such as the duodenum, the derivatives might come into contact with intestinal epithelium cells because metabolism by microflora or import into the body has not progressed. Therefore, the differences of toxicity between DON and these derivatives need to be investigated. Here, we observed gene expression changes in the yeast pdr5Δ mutant strain under concentration-dependent mycotoxin exposure conditions. 15ADON exposure induced significant gene expression changes and DON exposure generally had a similar but smaller effect. However, the glucose transporter genes HXT2 and HXT4 showed converse trends. 3ADON also induced a different expression trend in these genes than DON and 15ADON. These differences in gene expression suggest that DON and its derivatives have different effects on cells. PMID:26861396

  19. Effect of pulsed electric fields assisted acetylation on morphological, structural and functional characteristics of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing; Chen, Rujiao; Zeng, Xin-An; Han, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF)-assisted acetylation of potato starch with different degree of substitution (DS) was prepared and effects of PEF strength, reaction time, starch concentration on DS were studied by response surface methodology. Results showed DS was increased from 0.054 (reaction time of 15 min) to 0.130 (reaction time of 60 min) as PEF strength increased from 3 to 5 kV/cm. External morphology revealed that acetylated starch with higher DS was aggravated more bulges and asperities. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the introduction of acetyl group through a band at 1730 cm(-1). The optimum sample (DS =0 .13) had lower retrogradation (39.1%), breakdown (155 BU) and setback value (149BU), while pasting temperature (62.2 °C) was slightly higher than non-PEF-assisted samples. These results demonstrated PEF treatment can be a potential and beneficial method for acetylation and achieve higher DS with shorter reaction time. PMID:26304315

  20. CheY’s acetylation sites responsible for generating clockwise flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fraiberg, Milana; Afanzar, Oshri; Cassidy, C. Keith; Gabashvili, Alexandra; Schulten, Klaus; Levin, Yishai; Eisenbach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stimulation of Escherichia coli with acetate elevates the acetylation level of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY. This elevation, in an unknown mechanism, activates CheY to generate clockwise rotation. Here, using quantitative selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and high-resolution targeted mass spectrometry, we identified K91 and K109 as the major sites whose acetylation level in vivo increases in response to acetate. Employing single and multiple lysine replacements in CheY, we found that K91 and K109 are also the sites mainly responsible for acetate-dependent clockwise generation. Furthermore, we showed that clockwise rotation is repressed when residue K91 is non-modified, as evidenced by an increased ability of CheY to generate clockwise rotation when K91 was acetylated or replaced by specific amino acids. Using molecular dynamics simulations we show that K91 repression is manifested in the conformational dynamics of the β4α4 loop, shifted towards an active state upon mutation. Removal of β4α4 loop repression may represent a general activation mechanism in CheY, pertaining also to the canonical phosphorylation activation pathway as suggested by crystal structures of active and inactive CheY from Thermotoga maritima. By way of elimination we further suggest that K109 acetylation is actively involved in generating clockwise rotation. PMID:25388160

  1. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) in bacteria has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovo...

  2. Lysine Acetylation Is a Widespread Protein Modification for Diverse Proteins in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lysine acetylation (LysAc), a form of reversible protein post translational modification previously known only for histone proteins in plants, is shown to be wide spread in Arabidopsis. Sixty five lysine modification sites were identified on 58 proteins, which operate in a wide variety of pathways/...

  3. Evidence for lysine acetylation in the coat protein of a Polerovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virions of the RPV strain of Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV) were purified from infected oat tissue and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Two conserved residues, K147 and K181, residing in the virus coat protein, were confidently identified to contain epsilon-N-acetyl groups. While no functional ...

  4. Analysis of 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline in rice by HSSE/GC/MS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative method for the analysis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in rice employing stir bar sorptive extraction (Twister™), is described. The Twister stir bar is placed in the headspace of a 20 ml vial containing 1 g rice kernels, 5 ml 0.1 M KOH, 2,2 g NaCl, and a second Teflon™ coated stir bar...

  5. N. sup. var epsilon. -acetyl-. beta. -lysine: An osmolyte synthesized by mothanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Noll, D.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1990-12-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified {beta}-amino acid that was identified as N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This {beta}-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined - Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N{sup {var epsilon}}-Acetyl-{beta}-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique {beta}-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated.

  6. Tissue Distribution of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Stumpf, Paul K.

    1984-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase [acetyl-CoA—carbon dioxide ligase (ADP forming), EC 6.4.1.2] is a biotin-containing enzyme catalyzing the formation of malonyl-CoA. The tissue distribution of this enzyme was determined for leaves of C3- and C4-plants. The mesophyll tissues of the C3-plants Pisum sativum and Allium porrum contained 90% of the leaf acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, with the epidermal tissues containing the remainder. Western blotting of proteins fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using 125I-streptavidin as a probe, revealed biotinyl proteins of molecular weights 62,000, 51,000, and 32,000 in P. sativum and 62,000, 34,000, and 32,000 in A. porrum. In the C4-plant sorghum, epidermal protoplasts, mesophyll protoplasts and strands of bundle sheath cells contained 35, 47, and 17%, respectively, of the total leaf acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. In Zea mays leaves the respective figures were 10% for epidermal protoplasts, 56% for mesophyll protoplasts, and 32% for bundle sheath strands. Biotinyl proteins of molecular weights 62,000 and 51,000 were identified in leaves of sorghum and Z. mays. The results are discussed with respect to each tissue's requirements for malonyl-CoA for various metabolic pathways. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663756

  7. Arabidopsis NATA1 Acetylates Putrescine and Decreases Defense-Related Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yann-Ru; Bor, Melike; Yan, Jian; Preuss, Aileen S; Jander, Georg

    2016-06-01

    Biosynthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine is induced in response to pathogen infection of plants. Putrescine, which is produced from Arg, serves as a metabolic precursor for longer polyamines, including spermidine and spermine. Polyamine acetylation, which has important regulatory functions in mammalian cells, has been observed in several plant species. Here we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY1 (NATA1) catalyzes acetylation of putrescine to N-acetylputrescine and thereby competes with spermidine synthase for a common substrate. NATA1 expression is strongly induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid and coronatine, an effector molecule produced by DC3000, a Pseudomonas syringae strain that initiates a virulent infection in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. DC3000 growth is reduced in nata1 mutant Arabidopsis, suggesting a role for NATA1-mediated putrescine acetylation in suppressing antimicrobial defenses. During infection by P. syringae and other plant pathogens, polyamine oxidases use spermidine and spermine as substrates for the production of defense-related H2O2 Compared to wild-type Columbia-0 Arabidopsis, the response of nata1mutants to P. syringae infection includes reduced accumulation of acetylputrescine, greater abundance of nonacetylated polyamines, elevated H2O2 production by polyamine oxidases, and higher expression of genes related to pathogen defense. Together, these results are consistent with a model whereby P. syringae growth is improved in a targeted manner through coronatine-induced putrescine acetylation by NATA1. PMID:27208290

  8. Data for global lysine-acetylation analysis in rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yehui; Zhang, Kai; Cheng, Zhongyi; Wang, Guo-Liang; Liu, Wende

    2016-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops for human consumption and is a staple food for over half of the world׳s population (Yu et al., 2002) [1]. A systematic identification of the lysine acetylome was performed by our research (Xiong et al., 2016) [2]. Rice plant samples were collected from 5 weeks old seedlings (Oryza sativa, Nipponbare). After the trypsin digestion and immunoaffinity precipitation, LC–MS/MS approach was used to identify acetylated peptides. After the collected MS/MS data procession and GO annotation, the InterProScan was used to annotate protein domain. Subcellular localization of the identified acetylated proteins was predicted by WoLF PSORT. The KEGG pathway database was used to annotate identified acetylated protein interactions, reactions, and relations. The data, supplied in this article, are related to “A comprehensive catalog of the lysine-acetylation targets in rice (O. sativa) based on proteomic analyses” by Xiong et al. (2016) [2]. PMID:26977447

  9. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Alcohol Acetylation: An Organic Experiment Using Organocatalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John P.; Shrimp, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students in the teaching laboratory have successfully used N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as organocatalysts for the acetylation of primary alcohols, despite the high water sensitivity of uncomplexed ("free") NHCs. The free NHC readily reacted with chloroform, resulting in an air- and moisture-stable adduct that liberates…

  10. Arabidopsis NATA1 Acetylates Putrescine and Decreases Defense-Related Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Aileen S.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine is induced in response to pathogen infection of plants. Putrescine, which is produced from Arg, serves as a metabolic precursor for longer polyamines, including spermidine and spermine. Polyamine acetylation, which has important regulatory functions in mammalian cells, has been observed in several plant species. Here we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY1 (NATA1) catalyzes acetylation of putrescine to N-acetylputrescine and thereby competes with spermidine synthase for a common substrate. NATA1 expression is strongly induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid and coronatine, an effector molecule produced by DC3000, a Pseudomonas syringae strain that initiates a virulent infection in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. DC3000 growth is reduced in nata1 mutant Arabidopsis, suggesting a role for NATA1-mediated putrescine acetylation in suppressing antimicrobial defenses. During infection by P. syringae and other plant pathogens, polyamine oxidases use spermidine and spermine as substrates for the production of defense-related H2O2. Compared to wild-type Columbia-0 Arabidopsis, the response of nata1mutants to P. syringae infection includes reduced accumulation of acetylputrescine, greater abundance of nonacetylated polyamines, elevated H2O2 production by polyamine oxidases, and higher expression of genes related to pathogen defense. Together, these results are consistent with a model whereby P. syringae growth is improved in a targeted manner through coronatine-induced putrescine acetylation by NATA1. PMID:27208290

