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Sample records for acetylating myosin light

  1. Myosin light-chain phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M; Perry, S V; Ottaway, J

    1976-01-01

    1. A method for the isolation of a new enzyme, myosin light-chain phosphatase, from rabbit white skeletal muscle by using a Sepharose-phosphorylated myosin light-chain affinity column is described. 2. The enzyme migrated as a single component on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel at pH7.0, with apparent mol.wt. 70000. 3. The enzyme was highly specific for the phosphorylated P-light chain of myosin, had pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0 and was not inhibited by NaF. 4. A Ca2+-sensitive 'ATPase' (adenosine triphosphatase) system consisting of myosin light-chain kinase, myosin light-chain phosphatase and the P-light chain is described. 5. Evidence is presented for a phosphoryl exchange between Pi, phosphorylated P-light chain and myosin light-chain phosphatase. 6. Heavy meromyosin prepared by chymotryptic digestion can be phosphorylated by myosin light-chain kinase. 7. The ATPase activities of myosin and heavy meromyosin, in the presence and absence of F-actin, were not significantly changed (+/- 10%) by phosphorylation of the P-light chain. Images PLATE 1 PMID:186030

  2. Myosin, Transgelin, and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Laviolette, Michel; Bergeron, Celine; Zitouni, Nedjma; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Kachmar, Linda; Hamid, Qutayba; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Airway smooth muscle (SM) of patients with asthma exhibits a greater velocity of shortening (Vmax) than that of normal subjects, and this is thought to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. A greater Vmax can result from increased myosin activation. This has been reported in sensitized human airway SM and in models of asthma. A faster Vmax can also result from the expression of specific contractile proteins that promote faster cross-bridge cycling. This possibility has never been addressed in asthma. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the expression of genes coding for SM contractile proteins is altered in asthmatic airways and contributes to their increased Vmax. Methods: We quantified the expression of several genes that code for SM contractile proteins in mild allergic asthmatic and control human airway endobronchial biopsies. The function of these contractile proteins was tested using the in vitro motility assay. Measurements and Main Results: We observed an increased expression of the fast myosin heavy chain isoform, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase in patients with asthma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of these genes at the protein level. To address the functional significance of this overexpression, we purified tracheal myosin from the hyperresponsive Fisher rats, which also overexpress the fast myosin heavy chain isoform as compared with the normoresponsive Lewis rats, and found a faster rate of actin filament propulsion. Conversely, transgelin did not alter the rate of actin filament propulsion. Conclusions: Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. PMID:19011151

  3. Myosin light chains: Teaching old dogs new tricks

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2014-01-01

    The myosin holoenzyme is a multimeric protein complex consisting of heavy chains and light chains. Myosin light chains are calmodulin family members which are crucially involved in the mechanoenzymatic function of the myosin holoenzyme. This review examines the diversity of light chains within the myosin superfamily, discusses interactions between the light chain and the myosin heavy chain as well as regulatory and structural functions of the light chain as a subunit of the myosin holoenzyme. It covers aspects of the myosin light chain in the localization of the myosin holoenzyme, protein-protein interactions and light chain binding to non-myosin binding partners. Finally, this review challenges the dogma that myosin regulatory and essential light chain exclusively associate with conventional myosin heavy chains while unconventional myosin heavy chains usually associate with calmodulin. PMID:26155737

  4. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant

  5. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  6. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load

    PubMed Central

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin’s ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31–41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  7. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain controls myosin head conformation in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-08-01

    The effect of phosphorylation on the conformation of the regulatory light chain (cRLC) region of myosin in ventricular trabeculae from rat heart was determined by polarized fluorescence from thiophosphorylated cRLCs labelled with bifunctional sulforhodamine (BSR). Less than 5% of cRLCs were endogenously phosphorylated in this preparation, and similarly low values of basal cRLC phosphorylation were measured in fresh intact ventricle from both rat and mouse hearts. BSR-labelled cRLCs were thiophosphorylated by a recombinant fragment of human cardiac myosin light chain kinase, which was shown to phosphorylate cRLCs specifically at serine 15 in a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent manner, both in vitro and in situ. The BSR-cRLCs were exchanged into demembranated trabeculae, and polarized fluorescence intensities measured for each BSR-cRLC in relaxation, active isometric contraction and rigor were combined with RLC crystal structures to calculate the orientation distribution of the C-lobe of the cRLC in each state. Only two of the four C-lobe orientation populations seen during relaxation and active isometric contraction in the unphosphorylated state were present after cRLC phosphorylation. Thus cRLC phosphorylation alters the equilibrium between defined conformations of the cRLC regions of the myosin heads, rather than simply disordering the heads as assumed previously. cRLC phosphorylation also changes the orientation of the cRLC C-lobe in rigor conditions, showing that the orientation of this part of the myosin head is determined by its interaction with the thick filament even when the head is strongly bound to actin. These results suggest that cRLC phosphorylation controls the contractility of the heart by modulating the interaction of the cRLC region of the myosin heads with the thick filament backbone. PMID:26057075

  8. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain controls myosin head conformation in cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phosphorylation on the conformation of the regulatory light chain (cRLC) region of myosin in ventricular trabeculae from rat heart was determined by polarized fluorescence from thiophosphorylated cRLCs labelled with bifunctional sulforhodamine (BSR). Less than 5% of cRLCs were endogenously phosphorylated in this preparation, and similarly low values of basal cRLC phosphorylation were measured in fresh intact ventricle from both rat and mouse hearts. BSR-labelled cRLCs were thiophosphorylated by a recombinant fragment of human cardiac myosin light chain kinase, which was shown to phosphorylate cRLCs specifically at serine 15 in a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent manner, both in vitro and in situ. The BSR-cRLCs were exchanged into demembranated trabeculae, and polarized fluorescence intensities measured for each BSR-cRLC in relaxation, active isometric contraction and rigor were combined with RLC crystal structures to calculate the orientation distribution of the C-lobe of the cRLC in each state. Only two of the four C-lobe orientation populations seen during relaxation and active isometric contraction in the unphosphorylated state were present after cRLC phosphorylation. Thus cRLC phosphorylation alters the equilibrium between defined conformations of the cRLC regions of the myosin heads, rather than simply disordering the heads as assumed previously. cRLC phosphorylation also changes the orientation of the cRLC C-lobe in rigor conditions, showing that the orientation of this part of the myosin head is determined by its interaction with the thick filament even when the head is strongly bound to actin. These results suggest that cRLC phosphorylation controls the contractility of the heart by modulating the interaction of the cRLC region of the myosin heads with the thick filament backbone. PMID:26057075

  9. Effects of myosin light chain phosphorylation on length-dependent myosin kinetics in skinned rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Pulcastro, Hannah C; Awinda, Peter O; Breithaupt, Jason J; Tanner, Bertrand C W

    2016-07-01

    Myosin force production is Ca(2+)-regulated by thin-filament proteins and sarcomere length, which together determine the number of cross-bridge interactions throughout a heartbeat. Ventricular myosin regulatory light chain-2 (RLC) binds to the neck of myosin and modulates contraction via its phosphorylation state. Previous studies reported regional variations in RLC phosphorylation across the left ventricle wall, suggesting that RLC phosphorylation could alter myosin behavior throughout the heart. We found that RLC phosphorylation varied across the left ventricle wall and that RLC phosphorylation was greater in the right vs. left ventricle. We also assessed functional consequences of RLC phosphorylation on Ca(2+)-regulated contractility as sarcomere length varied in skinned rat papillary muscle strips. Increases in RLC phosphorylation and sarcomere length both led to increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity of the force-pCa relationship, and both slowed cross-bridge detachment rate. RLC-phosphorylation slowed cross-bridge rates of MgADP release (∼30%) and MgATP binding (∼50%) at 1.9 μm sarcomere length, whereas RLC phosphorylation only slowed cross-bridge MgATP binding rate (∼55%) at 2.2 μm sarcomere length. These findings suggest that RLC phosphorylation influences cross-bridge kinetics differently as sarcomere length varies and support the idea that RLC phosphorylation could vary throughout the heart to meet different contractile demands between the left and right ventricles. PMID:26763941

  10. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Regulates Cell Migration in a Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation-independent Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Tao, Tao; Wen, Cheng; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Gao, Yun-Qian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hua-Qun; Ye, An-Pei; Peng, Ya-Jing; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has long been implicated in the myosin phosphorylation and force generation required for cell migration. Here, we surprisingly found that the deletion of MLCK resulted in fast cell migration, enhanced protrusion formation, and no alteration of myosin light chain phosphorylation. The mutant cells showed reduced membrane tether force and fewer membrane F-actin filaments. This phenotype was rescued by either kinase-dead MLCK or five-DFRXXL motif, a MLCK fragment with potent F-actin-binding activity. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that the absence of MLCK led to attenuated formation of transmembrane complexes, including myosin II, integrins and fibronectin. We suggest that MLCK is not required for myosin phosphorylation in a migrating cell. A critical role of MLCK in cell migration involves regulating the cell membrane tension and protrusion necessary for migration, thereby stabilizing the membrane skeleton through F-actin-binding activity. This finding sheds light on a novel regulatory mechanism of protrusion during cell migration. PMID:25122766

  11. Effect of a myosin regulatory light chain mutation K104E on actin-myosin interactions.

    PubMed

    Duggal, D; Nagwekar, J; Rich, R; Huang, W; Midde, K; Fudala, R; Das, H; Gryczynski, I; Szczesna-Cordary, D; Borejdo, J

    2015-05-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown; this study aims at revealing how disruptions in actin-myosin interactions can play a role in this disorder. Cross-bridge (XB) kinetics and the degree of order were examined in contracting myofibrils from the ex vivo left ventricles of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing FHC regulatory light chain (RLC) mutation K104E. Because the degree of order and the kinetics are best studied when an individual XB makes a significant contribution to the overall signal, the number of observed XBs in an ex vivo ventricle was minimized to ∼20. Autofluorescence and photobleaching were minimized by labeling the myosin lever arm with a relatively long-lived red-emitting dye containing a chromophore system encapsulated in a cyclic macromolecule. Mutated XBs were significantly better ordered during steady-state contraction and during rigor, but the mutation had no effect on the degree of order in relaxed myofibrils. The K104E mutation increased the rate of XB binding to thin filaments and the rate of execution of the power stroke. The stopped-flow experiments revealed a significantly faster observed dissociation rate in Tg-K104E vs. Tg-wild-type (WT) myosin and a smaller second-order ATP-binding rate for the K104E compared with WT myosin. Collectively, our data indicate that the mutation-induced changes in the interaction of myosin with actin during the contraction-relaxation cycle may contribute to altered contractility and the development of FHC. PMID:25770245

  12. Masticatory (;superfast') myosin heavy chain and embryonic/atrial myosin light chain 1 in rodent jaw-closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Chen, Qun; Zhu, Ling; Quan, Ning

    2009-08-01

    Masticatory myosin is widely expressed among several vertebrate classes. Generally, the expression of masticatory myosin has been associated with high bite force for a carnivorous feeding style (including capturing/restraining live prey), breaking down tough plant material and defensive biting in different species. Masticatory myosin expression in the largest mammalian order, Rodentia, has not been reported. Several members of Rodentia consume large numbers of tree nuts that are encased in very hard shells, presumably requiring large forces to access the nutmeat. We, therefore, tested whether some rodent species express masticatory myosin in jaw-closing muscles. Myosin isoform expression in six Sciuridae species was examined, using protein gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and RNA analysis. The results indicate that masticatory myosin is expressed in some Sciuridae species but not in other closely related species with similar diets but having different nut-opening strategies. We also discovered that the myosin light chain 1 isoform associated with masticatory myosin heavy chain, in the same four Sciuridae species, is the embryonic/atrial isoform. We conclude that rodent speciation did not completely eliminate masticatory myosin and that its persistent expression in some rodent species might be related to not only diet but also to feeding style. PMID:19648394

  13. Four things to know about myosin light chains as reporters for non-muscle myosin-2 dynamics in live cells.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between non-muscle myosins-2 and filamentous actin results in cytoplasmic contractility which is essential for eukaryotic life. Concomitantly, there is tremendous interest in elucidating the physiological function and temporal localization of non-muscle myosin-2 in cells. A commonly used method to study the function and localization of non-muscle myosin-2 is to overexpress a fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged version of the regulatory light chain (RLC) which binds to the myosin-2 heavy chain by mass action. Caveats about this approach include findings from recent studies indicating that the RLC does not bind exclusively to the non-muscle myosin-2 heavy chain. Rather, it can also associate with the myosin heavy chains of several other classes as well as other targets than myosin. In addition, the presence of the FP moiety may compromise myosin's enzymatic and mechanical performance. This and other factors to be discussed in this commentary raise questions about the possible complications in using FP-RLC as a marker for the dynamic localization and regulatory aspects of non-muscle myosin-2 motor functions in cell biological experiments. PMID:25712372

  14. Stretch activates myosin light chain kinase in arterial smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Barany, K.; Rokolya, A.; Barany, M. )

    1990-11-30

    Stretching of porcine carotid arterial muscle increased the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain from 0.23 to 0.68 mol (32P)phosphate/mol light chain, whereas stretching of phorbol dibutyrate treated muscle increased the phosphorylation from 0.30 to 0.91 mol/mol. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping was used to identify the enzyme involved in the stretch-induced phosphorylation. Quantitation of the (32P)phosphate content of the peptides revealed considerable light chain phosphorylation by protein kinase C only in the phorbol dibutyrate treated arterial muscle, whereas most of the light chain phosphorylation was attributable to myosin light chain kinase. Upon stretch of either the untreated or treated muscle, the total increment in (32P)phosphate incorporation into the light chain could be accounted for by peptides characteristic for myosin light chain kinase catalyzed phosphorylation, demonstrating that the stretch-induced phosphorylation is caused by this enzyme exclusively.

  15. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity. PMID:25733667

  16. N-Terminus of Cardiac Myosin Essential Light Chain Modulates Myosin Step-Size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Burghardt, Thomas P

    2016-01-12

    Muscle myosin cyclically hydrolyzes ATP to translate actin. Ventricular cardiac myosin (βmys) moves actin with three distinct unitary step-sizes resulting from its lever-arm rotation and with step-frequencies that are modulated in a myosin regulation mechanism. The lever-arm associated essential light chain (vELC) binds actin by its 43 residue N-terminal extension. Unitary steps were proposed to involve the vELC N-terminal extension with the 8 nm step engaging the vELC/actin bond facilitating an extra ∼19 degrees of lever-arm rotation while the predominant 5 nm step forgoes vELC/actin binding. A minor 3 nm step is the unlikely conversion of the completed 5 to the 8 nm step. This hypothesis was tested using a 17 residue N-terminal truncated vELC in porcine βmys (Δ17βmys) and a 43 residue N-terminal truncated human vELC expressed in transgenic mouse heart (Δ43αmys). Step-size and step-frequency were measured using the Qdot motility assay. Both Δ17βmys and Δ43αmys had significantly increased 5 nm step-frequency and coincident loss in the 8 nm step-frequency compared to native proteins suggesting the vELC/actin interaction drives step-size preference. Step-size and step-frequency probability densities depend on the relative fraction of truncated vELC and relate linearly to pure myosin species concentrations in a mixture containing native vELC homodimer, two truncated vELCs in the modified homodimer, and one native and one truncated vELC in the heterodimer. Step-size and step-frequency, measured for native homodimer and at two or more known relative fractions of truncated vELC, are surmised for each pure species by using a new analytical method. PMID:26671638

  17. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  18. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  19. A quasi-elastic light scattering study of smooth muscle myosin in the presence of ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X; Blank, P S; Carlson, F D

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrodynamic properties of turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin in solution using quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS). The effects of ionic strength (0.05-0.5 M KCl) and light chain phosphorylation on the conformational transition of myosin were examined in the presence of ATP at 20 degrees C. Cumulant analysis and light scattering models were used to describe the myosin system in solution. A nonlinear least squares fitting procedure was used to determine the model that best fits the data. The conformational transition of the myosin monomer from a folded form to an extended form was clearly demonstrated in a salt concentration range of 0.15-0.3 M KCl. Light chain phosphorylation regulates the transition and promotes unfolding of the myosin. These results agree with the findings obtained using sedimentation velocity and electron microscopy (Onishi and Wakabayashi, 1982; Trybus et al., 1982; Trybus and Lowey, 1984). In addition, we present evidence for polymeric myosin coexisting with the two monomeric myosin species over a salt concentration range from 0.05 to 0.5 M KCl. The size of the polymeric myosin varied with salt concentration. This observation supports the hypothesis that, in solution, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the two conformations of myosin monomer and filaments. PMID:1420864

  20. Involvement of myosin light-chain kinase in endothelial cell retraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wysolmerski, R.B.; Lagunoff, D. )

    1990-01-01

    Permeabilized bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers were used to investigate the mechanism of endothelial cell retraction. Postconfluent endothelial cells permeabilized with saponin retracted upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}. Retraction was accompanied by thiophosphorylation of 19,000-Da myosin light chains when adenosine 5'-(gamma-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate was included in the medium. Both retraction and thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains exhibited a graded quantitative dependence on Ca{sup 2+}. When permeabilized monolayers were extracted in buffer D containing 100 mM KCl and 30 mM MgCl2 for 30 min, the cells failed to retract upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}, and no thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains occurred. The ability both to retract and to thiophosphorylate myosin light chains was restored by the addition to the permeabilized, extracted cells of myosin light-chain kinase and calmodulin together but not by either alone. These studies indicate that endothelial cell retraction, as does smooth muscle contraction, depends on myosin light-chain kinase phosphorylation of myosin light chains.

  1. Solution NMR assignment of the heavy chain complex of the human cardiac myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Rostkova, Elena; Gautel, Mathias; Pfuhl, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory light chain (RLC) of striated and cardiac muscle myosin plays a complex role in muscle function and regulation. Together with the essential light chain it provides stability to the lever arm, which is essential for force generation. Furthermore, phosphorylation and interaction with myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) suggest an additional role in the regulation of muscle contraction. The former is of particular importance in the heart, where RLC phosphorylation appears to be correlated to the wringing motion of heart contraction. To address these questions and because of a lack of mammalian RLC structures, we initiated an NMR study of the human cardiac regulatory myosin light chain. PMID:24414277

  2. Regulation of Myosin II Dynamics by Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of Its Light Chain in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II, an actin-based motor protein, plays an essential role in actin cytoskeleton organization and cellular motility. Although phosphorylation of its regulatory light chain (MRLC) is known to be involved in myosin II filament assembly and motor activity in vitro, it remains unclear exactly how MRLC phosphorylation regulates myosin II dynamics in vivo. We established clones of Madin Darby canine kidney II epithelial cells expressing MRLC-enhanced green fluorescent protein or its mutants. Time-lapse imaging revealed that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are required for proper dynamics of myosin II. Inhibitors affecting myosin phosphorylation and MRLC mutants indicated that monophosphorylation of MRLC is required and sufficient for maintenance of stress fibers. Diphosphorylated MRLC stabilized myosin II filaments and was distributed locally in regions of stress fibers where contraction occurs, suggesting that diphosphorylation is involved in the spatial regulation of myosin II assembly and contraction. We further found that myosin phosphatase or Zipper-interacting protein kinase localizes to stress fibers depending on the activity of myosin II ATPase. PMID:17151359

  3. Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Brizendine, Richard K.; Carter, Michael S.; Alcala, Diego B.; Brown, Avery E.; Chattin, Amy M.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Walsh, Michael P.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Baker, Josh E.

    2015-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot–labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto–myosin and MLCK–myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting “stuck” on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle. PMID:26415568

  4. The C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 of the regulatory light chain is essential for myosin regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, T; Kendrick-Jones, J

    1993-01-01

    In vertebrate smooth/non-muscle myosins, phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains by a specific calmodulin-activated kinase controls both myosin head interaction with actin and assembly of the myosin into filaments. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal domain of the regulatory light chain is crucial for the regulation of these myosin functions. To further dissect the role of this region of the light chain in myosin regulation, a series of chicken smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain mutants has been constructed with successive C-terminal deletions. These mutants were synthesized in Escherichia coli and analysed by their ability to restore Ca2+ regulation to scallop myosin that had been stripped of its native regulatory light chains ('desensitized'). The results show that regulatory light chain mutants with deletions in the C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 were able to reform the regulatory Ca2+ binding site on the scallop myosin head, but had lost the ability to suppress scallop myosin filament assembly and interaction with actin in the absence of Ca2+. Further deletions in the C-terminal domain led to a gradual loss of ability to restore the regulatory Ca2+ binding site. Thus, the regions in the C-terminal half of the regulatory light chain responsible for myosin regulation can be identified. Images PMID:8223496

  5. Sequence analysis of the myosin regulatory light chain gene of the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila.