  11. Reversible acetylation of PGC-1: Connecting energy sensors and effectors to guarantee metabolic flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Jeninga, Ellen Helena; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Organisms adapt their metabolism to meet ever changing environmental conditions. This metabolic adaptation involves at a cellular level the fine-tuning of mitochondrial function, which is mainly under the control of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Changes in PGC-1α activity coordinate a transcriptional response, that boosts mitochondrial activity in times of energy needs and attenuates it when energy demands are low. Reversible acetylation has emerged as a key way to alter PGC-1α activity. Although it is well-established that PGC-1α is deacetylated and activated by Sirt1 and acetylated and inhibited by GCN5, less is known about how these enzymes themselves are regulated. Recently, it became clear that the energy sensor, AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) translates the effects of energy stress into altered Sirt1 activity by regulating the intracellular level of its co-substrate NAD+. Conversely, the enzyme ATP citrate lyase (ACL), relates energy balance to GCN5, through the control of the nuclear production of acetyl-CoA, the substrate for GCN5’s acetyltransferase activity. We review here how these metabolic signalling pathways, affecting GCN5 and Sirt1 activity, allow the reversible acetylation/deacetylation of PGC-1α and the adaptation of mitochondrial energy homeostasis to energy levels. PMID:20531298

  12. Acquired B antigen disappearance by in vitro acetylation associated with A1 activity restoration.

    PubMed

    Gerbal, A; Ropars, C; Gerbal, R; Cartron, J P; Maslet, C; Salmon, C

    1976-01-01

    The chemical acetylation of RBC bearing the acquired B antigen led to the disappearance of the agglutinability by anti-B and restored the A1 specificity. The same results are obtained using RBC transformed in vitro by a Clostridium Tertium filtrate, where a deacetylase was reported. PMID:59466

  13. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis. PMID:23911484

  14. Acetylated adipate of retrograded starch as RS 3/4 type resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko-Żeberska, M; Zięba, T; Spychaj, R; Gryszkin, A

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at producing acetylated adipate of retrograded starch (ADA-R) with various degrees of substitution with functional groups and at determining the effect of esterification degree on resistance and pasting characteristics of the produced preparations. Paste was prepared from native potato starch, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. After drying and disintegration, the paste was acetylated and crosslinked using various doses of reagents. An increase in the total degree of esterification of the produced ADA-R-preparation caused an increase in its resistance to the action of amyloglucosidase. Viscosity of the paste produced from ADA-R-preparation in a wide range of acetylation degrees was increasing along with increasing crosslinking of starch. The study demonstrated that acetylated adipate of retrograded starch may be classified as a preparation of RS 3/4 type resistant starch (retrograded starch/chemically-modified starch) with good texture-forming properties. The conducted modification offers the possibility of modeling the level of resistance of the produced preparation. PMID:26041205

  15. N-acetyl muramyl dipeptide stimulation of bone resorption in tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, F E

    1982-01-01

    N-Acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP), a structurally defined fragment of bacterial peptidoglycan, stimulated significant release of previously incorporated 45Ca from fetal rat bones in tissue culture over the concentration range of 0.1 to 10.0 micrograms/ml. MDP-Stimulated bone resorption was not inhibited by the addition of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor indomethacin to the culture medium. MDP was neither mitogenic for nor stimulated the release of osteoclast-activating factor from cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Thus, MDP-stimulated bone resorption in vitro is mediated by a mechanism which is not dependent upon prostaglandins or osteoclast-activating factor. 6-O-Stearoyl-N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, a lipophilic analog of MDP, was slightly more potent than MDP. Two diastereomers of MDP, N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-L-isoglutamine and N-acetyl-muramyl-D-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, which are inactive as adjuvants, were at least 1,000 times less active than MDP in stimulating bone resorption. The stereochemical specificity for bone-resorptive activity paralleled that required for adjuvant activity, macrophage activation, and activation of the reticuloendothelial system. PMID:7054120

  16. Critical Role of Acetylation in Tau-Mediated Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sang-Won; Chen, Xu; Tracy, Tara E; Li, Yaqiao; Zhou, Yungui; Wang, Chao; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Minami, S. Sakura; Defensor, Erwin; Mok, Sue Ann; Sohn, Peter Dongmin; Schilling, Birgit; Cong, Xin; Ellerby, Lisa; Gibson, Bradford W.; Johnson, Jeffrey; Krogan, Nevan; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Gestwicki, Jason; Masliah, Eliezer; Verdin, Eric; Gan, Li

    2015-01-01

    Tauopathies, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are neurodegenerative diseases in which tau fibrils accumulate. Recent evidence supports soluble tau species as the major toxic species. How soluble tau accumulates and how it causes neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here we identified tau acetylation at K174 as an early change in AD brains and as a critical determinant in tau homeostasis and toxicity in mice. An acetyl-mimicking mutant (K174Q) slows down tau turnover and induces cognitive deficits in vivo. The acetyltransferase p300-induced tau acetylation is inhibited by a prescription drug salsalate/salicylate, which enhances tau turnover and reduces tau levels. In the PS19 transgenic mouse model of FTD, administering salsalate after disease onset inhibited p300 activity, lowered ac-K174 and total tau levels, rescued tau-induced memory deficits and prevented hippocampal atrophy. The tau-lowering and protective effects of salsalate/salicylate are diminished in neurons expressing K174Q tau. Targeting tau acetylation could be a new therapeutic strategy against human tauopathies. PMID:26390242

  17. Acetylation of the p53 DNA binding domain regulates apoptosis induction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Stephen M.; Mellert, Hestia S.; Holbert, Marc A.; Li, Keqin; Marmorstein, Ronen; Lane, William S.; McMahon, Steven B.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability of p53 to induce apoptosis plays an important role in tumor suppression. Here we describe a previously unknown post-translational modification of the DNA-binding domain of p53. This modification, acetylation of lysine 120, occurs rapidly after DNA damage and is catalyzed by the MYST family acetyltransferases hMOF and TIP60. Mutation of lysine 120 to arginine, as occurs in human cancer, debilitates K120 acetylation and diminishes p53-mediated apoptosis without affecting cell-cycle arrest. The K120R mutation selectively blocks the transcription of pro-apoptotic target genes such as BAX and PUMA while the non-apoptotic targets p21 and hMDM2 remain unaffected. Consistent with this, depletion of hMOF and/or TIP60 inhibits the ability of p53 to activate BAX and PUMA transcription. Furthermore, the acetyl-lysine 120 form of p53 specifically accumulates at pro-apoptotic target genes. These data suggest that K120 acetylation may help distinguish the cell cycle arrest and apoptotic functions of p53. PMID:17189187

  18. Binding of the histone chaperone ASF1 to the CBP bromodomain promotes histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Das, Chandrima; Roy, Siddhartha; Namjoshi, Sarita; Malarkey, Christopher S; Jones, David N M; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Churchill, Mair E A; Tyler, Jessica K

    2014-03-25

    The multifunctional Creb-binding protein (CBP) protein plays a pivotal role in many critical cellular processes. Here we demonstrate that the bromodomain of CBP binds to histone H3 acetylated on lysine 56 (K56Ac) with higher affinity than to its other monoacetylated binding partners. We show that autoacetylation of CBP is critical for the bromodomain-H3 K56Ac interaction, and we propose that this interaction occurs via autoacetylation-induced conformation changes in CBP. Unexpectedly, the bromodomain promotes acetylation of H3 K56 on free histones. The CBP bromodomain also interacts with the histone chaperone anti-silencing function 1 (ASF1) via a nearby but distinct interface. This interaction is necessary for ASF1 to promote acetylation of H3 K56 by CBP, indicating that the ASF1-bromodomain interaction physically delivers the histones to the histone acetyl transferase domain of CBP. A CBP bromodomain mutation manifested in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome has compromised binding to both H3 K56Ac and ASF1, suggesting that these interactions are important for the normal function of CBP. PMID:24616510

  19. The in situ distribution of glycoprotein-bound 4-O-Acetylated sialic acids in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Weli, Simon Chioma; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

    2014-05-01

    Sialic acids are located at the terminal branches of the cell glycocalyx and secreted glycan molecules. O-Acetylation is an important modification of the sialic acids, however very few studies have demonstrated the in situ distribution of the O-Acetylated sialic acids. Here the distribution of glycoprotein bound 4-O-Acetylated sialic acids (4-O-Ac sias) in vertebrates was determined using a novel virus histochemistry assay. The 4-O-Ac sias were found in the circulatory system, i.e. on the surface of endothelial cells and RBCs, of several vertebrate species, though most frequently in the cartilaginous fish (class Chondrichthyes) and the bony fish (class Osteichthyes). The O-Acetylated sialic acid was detected in 64 % of the examined fish species. Even though the sialic acid was found less commonly in higher vertebrates, it was found at the same location in the positive species. The general significance of this endothelial labelling pattern distribution is discussed. The seemingly conserved local position through the evolution of the vertebrates, suggests an evolutionary advantage of this sialic acid modification. PMID:24833039

  20. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and β-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone

  1. Nuclear receptor coregulators as a new paradigm for therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Elaine Y.; Goodson, Michael L.; Zou, June X.; Privalsky, Martin L.; Chen, Hong-Wu

    2012-01-01

    The complex function and regulation of nuclear receptors cannot be fully understood without a thorough knowledge of the receptor-associated coregulators that either enhance (coactivators) or inhibit (corepressors) transcription. While nuclear receptors themselves have garnered much attention as therapeutic targets, the clinical and etiological relevance of the coregulators to human diseases is increasingly recognized. Aberrant expression or function of coactivators and corepressors has been associated with malignant and metabolic disease development. Many of them are key epigenetic regulators and utilize enzymatic activities to modify chromatin through histone acetylation/deacetylation, histone methylation/demethylation or chromatin remodeling. In this review, we showcase and evaluate coregulators with the most promising therapeutic potential based on their physiological roles and involvement in various diseases that are revealed thus far. We also describe the structural features of the coactivator and corepressor functional domains and highlight areas that can be further explored for molecular targeting. PMID:20933027

  2. N-acetylation of three aromatic amine hair dye precursor molecules eliminates their genotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Andreas; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    N-acetylation has been described as a detoxification reaction for aromatic amines; however, there is only limited data available showing that this metabolic conversion step changes their genotoxicity potential. To extend this database, three aromatic amines, all widely used as precursors in oxidative hair dye formulations, were chosen for this study: p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 2,5-diaminotoluene (DAT) and 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT). Aiming at a deeper mechanistic understanding of the interplay between activation and detoxification for this chemical class, we compared the genotoxicity profiles of the parent compounds with those of their N-acetylated metabolites. While PPD, DAT and AHT all show genotoxic potential in vitro, their N-acetylated metabolites completely lack genotoxic potential as shown in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, micronucleus test with cultured human lymphocytes (AHT), chromosome aberration assay with V79 cells (DAT) and Comet assay performed with V79 cells. For the bifunctional aromatic amines studied (PPD and DAT), monoacetylation was sufficient to completely abolish their genotoxic potential. Detoxification through N-acetylation was further confirmed by comparing PPD, DAT and AHT in the Comet assay using standard V79 cells (N-acetyltransferase (NAT) deficient) and two NAT-proficient cell lines,V79NAT1*4 and HaCaT (human keratinocytes). Here we observed a clear shift of dose-response curves towards decreased genotoxicity of the parent aromatic amines in the NAT-proficient cells. These findings suggest that genotoxic effects will only be found at concentrations where the N-acetylation (detoxifying) capacity of the cells is overwhelmed, indicating that a 'first-pass' effect in skin could be taken into account for risk assessment of these topically applied aromatic amines. The findings also indicate that the use of liver S-9 preparations, which generally underestimate Phase II reactions, contributes to the generation of irrelevant

  3. Histone acetylation is involved in TCDD‑induced cleft palate formation in fetal mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xingang; Qiu, Lin; Pu, Yalan; Liu, Cuiping; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Chen; Pu, Wei; Fu, Yuexian

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present was to evaluate the effects of DNA methylation and histone acetylation on 2,3,7,8‑tetrachlorodibenzo‑p‑dioxin (TCDD)‑induced cleft palate in fetal mice. Pregnant mice (n=10) were randomly divided into two groups: i) TCDD group, mice were treated with 28 µg/kg TCDD on gestation day (GD) 10 by oral gavage; ii) control group, mice were treated with an equal volume of corn oil. On GD 16.5, the fetal mice were evaluated for the presence of a cleft palate. An additional 36 pregnant mice were divided into the control and TCDD groups, and palate samples were collected on GD 13.5, GD 14.5 and GD 15.5, respectively. Transforming growth factor‑β3 (TGF‑β3) mRNA expression, TGF‑β3 promoter methylation, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and histone H3 (H3) acetylation in the palates were evaluated in the two groups. The incidence of a cleft palate in the TCDD group was 93.55%, and no cases of cleft palate were identified in the control group. On GD 13.5 and GD 14.5, TGF‑β3 mRNA expression, HAT activity and acetylated H3 levels were significantly increased in the TCDD group compared with the control. Methylated bands were not observed in the TCDD or control groups. In conclusion, at the critical period of palate fusion (GD 13.5‑14.5), TCDD significantly increased TGF‑β3 gene expression, HAT activity and H3 acetylation. Therefore, histone acetylation may be involved in TCDD‑induced cleft palate formation in fetal mice. PMID:27279340

  4. Histone acetylation is involved in TCDD-induced cleft palate formation in fetal mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xingang; Qiu, Lin; Pu, Yalan; Liu, Cuiping; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Chen; Pu, Wei; Fu, Yuexian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present was to evaluate the effects of DNA methylation and histone acetylation on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlo-rodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced cleft palate in fetal mice. Pregnant mice (n=10) were randomly divided into two groups: i) TCDD group, mice were treated with 28 µg/kg TCDD on gestation day (GD) 10 by oral gavage; ii) control group, mice were treated with an equal volume of corn oil. On GD 16.5, the fetal mice were evaluated for the presence of a cleft palate. An additional 36 pregnant mice were divided into the control and TCDD groups, and palate samples were collected on GD 13.5, GD 14.5 and GD 15.5, respectively. Transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) mRNA expression, TGF-β3 promoter methylation, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and histone H3 (H3) acetylation in the palates were evaluated in the two groups. The incidence of a cleft palate in the TCDD group was 93.55%, and no cases of cleft palate were identified in the control group. On GD 13.5 and GD 14.5, TGF-β3 mRNA expression, HAT activity and acetylated H3 levels were significantly increased in the TCDD group compared with the control. Methylated bands were not observed in the TCDD or control groups. In conclusion, at the critical period of palate fusion (GD 13.5–14.5), TCDD significantly increased TGF-β3 gene expression, HAT activity and H3 acetylation. Therefore, histone acetylation may be involved in TCDD-induced cleft palate formation in fetal mice. PMID:27279340

  5. Metabolism of Monoterpenes: Acetylation of (-)-Menthol by a Soluble Enzyme Preparation from Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Croteau, R; Hooper, C L

    1978-05-01

    The essential oil from mature leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) contains up to 15% (-)-menthyl acetate, and leaf discs converted exogenous (-)-[G-(3)H]menthol into this ester in approximately 15% yield of the incorporated precursor. Leaf extracts catalyzed the acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation of (-)-[G-(3)H]menthol and the product of this transacetylase reaction was identified by radiochromatographic techniques. Transacetylase activity was located mainly in the 100,000g supernatant fraction, and the preparation was partially purified by combination of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and chromatography on O-diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. The transacetylase had a molecular weight of about 37,000 as judged by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, and a pH optimum near 9. The apparent K(m) and velocity for (-)-menthol were 0.3 mm and 16 nmol/hr. mg of protein, respectively. The saturation curve for acetyl coenzyme A was sigmoidal, showing apparent saturation near 0.1 mm. Dithioerythritol was required for maximum activity and stability of the enzyme, and the enzyme was inhibited by thiol directed reagents such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Diisopropylfluorophosphate also inhibited transacylation suggesting the involvement of a serine residue in catalysis. The transacylase was highly specific for acetyl coenzyme A; propionyl coenzyme A and butyryl coenzyme A were not nearly as efficient as acyl donors (11% and 2%, respectively). However, the enzyme was much less selective with regard to the alcohol substrate, suggesting that the nature of the acetate ester synthesized in mint is more dependent on the type of alcohol available than on the specificity of the transacetylase. This is the first report on an enzyme involved in monoterpenol acetylation in plants. A very similar enzyme, catalyzing this key reaction in the metabolism of menthol, was also isolated from the flowers of peppermint. PMID:16660375

  6. Effects of Dietary Factors and the NAT2 Acetylator Status on Gastric Cancer in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan Wei; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Yong-Dae; Song, Young-Jin; Yun, Hyo-Yung; Park, Joo-Seung; Youn, Sei-Jin; Kim, Byung Sik; Kim, Heon; Hein, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental dietary carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes have been reported to be risk factors for gastric cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the diet, the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2 acetylation status, and their interaction on gastric cancer risk. The study population consisted of 471 gastric cancer patients and 471 age- and sex-matched control subjects. NAT2 genotypes were identified using single-nucleotide primer extension reaction methods. Thirty-one alleles related to 12 polymorphism sites were assayed in this study. Significantly increased odds ratios were observed in former smokers (OR = 2.39, 95%CI = 1.57-3.62), heavy drinkers (OR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.06-1.55), and individuals who eat well-done meat (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.09-1.41). The odds ratios (95% CI) for high intake of kimchi, stews, and soybean paste were 3.27 (2.44-4.37), 1.96 (1.50-2.58), and 1.63 (1.24-2.14), respectively. The NAT2 genotype alone was not associated with gastric cancer risk. A significant gene-environment interaction was observed between environmental carcinogens and NAT2 genotypes. The odds ratios for kimchi, stews, and soybean paste were higher in slow/intermediate acetylators than in rapid acetylators. The odds ratios for slow/intermediate acetylators were 2.28 (95% CI: 1.29-4.04) for light smokers and 3.42 (95% CI: 2.06-5.68) for well-done meat intake. The NAT2 acetylator genotype may be an important modifier of the effects of environmental factors on gastric cancer risk. PMID:19350634

  7. Characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.L.; Li, X.L.; Chen, H.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1999-09-01

    A 1,067-bp cDNA, designated axeA, coding for an acetyl xylan esterase (AxeA) was cloned from the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2. The gene had an open reading frame of 939 bp encoding a polypeptide of 313 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 34,845 Da. An active esterase using the original start codon of the cDNA was synthesized in Escherichia coli. Two active forms of the esterase were purified from recombinant E. coli cultures. The size difference of 8 amino acids was a result of cleavages at two different sites within the signal peptide. The enzyme released acetate from several acetylated substrates, including acetylated xylan. The activity toward acetylated xylan was tripled in the presence of recombinant xylanase A from the same fungus. Using p-nitrophenyl acetate as a substrate, the enzyme had a K{sub m} of 0.9 mM and a V{sub max} of 785 {micro}mol min{sup {minus}} mg{sup {minus}1}. It had temperature and pH optima of 30 C and 9.0, respectively. AxeA had 56% amino acid identity with BnaA, an acetyl xylan esterase of Neocallimastix patriciarum, but the Orpinomyces AxeA was devoid of a noncatalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) found at the carboxy terminus of the Neocallimastix BnaA. The NCRPD found in many glycosyl hydrolases and esterases of anaerobic fungi has been postulated to function as a docking domain for cellulase-hemicellulase complexes, similar to the dockerin of the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum.