    PubMed

    Ravaux, J; Hassanin, A; Deutsch, J; Gaill, F; Markmann-Mulisch, U

    2001-01-24

    We have isolated and characterized a cDNA (DNA complementary to RNA) clone (Rf69) from the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila. The cDNA insert consists of 1169 base pairs. The aminoacid sequence deduced from the longest reading frame is 193 residues in length, and clearly characterized it as a myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC primary structure is described in relation to its function in muscle contraction. The comparison with other RLCs suggested that Riftia myosin is probably regulated through its RLC either by phosphorylation like the vertebrate smooth muscle myosins, and/or by Ca2+-binding like the mollusk myosins. Riftia RLC possesses a N-terminal extension lacking in all other species besides the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Aminoacid sequence comparisons with a number of RLCs from vertebrates and invertebrates revealed a relatively high identity score (64%) between Riftia RLC and the homologous gene from Lumbricus. The relationships between the members of the myosin RLCs were examined by two phylogenetic methods, i.e. distance matrix and maximum parsimony. The resulting trees depict the grouping of the RLCs according to their role in myosin activity regulation. In all trees, Riftia RLC groups with RLCs that depend on Ca2+-binding for myosin activity regulation. PMID:11223252

  6. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  7. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  8. Skeletal muscle myosin light chains are essential for physiological speeds of shortening.

    PubMed

    Lowey, S; Waller, G S; Trybus, K M

    1993-09-30

    In muscle each myosin head contains a regulatory light chain (LC2) that is wrapped around the head/rod junction, and an alkali light chain that is distal to LC2 (ref. 1). The role of these light chains in vertebrate skeletal muscle myosin has remained obscure. Here we prepare heavy chains that are free of both light chains in order to determine by a motility assay whether the light chains are necessary for movement. We find that removal of light chains from myosin reduces the velocity of actin filaments from 8.8 microns s-1 to 0.8 microns s-1 without significantly decreasing the ATPase activity. Reconstitution of myosin with LC2 or alkali light chain increases filament velocity to intermediate rates, and readdition of both classes of light chains fully restores the original sliding velocity. We conclude that even though the light chains are not essential for enzymatic activity, light-chain/heavy-chain interactions play an important part in the conversion of chemical energy into movement. PMID:8413589

  9. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Brown, J. H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This result provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.

  10. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of T. gondii Motility Induces the Posttranslational Modification of Myosin Light Chain-1 and Inhibits Myosin Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Aoife T.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Carey, Kimberly L.; Catti, Federica; Warshaw, David M.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Ward, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that enters cells by a process of active penetration. Host cell penetration and parasite motility are driven by a myosin motor complex consisting of four known proteins: TgMyoA, an unconventional Class XIV myosin; TgMLC1, a myosin light chain; and two membrane-associated proteins, TgGAP45 and TgGAP50. Little is known about how the activity of the myosin motor complex is regulated. Here, we show that treatment of parasites with a recently identified small-molecule inhibitor of invasion and motility results in a rapid and irreversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of TgMLC1. While the precise nature of the TgMLC1 modification has not yet been established, it was mapped to the peptide Val46-Arg59. To determine if the TgMLC1 modification is responsible for the motility defect observed in parasites after compound treatment, the activity of myosin motor complexes from control and compound-treated parasites was compared in an in vitro motility assay. TgMyoA motor complexes containing the modified TgMLC1 showed significantly decreased motor activity compared to control complexes. This change in motor activity likely accounts for the motility defects seen in the parasites after compound treatment and provides the first evidence, in any species, that the mechanical activity of Class XIV myosins can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to their associated light chains. PMID:20084115

  11. Myosin light chain kinase facilitates endocytosis of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal boutons.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaomei; Yue, Hai-Yuan; Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-07-01

    At nerve terminals, endocytosis efficiently recycles vesicle membrane to maintain synaptic transmission under different levels of neuronal activity. Ca(2+) and its downstream signal pathways are critical for the activity-dependent regulation of endocytosis. An activity- and Ca(2+) -dependent kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been reported to regulate vesicle mobilization, vesicle cycling, and motility in different synapses, but whether it has a general contribution to regulation of endocytosis at nerve terminals remains unknown. We investigated this issue at rat hippocampal boutons by imaging vesicle endocytosis as the real-time retrieval of vesicular synaptophysin tagged with a pH-sensitive green fluorescence protein. We found that endocytosis induced by 200 action potentials (5-40 Hz) was slowed by acute inhibition of MLCK and down-regulation of MLCK with RNA interference, while the total amount of vesicle exocytosis and somatic Ca(2+) channel current did not change with MLCK down-regulation. Acute inhibition of myosin II similarly impaired endocytosis. Furthermore, down-regulation of MLCK prevented depolarization-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain, an effect shared by blockers of Ca(2+) channels and calmodulin. These results suggest that MLCK facilitates vesicle endocytosis through activity-dependent phosphorylation of myosin downstream of Ca(2+) /calmodulin, probably as a widely existing mechanism among synapses. Our study suggests that MLCK is an important activity-dependent regulator of vesicle recycling in hippocampal neurons, which are critical for learning and memory. The kinetics of vesicle membrane endocytosis at nerve terminals has long been known to depend on activity and Ca(2+) . This study provides evidence suggesting that myosin light chain kinase increases endocytosis efficiency at hippocampal neurons by mediating Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of myosin. The authors propose that this signal cascade may serve as

  12. Purification, Characterization and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in close species. In this study, MLC with the molecular mass of 18kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle fibrils. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the...

  13. Regulation of scallop myosin by the regulatory light chain depends on a single glycine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Jancso, A; Szent-Györgyi, A G

    1994-01-01

    Specific Ca2+ binding and Ca2+ activation of ATPase activity in scallop myosin require a regulatory light chain (RLC) from regulated (molluscan or vertebrate smooth) myosin; hybrids containing vertebrate skeletal RLCs do not bind Ca2+ and their ATPase activity is inhibited. Chimeras between scallop and chicken skeletal RLCs restore Ca2+ sensitivity to RLC-free myosin provided that residues 81-117 are derived from scallop. Six mutants (R90M, A94K, D98P, N105K, M116Q, and G117C) were generated by replacing amino acids of the scallop RLC with the corresponding skeletal RLC residues in positions conserved in either regulated or nonregulated myosins. Ca2+ binding was abolished by a G117C and a G117A mutation; however, these mutants have a decreased affinity for the heavy chain. None of the other mutations affected RLC function. Replacement of the respective cysteine with glycine in the skeletal RLC has markedly changed the regulatory properties of the molecule. The single cysteine to glycine mutation conferred to this light chain the ability to restore Ca2+ binding and regulated ATPase activity, although Ca2+ activation of the actin-activated ATPase was lower than with scallop RLC. The presence of amino acids other than glycine at this position in vertebrate skeletal myosin RLCs may explain why these are not fully functional in the scallop system. The results are in agreement with x-ray crystallography data showing the central role of G117 in stabilizing the Ca(2+)-binding site of scallop myosin. Images PMID:8090720

  14. Tumor Stiffness Is Unrelated to Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Madeline; Greene, Madelyne; Chernaya, Olga; Hu, Wen-Yang; Chew, Teng-Leong; Mahmud, Nadim; Kadkol, Shrihari S.; Glover, Sarah; Prins, Gail; Strakova, Zuzana; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2013-01-01

    Many tumors are stiffer than their surrounding tissue. This increase in stiffness has been attributed, in part, to a Rho-dependent elevation of myosin II light chain phosphorylation. To characterize this mechanism further, we studied myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), the main enzyme that phosphorylates myosin II light chains. We anticipated that increases in MLCK expression and activity would contribute to the increased stiffness of cancer cells. However, we find that MLCK mRNA and protein levels are substantially less in cancer cells and tissues than in normal cells. Consistent with this observation, cancer cells contract 3D collagen matrices much more slowly than normal cells. Interestingly, inhibiting MLCK or Rho kinase did not affect the 3D gel contractions while blebbistatin partially and cytochalasin D maximally inhibited contractions. Live cell imaging of cells in collagen gels showed that cytochalasin D inhibited filopodia-like projections that formed between cells while a MLCK inhibitor had no effect on these projections. These data suggest that myosin II phosphorylation is dispensable in regulating the mechanical properties of tumors. PMID:24224004

  15. Molecular mechanisms of cardiomyopathy phenotypes associated with myosin light chain mutations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-12-01

    We discuss here the potential mechanisms of action associated with hypertrophic (HCM) or dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathy causing mutations in the myosin regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC) light chains. Specifically, we focus on four HCM mutations: RLC-A13T, RLC-K104E, ELC-A57G and ELC-M173V, and one DCM RLC-D94A mutation shown by population studies to cause different cardiomyopathy phenotypes in humans. Our studies indicate that RLC and ELC mutations lead to heart disease through different mechanisms with RLC mutations triggering alterations of the secondary structure of the RLC which further affect the structure and function of the lever arm domain and impose changes in the cross bridge cycling rates and myosin force generation ability. The ELC mutations exert their detrimental effects through changes in the interaction of the N-terminus of ELC with actin altering the cross talk between the thick and thin filaments and ultimately resulting in an altered force-pCa relationship. We also discuss the effect of mutations on myosin light chain phosphorylation. Exogenous myosin light chain phosphorylation and/or pseudo-phosphorylation were explored as potential rescue tools to treat hypertrophy-related cardiac phenotypes. PMID:26385864

  16. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  17. Distinct tissue distributions and subcellular localizations of differently phosphorylated forms of the myosin regulatory light chain in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Ward, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (myosin hereafter) has well-established roles in generating contractile force on actin filaments during morphogenetic processes in all metazoans. Myosin activation is regulated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC, encoded by spaghettisquash or sqh in Drosophila) first on Ser21 and subsequently on Thr20. These phosphorylation events are positively controlled by a variety of kinases including myosin light chain kinase, Rho kinase, citron kinase, and AMP kinase and are negatively regulated by myosin phosphatase. The activation of myosin is thus highly regulated and likely developmentally controlled. In order to monitor the activity of myosin during development, we have generated antibodies against the monophosphorylated (Sqh1P) and diphosphorylated (Sqh2P) forms of Sqh. We first show that the antibodies are highly specific. We then used these antibodies to monitor myosin activation in wild type Drosophila tissues. Interestingly, Sqh1P and Sqh2P show distinct patterns of expression in embryos. Sqh1P is expressed nearly ubiquitously and outlines cells consistent with a junctional localization, whereas Sqh2P is strongly expressed on the apical surfaces and in filopodia of tissues undergoing extensive cell shape change or cell movements including the invaginating fore- and hindgut, the invaginating tracheal system, the dorsal pouch and the dorsal most row of epidermal (DME) cells during dorsal closure. In imaginal discs, Sqh1P predominantly localizes in the adherens junction, whereas Sqh2P locates to the apical domain. These antibodies thus have the potential to be very useful in monitoring myosin activation for functional studies of morphogenesis in Drosophila. PMID:20920606

  18. Potentiation in mouse lumbrical muscle without myosin light chain phosphorylation: is resting calcium responsible?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian C; Gittings, William; Huang, Jian; McMillan, Elliott M; Quadrilatero, Joe; Tupling, A Russell; Vandenboom, Rene

    2013-03-01

    The increase in isometric twitch force observed in fast-twitch rodent muscles during or after activity, known universally as potentiation, is normally associated with myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation. Interestingly, fast muscles from mice devoid of detectable skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) retain a reduced ability to potentiate twitch force, indicating the presence of a secondary origin for this characteristic feature of the fast muscle phenotype. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in intracellular cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) after a potentiating stimulus in mouse lumbrical muscle (37°C). Lumbricals were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators fura-2 or furaptra to detect changes in resting and peak, respectively, intracellular Ca(2+) levels caused by 2.5 s of 20-Hz stimulation. Although this protocol produced an immediate increase in twitch force of 17 ± 3% (all data are n = 10) (P < 0.01), this potentiation dissipated quickly and was absent 30 s afterward. Fura-2 fluorescence signals at rest were increased by 11.1 ± 1.3% (P < 0.01) during potentiation, indicating a significant increase in resting [Ca(2+)](i). Interestingly, furaptra signals showed no change to either the amplitude or the duration of the intracellular Ca(2+) transients (ICTs) that triggered potentiated twitches during this time (P < 0.50). Immunofluorescence work showed that 77% of lumbrical fibers expressed myosin heavy chain isoform IIx and/or IIb, but with low expression of skMLCK and high expression of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 2. As a result, lumbrical muscles displayed no detectable RLC phosphorylation either at rest or after stimulation. We conclude that stimulation-induced elevations in resting [Ca(2+)](i), in the absence of change in the ICT, are responsible for a small-magnitude, short-lived potentiation of isometric twitch force. If operative in other fast-twitch muscles, this mechanism may

  19. Estradiol modulates myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation and contractility in skeletal muscle of female mice.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shaojuan; Collins, Brittany C; Colson, Brett A; Kararigas, Georgios; Lowe, Dawn A

    2016-05-01

    Impairment of skeletal muscle function has been associated with changes in ovarian hormones, especially estradiol. To elucidate mechanisms of estradiol on skeletal muscle strength, the hormone's effects on phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (pRLC) and muscle contractility were investigated, hypothesizing an estradiol-specific beneficial impact. In a skeletal muscle cell line, C2C12, pRLC was increased by 17β-estradiol (E2) in a concentration-dependent manner. In skeletal muscles of C57BL/6 mice that were E2 deficient via ovariectomy (OVX), pRLC was lower than that from ovary-intact, sham-operated mice (Sham). The reduced pRLC in OVX muscle was reversed by in vivo E2 treatment. Posttetanic potentiation (PTP) of muscle from OVX mice was low compared with that from Sham mice, and this decrement was reversed by acute E2 treatment, demonstrating physiological consequence. Western blot of those muscles revealed that low PTP corresponded with low pRLC and higher PTP with greater pRLC. We aimed to elucidate signaling pathways affecting E2-mediated pRLC using a kinase inhibitor library and C2C12 cells as well as a specific myosin light chain kinase inhibitor in muscles. PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and CamKII were identified as candidate kinases sensitive to E2 in terms of phosphorylating RLC. Applying siRNA strategy in C2C12 cells, pRLC triggered by E2 was found to be mediated by estrogen receptor-β and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor. Together, these results provide evidence that E2 modulates myosin pRLC in skeletal muscle and is one mechanism by which this hormone can affect muscle contractility in females. PMID:26956186

  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of myosin II essential light chains of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites regulates their motility.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Moreno, Raúl; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy-Andrés; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Morales, Fernando O; Meza, Isaura

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites dwell in the human intestine as comensals although under still unclear circumstances become invasive and destroy the host tissues. For these activities, trophozoites relay on remarkable motility provided by the cytoskeleton organization. Amebic actin and some of its actin-associated proteins are well known, while components of the myosin II molecule, although predicted from the E. histolytica genome, need biochemical and functional characterization. Recently, an amebic essential light myosin II chain, named EhMLCI, was identified and reported to be phosphorylated in tyrosines. The phosphorylated form of the protein was associated with the soluble assembly incompetent conformation of the heavy myosin chains, while the non-phosphorylated protein was identified with filamentous heavy chains, organized in an assembly competent conformation. It was postulated that EhMLCI tyrosine phosphorylation could act as a negative regulator of myosin II activity by its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an expression vector containing an EhMLCI DNA sequence where two tyrosine residues, with strong probability of phosphorylation and fall within the single EF-hand domain that interacts with the N-terminus of myosin II heavy chains, were replaced by phenylalanines. Transfected trophozoites, expressing the mutant MutEhMLCI protein cannot process it, thereby not incorporated into the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles required for myosin II activity, results in motility defective trophozoites. PMID:27318258

  1. The role of the N-terminus of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jones, Michelle; Guzman, Georgianna; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kerrick, W. Glenn L.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Summary To study the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by the myosin essential light chain (ELC) and the physiological significance of its N-terminal extension, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice partially replacing the endogenous mouse ventricular ELC with either the human ventricular ELC wild type (Tg-WT) or its 43 amino acid N-terminal truncation mutant (Tg-Δ43) in the murine hearts. The mutant protein is similar in sequence to the short ELC variant present in skeletal muscle and the ELC protein distribution in Tg-Δ43 ventricles resembles that of fast skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle preparations from Tg-Δ43 mice demonstrate reduced force per cross-sectional area of muscle, which is likely caused by a reduced number of force generating myosin cross-bridges and/or by decreased force per cross-bridge. As the mice grow older, the contractile force per cross-sectional area further decreases in Tg-Δ43 mice and the mutant hearts develop a phenotype of non-pathologic hypertrophy while still maintaining normal cardiac performance. The myocardium of older Tg-Δ43 mice also exhibits reduced myosin content. Our results suggest that the role of the N-terminal ELC extension is to maintain the integrity of myosin and to modulate force generation by decreasing myosin neck region compliance and promoting strong cross-bridge formation and/or by enhancing myosin attachment to actin. PMID:19361417

  2. Myosin Light-Chain Kinase Is Necessary for Membrane Homeostasis in Cochlear Inner Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Fan, Chi; Peng, Ya-Jing; Chen, Jie; He, Wei-Qi; Guo, Shi-Ying; Zuo, Jian; Gao, Xia; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The structural homeostasis of the cochlear hair cell membrane is critical for all aspects of sensory transduction, but the regulation of its maintenance is not well understood. In this report, we analyzed the cochlear hair cells of mice with specific deletion of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in inner hair cells. MLCK-deficient mice showed impaired hearing, with a 5- to 14-dB rise in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds to clicks and tones of different frequencies and a significant decrease in the amplitude of the ABR waves. The mutant inner hair cells produced several ball-like structures around the hair bundles in vivo, indicating impaired membrane stability. Inner hair cells isolated from the knockout mice consistently displayed less resistance to hypoosmotic solution and less membrane F-actin. Myosin light-chain phosphorylation was also reduced in the mutated inner hair cells. Our results suggest that MLCK is necessary for maintaining the membrane stability of inner hair cells. PMID:22485190

  3. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced myosin light chain 1 phosphorylation increases its degradation by matrix metalloproteinase-2

    PubMed Central

    Cadete, Virgilio J. J.; Sawicka, Jolanta; Jaswal, Jagdip; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Schulz, Richard; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Sawicki, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Degradation of myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has been established. However, the exact mechanisms controlling this process remain unknown. I/R increases the phosphorylation of MLC1, but the consequences of this modification are not known. We hypothesized that phosphorylation of MLC1 plays an important role in its degradation by MMP-2. To examine this, isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 20 min global ischemia followed by 30 min of aerobic reperfusion. I/R increased phosphorylation of MLC1 (as measured by mass spectrometry). If hearts were subjected to I/R in the presence of ML-7 (a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor) or doxycycline (a MMP inhibitor) an improved recovery of contractile function was seen compared to aerobic hearts and MLC1 was protected from degradation. Enzyme kinetic studies revealed an increased affinity of MMP-2 for the phosphorylated form of MLC1 compared to non-phosphorylated MLC1. We conclude that MLC1 phosphorylation is important mechanism controlling the intracellular action of MMP-2 and promoting the degradation of MLC1. These results further support previous findings implicating posttranslational modifications of contractile proteins as a key factor in the pathology of cardiac dysfunction during and following ischemia. PMID:22564771

  4. Planarian myosin essential light chain is involved in the formation of brain lateral branches during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuying; Chen, Xuhui; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhou, Luming; Pang, Qiuxiang; Mao, Bingyu; Zhao, Bosheng

    2015-08-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structure component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, however, the functions in the central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarian Dugesia japonica has revealed fundamental mechanisms and unique aspects of neuroscience and neuroregeneration. In this study, the cDNA DjElc, encoding a planarian essential light chain of myosin, was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It encodes a deduced protein with highly conserved functionally domains EF-Hand and Ca(2+) binding sites that shares significant similarity with other members of ELC. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that DjElc expressed in CNS during embryonic development and regeneration of adult planarians. Loss of function of DjElc by RNA interference during planarian regeneration inhibits brain lateral branches regeneration completely. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that DjElc is required for maintenance of neurons and neurite outgrowth, particularly for involving the brain later branch regeneration. PMID:25585662

  5. MODULAR STRUCTURE OF SMOOTH MUSCLE MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN KINASE: HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING AND FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS†

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Yasuko; Mabuchi, Katsuhide; Stafford, Walter F.; Grabarek, Zenon

    2010-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a calcium/calmodulin dependent enzyme that activates contraction of smooth muscle. The polypeptide chain of rabbit uterine smMLCK (Swiss-Prot: P29294) contains the catalytic/regulatory domain, three immunoglobulin related motifs (Ig), one fibronectin related motif (Fn3), a repetitive, proline rich segment (PEVK) and, at the N-terminus, a unique F-actin binding domain. We have evaluated the spatial arrangement of these domains in a recombinant 125 kDa full-length smMLCK and its two catalytically active C-terminal fragments (77 kDa, residues 461-1147 and 61 kDa, residues 461-1002). Electron microscopic images of smMLCK cross-linked to F-actin show particles at variable distance (11-55 nm) from the filament, suggesting that a well-structured C-terminal segment of smMLCK is connected to the actin-binding domain by a long, flexible tether. We have used structural homology and molecular dynamics methods to construct various all-atom representation models of smMLCK and its two fragments. The theoretical sedimentation coefficients computed with the program HYDROPRO were compared with those determined by sedimentation velocity. We found agreement between the predicted and observed sedimentation coefficients for models in which the independently folded catalytic domain, Fn3 and Ig domains are aligned consecutively on the long axis of the molecule. The PEVK segment is modeled as an extensible linker that enables smMLCK to remain bound to F-actin and simultaneously activate the myosin heads of adjacent myosin filaments at a distance of 40 nm or more. The structural properties of smMLCK may contribute to the elasticity of smooth muscle cells. PMID:20196616

  6. Essential myosin light chain as a target for caspase-3 in failing myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Alessandra; Weig, Hans-Jörg; Ott, Thomas; Seyfarth, Melchior; Holthoff, Hans-Peter; Grewe, Diana; Gillitzer, Angelika; Bott-Flügel, Lorenz; Schömig, Albert; Ungerer, Martin; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2002-01-01

    Programmed cell death involves the activation of caspase proteases that can mediate the cleavage of vital cytoskeletal proteins. We have recently reported that, in failing cardiac myocytes, caspase-3 activation is associated with a reduction in contractile performance. In this study we used a modified yeast two-hybrid system to screen for caspase-3 interacting proteins of the cardiac cytoskeleton. We identified ventricular essential myosin light chain (vMLC1) as a target for caspase-3. By sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis, a noncanonical cleavage site for caspase-3 was mapped to the C-terminal DFVE135G motif. We demonstrated that vMLC1 cleavage in failing myocardium in vivo is associated with a morphological disruption of the organized vMLC1 staining of sarcomeres, and with a reduction in myocyte contractile performance. Adenoviral gene transfer of the caspase inhibitor p35 in vivo prevented caspase-3 activation and vMLC1 cleavage, with positive impact on contractility. These data suggest that direct cleavage of vMLC1 by activated caspase-3 may contribute to depression of myocyte function by altering cross-bridge interaction between myosin and actin molecules. Therefore, activation of apoptotic pathways in the heart may lead to contractile dysfunction before cell death. PMID:12186978

  7. Myosin light chain phosphorylation during the contraction cycle of frog muscle.

    PubMed

    Bárány, K; Bárány, M; Gillis, J M; Kushmerick, M J

    1980-04-01

    Changes in the [32P]phosphate content of proteins during contraction were investigated with sartorius and semitendinosus muscles dissected from live frogs injected with [32P]orthophosphate. During a single tetanus, the only significant change was the increase in the [32P]phosphate content of the 18,000-dalton light chain of myosin. The extent of light chain phosphorylation was a function of stimulus duration and it amounted maximally to 0.35 mol of [32P]phosphate transferred per mol of light chain. The extent of phosphorylation in stimulated and stretched semitendinosus muscles, which were unable to produce active tension, was nearly identical to that in muscles stimulated at standard rest length, when the time of stimulation was over a half-second. Maximal light chain phosphorylation was also observed in muscles treated with caffein. These results provide evidence for the activation of the light chain kinase in the intact muscle through a process involving Ca2+. The phosphorylation of the light chain associated with tetanic stimulation was reversible. After short tetanuses, dephosphorylation of light chain approximately followed relaxation and after longer tetanuses, dephosphorylation lagged behind relaxation. The role of light chain phosphorylation was investigated in caffeine-treated and untreated muscles by measuring the Ca content of actin and the [32P]phosphate content of light chain. Phosphorylation of light chain protected the actin-bound Ca against removal by EDTA stoichiometrically. It is postulated that the physiological role of light chain phosphorylation is to increase the rate of combination of the cross-bridges with the actin filaments in the contracting phase of the mechanical activity. PMID:7364050

  8. Phosphorylation of Nonmuscle myosin II-A regulatory light chain resists Sendai virus fusion with host cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Provas; Saha, Shekhar; Chandra, Sunandini; Das, Alakesh; Dey, Sumit K.; Das, Mahua R.; Sen, Shamik; Sarkar, Debi P.; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2015-01-01

    Enveloped viruses enter host cells through membrane fusion and the cells in turn alter their shape to accommodate components of the virus. However, the role of nonmuscle myosin II of the actomyosin complex of host cells in membrane fusion is yet to be understood. Herein, we show that both (−) blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) and small interfering RNA markedly augment fusion of Sendai virus (SeV), with chinese hamster ovary cells and human hepatocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of RLC phosphorylation using inhibitors against ROCK, but not PKC and MRCK, or overexpression of phospho-dead mutant of RLC enhances membrane fusion. SeV infection increases cellular stiffness and myosin light chain phosphorylation at two hour post infection. Taken together, the present investigation strongly indicates that Rho-ROCK-NMII contractility signaling pathway may provide a physical barrier to host cells against viral fusion. PMID:25993465

  9. Phosphorylation of Nonmuscle myosin II-A regulatory light chain resists Sendai virus fusion with host cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Provas; Saha, Shekhar; Chandra, Sunandini; Das, Alakesh; Dey, Sumit K; Das, Mahua R; Sen, Shamik; Sarkar, Debi P; Jana, Siddhartha S

    2015-01-01

    Enveloped viruses enter host cells through membrane fusion and the cells in turn alter their shape to accommodate components of the virus. However, the role of nonmuscle myosin II of the actomyosin complex of host cells in membrane fusion is yet to be understood. Herein, we show that both (-) blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) and small interfering RNA markedly augment fusion of Sendai virus (SeV), with chinese hamster ovary cells and human hepatocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of RLC phosphorylation using inhibitors against ROCK, but not PKC and MRCK, or overexpression of phospho-dead mutant of RLC enhances membrane fusion. SeV infection increases cellular stiffness and myosin light chain phosphorylation at two hour post infection. Taken together, the present investigation strongly indicates that Rho-ROCK-NMII contractility signaling pathway may provide a physical barrier to host cells against viral fusion. PMID:25993465

  10. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-Δ43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing (∼1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I1,1/I1,0, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-Δ43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-Δ43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.—Muthu, P., Wang, L., Yuan, C.-C., Kazmierczak, K., Huang, W., Hernandez, O. M., Kawai, M., Irving, T. C., Szczesna-Cordary, D. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction. PMID:21885653

  11. Cardiac myosin light chain is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and -independent kinase activities.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Mahajan, Pravin; Knapp, Stefan; Barton, Hannah; Sweeney, H Lee; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2016-07-01

    The well-known, muscle-specific smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) (smMLCK) and skeletal muscle MLCK (skMLCK) are dedicated protein kinases regulated by an autoregulatory segment C terminus of the catalytic core that blocks myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binding and phosphorylation in the absence of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM). Although it is known that a more recently discovered cardiac MLCK (cMLCK) is necessary for normal RLC phosphorylation in vivo and physiological cardiac performance, information on cMLCK biochemical properties are limited. We find that a fourth uncharacterized MLCK, MLCK4, is also expressed in cardiac muscle with high catalytic domain sequence similarity with other MLCKs but lacking an autoinhibitory segment. Its crystal structure shows the catalytic domain in its active conformation with a short C-terminal "pseudoregulatory helix" that cannot inhibit catalysis as a result of missing linker regions. MLCK4 has only Ca(2+)/CaM-independent activity with comparable Vmax and Km values for different RLCs. In contrast, the Vmax value of cMLCK is orders of magnitude lower than those of the other three MLCK family members, whereas its Km (RLC and ATP) and KCaM values are similar. In contrast to smMLCK and skMLCK, which lack activity in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM, cMLCK has constitutive activity that is stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM. Potential contributions of autoregulatory segment to cMLCK activity were analyzed with chimeras of skMLCK and cMLCK. The constitutive, low activity of cMLCK appears to be intrinsic to its catalytic core structure rather than an autoinhibitory segment. Thus, RLC phosphorylation in cardiac muscle may be regulated by two different protein kinases with distinct biochemical regulatory properties. PMID:27325775

  12. Novel familial dilated cardiomyopathy mutation in MYL2 affects the structure and function of myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Morales, Ana; McBride, Kim L; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Hershberger, Ray E; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-06-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and diminished contractile function. Here we describe a novel DCM mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), in which aspartic acid at position 94 is replaced by alanine (D94A). The mutation was identified by exome sequencing of three adult first-degree relatives who met formal criteria for idiopathic DCM. To obtain insight into the functional significance of this pathogenic MYL2 variant, we cloned and purified the human ventricular RLC wild-type (WT) and D94A mutant proteins, and performed in vitro experiments using RLC-mutant or WT-reconstituted porcine cardiac preparations. The mutation induced a reduction in the α-helical content of the RLC, and imposed intra-molecular rearrangements. The phosphorylation of RLC by Ca²⁺/calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase was not affected by D94A. The mutation was seen to impair binding of RLC to the myosin heavy chain, and its incorporation into RLC-depleted porcine myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of mutant-reconstituted porcine cardiac myosin was significantly higher compared with ATPase of wild-type. No changes in the myofibrillar ATPase-pCa relationship were observed in wild-type- or D94A-reconstituted preparations. Measurements of contractile force showed a slightly reduced maximal tension per cross-section of muscle, with no change in the calcium sensitivity of force in D94A-reconstituted skinned porcine papillary muscle strips compared with wild-type. Our data indicate that subtle structural rearrangements in the RLC molecule, followed by its impaired interaction with the myosin heavy chain, may trigger functional abnormalities contributing to the DCM phenotype. PMID:25825243

  13. Papaverine Prevents Vasospasm by Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Actin Polymerization in Human Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Wise, Eric S.; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M.; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Objective Papaverine is used to prevent vasospasm in human saphenous veins (HSV) during vein graft preparation prior to implantation as a bypass conduit. Papaverine is a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, leading to increases in both intracellular cGMP and cAMP. We hypothesized that papaverine reduces force by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, and increasing actin depolymerization via regulation of actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Approach and Results HSV was equilibrated in a muscle bath, pre-treated with 1 mM papaverine followed by 5 μM norepinephrine, and force along with [Ca2+]i levels were concurrently measured. Filamentous actin (F-actin) level was measured by an in vitro actin assay. Tissue was snap frozen to measure myosin light chain and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with papaverine completely inhibited norepinephrine-induced force generation, blocked increases in [Ca2+]i and led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Papaverine pre-treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of the heat shock-related protein 20 (HSPB6) and the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), as well as decreased filamentous actin (F-actin) levels suggesting depolymerization of actin. Conclusions These results suggest that papaverine-induced force inhibition of HSV involves [Ca2+]i-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation-mediated actin depolymerization. Thus, papaverine induces sustained inhibition of contraction of HSV by the modulation of both myosin cross-bridge formation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics and is a pharmacological alternative to high pressure distention to prevent vasospasm. PMID:27136356

  14. Orientation of spin-labeled light chain-2 exchanged onto myosin cross-bridges in glycerinated muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Hambly, B; Franks, K; Cooke, R

    1991-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been used to study the angular distribution of a spin label attached to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain 2. A cysteine reactive spin label, 3-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitroanilino)-2,2,5,5- tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (FDNA-SL) was bound to purified LC2. The labeled LC2 was exchanged into glycerinated muscle fibers and into myosin and its subfragments. Analysis of the spectra of labeled fibers in rigor showed that the probe was oriented with respect to the fiber axis, but that it was also undergoing restricted rotations. The motion of the probe could be modeled assuming rapid rotational diffusion (rotational correlation time faster than 5 ns) within a "cone" whose full width was 70 degrees. Very different spectra of rigor fibers were obtained with the fiber oriented parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, showing that the centroid of each cone had the same orientation for all myosin heads, making an angle of approximately 74 degrees to the fiber axis. Binding of light chains or labeled myosin subfragment-1 to ion exchange heads immobilized the probes, showing that most of the motion of the probe arose from protein mobility and not from mobility of the probe relative to the protein. Relaxed labeled fibers produced EPR spectra with a highly disordered angular distribution, consistent with myosin heads being detached from the thin filament and undergoing large angular motions. Addition of pyrophosphate, ADP, or an ATP analogue (AMPPNP), in low ionic strength buffer where these ligands do not dissociate cross-bridges from actin, failed to perturb the rigor spectrum. Applying static strains as high as 0.16 N/mm2 to the labeled rigor fibers also failed to change the orientation of the spin label. Labeled light chain was exchanged into myosin subfragment-1 (S1) and the labeled S1 was diffused into fibers. EPR spectra of these fibers had a component similar to that seen in the spectra of fibers into which

  15. Orientation of the N- and C-terminal lobes of the myosin regulatory light chain in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-20

    The orientations of the N- and C-terminal lobes of the cardiac isoform of the myosin regulatory light chain (cRLC) in the fully dephosphorylated state in ventricular trabeculae from rat heart were determined using polarized fluorescence from bifunctional sulforhodamine probes. cRLC mutants with one of eight pairs of surface-accessible cysteines were expressed, labeled with bifunctional sulforhodamine, and exchanged into demembranated trabeculae to replace some of the native cRLC. Polarized fluorescence data from the probes in each lobe were combined with RLC crystal structures to calculate the lobe orientation distribution with respect to the filament axis. The orientation distribution of the N-lobe had three distinct peaks (N1-N3) at similar angles in relaxation, isometric contraction, and rigor. The orientation distribution of the C-lobe had four peaks (C1-C4) in relaxation and isometric contraction, but only two of these (C2 and C4) remained in rigor. The N3 and C4 orientations are close to those of the corresponding RLC lobes in myosin head fragments bound to isolated actin filaments in the absence of ATP (in rigor), but also close to those of the pair of heads folded back against the filament surface in isolated thick filaments in the so-called J-motif conformation. The N1 and C1 orientations are close to those expected for actin-bound myosin heads with their light chain domains in a pre-powerstroke conformation. The N2 and C3 orientations have not been observed previously. The results show that the average change in orientation of the RLC region of the myosin heads on activation of cardiac muscle is small; the RLC regions of most heads remain in the same conformation as in relaxation. This suggests that the orientation of the dephosphorylated RLC region of myosin heads in cardiac muscle is primarily determined by an interaction with the thick filament surface. PMID:25606679

  16. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts. PMID:27483374

  17. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Liang, Jingsheng; Huang, Wenrui; Irving, Thomas C; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M; Hare, Joshua M; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-07-28

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 → Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. We hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In support of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype. PMID:26124132

  18. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts. PMID:27483374

  19. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV. PMID:24517254

  20. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in sup 32 P-labeled rabbit aorta stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and phenylephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, H.A.; Oren, J.W.; Benscoter, H.A. )

    1989-12-15

    The mechanism(s) of force development in vascular smooth muscle following pharmacological activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters are not known. In this study, we examined the myosin light chain phosphorylation response following stimulation by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) or phenylephrine in rabbit aorta which had been incubated with 32PO4 in order to label ATP pools. Through tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of myosin light chain from intact tissue and comparison to controls using purified components, we inferred that Ca2+-dependent force stimulated by PDB was associated with small increases in serine-19 phosphorylation, consistent with a contractile mechanism involving indirect activation of myosin light chain kinase. Additional residues, consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of protein kinase C, were also observed to be phosphorylated in response to PDB and represented proportionately a larger fraction of the total phosphorylated myosin light chain in Ca2+-depleted tissues. Stimulation by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist (phenylephrine) resulted in phosphorylation of residues which were consistent with an activation mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase only. These results indicate that in rabbit aorta the contractile effects of PDB may be partially mediated by Ca2+-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase. However, the data do not rule out a component of the PDB-stimulated contractile response which is independent of myosin light chain phosphorylation on the serine-19 residue. In addition, activation by a more physiological stimulus, phenylephrine, does not result in protein kinase C-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  1. Light chain-dependent myosin structural dynamics in solution investigated by transient electrical birefringence.

    PubMed Central

    Eden, D; Highsmith, S

    1997-01-01

    The technique of transient electrical birefringence was used to compare some of the electric and structural dynamic properties of myosin subfragment 1 (S1(elc, rlc)), which has both the essential and regulatory light chains bound, to S1(elc), which has only an essential light chain. The rates of rotational Brownian motion indicate that S1(elc, rlc) is larger, as expected. The permanent electric dipole moment of S1(elc, rlc) is also larger, indicating that the regulatory light chain portion of S1(elc, rlc) has a dipole moment and that it is aligned head-to-tail with the dipole moment of the S1(elc) portion. The permanent electric dipoles decrease with increasing ionic strength, apparently because of ion binding to surface charges. Both S1(elc, rlc) and S1(elc) have intrinsic segmental flexibility, as detected by the ability to selectively align segments with a brief weak electric field. However, unlike S1(elc), which can be structurally distorted by the action of a brief strong electric field, S1(elc, rlc) is stiffer and cannot be distorted by fields as high as 7800 V/cm applied to its approximately 8000 D permanent electric dipole moment. The S1 . MgADP . Pi analog S1 . MgADP . Vi is smaller than S1 . MgADP, for both S1(elc, rlc) and S1(elc). Interestingly, the smaller, stiffer S1(elc, rlc) . MgADP . Vi complex retains intrinsic segmental flexibility. These results are discussed within a framework of current hypotheses of force-producing mechanisms that involve S1 segmental motion and/or the loss of cross-bridge flexibility during force production. PMID:9251811

  2. Altered kinetics of contraction in skeletal muscle fibers containing a mutant myosin regulatory light chain with reduced divalent cation binding.