  8. Immunocytochemical and immunogold analyses of histone H4 acetylation during Chara vulgaris spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Histone acetylation is one of the epigenetic modifications which play a significant role in chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis. Acetylation of the histone H4 makes the exchange of nucleoproteins easy. Research on mouse spermatogenesis showed that H4 histone acetylated at Lys 12 (H4K12ac) was specific only to spermatids. Immunocytochemical studies of Chara vulgaris spermatids with the use of antibodies against the histone H4K12ac revealed positive reactions in spermatid nuclei at stages I-VII. This reaction, connected with nuclear condensation, was much stronger at the early stages of spermiogenesis than later on. Moreover, it showed that at the stages V-VII in spermatid nuclei the presence of the histone H4K12ac corresponded with DNA double-strand breaks. Electron microscopy studies with the use of immunogold technique revealed an almost twofold difference between the mean total numbers of gold grains in the examined chromatin in both stages. This study showed nearly equal distribution of gold grains on condensed and non-condensed chromatin of spermatids at the stage III/IV (48.11% and 51.89%, respectively). In the later stage-VI, when chromatin condensation proceeded, labeling of condensed chromatin reached 57.27%, while in the case of non-condensed chromatin it dropped to 42.73%. The percentage analysis also revealed an increase (above 9%) in condensed chromatin labeling in relation to the stage III/IV. Intensive acetylation of histone H4 at the early stages is correlated with DNA DSBs and transcriptional activity. It facilitates chromatin loosening, which enables the correct course of chromatin remodeling at a later stage. Histone γH2AX also influences chromatin structure in many biological processes in different cell types. Current studies reveal other similarities regarding histone H4 acetylation, not only between Chara and mammals but between invertebrates (molluscs) and vertebrates (bony fishes) as well. PMID:26774747

  9. Deciphering the Regulatory Circuitry That Controls Reversible Lysine Acetylation in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Hentchel, Kristy L.; Thao, Sandy; Intile, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Salmonella enterica, the reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) system is comprised of the protein acetyltransferase (Pat) and sirtuin deacetylase (CobB). RLA controls the activities of many proteins, including the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acs), by modulating the degree of Acs acetylation. We report that IolR, a myo-inositol catabolism repressor, activates the expression of genes encoding components of the RLA system. In vitro evidence shows that the IolR protein directly regulates pat expression. An iolR mutant strain displayed a growth defect in minimal medium containing 10 mM acetate, a condition under which RLA function is critical to control Acs activity. Increased levels of Pat, CobB, or Acs activity reversed the growth defect, suggesting the Pat/CobB ratio in an iolR strain is altered and that such a change affects the level of acetylated, inactive Acs. Results of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of pat, cobB, and acs expression indicated that expression of the genes alluded to in the IolR-deficient strain was reduced 5-, 3-, and 2.6-fold, respectively, relative to the levels present in the strain carrying the iolR+ allele. Acs activity in cell-free extracts from an iolR mutant strain was reduced ~25% relative to that of the iolR+ strain. Glucose differentially regulated expression of pat, cobB, and acs. The catabolite repressor protein (Crp) positively regulated expression of pat while having no effect on cobB. PMID:26199328

  10. Liver histone H3 methylation and acetylation may associate with type 2 diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Tu, Peipei; Li, Xiaodan; Ma, Baicheng; Duan, Huikun; Zhang, Yaofang; Wu, Ri; Ni, Zaizhong; Jiang, Pingzhe; Wang, Haisong; Li, Miao; Zhu, Jianhong; Li, Minggang

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complicated systemic disease, and the exact pathogenetic molecular mechanism is unclear. Distinct histone modifications regulate gene expression in certain diseases, but little is known about histone epigenetics in diabetes. In the current study, C57BL/6 J mice were used to build T2D model, then treated with exendin-4 (10 μg/kg). Histone H3K9 and H3K23 acetylation, H3K4 monomethylation and H3K9 dimethylation were explored by Western blotting of liver histone extracts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine expression levels of diabetes-related genes, while chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was applied to analyze H3 and H3K9 acetylation, H3K4 monomethylation, and H3K9 dimethylation in the promoter of facilitated glucose transporter member 2 (Glut2) gene. The results showed that liver's total H3K4 monomethylation and H3K9 dimethylation was increased in diabetic mice, which was abrogated with the treatment of exendin-4. In contrast, H3K9 and H3K23 acetylation were reduced in diabetic mice, while exendin-4 only alleviated the reduction of H3K9 acetylation. Our data indicated that the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with global liver histone H3K9 and H3K23 acetylation, H3K4 monomethylation, and H3K9 dimethylation. Exploiting exact histone modify enzyme inhibitors, which may represent a novel strategy to prevent T2D. PMID:25666660

  11. Preparation and characterization of acetylated starch nanoparticles as drug carrier: Ciprofloxacin as a model.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi Najafi, Seyed Heydar; Baghaie, Maryam; Ashori, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize in-vitro the potential of acetylated corn starch (ACS) particles as a matrix for the delivery of ciprofloxacin (CFx). ACS was successfully synthesized and optimized by the reaction of native corn starch using acetic anhydride and acetic acid with low and high degrees of substitution (DS). The nanoprecipitation method was applied for the formation of the ACS-based nanoparticles, by the dropwise addition of water to acetone solution of ACS under stirring. The effects of acetylation and nanoprecipitation on the morphology and granular structure of ACS samples were examined by the FT-IR, XRD, DSL and SEM techniques. The efficiency of CFx loading was also evaluated via encapsulation efficiency (EE) in ACS nanoparticles. The average degree of acetyl substitution per glucose residue of corn starch was 0.33, 2.00, and 2.66. The nanoparticles size of the ACS and ACS-loaded with CFx were measured and analyzed relative to the solvent:non-solvent ratio. Based on the results, ACS nanoparticles with DS of 2.00 and water:acetone of 3:1 had 312nm diameter. Increasing DS in starch acetate led to increase in the EE from 67.7 to 89.1% and with increasing ratio of water/acetone from 1:1 to 3:1, the EE raised from 48.5 to 89.1%. X-ray diffraction indicated that A-type pattern of native starch was completely transformed into the V-type pattern of acetylated starch. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the different sizes of pores formed on the acetylated starch granules were utterly converted into the uniform-sized spherical nanoparticles after the nanoprecipitation. PMID:26893054

  12. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  13. Prolactin receptor and signal transduction to milk protein genes

    SciTech Connect

    Djiane, J.; Daniel, N.; Bignon, C.

    1994-06-01

    After cloning of the mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptor cDNA, a functional assay was established using co-transfection of PRL receptor cDNA together with a milk protein promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Different mutants of the PRL receptor were tested in this CAT assay to delimit the domains in the receptor necessary for signal transduction to milk protein genes. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, high numbers of PRL receptor are expressed. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, expressed PRL receptor was identified as a single species of 100 kDa. Using these cells, we analyzed the effects of PRL on intracellular free Ca{sup ++} concentration. PRL stimulates Ca{sup ++} entry and induces secondary Ca{sup ++} mobilization. The entry of Ca{sup ++} is a result of an increase in K{sup +} conductance that hyperpolarizes the membranes. We have also analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation induced by PRL. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, PRL induced a very rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein which is most probably the PRL receptor. The same finding was obtained in mammary membranes after PRL injection to lactating rabbits. Whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and lavendustin were without effect, PRL stimulation of milk protein gene promoters was partially inhibited by 2 {mu}M herbimycin in CHO cells co-transfected with PRL receptor cDNA and the {Beta} lactoglobulin CAT construct. Taken together these observations indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of the PRL receptor interacts with one or several tyrosine kinases, which may represent early postreceptor events necessary for PRL signal transduction to milk protein genes. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Binary and tertiary combination of alternariol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol on HepG2 cells: Toxic effects and evaluation of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Juan-García, Ana; Juan, Cristina; Manyes, Lara; Ruiz, María-José

    2016-08-01

    Fungi producers of mycotoxins are able to synthesize more than one toxin. Alternariol (AOH) is one of the mycotoxins produced by several Alternaria species, the most common one being Alternaria alternata. The toxins 3-Acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-Acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) are acetylated forms of deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium graminearum. In the present work it is determined and evaluated the toxic effects of binary and tertiary combination treatment of HepG2 cells with AOH, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, by using the MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), to subsequently apply the isobologram method and elucidate if the mixtures of these mycotoxins produced synergism, antagonism or additive effect; and lastly, to analyze mycotoxins conversion into metabolites produced and released by HepG2 cells after applying the treatment conditions by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) equipment and extracted from culture media. HepG2 cells were treated at different concentrations over 24, 48 and 72h. IC50 values detected at all times assayed, ranged from 0.8 to >25μM in binary combinations; while in tertiary it ranged from 7.5 to 12μM. Synergistic, antagonism or additive effect detected in the mixtures of these mycotoxins was different depending on low or high concentration. Among all four mycotoxins combinations assayed, 15-ADON+3-ADON presented the highest toxic potential. At all assayed times, recoveries values oscillated depending on the time and combination studied. PMID:27131905

  15. Determination of the degree of acetylation and the distribution of acetyl groups in chitosan by HPLC analysis of nitrous acid degraded and PMP labeled products.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhangrun; Zeng, Yangyang; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-09-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant polysaccharides on earth. It consists of repeating β-1,4 linked N-acetylated glucosamine (A) units. Chitosan is an N-deacetylated product of chitin. Chitosan and its derivatives have broad medical applications as drugs, nutraceuticals, or drug delivery agents. However, a reliable analytical method for quality control of medically used chitosans is still lacking. In current study, nitrous acid was used to cleave all glucosamine residues in chitosan into 2,5-anhydromannose (M) or M at the reducing end of di-, tri-, and oligosaccharides. PMP, i.e. 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, was used to label all the Ms. Online UV detection allowed quantification of all M-containing UV peaks whereas online MS analysis directly identified 11 different kinds of mono-, di-, tri-, and oligosaccharides that correlated each oligosaccharide with specific UV peak after HPLC separation. The DA (degree of acetylation) for chitosans was calculated based on the A/(A+M) value derived from the UV data. This newly developed method had several advantages for quality control of chitosan: 1. the experimental procedures were extensively optimized; 2. the reliability of the method was confirmed by online LC-MS analysis; 3. the DA value was obtainable based on the UV data after HPLC analysis, which was comparableto that of (1)H NMR and conductometric titration analyses; 4. finally and most importantly, this method could be used to obtain the DA as well as chemical acetylation/deacetylation mechanisms for chitosan by any laboratory equipped with a HPLC and an online UV detector. PMID:26114886

  16. SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Lisha; Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yuzheng; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhang, Mengli; Zhao, Shimin; Yang, Yi; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan

    2015-04-15

    The malate-aspartate shuttle is indispensable for the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to maintain a high rate of glycolysis and to support rapid tumor cell growth. The malate-aspartate shuttle is operated by two pairs of enzymes that localize to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (GOT), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH). Here, we show that mitochondrial GOT2 is acetylated and that deacetylation depends on mitochondrial SIRT3. We have identified that acetylation occurs at three lysine residues, K159, K185, and K404 (3K), and enhances the association between GOT2 and MDH2. The GOT2 acetylation at these three residues promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria and changes the mitochondrial NADH/NAD(+) redox state to support ATP production. Additionally, GOT2 3K acetylation stimulates NADPH production to suppress ROS and to protect cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, GOT2 3K acetylation promotes pancreatic cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Finally, we show that GOT2 K159 acetylation is increased in human pancreatic tumors, which correlates with reduced SIRT3 expression. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 acetylation stimulates the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. PMID:25755250

  17. N-Acetylaspartate reductions in brain injury: impact on post-injury neuroenergetics, lipid synthesis, and protein acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, John R.; Arun, Peethambaran; Ariyannur, Prasanth S.; Namboodiri, Aryan M. A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is employed as a non-invasive marker for neuronal health using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This utility is afforded by the fact that NAA is one of the most concentrated brain metabolites and that it produces the largest peak in MRS scans of the healthy human brain. NAA levels in the brain are reduced proportionately to the degree of tissue damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the reductions parallel the reductions in ATP levels. Because NAA is the most concentrated acetylated metabolite in the brain, we have hypothesized that NAA acts in part as an extensive reservoir of acetate for acetyl coenzyme A synthesis. Therefore, the loss of NAA after TBI impairs acetyl coenzyme A dependent functions including energy derivation, lipid synthesis, and protein acetylation reactions in distinct ways in different cell populations. The enzymes involved in synthesizing and metabolizing NAA are predominantly expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively, and therefore some proportion of NAA must be transferred between cell types before the acetate can be liberated, converted to acetyl coenzyme A and utilized. Studies have indicated that glucose metabolism in neurons is reduced, but that acetate metabolism in astrocytes is increased following TBI, possibly reflecting an increased role for non-glucose energy sources in response to injury. NAA can provide additional acetate for intercellular metabolite trafficking to maintain acetyl CoA levels after injury. Here we explore changes in NAA, acetate, and acetyl coenzyme A metabolism in response to brain injury. PMID:24421768

  18. Oxygen-dependent acetylation and dimerization of the corepressor CtBP2 in neural stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Karaca, Esra; Lewicki, Jakub; Hermanson, Ola

    2015-03-01

    The transcriptional corepressor CtBP2 is essential for proper development of the nervous system. The factor exerts its repression by interacting in complexes with chromatin-modifying factors such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1/2 and the histone demethylase LSD1/KDM1. Notably, the histone acetyl transferase p300 acetylates CtBP2 and this is an important regulatory event of the activity and subcellular localization of the protein. We recently demonstrated an essential role for CtBPs as sensors of microenvironmental oxygen levels influencing the differentiation potential of neural stem cells (NSCs), but it is not known whether oxygen levels influence the acetylation levels of CtBP factors. Here we show by using proximity ligation assay (PLA) that CtBP2 acetylation levels increased significantly in undifferentiated, proliferating NSCs under hypoxic conditions. CtBP2 interacted with the class III HDAC Sirt1 but this interaction was unaltered in hypoxic conditions, and treatment with the Sirt1 inhibitor Ex527 did not result in any significant change in total CtBP2 acetylation levels. Instead, we revealed a significant decrease in PLA signal representing CtBP2 dimerization in NSCs under hypoxic conditions, negatively correlating with the acetylation levels. Our results suggest that microenvironmental oxygen levels influence the dimerization and acetylation levels, and thereby the activity, of CtBP2 in proliferating NSCs.

  19. Proteome-Wide Lysine Acetylation in Cortical Astrocytes and Alterations That Occur during Infection with Brain Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Bouchut, Anne; Chawla, Aarti R.; Jeffers, Victoria; Hudmon, Andy; Sullivan, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) that has been detected on thousands of proteins in nearly all cellular compartments. The role of this widespread PTM has yet to be fully elucidated, but can impact protein localization, interactions, activity, and stability. Here we present the first proteome-wide survey of lysine acetylation in cortical astrocytes, a subtype of glia that is a component of the blood-brain barrier and a key regulator of neuronal function and plasticity. We identified 529 lysine acetylation sites across 304 proteins found in multiple cellular compartments that largely function in RNA processing/transcription, metabolism, chromatin biology, and translation. Two hundred and seventy-seven of the acetylated lysines we identified on 186 proteins have not been reported previously in any other cell type. We also mapped an acetylome of astrocytes infected with the brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It has been shown that infection with T. gondii modulates host cell gene expression, including several lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) and deacetylase (KDAC) genes, suggesting that the host acetylome may also be altered during infection. In the T. gondii-infected astrocytes, we identified 34 proteins exhibiting a level of acetylation >2-fold and 24 with a level of acetylation <2-fold relative to uninfected astrocytes. Our study documents the first acetylome map for cortical astrocytes, uncovers novel lysine acetylation sites, and demonstrates that T. gondii infection produces an altered acetylome. PMID:25786129

  20. Opposing roles of H3- and H4-acetylation in the regulation of nucleosome structure—a FRET study

    PubMed Central

    Gansen, Alexander; Tóth, Katalin; Schwarz, Nathalie; Langowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Using FRET in bulk and on single molecules, we assessed the structural role of histone acetylation in nucleosomes reconstituted on the 170 bp long Widom 601 sequence. We followed salt-induced nucleosome disassembly, using donor–acceptor pairs on the ends or in the internal part of the nucleosomal DNA, and on H2B histone for measuring H2A/H2B dimer exchange. This allowed us to distinguish the influence of acetylation on salt-induced DNA unwrapping at the entry–exit site from its effect on nucleosome core dissociation. The effect of lysine acetylation is not simply cumulative, but showed distinct histone-specificity. Both H3- and H4-acetylation enhance DNA unwrapping above physiological ionic strength; however, while H3-acetylation renders the nucleosome core more sensitive to salt-induced dissociation and to dimer exchange, H4-acetylation counteracts these effects. Thus, our data suggest, that H3- and H4-acetylation have partially opposing roles in regulating nucleosome architecture and that distinct aspects of nucleosome dynamics might be independently controlled by individual histones. PMID:25589544

  1. SIRT3-dependent GOT2 acetylation status affects the malate–aspartate NADH shuttle activity and pancreatic tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Lisha; Shi, Qian; Zhao, Yuzheng; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhang, Mengli; Zhao, Shimin; Yang, Yi; Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The malate–aspartate shuttle is indispensable for the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to maintain a high rate of glycolysis and to support rapid tumor cell growth. The malate–aspartate shuttle is operated by two pairs of enzymes that localize to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (GOT), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH). Here, we show that mitochondrial GOT2 is acetylated and that deacetylation depends on mitochondrial SIRT3. We have identified that acetylation occurs at three lysine residues, K159, K185, and K404 (3K), and enhances the association between GOT2 and MDH2. The GOT2 acetylation at these three residues promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria and changes the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox state to support ATP production. Additionally, GOT2 3K acetylation stimulates NADPH production to suppress ROS and to protect cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, GOT2 3K acetylation promotes pancreatic cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Finally, we show that GOT2 K159 acetylation is increased in human pancreatic tumors, which correlates with reduced SIRT3 expression. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 acetylation stimulates the malate–aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. PMID:25755250

  2. Sirt1 physically interacts with Tip60 and negatively regulates Tip60-mediated acetylation of H2AX

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagata, Kazutsune; Kitabayashi, Issay

    2009-12-25

    Sirt1 appear to be NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that deacetylates histones and several non-histone proteins. In this study, we identified Sirt1 as a physical interaction partner of Tip60, which is a mammalian MYST-type histone acetyl-transferase that specifically acetylates histones H2A and H4. Although Tip60 also acetylates DNA damage-specific histone H2A variant H2AX in response to DNA damage, which is a process required for appropriate DNA damage response, overexpression of Sirt1 represses Tip60-mediated acetylation of H2AX. Furthermore, Sirt1 depletion by RNAi causes excessive acetylation of H2AX, and enhances accumulation of {gamma}-ray irradiation-induced MDC1, BRCA1, and Rad51 foci in nuclei. These findings suggest that Sirt1 functions as negative regulator of Tip60-mediated acetylation of H2AX. Moreover, Sirt1 deacetylates an acetylated Tip60 in response to DNA damage and stimulates proteasome-dependent Tip60 degradation in vivo, suggesting that Sirt1 negatively regulates the protein level of Tip60 in vivo. Sirt1 may thus repress excessive activation of the DNA damage response and Rad51-homologous recombination repair by suppressing the function of Tip60.

  3. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Srinivasan, Balaji; Xu, Lanjun; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Nollen, Ellen A A; Jackowski, Suzanne; Sanford, Lynn; Hayflick, Susan; Sibon, Ody C M

    2011-12-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-known determining factor for the acetylation status of proteins. However, the influence of Coenzyme A levels on protein acetylation is unknown. Here we investigate whether decreased levels of the central metabolite Coenzyme A induce alterations in protein acetylation and whether this correlates with specific phenotypes of PKAN models. We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, decreased locomotor function and decreased survival. Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development. PMID:21998097

  4. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Srinivasan, Balaji; Xu, Lanjun; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Nollen, Ellen A A; Jackowski, Suzanne; Sanford, Lynn; Hayflick, Susan; Sibon, Ody C M

    2011-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-known determining factor for the acetylation status of proteins. However, the influence of Coenzyme A levels on protein acetylation is unknown. Here we investigate whether decreased levels of the central metabolite Coenzyme A induce alterations in protein acetylation and whether this correlates with specific phenotypes of PKAN models. We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, decreased locomotor function and decreased survival. Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development. PMID:21998097

  5. Activation of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase by glutamate and Mg2+ is mediated by protein phosphatase-2A.