    PubMed Central

    Diffee, G M; Patel, J R; Reinach, F C; Greaser, M L; Moss, R L

    1996-01-01

    We examined the kinetic properties of rabbit skinned skeletal muscle fibers in which the endogenous myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) was partially replaced with a mutant RLC (D47A) containing a point mutation within the Ca2+/Mg2+ binding site that severely reduced its affinity for divalent cations. We found that when approximately 50% of the endogenous RLC was replaced by the mutant, maximum tension declined to approximately 60% of control and the rate constant of active tension redevelopment (ktr) after mechanical disruption of cross-bridges was reduced to approximately 70% of control. This reduction in ktr was not an indirect effect on kinetics due to a reduced number of strongly bound myosin heads, because when the strongly binding cross-bridge analog N-ethylmaleimide-modified myosin subfragment1 (NEM-S1) was added to the fibers, there was no effect upon maximum ktr. Fiber stiffness declined after D47A exchange in a manner indicative of a decrease in the number of strongly bound cross-bridges, suggesting that the force per cross-bridge was not significantly affected by the presence of D47A RLC. In contrast to the effects on ktr, the rate of tension relaxation in steadily activated fibers after flash photolysis of the Ca2+ chelator diazo-2 increased by nearly twofold after D47A exchange. We conclude that the incorporation of the nondivalent cation-binding mutant of myosin RLC decreases the proportion of cycling cross-bridges in a force-generating state by decreasing the rate of formation of force-generating bridges and increasing the rate of detachment. These results suggest that divalent cation binding to myosin RLC plays an important role in modulating the kinetics of cross-bridge attachment and detachment. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8804617

  3. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain causes diastolic disturbance in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Muthu, Priya; Duggal, Divya; Farman, Gerrie P; Sorensen, Lars; Pozios, Iraklis; Abraham, Theodore P; Moore, Jeffrey R; Borejdo, Julian; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    We have examined, for the first time, the effects of the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-associated Lys104Glu mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Transgenic mice expressing the Lys104Glu substitution (Tg-MUT) were generated and the results were compared to Tg-WT (wild-type human ventricular RLC) mice. Echocardiography with pulse wave Doppler in 6month-old Tg-MUT showed early signs of diastolic disturbance with significantly reduced E/A transmitral velocities ratio. Invasive hemodynamics in 6month-old Tg-MUT mice also demonstrated a borderline significant prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (Tau) and a tendency for slower rate of pressure decline, suggesting alterations in diastolic function in Tg-MUT. Six month-old mutant animals had no LV hypertrophy; however, at >13months they displayed significant hypertrophy and fibrosis. In skinned papillary muscles from 5 to 6month-old mice a mutation induced reduction in maximal tension and slower muscle relaxation rates were observed. Mutated cross-bridges showed increased rates of binding to the thin filaments and a faster rate of the power stroke. In addition, ~2-fold lower level of RLC phosphorylation was observed in the mutant compared to Tg-WT. In line with the higher mitochondrial content seen in Tg-MUT hearts, the MUT-myosin ATPase activity was significantly higher than WT-myosin, indicating increased energy consumption. In the in vitro motility assay, MUT-myosin produced higher actin sliding velocity under zero load, but the velocity drastically decreased with applied load in the MUT vs. WT myosin. Our results suggest that diastolic disturbance (impaired muscle relaxation, lower E/A) and inefficiency of energy use (reduced contractile force and faster ATP consumption) may underlie the Lys104Glu-mediated HCM phenotype. PMID:24992035

  4. Myosin light chain phosphorylation enhances contraction of heart muscle via structural changes in both thick and thin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Contraction of heart muscle is triggered by calcium binding to the actin-containing thin filaments but modulated by structural changes in the myosin-containing thick filaments. We used phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (cRLC) by the cardiac isoform of its specific kinase to elucidate mechanisms of thick filament-mediated contractile regulation in demembranated trabeculae from the rat right ventricle. cRLC phosphorylation enhanced active force and its calcium sensitivity and altered thick filament structure as reported by bifunctional rhodamine probes on the cRLC: the myosin head domains became more perpendicular to the filament axis. The effects of cRLC phosphorylation on thick filament structure and its calcium sensitivity were mimicked by increasing sarcomere length or by deleting the N terminus of the cRLC. Changes in thick filament structure were highly cooperative with respect to either calcium concentration or extent of cRLC phosphorylation. Probes on unphosphorylated myosin heads reported similar structural changes when neighboring heads were phosphorylated, directly demonstrating signaling between myosin heads. Moreover probes on troponin showed that calcium sensitization by cRLC phosphorylation is mediated by the thin filament, revealing a signaling pathway between thick and thin filaments that is still present when active force is blocked by Blebbistatin. These results show that coordinated and cooperative structural changes in the thick and thin filaments are fundamental to the physiological regulation of contractility in the heart. This integrated dual-filament concept of contractile regulation may aid understanding of functional effects of mutations in the protein components of both filaments associated with heart disease. PMID:27162358

  5. Myosin light chain phosphorylation enhances contraction of heart muscle via structural changes in both thick and thin filaments.

    PubMed

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2016-05-24

    Contraction of heart muscle is triggered by calcium binding to the actin-containing thin filaments but modulated by structural changes in the myosin-containing thick filaments. We used phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (cRLC) by the cardiac isoform of its specific kinase to elucidate mechanisms of thick filament-mediated contractile regulation in demembranated trabeculae from the rat right ventricle. cRLC phosphorylation enhanced active force and its calcium sensitivity and altered thick filament structure as reported by bifunctional rhodamine probes on the cRLC: the myosin head domains became more perpendicular to the filament axis. The effects of cRLC phosphorylation on thick filament structure and its calcium sensitivity were mimicked by increasing sarcomere length or by deleting the N terminus of the cRLC. Changes in thick filament structure were highly cooperative with respect to either calcium concentration or extent of cRLC phosphorylation. Probes on unphosphorylated myosin heads reported similar structural changes when neighboring heads were phosphorylated, directly demonstrating signaling between myosin heads. Moreover probes on troponin showed that calcium sensitization by cRLC phosphorylation is mediated by the thin filament, revealing a signaling pathway between thick and thin filaments that is still present when active force is blocked by Blebbistatin. These results show that coordinated and cooperative structural changes in the thick and thin filaments are fundamental to the physiological regulation of contractility in the heart. This integrated dual-filament concept of contractile regulation may aid understanding of functional effects of mutations in the protein components of both filaments associated with heart disease. PMID:27162358

  6. Nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase activity modulates radiation-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Mathew, Biji; Wu, Xiaomin; Shimizu, Yuka; Rizzo, Alicia N.; Dudek, Steven M.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Hecker, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Radiotherapy as a primary treatment for thoracic malignancies induces deleterious effects, such as acute or subacute radiation-induced lung injury (RILI). Although the molecular etiology of RILI is controversial and likely multifactorial, a potentially important cellular target is the lung endothelial cytoskeleton that regulates paracellular gap formation and the influx of macromolecules and fluid to the alveolar space. Here we investigate the central role of a key endothelial cytoskeletal regulatory protein, the nonmuscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK), in an established murine RILI model. Our results indicate that thoracic irradiation significantly augmented nmMLCK protein expression and enzymatic activity in murine lungs. Furthermore, genetically engineered mice harboring a deletion of the nmMLCK gene (nmMLCK−/− mice) exhibited protection from RILI, as assessed by attenuated vascular leakage and leukocyte infiltration. In addition, irradiated wild-type mice treated with two distinct MLCK enzymatic inhibitors, ML-7 and PIK (peptide inhibitor of kinase), also demonstrated attenuated RILI. Taken together, these data suggests a key role for nmMLCK in vascular barrier regulation in RILI and warrants further examination of RILI strategies that target nmMLCK. PMID:27252850

  7. Olanzapine May Inhibit Colonic Motility Associated with the 5-HT Receptor and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiarui; Qiao, Ying; Le, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether the effects of olanzapine on gastrointestinal motility is related to the serotonin antagonism and myosin light chain kinase. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Olanzapine gavage was performed for each treatment group during the course of 30 continuous days, while the same volume of saline was given to the rats in the control group. Defecation of the rats was observed on days 7 and 30 after olanzapine gavage. The effects of olanzapine on contraction of colonic smooth muscles were observed in ex vivo experiments. A Western blot was used to evaluate expression levels of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and MLCK in colon segments of the rats. Results ResultsaaCompared to the control group, 5-160 µ M of olanzapine could inhibit dose-dependently the contraction of colonic smooth muscle ex vivo experiments. The maximum smooth muscle contraction effects of 5-HT and acetylcholine significantly decreased after treatment with 40-160 µ M of olanzapine. Constipation was found in the olanzapine-treated rats on day 7 and have sustained day 30 after gavage. Expression of MLCK in olanzapine-treated rats was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of SERT significantly increased on the day 7, then significantly decreased on the day 30 after olanzapine gavage. Conclusion SERT and MLCK may involve in the inhibition of colonic contraction induced by olanzapine. PMID:27081386

  8. Mn2+ activates skinned smooth muscle cells in the absence of myosin light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hoar, P E; Kerrick, W G

    1988-08-01

    Two effects of Mn2+ on skinned fibers from chicken gizzard smooth muscle were observed, dependent on the presence or absence of dithiothreitol (DTT) reducing agent. One involves protein oxidation (in the absence of DTT) with production of a "latch"-like state, and the other involves direct Mn2+ activation of contractile proteins. Cells activated by Mn2+ in the presence of ATP and the absence of Ca2+, Mg2+ and DTT did not relax when transferred to normal relaxing solutions. In contrast, when 5 mM DTT was included in the Mn2+ contracting solution to prevent protein oxidation by Mn2+, the cells still contracted when exposed to Mn2+, but relaxed rapidly when the Mn2+ was removed. In the presence of DTT both the Mn2+ activation and the relaxation following removal of Mn2+ were more rapid than normal Ca2+-activated contractions and relaxations. The skinned fibers activated by Mn2+ in the absence of DTT showed little active shortening unless DTT was added. This rigor-like state is probably due to oxidation of contractile proteins since the cells relaxed when exposed to a relaxing solution containing DTT (50 mM) and then contracted again in response to Ca2+ and relaxed normally. The Mn2+ activation was not associated with myosin light chain phosphorylation, in contrast to Ca2+-activated contractions. PMID:3186428

  9. Nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase activity modulates radiation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Mathew, Biji; Wu, Xiaomin; Shimizu, Yuka; Rizzo, Alicia N; Dudek, Steven M; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Hecker, Louise; Garcia, Joe G N

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy as a primary treatment for thoracic malignancies induces deleterious effects, such as acute or subacute radiation-induced lung injury (RILI). Although the molecular etiology of RILI is controversial and likely multifactorial, a potentially important cellular target is the lung endothelial cytoskeleton that regulates paracellular gap formation and the influx of macromolecules and fluid to the alveolar space. Here we investigate the central role of a key endothelial cytoskeletal regulatory protein, the nonmuscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK), in an established murine RILI model. Our results indicate that thoracic irradiation significantly augmented nmMLCK protein expression and enzymatic activity in murine lungs. Furthermore, genetically engineered mice harboring a deletion of the nmMLCK gene (nmMLCK(-/-) mice) exhibited protection from RILI, as assessed by attenuated vascular leakage and leukocyte infiltration. In addition, irradiated wild-type mice treated with two distinct MLCK enzymatic inhibitors, ML-7 and PIK (peptide inhibitor of kinase), also demonstrated attenuated RILI. Taken together, these data suggests a key role for nmMLCK in vascular barrier regulation in RILI and warrants further examination of RILI strategies that target nmMLCK. PMID:27252850

  10. X-ray diffraction analysis of the effects of myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation and butanedione monoxime on skinned skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Maki; Kimura, Masako; Li, Zhao-Bo; Ohno, Tetsuo; Takemori, Shigeru; Hoh, Joseph F Y; Yagi, Naoto

    2016-04-15

    The phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is an important modulator of skeletal muscle performance and plays a key role in posttetanic potentiation and staircase potentiation of twitch contractions. The structural basis for these phenomena within the filament lattice has not been thoroughly investigated. Using a synchrotron radiation source at SPring8, we obtained X-ray diffraction patterns from skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers before and after phosphorylation of myosin RLC in the presence of myosin light chain kinase, calmodulin, and calcium at a concentration below the threshold for tension development ([Ca(2+)] = 10(-6.8)M). After phosphorylation, the first myosin layer line slightly decreased in intensity at ∼0.05 nm(-1)along the equatorial axis, indicating a partial loss of the helical order of myosin heads along the thick filament. Concomitantly, the (1,1/1,0) intensity ratio of the equatorial reflections increased. These results provide a firm structural basis for the hypothesis that phosphorylation of myosin RLC caused the myosin heads to move away from the thick filaments towards the thin filaments, thereby enhancing the probability of interaction with actin. In contrast, 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), known to inhibit contraction by impeding phosphate release from myosin, had exactly the opposite effects on meridional and equatorial reflections to those of phosphorylation. We hypothesize that these antagonistic effects are due to the acceleration of phosphate release from myosin by phosphorylation and its inhibition by BDM, the consequent shifts in crossbridge equilibria leading to opposite changes in abundance of the myosin-ADP-inorganic phosphate complex state associated with helical order of thick filaments. PMID:26911280

  11. Hold on tightly, let go lightly: myosin functions at adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sandquist, Joshua C.; Bement, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Adherens junctions, the sites of cadherin-dependent cell–cell adhesion, are also important for dynamic tension sensing, force transduction and signalling. Different myosin motors contribute to adherens junction assembly and versatility in distinct ways. PMID:20596044

  12. Naturally Extended CT · AG Repeats Increase H-DNA Structures and Promoter Activity in the Smooth Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Gene▿

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yoo-Jeong; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring repeat sequences capable of adopting H-DNA structures are abundant in promoters of disease-related genes. In support of this, we found (CT)22 · (AG)22 repeats in the promoter of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK), a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle function. We also found an insertion mutation that adds another six pairs of CT · AG repeats and increases smMLCK promoter activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Therefore, we used the smMLCK promoters from normotensive and hypertensive rats as a model system to determine how CT · AG repeats form H-DNA, an intramolecular triplex, and regulate promoter activity. High-resolution mapping with a chemical probe selective for H-DNA showed that the CT · AG repeats adopt H-DNA structures at a neutral pH. Importantly, the SHR promoter forms longer H-DNA structures than the promoter from normotensive rats. Reconstituting nucleosomes on the promoters, in vitro, showed no difference in nucleosome positioning between the two promoters. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that histone acetylations are greater in the hypertensive promoter. Thus, our findings suggest that the extended CT · AG repeats in the SHR promoter increase H-DNA structures, histone modifications, and promoter activity of the smMLCK, perhaps contributing to vascular disorders in hypertension. PMID:17991897

  13. New Isoform of Cardiac Myosin Light Chain Kinase and the Role of Cardiac Myosin Phosphorylation in α1-Adrenoceptor Mediated Inotropic Response

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Masaya; Okamoto, Ryuji; Ito, Masaaki; Goto, Itaru; Fujita, Satoshi; Konishi, Katsuhisa; Mizutani, Hideo; Dohi, Kaoru; Hartshorne, David J.; Itoh, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) plays an obligatory role in maintaining the phosphorylation levels of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC2), which is thought to be crucial for regulation of cardiac function. To test this hypothesis, the role played by ventricular MLC2 (MLC2v) phosphorylation was investigated in the phenylephrine-induced increase in twitch tension using the naturally-occurring mouse strain, C57BL/6N, in which cMLCK is down regulated. Methods and Results By Western blot and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis, cMLCKs with molecular mass of 61-kDa (cMLCK-2) and/or 86-kDa were identified in mice heart. Among various mouse strains, C57BL/6N expressed cMLCK-2 alone and the closest relative strain C57BL/6J expressed both cMLCKs. The levels of MLC2v phosphorylation was significantly lower in C57BL/6N than in C57BL/6J. The papillary muscle twitch tension induced by electrical field stimulation was smaller in C57BL/6N than C57BL/6J. Phenylephrine had no effect on MLC2v phosphorylation in either strains but increased the twitch tension more potently in C57BL/6J than in C57BL/6N. Calyculin A increased papillary muscle MLC2v phosphorylation to a similar extent in both strains but increased the phenylephrine-induced inotropic response only in C57BL/6N. There was a significant positive correlation between the phenylephrine-induced inotropic response and the levels of MLC2v phosphorylation within ranges of 15–30%. Conclusions We identified a new isoform of cMLCK with a molecular mass of 61kDa(cMLCK-2) in mouse heart. In the C57BL/6N strain, only cMLCK-2 was expressed and the basal MLC2v phosphorylation levels and the phenylephrine-induced inotropic response were both smaller. We suggest that a lower phenylephrine-induced inotropic response may be caused by the lower basal MLC2v phosphorylation levels in this strain. PMID:26512720

  14. Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, B.G.; Muse, S.V.; Hanczyc, M.

    1995-01-01

    Interspecific comparisons of intron sequences reveal conserved blocks of invariant nucleotides and several other departures from the strictly neutral model of molecular evolution. To distinguish the past action of evolutionary forces in introns known to have regulatory information, we examined nucleotide sequence variation at 991 sites in a random sample of 16 Drosophila melanogaster alleles of the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain (Mlc1). The Mlc1 gene of D. melanogaster encodes two Mlc1 isoforms via developmentally regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Analyses of these data reveal that introns 4 and 5, which flank the alternatively spliced exon 5, have reduced levels of both intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence relative to intron 3. No polymorphism was observed in any of the exons examined in D. melanogaster. A genealogical analysis clearly demonstrates the occurrence of intragenic recombination in the ancestral history of Mlc1. Recombination events are estimated to be 13 times more likely than mutation events over the span of the sequenced region. Although there is little evidence for pairwise linkage disequilibrium in the Mlc1 region, higher order disequilibrium. does seem to be present in the 5{prime} half of the portion of the gene that was examined. Predictions of the folding free energy of the pre-mRNA reveal that sampled alleles have a significantly higher (less stable) free energy than do randomly permuted sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that introns surrounding an alternatively spliced exon are subjected to additional constraints, perhaps due to specific aspects of secondary structure required for appropriate splicing of the pre-mRNA molecule. 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Myosin Light Chain Kinase Mediates Intestinal Barrier Disruption following Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanli; Wang, Pei; Su, Qin; Wang, Shiliang; Wang, Fengjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe burn injury results in the loss of intestinal barrier function, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK) is critical to the pathophysiological regulation of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesized that the MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates the regulation of intestinal barrier function following burn injury, and that MLCK inhibition attenuates the burn-induced intestinal barrier disfunction. Methodology/Principal Findings Male balb/c mice were assigned randomly to either sham burn (control) or 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full thickness burn without or with intraperitoneal injection of ML-9 (2 mg/kg), an MLCK inhibitor. In vivo intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran was measured. Intestinal mucosa injury was assessed histologically. Tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay. Expression of MLCK and phosphorylated MLC in ileal mucosa was assessed by Western blot. Intestinal permeability was increased significantly after burn injury, which was accompanied by mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and increase of both MLCK and MLC phosphorylation. Treatment with ML-9 attenuated the burn-caused increase of intestinal permeability, mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and decreased MLC phosphorylation, but not MLCK expression. Conclusions/Significance The MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction after severe burn injury. It is suggested that MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation may be a critical target for the therapeutic treatment of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption after severe burn injury. PMID:22529961

  16. [Usefulness of serum cardiac myosin light chain I for the estimation of acute myocardial infarction size].

    PubMed

    Narita, M; Kurihara, T; Murano, K; Usami, M

    1991-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of serum level of cardiac myosin light chain I (LC I) for the estimation of the extent of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), peak LC I level was compared with myocardial infarction weight (AMI weight) which was obtained by myocardial emission tomography with Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP). In 11 patients with AMI, serum LC I levels were measured once a day in most cases, and plasma CPK levels were measured serially (every 4 hours at least 48 hours after admission). Tc-99m PYP imagings were performed at second or third day of AMI, and AMI weight was calculated from the voxel numbers of myocardial hot spot in which Tc-99m PYP had accumulated. Peak LC I level correlated well with AMI weight (r = 0.72, p less than 0.02). As well as peak LC I level, peak CPK level correlated well with AMI weight (r = 0.68, p less than 0.05). But the estimation of the infarct size from peak LC I level had the following advantages over the estimation from peak CPK level. 1) We could compare peak LC I level with AMI weight in all 11 patients, but peak CPK level was able to compared with AMI weight in only 9 of them. This was because CPK level changed rapidly and reached maximum within 24 hours after the onset of AMI, while LC I level peaked after 3 to 5 days. 2) A good correlation between LC I and AMI weight was obtained by the determination of serum LC I level once a day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1836269

  17. Effects of pseudophosphorylation mutants on the structural dynamics of smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Colson, Brett A; Thomas, David D

    2014-10-01

    We have performed 50 independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the effect of pseudophosphorylation mutants on the structural dynamics of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) regulatory light chain (RLC). We previously showed that the N-terminal phosphorylation domain of RLC simultaneously populates two structural states in equilibrium, closed and open, and that phosphorylation at S19 induces a modest shift toward the open state, which is sufficient to activate smooth muscle. However, it remains unknown why pseudophosphorylation mutants poorly mimic phosphorylation-induced activation of SMM. We performed MD simulations of unphosphorylated, phosphorylated, and three pseudophosphorylated RLC mutants: S19E, T18D/S19D and T18E/S19E. We found that the S19E mutation does not shift the equilibrium toward the open state, indicating that simple charge replacement at position S19 does not mimic the activating effect of phosphorylation, providing a structural explanation for previously published functional data. In contrast, mutants T18D/S19D and T18E/S19E shift the equilibrium toward the open structure and partially activate in vitro motility, further supporting the model that an increase in the mol fraction of the open state is coupled to SMM motility. Structural analyses of the doubly-charged pseudophosphorylation mutants suggest that alterations in an interdomain salt bridge between residues R4 and D100 results in impaired signal transmission from RLC to the catalytic domain of SMM, which explains the low ATPase activity of these mutants. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation produces a unique structural balance in the RLC. These observations have important implications for our understanding of the structural aspects of activation and force potentiation in smooth and striated muscle. PMID:25091814

  18. Regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in the trabecular meshwork: role in aqueous humour outflow facility.