    PubMed Central

    Gaussin, V; Hue, L; Stalmans, W; Bollen, M

    1996-01-01

    The activation of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase by Na(+)-cotransported amino acids such as glutamine has been attributed mainly to the stimulation of its dephosphorylation by accumulating dicarboxylic acids, e.g. glutamate. We report here on a hepatic species of protein phosphatase-2A that activates acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the presence of physiological concentrations of glutamate or Mg2+ and, under these conditions, accounts for virtually all the hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphatase activity. Glutamate also stimulated the dephosphorylation of a synthetic pentadecapeptide encompassing the Ser-79 phosphorylation site of rat acetyl-CoA carboxylase, but did not affect the dephosphorylation of other substrates such as phosphorylase. Conversely, protamine, which stimulated the dephosphorylation of phosphorylase, inhibited the activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. A comparison with various species of muscle protein phosphatase-2A showed that the stimulatory effects of glutamate and Mg2+ on the acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphatase activity are largely mediated by the regulatory A subunit. Glutamate and Mg2+ emerge from our study as novel regulators of protein phosphatase-2A when acting on acetyl-CoA carboxylase. PMID:8645208

  6. H3 Histone Tail Conformation within the Nucleosome and the Impact of K14 Acetylation Studied Using Enhanced Sampling Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ikebe, Jinzen; Sakuraba, Shun; Kono, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues in histone tails is associated with gene transcription. Because histone tails are structurally flexible and intrinsically disordered, it is difficult to experimentally determine the tail conformations and the impact of acetylation. In this work, we performed simulations to sample H3 tail conformations with and without acetylation. The results show that irrespective of the presence or absence of the acetylation, the H3 tail remains in contact with the DNA and assumes an α-helix structure in some regions. Acetylation slightly weakened the interaction between the tail and DNA and enhanced α-helix formation, resulting in a more compact tail conformation. We inferred that this compaction induces unwrapping and exposure of the linker DNA, enabling DNA-binding proteins (e.g., transcription factors) to bind to their target sequences. In addition, our simulation also showed that acetylated lysine was more often exposed to the solvent, which is consistent with the fact that acetylation functions as a post-translational modification recognition site marker. PMID:26967163

  7. EB1 acetylation by P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) ensures accurate kinetochore-microtubule interactions in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng; Wang, Zhikai; Liu, Xing; Wu, Bing; Wang, Juncheng; Ward, Tarsha; Zhang, Liangyu; Ding, Xia; Gibbons, Gary; Shi, Yunyu; Yao, Xuebiao

    2012-10-01

    In eukaryotes, microtubules are essential for cellular plasticity and dynamics. Here we show that P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), a kinetochore-associated acetyltransferase, acts as a negative modulator of microtubule stability through acetylation of EB1, a protein that controls the plus ends of microtubules. PCAF acetylates EB1 on K220 and disrupts the stability of a hydrophobic cavity on the dimerized EB1 C terminus, which was previously reported to interact with plus-end tracking proteins (TIPs) containing the SxIP motif. As determined with an EB1 acetyl-K220-specific antibody, K220 acetylation is dramatically increased in mitosis and localized to the spindle microtubule plus ends. Surprisingly, persistent acetylation of EB1 delays metaphase alignment, resulting in impaired checkpoint silencing. Consequently, suppression of Mad2 overrides mitotic arrest induced by persistent EB1 acetylation. Thus, our findings identify dynamic acetylation of EB1 as a molecular mechanism to orchestrate accurate kinetochore-microtubule interactions in mitosis. These results establish a previously uncharacterized regulatory mechanism governing localization of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins and thereby the plasticity and dynamics of cells. PMID:23001180

  8. Neonatal administration of N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate induces early neurodegeneration in hippocampus and alters behaviour in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bubeníková-Valesová, Vera; Balcar, Vladimir J; Tejkalová, Hana; Langmeier, Milos; St'astný, Frantisek

    2006-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) is a dipeptide that could be considered a sequestered form of L-glutamate. As much as 25% of L-glutamate in brain may be present in the form of NAAG. NAAG is also one of the most abundant neuroactive small molecules in the CNS: it is an agonist at Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR II) and, at higher concentrations, at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of ionotropic glutamate receptors. As such, NAAG can be either neuroprotective or neurotoxic and, in fact, both characteristics have been discussed and described in the literature. In the present studies, 250 nmol NAAG was infused into each lateral cerebral ventricle of 12-day-old rat pups and, using Nissl-stained sections, neurodegeneration in the hippocampus was evaluated 24 or 96 h after the infusion. In several experiments, the neuronal death was also visualised by Fluoro-Jade B staining and studied by TUNEL technique. Some of the NAAG-treated animals were allowed to survive until 50 days post partum and subjected to behavioural (open field) tests. The administration of NAAG to 12-day-old rats resulted in extensive death of neurons particularly in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The neurodegeneration was, in part, prevented by administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg). The nuclear DNA-fragmentation demonstrated by TUNEL technique pointed to the presence of non-specific single-strand DNA cleavage. The NAAG-associated neonatal neuronal damage may have perturbed development of synaptic circuitry during adolescence as indicated by an altered performance of the experimental animals in the open field testing (changes in grooming activity) at postnatal day 50. The results underscore the potential neurotoxicity of NAAG in neonatal rat brain and implicate neonatally induced, NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal loss in the development of abnormal behaviour in young adult rats. PMID:16540202

  9. Stability and Analgesic Efficacy of Di-acetyl Morphine (Diamorphine) Compared with Morphine in Implanted Intrathecal Pumps In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Jon H; Palfrey, Stephen M; Rayen, Arasu; Southall, Jane L; Labib, Maurad H

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate di-acetyl morphine as an alternative opioid analgesic for use in implanted intrathecal drug delivery systems because of its greater solubility through evaluation of its stability in vivo and analgesic efficacy in the period between pump refills. Contents of intrathecal drug delivery system reservoirs (SynchroMed, Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) that had been filled with di-acetyl morphine dissolved in saline (21), bupivacaine (9), or in both bupivacaine and clonidine (19) were sampled in vivo between 1 and 125 days after refill. The samples were assayed for di-acetyl morphine and its breakdown products by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Prospective daily numerical pain scores between pump refills, using 11-point Likert scales, on 24 patients with implanted SynchroMed pumps (12 delivering di-acetyl morphine in saline, 12 were delivering morphine in saline) were collected. Results showed that di-acetyl morphine immediately started to decay to mono-acetyl morphine in implanted Synchromed pumps with half-life of 50 days. Mono-acetyl morphine decayed to morphine with a maxima estimated at 125 days. There was no clinically significant change in average weekly pain scores for up to ten weeks in either group (range, 2.5 to 2.8 for diamorphine and 2.7 to 3.1 for morphine) (2-way repeated ANOVA, F(9,220) = 0.98, n.s.). We conclude that di-acetyl morphine and its breakdown products, 6 mono-acetyl morphine and morphine, provide similar analgesia to morphine alone when administered by intrathecal pump for a period of at least ten weeks and may be a useful alternative when a more soluble agent is favored. PMID:22151270

  10. Potential Prognostic Value of Histone Deacetylase 6 and Acetylated Heat-Shock Protein 90 in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Younghee; Lee, Kyu Sang; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Sung Won; Eom, Keon Young; Kim, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an enzyme that deacetylates heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90). Many studies have investigated the role of HDAC6 and HSP90 in tumorigenesis and in the prognosis of cancer patients. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of HDAC6 and acetylated HSP90 (acetyl-HSP90) in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of 314 surgical specimens obtained from patients with invasive breast cancer was carried out to assess standard pathologic factors and the expression of HDAC6 and acetyl-HSP90. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between HDAC6, acetyl-HSP90, and conventional clinicopathological factors, and the prognostic values of these factors were evaluated. Results HDAC6 expression did not show any correlation with other clinicopathological factors, but acetyl-HSP90 was significantly correlated with histologic grade (p=0.001) and the Ki-67 index (p=0.015). HDAC6 and acetyl-HSP90 expression were significantly associated with each other (p=0.047). Although HDAC6 was not prognostic for disease-free survival (DFS), some patients with high expression of HDAC6 experienced recurrence 5 years after diagnosis, while there was no recurrent disease after 5 years in those with low expression. Acetyl-HSP90 was significantly associated with the DFS of all patients (p=0.016) and with high HDAC6 expression (p=0.017), but not with low expression. Conclusion Expression of HDAC6 and acetyl-HSP90 are correlated. HDAC6 is proposed to be a possible predictive marker of late recurrence, and acetyl-HSP90 has prognostic value in predicting the DFS of breast cancer patients. PMID:26472975

  11. Acetylation of Lysine92 Improves the Chaperone and Anti-apoptotic Activities of Human αB-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Huang, Rong; Nandi, Sandip K.; Wang, Benlian; Padmanabha, Smitha; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Filipek, Slawomir; Biswas, Ashis; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2013-01-01

    αB-Crystallin is a chaperone and an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in many tissues, including the lens, retina, heart and kidney. In the human lens, several lysine residues in αB-crystallin are acetylated. We have previously shown that such acetylation is predominant at lysine92 (K92) and K166. We have investigated the effect of lysine acetylation on the structure and functions of αB-crystallin by the specific introduction of an Nε-acetyllysine (AcK) mimic at K92. The introduction of AcK slightly altered the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. AcK introduction also resulted in an increase in the molar mass and hydrodynamic radius of the protein, and the protein became structurally more open and more stable than the native protein. The acetyl protein acquired higher surface hydrophobicity and exhibited 25-55% higher chaperone activity than the native protein. The acetyl protein had higher client protein binding per subunit of the protein and higher binding affinity relative to the native protein. The acetyl protein was at least 20% more effective in inhibiting chemically induced apoptosis than the native protein. Molecular modeling suggests that acetylation of K92 makes the ‘α-crystallin domain’ more hydrophobic. Together, our results reveal that the acetylation of a single lysine residue in αB-crystallin makes the protein structurally more stable and improves its chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Our findings suggest that lysine acetylation of αB-crystallin is an important chemical modification to enhance αB-crystallin’s protective functions in the eye. PMID:24128140