    PubMed

    Rao, P Vasantha; Deng, Peifeng; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Epstein, David L

    2005-02-01

    Cellular contraction and relaxation and integrity of the actin cytoskeleton in trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue have been thought to influence aqueous humour outflow. However, the cellular pathways that regulate these events in TM cells are not well understood. In this study, we investigated physiological agonist-mediated regulation of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in the TM, and correlated such effects with alterations in aqueous outflow facility, since MLC phosphorylation is a critical biochemical determinant of cellular contraction in TM cells. Treatment of serum starved human TM cells with endothelin-1 (0.1 microM), thromboxane A2 mimetic U-46619 (1.0 microM), or angiotensin II (1 microM), all of which are agonists of G-protein coupled receptors, triggered activation of MLC phosphorylation, as determined by urea/glycerol-based Western blot analysis. Agonist-stimulated increase in MLC phosphorylation was associated with activation of Rho GTPase in TM cells, as determined in pull-down assays. In contrast, treatment of human TM cells with a novel Rho-kinase inhibitor H-1152 (0.1-2 microM), in the presence of serum reduced basal MLC phosphorylation. H-1152 also increased aqueous outflow facility significantly in a dose-dependent fashion, in perfusion studies with cadaver porcine eyes. This effect of H-1152 on outflow facility was associated with decreased MLC phosphorylation in TM tissue of drug-perfused eyes. Collectively, this study identifies potential physiological regulators of MLC phosphorylation in human TM cells and demonstrates the significance of Rho/Rho-kinase pathway-mediated MLC phosphorylation in modulation of aqueous outflow facility through TM. PMID:15670798

  19. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2012-04-02

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-{Delta}43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing ({approx} 1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-{Delta}43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-{Delta}43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.

  20. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in contraction of gastric antral smooth muscle from neonate and adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, J A; Paul, D A; Ryan, J P

    1996-01-01

    The decreased contractility of gastric antral smooth muscle in the neonate has been attributed to reduced levels of activator calcium. It is generally accepted that calcium-dependent myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLCP) is the key step in the initiation of force development in smooth muscle. In this study, we investigated the relationship between MLCP and force development in gastric antral smooth muscle from neonatal (4-6 d old) and adult rabbits. We tested the hypothesis that the reduced force development of circular smooth muscle from the neonate would be accompanied by decreased levels of MLCP, as compared with data from adult animals. Full thickness muscle strips oriented parallel to the circular muscle layer were examined for their contractile response to acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-8) M to 10(-3) M) or 10(-4) M ACh only. In the latter study, tissues were rapidly frozen in a dry ice-acetone slurry for subsequent MLCP determination. MLCP was determined at times corresponding to 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 s of stimulation. For each age group, maximal active force developed at an ACh concentration of 10(-4) M and was significantly greater in tissues from adults (1.86 +/- 0.24 N/m2, adult; 0.95 +/- 0.05 N/m2, neonate; p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant differences were observed with respect to basal or agonist-stimulated levels of MLCP. The data suggest that factors other than levels of MLCP contribute to the reduced force-generating capacity of antral smooth muscle from the neonate. PMID:8825402

  1. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain

    PubMed Central

    Lima, V.V.; Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P.; Webb, R.C.; Tostes, R.C.; Giachini, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2±2 vs 7.9±1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4±2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3±2 vs 7.5±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1±2 vs 7.4±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca2+/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction. PMID:25140811

  2. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain.

    PubMed

    Lima, V V; Lobato, N S; Filgueira, F P; Webb, R C; Tostes, R C; Giachini, F R

    2014-10-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2 ± 2 vs 7.9 ± 1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4 ± 2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3 ± 2 vs 7.5 ± 2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1 ± 2 vs 7.4 ± 2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca(2+)/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction. PMID:25140811

  3. The force dependence of isometric and concentric potentiation in mouse muscle with and without skeletal myosin light chain kinase.

    PubMed

    Gittings, William; Aggarwal, Harish; Stull, James T; Vandenboom, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The isometric potentiation associated with myosin phosphorylation is force dependent. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a pre-existing period of isometric force on the concentric force potentiation displayed by mouse muscles with and without the ability to phosphorylate myosin. We tested isometric (ISO) and concentric (CON) potentiation, as well as concentric potentiation after isometric force (ISO-CON), in muscles from wild-type (WT) and skeletal myosin light chain kinase-deficient (skMLCK(-/-)) mice. A conditioning stimulus increased (i.e., potentiated) mean concentric force in the ISO-CON and CON conditions to 1.31 ± 0.02 and 1.35 ± 0.02 (WT) and to 1.19 ± 0.02 and 1.21 ± 0.01 (skMLCK(-/-)) of prestimulus levels, respectively (data n = 6-8, p < 0.05). No potentiation of mean isometric force was observed in either genotype. The potentiation of mean concentric force was inversely related to relative tetanic force level (P/Po) in both genotypes. Moreover, concentric potentiation varied greatly within each contraction type and was negatively correlated with unpotentiated force in both genotypes. Thus, although no effect of pre-existing force was observed, strong and inverse relationships between concentric force potentiation and unpotentiated concentric force may suggest an influence of attached and force-generating crossbridges on potentiation magnitude in both WT and skMLCK(-/-) muscles. PMID:25412230

  4. Tarantula myosin free head regulatory light chain phosphorylation stiffens N-terminal extension, releasing it and blocking its docking back.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaochuan Edward; Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Pinto, Antonio; Thomas, David D; Lehman, William; Padrón, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of smooth and striated muscle myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) N-terminal extension (NTE) showed that diphosphorylation induces a disorder-to-order transition. Our goal here was to further explore the effects of mono- and diphosphorylation on the straightening and rigidification of the tarantula myosin RLC NTE. For that we used MD simulations followed by persistence length analysis to explore the consequences of secondary and tertiary structure changes occurring on RLC NTE following phosphorylation. Static and dynamic persistence length analysis of tarantula RLC NTE peptides suggest that diphosphorylation produces an important 24-fold straightening and a 16-fold rigidification of the RLC NTE, while monophosphorylation has a less profound effect. This new information on myosin structural mechanics, not fully revealed by previous EM and MD studies, add support to a cooperative phosphorylation-dependent activation mechanism as proposed for the tarantula thick filament. Our results suggest that the RLC NTE straightening and rigidification after Ser45 phosphorylation leads to a release of the constitutively Ser35 monophosphorylated free head swaying away from the thick filament shaft. This is so because the stiffened diphosphorylated RLC NTE would hinder the docking back of the free head after swaying away, becoming released and mobile and unable to recover its original interacting position on activation. PMID:26038302

  5. Myosin regulatory light chain modulates the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetics of tension development in skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J R; Diffee, G M; Moss, R L

    1996-01-01

    To determine the role of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) in modulating contraction in skeletal muscle, we examined the rate of tension development in bundles of skinned skeletal muscle fibers as a function of the level of Ca(2+) activation after UV flash-induced release of Ca(2+) from the photosensitive Ca(2+) chelator DM-nitrophen. In control fiber bundles, the rate of tension development was highly dependent on the concentration of activator Ca(2+) after the flash. There was a greater than twofold increase in the rate of tension development when the post-flash [Ca(2+)] was increased from the lowest level tested (which produced a steady tension that was 42% of maximum tension) to the highest level (producing 97% of maximum tension). However, when 40-70% of endogenous myosin RLC was extracted from the fiber bundles, tension developed at the maximum rate, regardless of the post-flash concentration of Ca(2+). Thus, the Ca(2+) dependence of the rate of tension development was eliminated by partial extraction of myosin RLC, an effect that was partially reversed by recombination of RLC back into the fiber bundles. The elimination of the Ca(2+) dependence of the kinetics of tension development was specific to the extraction of RLC rather than an artifact of the co-extraction of both RLC and Troponin C, because the rate of tension development was still Ca(2+) dependent, even when nearly 50% of endogenous Troponin C was extracted from fiber bundles fully replete with RLC. Thus, myosin RLC appears to be a key component in modulating Ca(2+) sensitive cross-bridge transitions that limit the rate of force development after photorelease of Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 PMID:9172757

  6. Amplitude of the actomyosin power stroke depends strongly on the isoform of the myosin essential light chain.

    PubMed

    Guhathakurta, Piyali; Prochniewicz, Ewa; Thomas, David D

    2015-04-14

    We have used time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) to determine the role of myosin essential light chains (ELCs) in structural transitions within the actomyosin complex. Skeletal muscle myosins have two ELC isoforms, A1 and A2, which differ by an additional 40-45 residues at the N terminus of A1, and subfragment 1 (S1) containing A1 (S1A1) has higher catalytic efficiency and higher affinity for actin than S1A2. ELC's location at the junction between the catalytic and light-chain domains gives it the potential to play a central role in the force-generating power stroke. Therefore, we measured site-directed TR-FRET between a donor on actin and an acceptor near the C terminus of ELC, detecting directly the rotation of the light-chain domain (lever arm) relative to actin (power stroke), induced by the interaction of ATP-bound myosin with actin. TR-FRET resolved the weakly bound (W) and strongly bound (S) states of actomyosin during the W-to-S transition (power stroke). We found that the W states are essentially the same for the two isoenzymes, but the S states are quite different, indicating a much larger movement of S1A1. FRET from actin to a probe on the N-terminal extension of A1 showed close proximity to actin. We conclude that the N-terminal extension of A1-ELC modulates the W-to-S structural transition of acto-S1, so that the light-chain domain undergoes a much larger power stroke in S1A1 than in S1A2. These results have profound implications for understanding the contractile function of actomyosin, as needed in therapeutic design for muscle disorders. PMID:25825773

  7. Enhanced paracellular transport of insulin can be achieved via transient induction of myosin light chain phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Taverner, Alistair; Dondi, Ruggero; Almansour, Khaled; Laurent, Floriane; Owens, Siân-Eleri; Eggleston, Ian M.; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Mrsny, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium functions to effectively restrict the causal uptake of luminal contents but has been demonstrated to transiently increase paracellular permeability properties to provide an additional entry route for dietary macromolecules. We have examined a method to emulate this endogenous mechanism as a means of enhancing the oral uptake of insulin. Two sets of stable Permeant Inhibitor of Phosphatase (PIP) peptides were rationally designed to stimulate phosphorylation of intracellular epithelial myosin light chain (MLC) and screened using Caco-2 monolayers in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 640, designed to disrupt protein–protein interactions between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and its regulator CPI-17, resulted in a reversible and non-toxic transient reduction in Caco-2 monolayer trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) and opening of the paracellular route to 4 kDa fluorescent dextran but not 70 kDa dextran in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 250, designed to impede MYPT1-mediated regulation of PP1, also decreased TEER in a reversible and non-toxic manner but transiently opened the paracellular route to both 4 and 70 kDa fluorescent dextrans. Direct injection of PIP peptides 640 or 250 with human insulin into the lumen of rat jejunum caused a decrease in blood glucose levels that was PIP peptide and insulin dose-dependent and correlated with increased pMLC levels. Systemic levels of insulin suggested approximately 3–4% of the dose injected into the intestinal lumen was absorbed, relative to a subcutaneous injection. Measurement of insulin levels in the portal vein showed a time window of absorption that was consistent with systemic concentration-time profiles and approximately 50% first-pass clearance by the liver. Monitoring the uptake of a fluorescent form of insulin suggested its uptake occurred via the paracellular route. Together, these studies add validation to the presence of an endogenous mechanism used by the

  8. Mutations of the Drosophila Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Affect Courtship Song and Reduce Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Samya; Vu, Hien; Foelber, Veronica; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) rely on an enhanced stretch-activation response to generate high power output for flight. The IFM is neurally activated during the male courtship song, but its role, if any, in generating the small amplitude wing vibrations that produce the song is not known. Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2Δ2–46 (Ext), an N-terminal extension truncation; (ii) Dmlc2S66A,S67A (Phos), a disruption of two MLC kinase phosphorylation sites; and (iii) Dmlc2Δ2–46;S66A,S67A (Dual), expressing both mutations. Our results show that the Dmlc2 gene is pleiotropic and that mutations that have a profound effect on flight mechanics (Phos and Dual) have minimal effects on courtship song. None of the mutations affect interpulse interval (IPI), a determinant of species-specific song, and intrapulse frequency (IPF) compared to Control (Dmlc2+ rescued null strain). However, abnormalities in the sine song (increased frequency) and the pulse song (increased cycles per pulse and pulse length) evident in Ext males are not apparent in Dual males suggesting that Ext and Phos interact differently in song and flight mechanics, given their known additive effect on the latter. All three mutant males produce a less vigorous pulse song and exhibit impaired mating behavior compared to Control males. As a result, females are less receptive to Ext, Phos, and Dual males when a Control male is present. These results open the possibility that DMLC2, and perhaps contractile protein genes in general, are partly under sexual selection. That mutations in DMLC2 manifest differently in song and flight suggest that this protein fulfills different roles in song and flight and that stretch activation plays a smaller role in song production than in flight. PMID:24587213

  9. IQ motif selectivity in human IQGAP1: binding of myosin essential light chain and S100B.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Sevvel; Elliott, Sarah F; McSwiggen, Sara; Greer, Brett; Harriott, Pat; Irvine, G Brent; Timson, David J

    2008-11-01

    IQGAPs are cytoskeletal scaffolding proteins which link signalling pathways to the reorganisation of actin and microtubules. Human IQGAP1 has four IQ motifs each of which binds to calmodulin. The same region has been implicated in binding to two calmodulin-like proteins, the myosin essential light chain Mlc1sa and the calcium and zinc ion binding protein S100B. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to the four IQ motifs of human IQGAP1, we showed by native gel electrophoresis that only the first IQ motif interacts with Mlc1sa. This IQ motif, and also the fourth, interacts with the budding yeast myosin essential light chain Mlc1p. The first and second IQ motifs interact with S100B in the presence of calcium ions. This clearly establishes that S100B can interact with its targets through IQ motifs in addition to interacting via previously reported sequences. These results are discussed in terms of the function of IQGAP1 and IQ motif recognition. PMID:18587628

  10. TNF causes changes in glomerular endothelial permeability and morphology through a Rho and myosin light chain kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Hack, Bradley K; Bao, Lihua; Cunningham, Patrick N

    2015-12-01

    A key function of the endothelium is to serve as a regulated barrier between tissue compartments. We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a crucial role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury, in part by causing injury to the renal endothelium through its receptor TNFR1. Here, we report that TNF increased permeability to albumin in primary culture mouse renal endothelial cells, as well as human glomerular endothelial cells. This process occurred in association with changes in the actin cytoskeleton and was associated with gaps between previously confluent cells in culture and decreases in the tight junction protein occludin. This process was dependent on myosin light chain activation, as seen by its prevention with Rho-associated kinase and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, permeability was not blocked by inhibition of apoptosis with caspase inhibitors. Additionally, we found that the renal glycocalyx, which plays an important role in barrier function, was also degraded by TNF in a Rho and MLCK dependent fashion. TNF treatment caused a decrease in the size of endothelial fenestrae, dependent on Rho and MLCK, although the relevance of this to changes in permeability is uncertain. In summary, TNF-induced barrier dysfunction in renal endothelial cells is crucially dependent upon the Rho/MLCK signaling pathway. PMID:26634902

  11. Pre-steady-state kinetics of the activation of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase by Ca2+/calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Bowman, B F; Peterson, J A; Stull, J T

    1992-03-15

    Myosin light chain kinase is activated by Ca2+/calmodulin. Insights into the kinetic mechanism of this activation by Ca2+/calmodulin have now been obtained using extrinsically labeled fluorescent calmodulin, a fluorescent peptide substrate, and a stopped-flow spectrophotofluorimeter. We employed spinach calmodulin labeled with the sulfhydryl-selective probe, 2-(4-maleimidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, to measure changes in the fluorescence intensity of the 2-(4-maleimidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid-calmodulin upon binding to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. The fluorescent peptide substrate KKRAARAC(sulfobenzo-furazan)SNVFS-amide was used to measure kinase activity. Our results showed that the binding interaction could be modeled as a two-step process: a bimolecular reaction with an association rate of 4.6 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 followed by an isomerization with a rate of 2.2 s-1. Phosphorylation of the peptide during stopped-flow experiments could be modeled by a two-step process with a catalytic association rate of 6.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 and a turnover rate of 10-20 s-1. Our results also indicated that kinase activity occurred too rapidly for the slower isomerization rate of 2.2 s-1 to be linked specifically to the activation process. PMID:1544916

  12. Differential roles of regulatory light chain and myosin binding protein-C phosphorylations in the modulation of cardiac force development

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, Brett A.; Locher, Matthew R.; Bekyarova, Tanya; Patel, Jitandrakumar R.; Fitzsimons, Daniel P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Moss, Richard L.

    2010-05-25

    Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A (PKA) independently accelerate the kinetics of force development in ventricular myocardium. However, while MLCK treatment has been shown to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force (pCa{sub 50}), PKA treatment has been shown to decrease pCa{sub 50}, presumably due to cardiac troponin I phosphorylation. Further, MLCK treatment increases Ca{sup 2+}-independent force and maximum Ca{sup 2+}-activated force, whereas PKA treatment has no effect on either force. To investigate the structural basis underlying the kinase-specific differential effects on steady-state force, we used synchrotron low-angle X-ray diffraction to compare equatorial intensity ratios (I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}) to assess the proximity of myosin cross-bridge mass relative to actin and to compare lattice spacings (d{sub 1,0}) to assess the inter-thick filament spacing in skinned myocardium following treatment with either MLCK or PKA. As we showed previously, PKA phosphorylation of cMyBP-C increases I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} and, as hypothesized, treatment with MLCK also increased I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, which can explain the accelerated rates of force development during activation. Importantly, interfilament spacing was reduced by {approx}2 nm ({Delta} 3.5%) with MLCK treatment, but did not change with PKA treatment. Thus, RLC or cMyBP-C phosphorylation increases the proximity of cross-bridges to actin, but only RLC phosphorylation affects lattice spacing, which suggests that RLC and cMyBP-C modulate the kinetics of force development by similar structural mechanisms; however, the effect of RLC phosphorylation to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force is mediated by a distinct mechanism, most probably involving changes in interfilament spacing.

  13. Isolation of cardiac myosin light-chain isotypes by chromatofocusing. Comparison of human cardiac atrial light-chain 1 and foetal ventricular light-chain 1.

    PubMed

    Vincent, N D; Cummins, P

    1985-04-01

    Cardiac myosin light chain isotypes have been resolved using chromatofocusing, a new preparative column chromatographic technique. The method relies on production of narrow-range, shallow and stable pH gradients using ion-exchange resins and buffers with even buffering capacity over the required pH range. Light chains were resolved in order of decreasing isoelectric point in the pH range 5.2-4.5. Gradients of delta pH = 0.004-0.006/ml elution volume were achieved which were capable of resolving light chains with isoelectric point differences of only 0.03. Analytical isoelectric focusing of light chains in polyacrylamide gels could be used to predict the results of preparative chromatofocusing for method development. Chromatofocusing was capable of resolving human and bovine cardiac light chain 1 and 2 subunits, atrial (ALC) and ventricular (VLC) light chain isotypes and homologous VLC-2 and VLC-2* light chains. The technique was used to purify and resolve the human foetal ventricular light chain 1 (FLC-1) from adult ventricular light chain 1 (VLC-1) present in foetal ventricles and the atrial light chain 1 (ALC-1) in adult atria. Comparative peptide mapping studies and amino acid analyses were carried out on FLC-1 and ALC-1. No differences were detected between FLC-1 and ALC-1 using three different proteases and amino acid compositions were similar with the exception of glycine content. The studies indicate that FLC-1 and ALC-1 are homologous, and possibly identical, light chains. Comparison of human FLC-1/ALC-1 with VLC-1 suggested marked structural and chemical differences in these light chain isotypes, in particular in the contents of methionine, proline, lysine and alanine residues. Differences in the contents of these residues were also apparent in the corresponding bovine atrial and ventricular light chains [Wikman-Coffelt, J. & Srivastava, S. (1979) FEBS Lett. 106, 207-212]. The latter three residues are known to be rich in the N-termini of cardiac and

  14. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation by Light and O-Acetyl-l-Serine in Lemna minor L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, Urs; Suter, Marianne; Brunold, Christian

    1991-01-01

    The effect of 0.5 millimolar O-acetyl-l-serine added to the nutrient solution on sulfate assimilation of Lemna minor L., cultivated in the light or in the dark, or transferred from light to the dark, was examined. During 24 hours after transfer from light to the dark the extractable activity of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase, a key enzyme of sulfate assimilation, decreased to 10% of the light control. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.7.1.) activity, measured for comparison, decreased to 40%. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4.) and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase (EC 4.2.99.8.) activities were not affected by the transfer. When O-acetyl-l-serine was added to the nutrient solution at the time of transfer to the dark, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity was still at 50% of the light control after 24 hours, ATP sulfurylase and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase activity were again not affected, and nitrate reductase activity decreased as before. Addition of O-acetyl-l-serine at the time of the transfer caused a 100% increase in acid-soluble SH compounds after 24 hours in the dark. In continuous light the corresponding increase was 200%. During 24 hours after transfer to the dark the assimilation of 35SO42− into organic compounds decreased by 80% without O-acetyl-l-serine but was comparable to light controls in its presence. The addition of O-acetyl-l-serine to Lemna minor precultivated in the dark for 24 hours induced an increase in adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity so that a constant level of 50% of the light control was reached after an additional 9 hours. Cycloheximide as well as 6-methyl-purine inhibited this effect. In the same type of experiment O-acetyl-l-serine induced a 100-fold increase in the incorporation of label from 35SO42− into cysteine after additional 24 hours in the dark. Taken together, these results show that exogenous O-acetyl-l-serine has a regulatory effect on

  15. Neuregulin1-β decreases interleukin-1β-induced RhoA activation, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and endothelial hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Limin; Ramirez, Servio H; Andrews, Allison M; Leung, Wendy; Itoh, Kanako; Wu, Jiang; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H; Lok, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is an endogenous growth factor with multiple functions in the embryonic and postnatal brain. The NRG1 gene is large and complex, transcribing more than twenty transmembrane proteins and generating a large number of isoforms in tissue and cell type-specific patterns. Within the brain, NRG1 functions have been studied most extensively in neurons and glia, as well as in the peripheral vasculature. Recently, NRG1 signaling has been found to be important in the function of brain microvascular endothelial cells, decreasing IL-1β-induced increases in endothelial permeability. In the current experiments, we have investigated the pathways through which the NRG1-β isoform acts on IL-1β-induced endothelial permeability. Our data show that NRG1-β increases barrier function, measured by transendothelial electrical resistance, and decreases IL-1β-induced hyperpermeability, measured by dextran-40 extravasation through a monolayer of brain microvascular endothelial cells plated on transwells. An investigation of key signaling proteins suggests that the effect of NRG1-β on endothelial permeability is mediated through RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation, events which affect filamentous actin morphology. In addition, AG825, an inhibitor of the erbB2-associated tyrosine kinase, reduces the effect of NRG1-β on IL-1β-induced RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data add to the evidence that NRG1-β signaling affects changes in the brain microvasculature in the setting of neuroinflammation. We propose the following events for neuregulin-1-mediated effects on Interleukin-1 β (IL-1β)-induced endothelial hyperpermeability: IL-1β leads to RhoA activation, resulting in an increase in phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). Phosphorylation of MLC is known to result in actin contraction and alterations in the f-actin cytoskeletal structure. These changes are associated with increased endothelial permeability

  16. Phosphorylation and the N-terminal extension of the regulatory light chain help orient and align the myosin heads in Drosophila flight muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Miller, Mark S.; Reedy, Mary C.; Soto-Adames, Felipe N.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.; Maughan, David W.; Irving, Thomas C.

    2010-02-02

    X-ray diffraction of the indirect flight muscle (IFM) in living Drosophila at rest and electron microscopy of intact and glycerinated IFM was used to compare the effects of mutations in the regulatory light chain (RLC) on sarcomeric structure. Truncation of the RLC N-terminal extension (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}) or disruption of the phosphorylation sites by substituting alanines (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) decreased the equatorial intensity ratio (I{sub 20}/I{sub 10}), indicating decreased myosin mass associated with the thin filaments. Phosphorylation site disruption (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}), but not N-terminal extension truncation (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46}), decreased the 14.5 nm reflection intensity, indicating a spread of the axial distribution of the myosin heads. The arrangement of thick filaments and myosin heads in electron micrographs of the phosphorylation mutant (Dmlc2{sup S66A, S67A}) appeared normal in the relaxed and rigor states, but when calcium activated, fewer myosin heads formed cross-bridges. In transgenic flies with both alterations to the RLC (Dmlc2{sup {Delta}2-46; S66A, S67A}), the effects of the dual mutation were additive. The results suggest that the RLC N-terminal extension serves as a 'tether' to help pre-position the myosin heads for attachment to actin, while phosphorylation of the RLC promotes head orientations that allow optimal interactions with the thin filament.

  17. Regulation of calcium channels in smooth muscle: New insights into the role of myosin light chain kinase

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, A; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) plays a crucial role in artery contraction, which regulates blood pressure and blood flow distribution. In addition to this role, MLCK contributes to Ca2+ flux regulation in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and in non-muscle cells, where cytoskeleton has been suggested to help Ca2+ channels trafficking. This conclusion is based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors of MLCK and molecular and cellular techniques developed to down-regulate the enzyme. Dissimilarities have been observed between cells and whole tissues, as well as between large conductance and small resistance arteries. A differential expression in MLCK and ion channels (either voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels or non-selective cationic channels) could account for these observations, and is in line with the functional properties of the arteries. A potential involvement of MLCK in the pathways modulating Ca2+ entry in VSM is described in the present review. PMID:25483583

  18. IQ-motif selectivity in human IQGAP2 and IQGAP3: binding of calmodulin and myosin essential light chain.

    PubMed

    Atcheson, Erwan; Hamilton, Elaine; Pathmanathan, Sevvel; Greer, Brett; Harriott, Pat; Timson, David J

    2011-10-01

    The IQGAP [IQ-motif-containing GAP (GTPase-activating protein)] family members are eukaryotic proteins that act at the interface between cellular signalling and the cytoskeleton. As such they collect numerous inputs from a variety of signalling pathways. A key binding partner is the calcium-sensing protein CaM (calmodulin). This protein binds mainly through a series of IQ-motifs which are located towards the middle of the primary sequence of the IQGAPs. In some IQGAPs, these motifs also provide binding sites for CaM-like proteins such as myosin essential light chain and S100B. Using synthetic peptides and native gel electrophoresis, the binding properties of the IQ-motifs from human IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 have been mapped. The second and third IQ-motifs in IQGAP2 and all four of the IQ-motifs of IQGAP3 interacted with CaM in the presence of calcium ions. However, there were differences in the type of interaction: while some IQ-motifs were able to form complexes with CaM which were stable under the conditions of the experiment, others formed more transient interactions. The first IQ-motifs from IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 formed transient interactions with CaM in the absence of calcium and the first motif from IQGAP3 formed a transient interaction with the myosin essential light chain Mlc1sa. None of these IQ-motifs interacted with S100B. Molecular modelling suggested that all of the IQ-motifs, except the first one from IQGAP2 formed α-helices in solution. These results extend our knowledge of the selectivity of IQ-motifs for CaM and related proteins. PMID:21299499

  19. IQ-motif selectivity in human IQGAP2 and IQGAP3: binding of calmodulin and myosin essential light chain

    PubMed Central

    Atcheson, Erwan; Hamilton, Elaine; Pathmanathan, Sevvel; Greer, Brett; Harriott, Pat; Timson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The IQGAP [IQ-motif-containing GAP (GTPase-activating protein)] family members are eukaryotic proteins that act at the interface between cellular signalling and the cytoskeleton. As such they collect numerous inputs from a variety of signalling pathways. A key binding partner is the calcium-sensing protein CaM (calmodulin). This protein binds mainly through a series of IQ-motifs which are located towards the middle of the primary sequence of the IQGAPs. In some IQGAPs, these motifs also provide binding sites for CaM-like proteins such as myosin essential light chain and S100B. Using synthetic peptides and native gel electrophoresis, the binding properties of the IQ-motifs from human IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 have been mapped. The second and third IQ-motifs in IQGAP2 and all four of the IQ-motifs of IQGAP3 interacted with CaM in the presence of calcium ions. However, there were differences in the type of interaction: while some IQ-motifs were able to form complexes with CaM which were stable under the conditions of the experiment, others formed more transient interactions. The first IQ-motifs from IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 formed transient interactions with CaM in the absence of calcium and the first motif from IQGAP3 formed a transient interaction with the myosin essential light chain Mlc1sa. None of these IQ-motifs interacted with S100B. Molecular modelling suggested that all of the IQ-motifs, except the first one from IQGAP2 formed α-helices in solution. These results extend our knowledge of the selectivity of IQ-motifs for CaM and related proteins. PMID:21299499

  20. Cardiac myosin light chain phosphorylation and inotropic effects of a biased ligand, TRV120023, in a dilated cardiomyopathy model

    PubMed Central

    Tarigopula, Madhusudhan; Davis, Robert T.; Mungai, Paul T.; Ryba, David M.; Wieczorek, David F.; Cowan, Conrad L.; Violin, Jonathan D.; Wolska, Beata M.; Solaro, R. John

    2015-01-01

    Aims Therapeutic approaches to treat familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), which is characterized by depressed sarcomeric tension and susceptibility to Ca2+-related arrhythmias, have been generally unsuccessful. Our objective in the present work was to determine the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) biased ligand, TRV120023, on contractility of hearts of a transgenic mouse model of familial DCM with mutation in tropomyosin at position 54 (TG-E54K). Our rationale is based on previous studies, which have supported the hypothesis that biased G-protein-coupled receptor ligands, signalling via β-arrestin, increase cardiac contractility with no effect on Ca2+ transients. Our previous work demonstrated that the biased ligand TRV120023 is able to block angiotensin-induced hypertrophy, while promoting an increase in sarcomere Ca2+ response. Methods and results We tested the hypothesis that the depression in cardiac function associated with DCM can be offset by infusion of the AT1R biased ligand, TRV120023. We intravenously infused saline, TRV120023, or the unbiased ligand, losartan, for 15 min in TG-E54K and non-transgenic mice to obtain left ventricular pressure–volume relations. Hearts were analysed for sarcomeric protein phosphorylation. Results showed that the AT1R biased ligand increases cardiac performance in TG-E54K mice in association with increased myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation. Conclusion Treatment of mice with an AT1R biased ligand, acting via β-arrestin signalling, is able to induce an increase in cardiac contractility associated with an increase in ventricular myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation. AT1R biased ligands may prove to be a novel inotropic approach in familial DCM. PMID:26045475

  1. Heterogeneity of myofibrillar proteins in lobster fast and slow muscles: variants of troponin, paramyosin, and myosin light chains comprise four distinct protein assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fast and slow muscles from the claws and abdomen of the American lobster Homarus americanus were examined for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and for differences in myofibrillar proteins. Both myosin and actomyosin ATPase were correlated with fiber composition and contractile speed. Four distinct patterns of myofibrilla proteins observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were distinguished by different assemblages of regulatory and contractile protein variants. A total of three species of troponin-T, five species of troponin-I, and three species of troponin-C were observed. Lobster myosins contained two groups of light chains (LC), termed alpha and beta. There were three ..cap alpha..-LC variants and two ..beta..-LC variants. There were no apparent differences in myosin heavy chain, actin, and tropomyosin. Only paramyosin showed a pattern completely consistent with muscle fiber type: slow fibers contained a species (105 kD) slightly smaller than the principle variant (110 kD) in fast fibers. It is proposed that the type of paramyosin present could provide a biochemical marker to identify the fiber composition of muscles that have not been fully characterized. The diversity of troponin and myosin LC variants suggests that subtle differences in physiological performance exist within the broader categories of fast- and slow-twitch muscles. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  2. The Dictyostelium class I myosin, MyoD, contains a novel light chain that lacks high-affinity calcium-binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    De La Roche, Marc A; Lee, Sheu-Fen; Côté, Graham P

    2003-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoD, a long-tailed class I myosin, co-purified with two copies of a 16 kDa light chain. Sequence analysis of the MyoD light chain showed it to be a unique protein, termed MlcD, that shares 44% sequence identity with Dictyostelium calmodulin and 43% sequence identity with Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin IC light chain. MlcD comprises four EF-hands; however, EF-hands 2-4 contain mutations in key Ca2+-co-ordinating residues that would be predicted to impair Ca2+ binding. Electrospray ionization MS of MlcD in the presence of Ca2+ and La3+ showed the presence of one major and one minor metal-binding site. MlcD contains a single tryptophan residue (Trp39), the fluorescence intensity of which was quenched upon addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+, yielding apparent dissociation constants ( K'(d)) of 52 microM for Ca2+ and 450 microM for Mg2+. The low affinity of MlcD for Ca2+ indicates that it cannot function as a sensor of physiological Ca2+. Ca2+ did not affect the binding of MlcD to MyoD or to either of the two MyoD IQ (Ile-Gln) motifs. FLAG-MlcD expressed in Dictyostelium formed a complex with MyoD, but not with the two other long-tailed Dictyostelium myosin I isoenzymes, MyoB and MyoC. Through its specific association with the Ca2+-insensitive MlcD, MyoD may exhibit distinct regulatory properties that distinguish it from myosin I isoenzymes with calmodulin light chains. PMID:12826013

  3. Top-Down Targeted Proteomics Reveals Decrease in Myosin Regulatory Light-Chain Phosphorylation That Contributes to Sarcopenic Muscle Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gregorich, Zachery R; Peng, Ying; Cai, Wenxuan; Jin, Yutong; Wei, Liming; Chen, Albert J; McKiernan, Susan H; Aiken, Judd M; Moss, Richard L; Diffee, Gary M; Ge, Ying

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with advancing age, is a significant cause of disability and loss of independence in the elderly and thus, represents a formidable challenge for the aging population. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying sarcopenia-associated muscle dysfunction remain poorly understood. In this study, we employed an integrated approach combining top-down targeted proteomics with mechanical measurements to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) in age-related muscle dysfunction. Top-down targeted proteomic analysis uncovered a progressive age-related decline in the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), a critical protein involved in the modulation of muscle contractility, in the skeletal muscle of aging rats. Top-down tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified a previously unreported bis-phosphorylated proteoform of fast skeletal RLC and localized the sites of decreasing phosphorylation to Ser14/15. Of these sites, Ser14 phosphorylation represents a previously unidentified site of phosphorylation in RLC from fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Subsequent mechanical analysis of single fast-twitch fibers isolated from the muscles of rats of different ages revealed that the observed decline in RLC phosphorylation can account for age-related decreases in the contractile properties of sarcopenic fast-twitch muscles. These results strongly support a role for decreasing RLC phosphorylation in sarcopenia-associated muscle dysfunction and suggest that therapeutic modulation of RLC phosphorylation may represent a new avenue for the treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:27362462

  4. The human myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) from hippocampus: Cloning, sequencing, expression, and localization to 3qcen-q21

    SciTech Connect

    Potier, M.C.; Rossier, J.; Turnell, W.G.; Pekarsky, Y.; Gardiner, K.

    1995-10-10

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a key enzyme in muscle contraction, has been shown by immunohistology to be present in neurons and glia. We describe here the cloning of the cDNA for human MLCK from hippocampus, encoding a protein sequence 95% similar to smooth muscle MLCKs but less than 60% similar to skeletal muscle MLCKs. The cDNA clone detected two RNA transcripts in human frontal and entorhinal cortex, in hippocampus, and in jejunum, one corresponding to MLCK and the other probably to telokin, the carboxy-terminal 154 codons of MLCK expressed as an independent protein in smooth muscle. Levels of expression were lower in brain compared to smooth muscle. We show that within the protein sequence, a motif of 28 or 24 residues is repeated five times, the second repeat ending with the putative methionine start codon. These repeats overlap with a second previously reported module of 12 residues repeated five times in the human sequence. In addition, the acidic C-terminus of all MLCKs from both brain and smooth muscle resembles the C-terminus of tubulins. The chromosomal localization of the gene for human MLCK is shown to be at 3qcen-q21, as determined by PCR and Southern blotting using two somatic cell hybrid panels. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Amol; Cotton, James A.; Dixon, Brent R.; Gedamu, Lashitew; Yates, Robin M.; Buret, Andre G.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates) trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate) trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections. PMID:26334299

  6. Gene expression patterns in transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Narasimhan, Giri; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2016-07-01

    Using microarray and bioinformatics, we examined the gene expression profiles in transgenic mouse hearts expressing mutations in the myosin regulatory light chain shown to cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We focused on two malignant RLC-mutations, Arginine 58→Glutamine (R58Q) and Aspartic Acid 166 → Valine (D166V), and one benign, Lysine 104 → Glutamic Acid (K104E)-mutation. Datasets of differentially expressed genes for each of three mutants were compared to those observed in wild-type (WT) hearts. The changes in the mutant vs. WT samples were shown as fold-change (FC), with stringency FC ≥ 2. Based on the gene profiles, we have identified the major signaling pathways that underlie the R58Q-, D166V- and K104E-HCM phenotypes. The correlations between different genotypes were also studied using network-based algorithms. Genes with strong correlations were clustered into one group and the central gene networks were identified for each HCM mutant. The overall gene expression patterns in all mutants were distinct from the WT profiles. Both malignant mutations shared certain classes of genes that were up or downregulated, but most similarities were noted between D166V and K104E mice, with R58Q hearts showing a distinct gene expression pattern. Our data suggest that all three HCM mice lead to cardiomyopathy in a mutation-specific manner and thus develop HCM through diverse mechanisms. PMID:26906074

  7. Myosin light chain phosphatase activation is involved in the hydrogen sulfide-induced relaxation in mouse gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Dhaese, Ingeborg; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2009-03-15

    The relaxant effect of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the vascular tree is well established but its influence and mechanism of action in gastrointestinal smooth muscle was hardly investigated. The influence of H(2)S on contractility in mouse gastric fundus was therefore examined. Sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS; H(2)S donor) was administered to prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha))-contracted circular muscle strips of mouse gastric fundus, before and after incubation with interfering drugs. NaHS caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the pre-contracted mouse gastric fundus strips. The K(+) channels blockers glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridin and barium chloride had no influence on the NaHS-induced relaxation. The relaxation by NaHS was also not influenced by L-NAME, ODQ and SQ 22536, inhibitors of the cGMP and cAMP pathway, by nerve blockers capsazepine, omega-conotoxin and tetrodotoxin or by several channel and receptor blockers (ouabain, nifedipine, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, ryanodine and thapsigargin). The myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) inhibitor calyculin-A reduced the NaHS-induced relaxation, but the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 had no influence. We show that NaHS is able to relax PGF(2alpha)-contracted mouse gastric fundus strips. The results suggest that in the mouse gastric fundus, H(2)S causes relaxation at least partially via activation of MLCP. PMID:19374871

  8. A mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene (MYL4) causes familial atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Orr, Nathan; Arnaout, Rima; Gula, Lorne J; Spears, Danna A; Leong-Sit, Peter; Li, Qiuju; Tarhuni, Wadea; Reischauer, Sven; Chauhan, Vijay S; Borkovich, Matthew; Uppal, Shaheen; Adler, Arnon; Coughlin, Shaun R; Stainier, Didier Y R; Gollob, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia, is a growing epidemic with substantial morbidity and economic burden. Mechanisms underlying vulnerability to AF remain poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective therapies. Recognizing mechanistic subtypes of AF may guide an individualized approach to patient management. Here, we describe a family with a previously unreported syndrome characterized by early-onset AF (age <35 years), conduction disease and signs of a primary atrial myopathy. Phenotypic penetrance was complete in all mutation carriers, although complete disease expressivity appears to be age-dependent. We show that this syndrome is caused by a novel, heterozygous p.Glu11Lys mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene MYL4. In zebrafish, mutant MYL4 leads to disruption of sarcomeric structure, atrial enlargement and electrical abnormalities associated with human AF. These findings describe the cause of a rare subtype of AF due to a primary, atrial-specific sarcomeric defect. PMID:27066836

  9. A mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene (MYL4) causes familial atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nathan; Arnaout, Rima; Gula, Lorne J.; Spears, Danna A.; Leong-Sit, Peter; Li, Qiuju; Tarhuni, Wadea; Reischauer, Sven; Chauhan, Vijay S.; Borkovich, Matthew; Uppal, Shaheen; Adler, Arnon; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Gollob, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia, is a growing epidemic with substantial morbidity and economic burden. Mechanisms underlying vulnerability to AF remain poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective therapies. Recognizing mechanistic subtypes of AF may guide an individualized approach to patient management. Here, we describe a family with a previously unreported syndrome characterized by early-onset AF (age <35 years), conduction disease and signs of a primary atrial myopathy. Phenotypic penetrance was complete in all mutation carriers, although complete disease expressivity appears to be age-dependent. We show that this syndrome is caused by a novel, heterozygous p.Glu11Lys mutation in the atrial-specific myosin light chain gene MYL4. In zebrafish, mutant MYL4 leads to disruption of sarcomeric structure, atrial enlargement and electrical abnormalities associated with human AF. These findings describe the cause of a rare subtype of AF due to a primary, atrial-specific sarcomeric defect. PMID:27066836