  12. Metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine for energy and neurotransmitter synthesis in the immature rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Scafidi, Susanna; Fiskum, Gary; Lindauer, Steven L.; Bamford, Penelope; Shi, Da; Hopkins, Irene; McKenna, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is an endogenous metabolic intermediate that facilitates the influx and efflux of acetyl groups across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Exogenously administered ALCAR has been used as a nutritional supplement and also as an experimental drug with reported neuroprotective properties and effects on brain metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine oxidative metabolism of ALCAR in the immature rat forebrain. Metabolism was studied in 21 day old rat brain at 15, 60 and 120 minutes after an intraperitoneal injection of [2-13C]acetyl-L-carnitine. The amount, pattern, and fractional enrichment of 13C-labeled metabolites were determined by ex vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolism of the acetyl moiety from [2-13C]ALCAR via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle led to incorporation of label into the C4, C3 and C2 positions of glutamate (GLU), glutamine (GLN) and GABA. Labeling patterns indicated that [2-13C]ALCAR was metabolized by both neurons and glia; however, the percent enrichment was higher in GLN and GABA than in GLU, demonstrating high metabolism in astrocytes and GABAergic neurons. Incorporation of label into the C3 position of alanine, both C3 and C2 of lactate, and the C1 and C5 positions of glutamate and glutamine demonstrated that [2-13C]ALCAR was actively metabolized via the pyruvate recycling pathway. The enrichment of metabolites with 13C from metabolism of ALCAR was highest in alanine C3 (10%) and lactate C3 (9%), with considerable enrichment in GABA C4 (8%), GLN C3 (~4%) and GLN C5 (5%). Overall, our 13C-NMR studies reveal that the acetyl moiety of ALCAR is metabolized for energy in both astrocytes and neurons and the label incorporated into the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Cycling ratios showed prolonged cycling of carbon from the acetyl moiety of ALCAR in the TCA cycle. Labeling of compounds formed from metabolism of [2-13C]ALCAR via the pyruvate recycling pathway was higher than values reported for other

  13. N-acetyl-L-leucine accelerates vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy by action in the cerebellum and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Günther, Lisa; Beck, Roswitha; Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by

  14. N-Acetyl-L-Leucine Accelerates Vestibular Compensation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy by Action in the Cerebellum and Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by

  15. N-Terminal Acetylation-Targeted N-End Rule Proteolytic System: The Ac/N-End Rule Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Eun; Heo, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Mok; Hwang, Cheol-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Although Nα-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is a pervasive protein modification in eukaryotes, its general functions in a majority of proteins are poorly understood. In 2010, it was discovered that Nt-acetylation creates a specific protein degradation signal that is targeted by a new class of the N-end rule proteolytic system, called the Ac/N-end rule pathway. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism and biological functions of the Ac/N-end rule pathway, and its crosstalk with the Arg/N-end rule pathway (the classical N-end rule pathway). PMID:26883906

  16. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine decorated polymeric nanoparticles for targeted delivery of doxorubicin: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baocheng; Ding, Yuanyuan; Han, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Han, Yuzhen; Han, Jingtian

    2015-06-01

    A novel targeting drug delivery system containing poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)58-b-polystyrene130 (P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130) as a copolymer backbone, N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) as a targeting moiety was designed and synthesized. The NAG grafted copolymer (NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130) was characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR. The NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles exhibited spherical shapes with an average diameter about 56.27±0.43 nm, low critical micelle concentration of 0.028 mg/mL, negative zeta potential -41.46±0.99 mV, high drug loading 25.83±1.09% and encapsulation efficiency 69.69±3.98%. In vitro cell cytotoxicity was conducted to confirm the safety of the NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) results showed that the NAG targeting moiety enhanced the internalization and targeting ability of NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles. Anticancer activity toward MCF-7 cells and HT29 cells showed that DOX-loaded NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles exhibited a higher antitumor activity compared to DOX-loaded P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles, which could attribute to NAG receptor-mediated endocytosis. These results suggest that the biocompatible and non-toxic NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles may be used as an effective targeting drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:25921641

  17. Disruption of intermolecular disulfide bonds in PDGF-BB dimers by N-acetyl-L-cysteine does not prevent PDGF signaling in cultured hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Meurer, Steffen K.; Gressner, Axel M.; Weiskirchen, Ralf . E-mail: rweiskirchen@ukaachen.de

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative stress is important in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis through its induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and enhancement of collagen synthesis. Reactive oxygen species have been found to be essential second messengers in the signaling of both major fibrotic growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), in cultured HSC and liver fibrosis. The non-toxic aminothiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits cellular activation and attenuates experimental fibrosis in liver. Prior reports show that NAC is capable of reducing the effects of TGF-{beta} in biological systems, in cultured endothelial cells, and HSC through its direct reducing activity upon TGF-{beta} molecules. We here analyzed the effects of NAC on PDGF integrity, receptor binding, and downstream signaling in culture-activated HSC. We found that NAC dose-dependently induces disintegration of PDGF in vitro. However, even high doses (>20 mM) were not sufficient to prevent the phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor type {beta}, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, or protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Therefore, we conclude that the PDGF monomer is still active. The described antifibrotic effects are therefore mainly attributable to the structural impairment of TGF-{beta} signaling components reported previously.

  18. Lectin-dependent attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii to receptors on epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, M J; Cisar, J O; Vatter, A E; Sandberg, A L

    1984-01-01

    The adherence of Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 to monolayer cultures of human epithelial cell lines was mediated by the lactose-sensitive fimbriae (type 2) of strain WVU45. The attachment of Actinomyces viscosus T14V, which has both types 1 and 2 fimbriae, was approximately half that of A. naeslundii, and only minimal attachment of A. naeslundii and A. viscosus mutants lacking type 2 fimbriae was detected. The adherence of strain WVU45 was enhanced two- to threefold by neuraminidase treatment of the epithelial cells. The Fab fragments of antibodies which recognize the type 2 fimbriae inhibited the adherence of A. naeslundii WVU45 to the epithelial cells. The bacterial interaction with epithelial cells was inhibited by lactose, methyl-beta-D-galactoside, and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, but not by methyl-alpha-D-galactoside, cellobiose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, L-fucose, or D-mannose. To further characterize the epithelial cell receptors for the bacterial lectin, we utilized several plant and invertebrate lectins as potential inhibitors of bacterial adherence. Lectins from Bauhinia purpurea and Arachis hypogaea which recognize N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galactose, and D-galactose-beta-(1----3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine inhibited bacterial attachment, and binding of these lectins to epithelial cells was enhanced by the addition of neuraminidase. Lectins reacting with alpha-linked D-galactose, alpha-linked N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-mannose, or sialic acid were not inhibitory. Under similar assay conditions, adherence of a mannose-sensitive strain of Escherichia coli was inhibited by concanavalin A but not by the lectin from Bauhinia purpurea. These results indicate that certain plant lectins have specificities similar to that of the actinomyces fimbrial lectin and are, therefore, useful probes for identifying receptors on epithelial cells for certain bacteria. Images PMID:6150008

  19. Solution interactions between the uranyl cation [UO2(2+)] and histidine, N-acetyl-histidine, tyrosine, and N-acetyl-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Badawi, Ahmed; Huang, Huan; Van Horn, J David

    2009-01-01

    Complexes of the uranyl cation [UO(2)(2+)] with histidine (His), N-acetyl-histidine (NAH), tyrosine (Tyr), and N-acetyl-tyrosine (NAT) were studied by UV-visible and NMR spectroscopy, and by potentiometric titration. Protonation constants for each ligand are reported, as are cumulative formation constants for uranyl-amino acid complexes. Coupling constant data (J(CH)) for uranyl-histidine complexes indicate that inner-sphere solution interactions between histidine and uranyl cation are solely at the carboxylate site. At 25 degrees C the major uranyl-histidine complex has a cumulative formation constant of logbeta(110)=8.53, and a proposed formula of [UO(2)HisH(2)(OH)(2)](+); the stepwise formation constant, logK(UL), is estimated to be 5.6 ( approximately 8.53-(-6.1)-(-6.1)-15.15). Outer-sphere interactions, H-bonding or electrostatic interactions, are proposed as contributing a significant portion of the stability to the ternary uranyl-hydroxo-amino acid complexes. The temperature dependent protonation constants of histidine and formation constants between uranyl cation and histidine are reported from 10 to 35 degrees C; at 25 degrees C, DeltaG=-43.3 kJ/mol. PMID:18947879

  20. Production of N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine from Mycelial Waste by a Combination of Bacterial Chitinases and an Insect N-Acetyl-d-glucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weixing; Wang, Di; Liu, Tian; Yang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) has great potential to be used as a food additive and medicine. The enzymatic degradation of chitin-containing biomass for producing GlcNAc is an eco-friendly approach but suffers from a high cost. The economical efficiency can be improved by both optimizing the member and ratio of the chitinolytic enzymes and using new inexpensive substrates. To address this, a novel combination of bacterial and insect chitinolytic enzymes was developed in this study to efficiently produce GlcNAc from the mycelia of Asperillus niger, a fermentation waste. This enzyme combination contained three bacterial chitinases (chitinase A from Serratia marcescens (SmChiA), SmChiB, SmChiC) and one insect N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase from Ostrinia furnacalis (OfHex1) in a ratio of 39.1% of SmChiA, 26.7% of SmChiB, 32.9% of SmChiC, and 1.3% of OfHex1. A yield of 6.3 mM (1.4 mg/mL) GlcNAc with a purity of 95% can be obtained from 10 mg/mL mycelial powder in 24 h. The enzyme combination reported here exhibited 5.8-fold higher hydrolytic activity over the commercial chitinase preparation derived from Streptomyces griseus. PMID:27546481

  1. A boundary for histone acetylation allows distinct expression patterns of the Ad4BP/SF-1 and GCNF loci in adrenal cortex cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Satoru L.; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou . E-mail: moro@nibb.ac.jp

    2005-04-08

    Ad4BP/SF-1 is a nuclear receptor whose expression is restricted to tissues involved in steroid hormone synthesis such as the adrenal cortex and gonads. Recent sequence data analysis has shown that the Ad4BP/SF-1 gene is located only 13 kb downstream of the last exon of the neighboring GCNF gene that is expressed in some neurons and gonadal germ cells. Despite the close proximity of the two genes, regulatory elements from one do not interfere with the transcription of the neighboring gene, resulting in distinct expression patterns of Ad4BP/SF-1 and GCNF. This observation has led to the prediction that an insulator element must exist between the two loci to establish independent transcription units. We performed DNase I hypersensitivity assays on the adrenal cortex cell line, Y-1, to test for the existence of an insulator. Three hypersensitive sites were identified in the region spanning 2.1 kb between the last exon of GCNF and the first exon of Ad4BP/SF-1. The most upstream site contains a binding site for CTCF, a known insulator protein, while the other sites are predicted to associate with the nuclear matrix. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using anti-acetylated histone H3 and H4 antibodies showed a discontinuous pattern of histone H3 and H4 acetylation upstream of these sites. Our data suggest that the chromatin architecture specialized by CTCF and the nuclear matrix contribute to the distinct pattern of transcriptional regulation of these genes.