  10. Porcine myosin-VI: characterization of a new mammalian unconventional myosin

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned a new mammalian unconventional myosin, porcine myosin-VI from the proximal tubule cell line, LLC-PK1 (CL4). Porcine myosin-VI is highly homologous to Drosophila 95F myosin heavy chain, and together these two myosins comprise a sixth class of myosin motors. Myosin-VI exhibits ATP-sensitive actin-binding activities characteristic of myosins, and it is associated with a calmodulin light chain. Within LLC- PK1 cells, myosin-VI is soluble and does not associate with the major actin-containing domains. Within the kidney, however, myosin-VI is associated with sedimentable structures and specifically locates to the actin- and membrane-rich apical brush border domain of the proximal tubule cells. This motor was not enriched within the glomerulus, capillaries, or distal tubules. Myosin-VI associates with the proximal tubule cytoskeleton in an ATP-sensitive fashion, suggesting that this motor is associated with the actin cytoskeleton within the proximal tubule cells. Given the difference in association of myosin-VI with the apical cytoskeleton between LLC-PK1 cells and adult kidney, it is likely that this cell line does not fully differentiate to form functional proximal tubule cells. Myosin-VI may require the presence of additional elements, only found in vivo in proximal tubule cells, to properly locate to the apical domain. PMID:7929586

  11. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C; Schindler, Tony D; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears--speed up, slow down or switch directions--when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  12. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells1,2. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems3,4. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  13. [Estimation of destruction of necrotic myocardium with serial PYP SPECT images and serum myosin light chain I level].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Aizawa, T; Kato, K; Hosoi, H

    1992-02-01

    PYP SPECT images were underwent in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction 2-5 times in three weeks. PYP SPECT images were reconstructed as to include both vertebral images and myocardial images. Quantitative estimation of PYP images was performed by the ratio of maximal PYP myocardial uptake to maximal PYP vertebral uptake in the central sagittal images (%PYP). Disappearance of PYP images was defined as the day, when %PYP reached 50%. Normalization of serum myosin light chain I (LCI) level was defined as the day, when LCI level reached 2.5 ng/ml. %PYP decreased continuously and maximal PYP point remained at the same area. Shape of PYP images varied and diminished. In case of anterior wall infarction apical PYP uptake persisted longer than basal uptake. In case of inferior wall infarction basal PYP uptake persisted longer than apical uptake. The mean period from onset to the disappearance of PYP images was 9 +/- 3 days. Pattern of serial serum MB level was simple, however corresponding pattern of serial serum LCI level showed various types. The mean period from onset to the peak level was 4.1 +/- 1 day. Normalization of LCI level was 9.3 +/- 2.9 days. It showed that process of destruction of necrotic myocardium vary in each case. Weak relation was noted between disappearance of PYP images (DAY-PYP) and normalization of LCI level (DAY-LCI). DAY-PYP = 4.4 +/- 0.46 DAY-LCI (n = 13, r = 0.4). Quantitative PYP images were useful for detecting ongoing necrotic myocardium and serum LCI level was useful for estimating destruction of necrotic myocardium.2+ level were useful to study the process of destruction of necrotic myocardium. PMID:1532996

  14. Discrete effects of A57G-myosin essential light chain mutation associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Paulino, Ellena C.; Huang, Wenrui; Muthu, Priya; Liang, Jingsheng; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Rojas, Ana I.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The functional consequences of the familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy A57G (alanine-to-glycine) mutation in the myosin ventricular essential light chain (ELC) were assessed in vitro and in vivo using previously generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing A57G-ELC mutant vs. wild-type (WT) of human cardiac ELC and in recombinant A57G- or WT-protein-exchanged porcine cardiac muscle strips. Compared with the Tg-WT, there was a significant increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of force (ΔpCa50 ≅ 0.1) and an ∼1.3-fold decrease in maximal force per cross section of muscle observed in the mutant preparations. In addition, a significant increase in passive tension in response to stretch was monitored in Tg-A57G vs. Tg-WT strips indicating a mutation-induced myocardial stiffness. Consistently, the hearts of Tg-A57G mice demonstrated a high level of fibrosis and hypertrophy manifested by increased heart weight-to-body weight ratios and a decreased number of nuclei indicating an increase in the two-dimensional size of Tg-A57G vs. Tg-WT myocytes. Echocardiography examination showed a phenotype of eccentric hypertrophy in Tg-A57G mice, enhanced left ventricular (LV) cavity dimension without changes in LV posterior/anterior wall thickness. Invasive hemodynamics data revealed significantly increased end-systolic elastance, defined by the slope of the pressure-volume relationship, indicating a mutation-induced increase in cardiac contractility. Our results suggest that the A57G allele causes disease by means of a discrete modulation of myofilament function, increased Ca2+ sensitivity, and decreased maximal tension followed by compensatory hypertrophy and enhanced contractility. These and other contributing factors such as increased myocardial stiffness and fibrosis most likely activate cardiomyopathic signaling pathways leading to pathologic cardiac remodeling. PMID:23748425

  15. ALBUMIN CAUSES INCREASED MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN KINASE EXPRESSION IN ASTROCYTES VIA P38 MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Janet L.; Ralay Ranaivo, Hantamala; Patel, Fatima; Chrzaszcz, MaryAnn; Venkatesan, Charu; Wainwright, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) plays an important role in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton leading to disruption of vascular barrier integrity in multiple organs including the blood brain barrier (BBB) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). MLCK has been linked to transforming growth factor (TGF) and rho kinase signaling pathways, but the mechanisms regulating MLCK expression following TBI are not well understood. Albumin leaks into the brain parenchyma following TBI, activates glia and has been linked to TGF-β receptor signaling. We investigated the role of albumin in the increase in MLCK in astrocytes and the signaling pathways involved in this increase. Following midline closed-skull TBI in mice, there was a significant increase in MLCK-immunoreactive (IR) cells and albumin extravasation, which was prevented by treatment with the MLCK inhibitor ML-7. Using immunohistochemical methods, we identified the MCLK-IR cells as astrocytes. In primary astrocytes, exposure to albumin increased both isoforms of MLCK, 130 and 210. Inhibition of the TGF-β receptor partially prevented the albumin-induced increase in both isoforms, which was not prevented by inhibition of smad3. Inhibition of p38 MAPK, but not ERK, JNK or rho kinase also prevented this increase. These results are further evidence of a role of MCLK in the mechanisms of BBB compromise following TBI, and identify astrocytes as a cell type, in addition to endothelium in the BBB which express MLCK. These findings implicate albumin, acting through p38 MAPK, in a novel mechanism by which activation of MLCK following TBI may lead to compromise of the BBB. PMID:21360574

  16. Non–Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Isoform Is a Viable Molecular Target in Acute Inflammatory Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Moitra, Jaideep; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Sammani, Saad; Turner, Jerry R.; Chiang, Eddie T.; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Singleton, Patrick A.; Huang, Yong; Lussier, Yves A.; Watterson, D. Martin; Dudek, Steven M.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and mechanical ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), major causes of acute respiratory failure with elevated morbidity and mortality, are characterized by significant pulmonary inflammation and alveolar/vascular barrier dysfunction. Previous studies highlighted the role of the non–muscle myosin light chain kinase isoform (nmMLCK) as an essential element of the inflammatory response, with variants in the MYLK gene that contribute to ALI susceptibility. To define nmMLCK involvement further in acute inflammatory syndromes, we used two murine models of inflammatory lung injury, induced by either an intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS model) or mechanical ventilation with increased tidal volumes (the VILI model). Intravenous delivery of the membrane-permeant MLC kinase peptide inhibitor, PIK, produced a dose-dependent attenuation of both LPS-induced lung inflammation and VILI (∼50% reductions in alveolar/vascular permeability and leukocyte influx). Intravenous injections of nmMLCK silencing RNA, either directly or as cargo within angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) antibody–conjugated liposomes (to target the pulmonary vasculature selectively), decreased nmMLCK lung expression (∼70% reduction) and significantly attenuated LPS-induced and VILI-induced lung inflammation (∼40% reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage protein). Compared with wild-type mice, nmMLCK knockout mice were significantly protected from VILI, with significant reductions in VILI-induced gene expression in biological pathways such as nrf2-mediated oxidative stress, coagulation, p53-signaling, leukocyte extravasation, and IL-6–signaling. These studies validate nmMLCK as an attractive target for ameliorating the adverse effects of dysregulated lung inflammation. PMID:20139351

  17. Neonatal asphyxia induces the nitration of cardiac myosin light chain 2 that is associated with cardiac systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Doroszko, Adrian; Polewicz, Dorota; Cadete, Virgilio J J; Sawicka, Jolanta; Jones, Michelle; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Cheung, Po-Yin; Sawicki, Grzegorz

    2010-12-01

    Hypoxia followed by reoxygenation (H-R) observed during perinatal asphyxia is a serious complication with high mortality and morbidity rates that may cause adverse cardiovascular effects in neonates. Our aim was to determine if oxidative stress related to H-R induces peroxynitrite-dependent modifications of the cardiac contractile protein, myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MLC2), and whether this is associated with development of cardiac systolic dysfunction. Twelve newborn piglets were acutely instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and randomized to a control group ventilated with only atmospheric air or to the H-R study group exposed to alveolar normocapnic hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Afterward, animals were euthanized, and the hearts were harvested for biochemical analyses. Systolic function as well as cardiac MLC2 levels decreased in H-R animals, whereas nitrates and nitrotyrosine levels increased. Negative correlations between nitrates, nitrotyrosine, and MLC2 levels were observed. Moreover, H-R induced nitration of two tyrosine residues within the MLC2 protein. Similarly, in vitro exposure of MLC2 to peroxynitrite resulted in the nitration of tyrosine, which increased the susceptibility of MLC2 to subsequent degradation by matrix metalloproteinase 2. Substitution of this tyrosine with phenylalanine prevented the matrix metalloproteinase 2-dependent degradation of MLC2. In addition, a large decrease in MLC2 phosphorylation caused by H-R was observed. Oxidative stress related to asphyxia induces nitration of cardiac MLC2 protein and thus increases its degradation. This and a large decrease in MLC2 phosphorylation contribute to the development of systolic dysfunction. Inhibition of MLC2 nitration and/or direct inhibition of its degradation by MMP-2 could be potential therapeutic targets aiming at reduction of myocardial damage during resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns. PMID:20386496

  18. Is myosin light-chain phosphorylation a regulatory signal for the osmotic activation of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter?

    PubMed

    Di Ciano-Oliveira, Caterina; Lodyga, Monika; Fan, Lingzhi; Szászi, Katalin; Hosoya, Hiroshi; Rotstein, Ori D; Kapus, András

    2005-07-01

    Myosin light-chain (MLC) kinase (MLCK)-dependent increase in MLC phosphorylation has been proposed to be a key mediator of the hyperosmotic activation of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC). To address this hypothesis and to assess whether MLC phosphorylation plays a signaling or permissive role in NKCC regulation, we used pharmacological and genetic means to manipulate MLCK, MLC phosphorylation, or myosin ATPase activity and followed the impact of these alterations on the hypertonic stimulation of NKCC in porcine kidney tubular LLC-PK1 epithelial cells. We found that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 suppressed NKCC activity independently of MLC phosphorylation. Notably, ML-7 reduced both basal and hypertonically stimulated NKCC activity without influencing MLC phosphorylation under these conditions, and it inhibited NKCC activation by Cl- depletion, a treatment that did not increase MLC phosphorylation. Furthermore, prevention of the osmotically induced increase in MLC phosphorylation by viral induction of cells with a nonphosphorylatable, dominant negative MLC mutant (AA-MLC) did not affect the hypertonic activation of NKCC. Conversely, a constitutively active MLC mutant (DD-MLC) that mimics the diphosphorylated form neither stimulated isotonic nor potentiated hypertonic NKCC activity. Furthermore, a depolarization-induced increase in endogenous MLC phosphorylation failed to activate NKCC. However, complete abolition of basal MLC phosphorylation by K252a or the inhibition of myosin ATPase by blebbistatin significantly reduced the osmotic stimulation of NKCC without suppressing its basal or Cl- depletion-triggered activity. These results indicate that an increase in MLC phosphorylation is neither a sufficient nor a necessary signal to stimulate NKCC in tubular cells. However, basal myosin activity plays a permissive role in the optimal osmotic responsiveness of NKCC. PMID:15728707

  19. Identification and functional analysis of the essential and regulatory light chains of the only type II myosin Myo1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jianying; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Dravis, Christopher; Tcheperegine, Serguei E.; Drees, Becky; Bi, Erfei

    2004-01-01

    Cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves coordination between actomyosin ring contraction and septum formation and/or targeted membrane deposition. We show that Mlc1p, a light chain for Myo2p (type V myosin) and Iqg1p (IQGAP), is the essential light chain for Myo1p, the only type II myosin in S. cerevisiae. However, disruption or reduction of Mlc1p–Myo1p interaction by deleting the Mlc1p binding site on Myo1p or by a point mutation in MLC1, mlc1-93, did not cause any obvious defect in cytokinesis. In contrast, a different point mutation, mlc1-11, displayed defects in cytokinesis and in interactions with Myo2p and Iqg1p. These data suggest that the major function of the Mlc1p–Myo1p interaction is not to regulate Myo1p activity but that Mlc1p may interact with Myo1p, Iqg1p, and Myo2p to coordinate actin ring formation and targeted membrane deposition during cytokinesis. We also identify Mlc2p as the regulatory light chain for Myo1p and demonstrate its role in Myo1p ring disassembly, a function likely conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:15210731

  20. Protein kinase C enhances myosin light-chain kinase effects on force development and ATPase activity in rat single skinned cardiac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Clement, O; Puceat, M; Walsh, M P; Vassort, G

    1992-01-01

    Many neurohormones alter the force of cardiac contraction by variations in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. alpha 1-Adrenergic and muscarinic stimulations, rather, modify the sensitivity of contractile proteins to Ca(2+)-calmodulin-myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) complex induces a large increase in Ca2+ sensitivity (0.14 pCa unit) of these easily accessible myofilaments. This increase is further enhanced by up to 0.19 pCa unit when protein kinase C (PKC) is added together with MLCK. Similarly, the Ca2+ ATPase activity of skinned cells in suspension is increased in the presence of MLCK and further in the presence of both kinases. 32P-labelling and SDS/PAGE show that these changes are associated with light-chain 2 (LC2) phosphorylation together with phosphorylation of troponin I and troponin T when PKC is added. Although to a smaller extent than in smooth muscle, phosphorylation of cardiac myosin LC2 may be involved in the modulation of heart contractility. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1386218

  1. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Jianguo

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  2. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C of the 20,000-dalton light chain of myosin in intact and chemically skinned vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sutton, T A; Haeberle, J R

    1990-02-15

    In the present study we tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of the 20,000-dalton light chain subunit of smooth muscle myosin (LC20) by the calcium-activated and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C regulates contraction of chemically-permeabilized (glycerinated) porcine carotid artery smooth muscle. Purified protein kinase C and oleic acid were used to phosphorylate LC20 in glycerinated muscles in the presence of a CaEGTA/EGTA buffer system (pCa 8) to prevent activation of myosin light chain kinase. Phosphorylation of the light chain to 1.3 mol of PO4/mol of LC20 did not stimulate contraction. Tryptic digests of glycerinated carotid artery LC20 contained two major phosphopeptides which contained phosphoserine but not phosphothreonine. Incubation of glycerinated muscles with calcium (20 microM) and calmodulin (10 microM) resulted in contraction and LC20 phosphorylation to 1.1 mol of PO4/mol of LC20; tryptic digests of LC20 from these muscles contained a single phosphopeptide which could be distinguished by phosphopeptide mapping from the two phosphopeptides derived from muscles phosphorylated with protein kinase C. Further phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-activated muscles to 2.0 mol of PO4/mol of LC20, by incubation with protein kinase C, had no effect on either the level of isometric force or the lightly-loaded shortening velocity (after-load = 0.1 peak active force); removal of Ca2+ and calmodulin, but not protein kinase C and oleic acid, resulted in normal relaxation in spite of maintained phosphorylation to 1.2 mol of PO4/mol of LC20. Comparison of LC20 phosphopeptide maps from glycerinated muscles incubated with protein kinase C plus Ca2+/calmodulin (2.0 mol of PO4/mol of LC20) to maps from intact muscles stimulated with 10(-6) M phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (0.05 mol of PO4/mol of LC20) showed that the same three phosphopeptides were present in both the intact and glycerinated muscles. These findings show that phosphorylation of LC20 by protein kinase

  3. Identification of T. gondii Myosin Light Chain-1 as a Direct Target of TachypleginA-2, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Parasite Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Tran, Fanny; Pathak, Ravindra B.; Poupart, Séverine; Heaslip, Aoife T.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ward, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Motility of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays an important role in the parasite’s life cycle and virulence within animal and human hosts. Motility is driven by a myosin motor complex that is highly conserved across the Phylum Apicomplexa. Two key components of this complex are the class XIV unconventional myosin, TgMyoA, and its associated light chain, TgMLC1. We previously showed that treatment of parasites with a small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii invasion and motility, tachypleginA, induces an electrophoretic mobility shift of TgMLC1 that is associated with decreased myosin motor activity. However, the direct target(s) of tachypleginA and the molecular basis of the compound-induced TgMLC1 modification were unknown. We show here by “click” chemistry labelling that TgMLC1 is a direct and covalent target of an alkyne-derivatized analogue of tachypleginA. We also show that this analogue can covalently bind to model thiol substrates. The electrophoretic mobility shift induced by another structural analogue, tachypleginA-2, was associated with the formation of a 225.118 Da adduct on S57 and/or C58, and treatment with deuterated tachypleginA-2 confirmed that the adduct was derived from the compound itself. Recombinant TgMLC1 containing a C58S mutation (but not S57A) was refractory to click labelling and no longer exhibited a mobility shift in response to compound treatment, identifying C58 as the site of compound binding on TgMLC1. Finally, a knock-in parasite line expressing the C58S mutation showed decreased sensitivity to compound treatment in a quantitative 3D motility assay. These data strongly support a model in which tachypleginA and its analogues inhibit the motility of T. gondii by binding directly and covalently to C58 of TgMLC1, thereby causing a decrease in the activity of the parasite’s myosin motor. PMID:24892871

  4. Rho-kinase/myosin light chain kinase pathway plays a key role in the impairment of bile canaliculi dynamics induced by cholestatic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sharanek, Ahmad; Burban, Audrey; Burbank, Matthew; Le Guevel, Rémy; Li, Ruoya; Guillouzo, André; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis represents a frequent manifestation of drug-induced liver injury; however, the mechanisms underlying such injuries are poorly understood. In this study of human HepaRG and primary hepatocytes, we found that bile canaliculi (BC) underwent spontaneous contractions, which are essential for bile acid (BA) efflux and require alternations in myosin light chain (MLC2) phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Short exposure to 6 cholestatic compounds revealed that BC constriction and dilation were associated with disruptions in the ROCK/MLCK/myosin pathway. At the studied concentrations, cyclosporine A and chlorpromazine induced early ROCK activity, resulting in permanent MLC2 phosphorylation and BC constriction. However, fasudil reduced ROCK activity and caused rapid, substantial and permanent MLC2 dephosphorylation, leading to BC dilation. The remaining compounds (1-naphthyl isothiocyanate, deoxycholic acid and bosentan) caused BC dilation without modulating ROCK activity, although they were associated with a steady decrease in MLC2 phosphorylation via MLCK. These changes were associated with a common loss of BC contractions and failure of BA clearance. These results provide the first demonstration that cholestatic drugs alter BC dynamics by targeting the ROCK/MLCK pathway; in addition, they highlight new insights into the mechanisms underlying bile flow failure and can be used to identify new predictive biomarkers of drug-induced cholestasis. PMID:27169750

  5. Structure of the Small Dictyostelium discoideum Myosin Light Chain MlcB Provides Insights into MyoB IQ Motif Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Liburd, Janine; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W.; Munro, Kim; Miller, Emily; Denis, Chris M.; Spencer, Holly L.; Côté, Graham P.; Smith, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum MyoB is a class I myosin involved in the formation and retraction of membrane projections, cortical tension generation, membrane recycling, and phagosome maturation. The MyoB-specific, single-lobe EF-hand light chain MlcB binds the sole IQ motif of MyoB with submicromolar affinity in the absence and presence of Ca2+. However, the structural features of this novel myosin light chain and its interaction with its cognate IQ motif remain uncharacterized. Here, we describe the NMR-derived solution structure of apoMlcB, which displays a globular four-helix bundle. Helix 1 adopts a unique orientation when compared with the apo states of the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, S100B, and calbindin D9k. NMR-based chemical shift perturbation mapping identified a hydrophobic MyoB IQ binding surface that involves amino acid residues in helices I and IV and the functional N-terminal Ca2+ binding loop, a site that appears to be maintained when MlcB adopts the holo state. Complementary mutagenesis and binding studies indicated that residues Ile-701, Phe-705, and Trp-708 of the MyoB IQ motif are critical for recognition of MlcB, which together allowed the generation of a structural model of the apoMlcB-MyoB IQ complex. We conclude that the mode of IQ motif recognition by the novel single-lobe MlcB differs considerably from that of stereotypical bilobal light chains such as calmodulin. PMID:24790102

  6. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of the Human Long Myosin Light-Chain Kinase 1-Specific Domain IgCAM3

    SciTech Connect

    W Vallen Graham; A Magis; K Bailey; J Turner; D Ostrov

    2011-12-31

    Myosin light-chain kinase-dependent tight junction regulation is a critical event in inflammatory cytokine-induced increases in epithelial paracellular permeability. MLCK is expressed in human intestinal epithelium as two isoforms, long MLCK1 and long MLCK2, and MLCK1 is specifically localized to the tight junction, where it regulates paracellular permeability. The sole difference between these long MLCK splice variants is the presence of an immunoglobulin-like cell-adhesion molecule domain, IgCAM3, in MLCK1. To gain insight into the structure of the IgCAM3 domain, the IgCAM3 domain of MLCK1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution and were consistent with the primitive trigonal space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}.