  2. The Commercial Antibodies Widely Used to Measure H3 K56 Acetylation Are Non-Specific in Human and Drosophila Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sangita; Graves, Hillary; Ohsawa, Ryosuke; Huang, Ting-hsiang; Wang, Pingping; Harmacek, Laura; Tyler, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the function of histone post-translational modifications in metazoans is inferred from their genomic localization and / or extrapolated from yeast studies. For example, acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3 K56Ac) is assumed to be important for transcriptional regulation in metazoan cells based on its occurrence at promoters and its function in yeast. Here we directly assess the function of H3 K56Ac during chromatin disassembly from gene regulatory regions during transcriptional induction in human cells by using mutations that either mimic or prevent H3 K56Ac. Although there is rapid histone H3 disassembly during induction of some estrogen receptor responsive genes, depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1A/B, which is required for H3 K56 acetylation, has no effect on chromatin disassembly at these regions. During the course of this work, we found that all the commercially available antibodies to H3 K56Ac are non-specific in human cells and in Drosophila. We used H3-YFP fusions to show that the H3 K56Q mutation can promote chromatin disassembly from regulatory regions of some estrogen responsive genes in the context of transcriptional induction. However, neither the H3 K56R nor K56Q mutation significantly altered chromatin disassembly dynamics by FRAP analysis. These results indicate that unlike the situation in yeast, human cells do not use H3 K56Ac to promote chromatin disassembly from regulatory regions or from the genome in general. Furthermore, our work highlights the need for rigorous characterization of the specificity of antibodies to histone post-translational modifications in vivo. PMID:27187594

  3. Set7/9, a methyltransferase, regulates the thermogenic program during brown adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of p53 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Park, Anna; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Han, Baek Soo; Kim, Il Chul; Chi, Seung-Wook; Park, Sung Goo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-08-15

    Brown adipose tissue, which is mainly composed of brown adipocytes, plays a key role in the regulation of energy balance via dissipation of extra energy as heat, and consequently counteracts obesity and its associated-disorders. Therefore, brown adipocyte differentiation should be tightly controlled at the multiple regulation steps. Among these, the regulation at the level of post-translational modifications (PTMs) is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the changes in the expression level of the enzymes involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation by using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) array analysis. Several enzymes showing differential expression patterns were identified. In particular, the expression level of methyltransferase Set7/9 was dramatically repressed during brown adipocyte differentiation. Although there was no significant change in lipid accumulation, ectopic expression of Set7/9 led to enhanced expression of several key thermogenic genes, such as uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), Cidea, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16). In contrast, knockdown of endogenous Set7/9 led to significantly reduced expression of these thermogenic genes. Furthermore, suppressed mitochondrial DNA content and decreased oxygen consumption rate were also detected upon Set7/9 knockdown. We found that p53 acetylation was regulated by Set7/9-dependent interaction with Sirt1. Based on these results, we suggest that Set7/9 acts as a fine regulator of the thermogenic program during brown adipocyte differentiation by regulation of p53 acetylation. Thus, Set7/9 could be used as a valuable target for regulating thermogenic capacity and consequently to overcome obesity and its related metabolic diseases. PMID:27132805

  4. Biopolymer-based nanocomposites: effect of lignin acetylation in cellulose triacetate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjarrez Nevárez, Laura Alicia; Ballinas Casarrubias, Lourdes; Celzard, Alain; Fierro, Vanessa; Torres Muñoz, Vinicio; Camacho Davila, Alejandro; Román Torres Lubian, José; González Sánchez, Guillermo

    2011-08-01

    We have prepared all-biopolymer nanocomposite films using lignin as a filler and cellulose triacetate (CTA) as a polymer matrix, and characterized them by several analytical methods. Three types of lignin were tested: organosolv, hydrolytic and kraft, with or without acetylation. They were used in the form of nanoparticles incorporated at 1 wt% in CTA. Self-supported films were prepared by vapor-induced phase separation at controlled temperature (35-55 °C) and relative humidity (10-70%). The efficiency of acetylation of each type of lignin was studied and discussed, as well as its effects on film structure, homogeneity and mechanical properties. The obtained results are explained in terms of intermolecular filler-matrix interaction at the nanometer scale, for which the highest mechanical resistance was reached using hydrolytic lignin in the nanocomposite.

  5. A simple pharmacokinetic method for separating the three acetylation phenotypes: a preliminary report.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, E J; Lee, L K

    1982-01-01

    1 Until recently, phenotyping the N-acetyltransferase enzyme had been restricted to distinguishing the slow acetylators from the rapid. Further separation of the heterozygous rapid phenotype from the homozygous rapid phenotype has only been possible by detailed pharmacokinetic studies using sulphadimidine and necessitating prolonged plasma sampling. 2 A simple method of deriving the basic pharmacokinetic parameters is presented. In this study of ten healthy volunteers, one urine sample and hourly plasma sampling over only 5 h enabled calculation of the total body (TBC) and metabolic clearances (MC) wih enough accuracy to distinguish the three (slow, intermediate and rapid) acetylator phenotypes. The spread of the distribution for the elimination rate constant was however too wide to enable their clear separation. PMID:7059437

  6. Measuring N-acetyl aspartate synthesis in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Su; Yang, Jehoon; Shen, Jun

    2008-01-01

    N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is an important marker of neuronal function and viability that can be measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this paper, we proposed a method to measure NAA synthesis using proton MRS with infusion of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose, and demonstrated its feasibility in an in vivo study of the rat brain. The rate of 13C-label incorporation into the acetyl group of NAA was measured using a localized, long echo-time proton MRS method. Signals from the 13C satellites of the main NAA methyl protons at 2.02 ppm were continuously monitored for 10 hours. Quantification of the data based on a linear kinetic model showed that NAA synthesis rate in isoflurane-anesthetized rats was 0.19 ± 0.02 µmol/g/h (mean ± standard deviation, n = 12). PMID:18486230

  7. Regulation and structure of the heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Salie, Matthew J; Thelen, Jay J

    2016-09-01

    The enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the committed step of the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS) pathway by converting acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Two forms of ACCase exist in nature, a homomeric and heteromic form. The heteromeric form of this enzyme requires four different subunits for activity: biotin carboxylase; biotin carboxyl carrier protein; and α- and β-carboxyltransferases. Heteromeric ACCases (htACCase) can be found in prokaryotes and the plastids of most plants. The plant htACCase is regulated by diverse mechanisms reflected by the biochemical and genetic complexity of this multienzyme complex and the plastid stroma where it resides. In this review we summarize the regulation of the plant htACCase and also describe the structural characteristics of this complex from both prokaryotes and plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27091637

  8. In vivo N-acetyl cysteine reduce hepatocyte death by induced acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Ju; Li, Feng-Chieh; Wang, Sheng-Shun; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is the famous drug in global, and taking overdose Acetaminophen will intake hepatic cell injure. Desptie substantial progress in our understanding of the mechanism of hepatocellular injury during the last 40 years, many aspects of the pathophysiology are still unknown or controversial.1 In this study, mice are injected APAP overdose to damage hepatocyte. APAP deplete glutathione and ATP of cell, N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) plays an important role to protect hepatocytes be injury. N-Acetyl Cysteine provides mitochondrial to produce glutathione to release drug effect hepatocyte. By 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (6-CFDA) metabolism in vivo, glutathione keep depleting to observe the hepatocyte morphology in time. Without NAC, cell necrosis increase to plasma membrane damage to release 6-CFDA, that's rupture. After 6-CFDA injection, fluorescence will be retained in hepatocyte. For cell retain with NAC and without NAC are almost the same. With NAC, the number of cell rupture decreases about 75%.

  9. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cystamine may mediate the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantethine.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-03-01

    Pantethine is a versatile and well-tolerated hypolipidemic agent whose efficacy in this regard appears to be mediated by its catabolic product cystamine, a nucleophile which avidly attacks disulfide groups. An overview of pantethine research suggests that the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantethine reflects cystamine-mediated inhibition of the hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which can be expected to activate hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase as well as a more distal enzyme in the cholesterol synthetic pathway may account for pantethine's hypocholesterolemic effects. If pantethine does indeed effectively inhibit hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, it may have adjuvant utility in the hepatothermic therapy of obesity. As a safe and effective compound of natural origin, pantethine merits broader use in the management of hyperlipidemias. PMID:11359352

  10. Acetyl Methyl Torsion in N-Ethylacetamide: A Challenge for Microwave Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kannengießer, Raphaela; Lach, Marcel J; Stahl, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam

    2015-06-22

    The gas-phase structures and parameters describing acetyl methyl torsion of N-ethylacetamide are determined with high accuracy, using a combination of molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Conformational studies at the MP2 level of theory yield four minima on the energy surface. The most energetically favorable conformer, which possesses C1 symmetry, is assigned. Due to the torsional barrier of 73.4782(1) cm(-1) of the acetyl methyl group, fine splitting up to 4.9 GHz is found in the spectrum. The conformational structure is not only confirmed by the rotational constants, but also by the orientation of the internal rotor. The (14) N quadrupole hyperfine splittings are analyzed and the deduced coupling constants are compared with the calculated values. PMID:25916631

  11. Bromodomains: Translating the words of lysine acetylation into myelin injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Ntranos, Achilles; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-06-20

    Bromodomains are evolutionarily highly conserved α-helical structural motifs that recognize and bind acetylated lysine residues. Lysine acetylation