  7. L-Type Calcium Channels Play a Critical Role in Maintaining Lens Transparency by Regulating Phosphorylation of Aquaporin-0 and Myosin Light Chain and Expression of Connexins

    PubMed Central

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; de Ridder, Gustaaf G.; Schey, Kevin L.; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular calcium is crucial for lens cytoarchitecture and transparency, however, the identity of specific channel proteins regulating calcium influx within the lens is not completely understood. Here we examined the expression and distribution profiles of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and explored their role in morphological integrity and transparency of the mouse lens, using cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunoblot, pharmacological inhibitors and immunofluorescence analyses. The results revealed that Ca (V) 1.2 and 1.3 channels are expressed and distributed in both the epithelium and cortical fiber cells in mouse lens. Inhibition of LTCCs with felodipine or nifedipine induces progressive cortical cataract formation with time, in association with decreased lens weight in ex-vivo mouse lenses. Histological analyses of felodipine treated lenses revealed extensive disorganization and swelling of cortical fiber cells resembling the phenotype reported for altered aquaporin-0 activity without detectable cytotoxic effects. Analysis of both soluble and membrane rich fractions from felodipine treated lenses by SDS-PAGE in conjunction with mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses revealed decreases in β-B1-crystallin, Hsp-90, spectrin and filensin. Significantly, loss of transparency in the felodipine treated lenses was preceded by an increase in aquaporin-0 serine-235 phosphorylation and levels of connexin-50, together with decreases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and the levels of 14-3-3ε, a phosphoprotein-binding regulatory protein. Felodipine treatment led to a significant increase in gene expression of connexin-50 and 46 in the mouse lens. Additionally, felodipine inhibition of LTCCs in primary cultures of mouse lens epithelial cells resulted in decreased intracellular calcium, and decreased actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, without detectable cytotoxic response. Taken together, these observations reveal a crucial

  8. Neuregulin1–β decreases interleukin–1β–induced RhoA activation, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and endothelial hyperpermeability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Limin; Ramirez, Servio H.; Andrews, Allison M.; Leung, Wendy; Itoh, Kanako; Wu, Jiang; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.; Lok, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is an endogenous growth factor with multiple functions in the embryonic and postnatal brain. The NRG1 gene is large and complex, transcribing more than twenty transmembrane proteins and generating a large number of isoforms in tissue and cell type-specific patterns. Within the brain, NRG1 functions have been studied most extensively in neurons and glia, as well as in the peripheral vasculature. Recently, NRG1 signaling has been found to be important in the function of brain microvascular endothelial cells, decreasing IL-1β-induced increases in endothelial permeability. In the current experiments, we have investigated the pathways through which the NRG1-β isoform acts on IL-1β-induced endothelial permeability. Our data show that NRG1-β increases barrier function, measured by transendothelial electrical resistance, and decreases IL-1β-induced hyperpermeability, measured by dextran-40 extravasation through a monolayer of brain microvascular endothelial cells plated on transwells. An investigation of key signaling proteins suggests that the effect of NRG1-β on endothelial permeability is mediated through RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation, events which affect filamentous actin morphology. In addition, AG825, an inhibitor of the erbB2-associated tyrosine kinase, reduces the effect of NRG1-β on IL-1β-induced RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data add to the evidence that NRG1-β signaling affects changes in the brain microvasculature in the setting of neuroinflammation. PMID:26438054

  9. Light-dependent gene activation in Aspergillus nidulans is strictly dependent on phytochrome and involves the interplay of phytochrome and white collar-regulated histone H3 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Hedtke, Maren; Rauscher, Stefan; Röhrig, Julian; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Yu, Zhenzhong; Fischer, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    The ability for light sensing is found from bacteria to humans but relies only on a small number of evolutionarily conserved photoreceptors. A large number of fungi react to light, mostly to blue light. Aspergillus nidulans also responds to red light using a phytochrome light sensor, FphA, for the control of hundreds of light-regulated genes. Here, we show that photoinduction of one light-induced gene, ccgA, occurs mainly through red light. Induction strictly depends on phytochrome and its histidine-kinase activity. Full light activation also depends on the Velvet protein, VeA. This putative transcription factor binds to the ccgA promoter in an fphA-dependent manner but independent of light. In addition, the blue light receptor LreA binds to the ccgA promoter in the dark but is released after blue or red light illumination and together with FphA modulates gene expression through histone H3 modification. LreA interacts with the acetyltransferase GcnE and with the histone deacetylase HdaA. ccgA induction is correlated to an increase of the acetylation level of lysine 9 in histone H3. Our results suggest regulation of red light-induced genes at the transcriptional level involving transcription factor(s) and epigenetic control through modulation of the acetylation level of histone H3. PMID:25980340

  10. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequences of the complementary DNAs to chicken skeletal muscle myosin two alkali light chain mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Nabeshima, Y; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Muramatsu, M; Ogata, K

    1982-01-01

    We report here the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of DNAs complementary to mRNAs for myosin alkali light chain of chicken embryo and adult leg skeletal muscle. pSMA2-1 contained an 818 base-pair insert that includes the entire coding region and 5' and 3' untranslated regions of A2 mRNA. pSMA1-1 contained a 848 base-pair insert that included the 3' untranslated region and almost all of the coding region except for the N-terminal 13 amino acid residues of the A1 light chain. The 741 nucleotide sequences of A1 and A2 mRNAs corresponding to C-terminal 141 amino acid residues and 3' untranslated regions were identical. The 5' terminal nucleotide sequences corresponding to N-terminal 35 amino acid residues of A1 chain were quite different from the sequences corresponding to N-terminal 8 amino acid residues and of the 5' untranslated region of A2 mRNA. These findings are discussed in relation to the structures of the genes for A1 and A2 mRNA. PMID:6128725

  11. Unconventional myosins acting unconventionally

    PubMed Central

    Woolner, Sarah; Bement, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional myosins are proteins that bind actin filaments in an ATP-regulated manner. Because of their association with membranes, they have traditionally been viewed as motors that function primarily to transport membranous organelles along actin filaments. Recently, however, a wealth of roles for myosins that are not obviously related to organelle transport have been uncovered, including organization of F-actin, mitotic spindle regulation and gene transcription. Furthermore, it has also become apparent that the motor domains of different myosins vary strikingly in their biophysical attributes. We suggest that the assumption that most unconventional myosins function primarily as organelle transporters might be misguided. PMID:19406643

  12. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional assessment of the myosin light polypeptide chain 2 (mylz2) promoter of farmed carp, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Ramya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das Mahapatra, Kanta; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2014-08-01

    We cloned the 5'-flanking region (1.2 kb) of a muscle-specific gene, encoding myosin light chain 2 polypeptide (mylz2) of a farmed carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). Sequence analysis using TRANSFAC-database search identified the consensus cis acting regulatory elements of TATA-box and E (CANNTG)-box, including the monocyte enhancer factor 2 motif, implying that it is likely to be a functional promoter. The proximal promoter (~620 bp) was highly homologous with that of Danio rerio (zebrafish) as compared to Channa striatus (snakehead murrel) counterparts and showed less identity with Sparus auratus (gilthead sea bream), Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat). Direct muscular (skeletal) injection of the construct containing the mylz2 promoter (0.6 kb) fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene showed efficient expression in L. rohita, validating its functional activity. Further, the functional activity was confirmed by the observation that this promoter drove GFP expression in the skeletal muscle of transgenic rohu. The promoter may have potential applications for value-addition in ornamental fishes and studying gene regulatory functions. PMID:24740361

  13. Melatonin alleviates myosin light chain kinase expression and activity via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway during atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Wan, Yufeng; Xu, Yuanhong; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Huaqing

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous indole compound with numerous biological activities that has been associated with atherosclerosis (AS). In the present study, rabbits were used as an AS model in order to investigate whether MLT affects endothelial cell permeability, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity and MLCK expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Expression and activity of MLCK were measured using western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and γ-32P-adenosine triphosphate incorporation. Endothelial permeability was detected using rhodamine phalloidin fluorescence staining. The phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in endothelial cells were also analyzed using western blot analysis. Atheromatous plaques were formed in rabbits with a high cholesterol diet; however, following treatment with MLT, the number and areas of atheromatous plaques were significantly reduced. In addition, MLT treatment reversed the increase of MLCK activity and expression that occurred in rabbits with high cholesterol intake. Furthermore, levels of phosphorylated ERK, JNK and p38 decreased following MLT treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that AS may be associated with increased MLCK expression and activity, which was reduced following treatment with MLT. The mechanism of action of MLT was thought to proceed via modulating MAPK pathway signal transduction; however, further studies are required in order to fully elucidate the exact regulatory mechanisms involved. PMID:25339116

  14. Circulating myosin light chain I levels after coronary reperfusion: a comparison with myocardial necrosis evaluated from single photon emission computed tomography with pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Mochizuki, M; Sakata, K; Takezawa, M; Matsumoto, Y; Yoshimura, M; Mori, N; Yokoyama, S; Hoshino, T; Kaburagi, T

    1992-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the influence of coronary reperfusion on the serial serum myosin light chain (LC)I levels and to evaluate the relationship between the peak LCI level and the infarct size calculated from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) in 11 patients who underwent coronary reperfusion. Blood was drawn before reperfusion, immediately after reperfusion, and once a day for 14 days, to estimate the time course of serum LCI release. The infarct size estimated by Tc-99m PYP ranged from 7.3 to 62.4 ml. The LCI levels obtained before reperfusion were less than 2.5 ng/ml but those obtained immediately after reperfusion were much higher. The value ranged from 2.7 to 9.7 ng/ml and that expressed as a percentage of peak LCI (% peak LCI) ranged from 19 to 83%. Collateral circulation, reperfusion arrhythmia and the degree of residual stenosis had no influence upon the % peak LCI. The correlation between peak LCI levels and SPECT-determined infarct size was good, with a correlation of 0.76 (p less than 0.01, regression line by least squares method y = 3.31 + 1.53x). Early serum LCI might be influenced by coronary reperfusion but the peak LCI value reflected acute myocardial necrosis in patients who underwent coronary reperfusion. PMID:1387796

  15. The Rho-GTPase effector ROCK regulates meiotic maturation of the bovine oocyte via myosin light chain phosphorylation and cofilin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Rim; Xu, Yong-Nan; Jo, Yu-Jin; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Oocyte meiosis involves a unique asymmetric division involving spindle movement from the central cytoplasm to the cortex, followed by polar body extrusion. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector involved in various cellular functions in somatic cells as well as oocyte meiosis. ROCK was previously shown to promote actin organization by phosphorylating several downstream targets, including LIM domain kinase (LIMK), phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin), and myosin light chain (MLC). In this study, we investigated the roles of ROCK and MLC during bovine oocyte meiosis. We found that ROCK was localized around the nucleus at the oocyte's germinal-vesicle (GV) stage, but spreads to the rest of the cytoplasm in later developmental stages. On the other hand, phosphorylated MLC (p-MLC) localized at the cortex, and its abundance decreased by the metaphase-II stage. Disrupting ROCK activity, via RNAi or the chemical inhibitor Y-27632, blocked both cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion. ROCK inhibition also resulted in decreased cortical actin, p-cofilin, and p-MLC levels. Similar to the phenotype associated with inhibition of ROCK activity, inhibition of MLC kinase by the chemical inhibitor ML-7 caused defects in polar body extrusion. Collectively, our results suggest that the ROCK/MLC/actomyosin as well as ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathways regulate meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during bovine oocyte maturation. PMID:26175189

  16. Vasoactivity of Rucaparib, a PARP-1 Inhibitor, is a Complex Process that Involves Myosin Light Chain Kinase, P2 Receptors, and PARP Itself

    PubMed Central

    McCrudden, Cian M.; O’Rourke, Martin G.; Cherry, Kim E.; Yuen, Hiu-Fung; O’Rourke, Declan; Babur, Muhammad; Telfer, Brian A.; Thomas, Huw D.; Keane, Patrick; Nambirajan, Thiagarajan; Hagan, Chris; O’Sullivan, Joe M.; Shaw, Chris; Williams, Kaye J.; Curtin, Nicola J.; Hirst, David G.; Robson, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), as monotherapy or to supplement the potencies of other agents, is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. We previously reported that the first PARP inhibitor to enter clinical trial, rucaparib (AG014699), induced vasodilation in vivo in xenografts, potentiating response to temozolomide. We now report that rucaparib inhibits the activity of the muscle contraction mediator myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) 10-fold more potently than its commercially available inhibitor ML-9. Moreover, rucaparib produces additive relaxation above the maximal degree achievable with ML-9, suggesting that MLCK inhibition is not solely responsible for dilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis using L-NMMA also failed to impact rucaparib’s activity. Rucaparib contains the nicotinamide pharmacophore, suggesting it may inhibit other NAD+-dependent processes. NAD+ exerts P2 purinergic receptor-dependent inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. Indiscriminate blockade of the P2 purinergic receptors with suramin abrogated rucaparib-induced vasodilation in rat arterial tissue without affecting ML-9-evoked dilation, although the specific receptor subtypes responsible have not been unequivocally identified. Furthermore, dorsal window chamber and real time tumor vessel perfusion analyses in PARP-1-/- mice indicate a potential role for PARP in dilation of tumor-recruited vessels. Finally, rucaparib provoked relaxation in 70% of patient-derived tumor-associated vessels. These data provide tantalising evidence of the complexity of the mechanism underlying rucaparib-mediated vasodilation. PMID:25689628

  17. Vasoactivity of rucaparib, a PARP-1 inhibitor, is a complex process that involves myosin light chain kinase, P2 receptors, and PARP itself.

    PubMed

    McCrudden, Cian M; O'Rourke, Martin G; Cherry, Kim E; Yuen, Hiu-Fung; O'Rourke, Declan; Babur, Muhammad; Telfer, Brian A; Thomas, Huw D; Keane, Patrick; Nambirajan, Thiagarajan; Hagan, Chris; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Shaw, Chris; Williams, Kaye J; Curtin, Nicola J; Hirst, David G; Robson, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), as monotherapy or to supplement the potencies of other agents, is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. We previously reported that the first PARP inhibitor to enter clinical trial, rucaparib (AG014699), induced vasodilation in vivo in xenografts, potentiating response to temozolomide. We now report that rucaparib inhibits the activity of the muscle contraction mediator myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) 10-fold more potently than its commercially available inhibitor ML-9. Moreover, rucaparib produces additive relaxation above the maximal degree achievable with ML-9, suggesting that MLCK inhibition is not solely responsible for dilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis using L-NMMA also failed to impact rucaparib's activity. Rucaparib contains the nicotinamide pharmacophore, suggesting it may inhibit other NAD+-dependent processes. NAD+ exerts P2 purinergic receptor-dependent inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. Indiscriminate blockade of the P2 purinergic receptors with suramin abrogated rucaparib-induced vasodilation in rat arterial tissue without affecting ML-9-evoked dilation, although the specific receptor subtypes responsible have not been unequivocally identified. Furthermore, dorsal window chamber and real time tumor vessel perfusion analyses in PARP-1-/- mice indicate a potential role for PARP in dilation of tumor-recruited vessels. Finally, rucaparib provoked relaxation in 70% of patient-derived tumor-associated vessels. These data provide tantalising evidence of the complexity of the mechanism underlying rucaparib-mediated vasodilation. PMID:25689628

  18. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  19. Myosin VI is a processive motor with a large step size

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Ronald S.; Rice, Sarah E.; Wells, Amber L.; Purcell, Thomas J.; Spudich, James A.; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Myosin VI is a molecular motor involved in intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. To carry out its cellular functions myosin VI moves toward the pointed end of actin, backward in relation to all other characterized myosins. Myosin V, a motor that moves toward the barbed end of actin, is processive, undergoing multiple catalytic cycles and mechanical advances before it releases from actin. Here we show that myosin VI is also processive by using single molecule motility and optical trapping experiments. Remarkably, myosin VI takes much larger steps than expected, based on a simple lever-arm mechanism, for a myosin with only one light chain in the lever-arm domain. Unlike other characterized myosins, myosin VI stepping is highly irregular with a broad distribution of step sizes. PMID:11707568

  20. Myosins, Actin and Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kruppa, Antonina J; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2016-08-01

    Myosin motor proteins working together with the actin cytoskeleton drive a wide range of cellular processes. In this review, we focus on their roles in autophagy - the pathway the cell uses to ensure homeostasis by targeting pathogens, misfolded proteins and damaged organelles for degradation. The actin cytoskeleton regulated by a host of nucleating, anchoring and stabilizing proteins provides the filament network for the delivery of essential membrane vesicles from different cellular compartments to the autophagosome. Actin networks have also been implicated in structurally supporting the expanding phagophore, moving autophagosomes and enabling efficient fusion with the lysosome. Only a few myosins have so far been shown to play a role in autophagy. Non-muscle myosin IIA functions in the early stages delivering membrane for the initial formation of the autophagosome, whereas myosin IC and myosin VI are involved in the final stages providing specific membranes for autophagosome maturation and its fusion with the lysosome. PMID:27146966

  1. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  2. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin “hinge” region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length. PMID:19450484

  3. Modulation of myosin filament activation by telokin in smooth muscle liberation of myosin kinase and phosphatase from supramolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Sobieszek, Apolinary; Andruchov, Oleg Y; Grabarek, Zenon; Kulikova, Natalia; Liebetrau, Claudia; Matusovsky, Oleg S

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of telokin action on reversible phosphorylation of turkey gizzard myosin was investigated using a native-like filamentous myosin. This myosin contained endogenous calmodulin (CaM) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) at a molar ratio to myosin of about 1 to 40 or less depending on the initial extractions conditions. These levels were sufficient to fully phosphorylate myosin within 20-40 s or less after addition of [gamma-32P]ATP, but when the ATP was depleted, they became dephosphorylated indicating the presence of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Addition of telokin at the 1 to 1 or higher molar ratio to myosin caused a three- to five-fold inhibition of the initial phosphorylation rates (without reduction of the overall extent of phosphorylation) and produced a similar increase in the rate of dephosphorylation. The inhibition was also observed for myosin filaments free of MLCK and CaM together with constitutively active MLCKs produced by digestion, or by expression of a truncated mammalian kinase as well as for the wild-type enzyme. Thus, neither N- nor C-terminal of MLCK was necessary for interaction of myosin with telokin and the inhibition resulted from telokin-induced change of myosin head configuration within the filament that prevented their ordered, paracrystaline-like, aggregation. Sedimentation of the filamentous myosin in glycerol gradients showed that this change made the filaments less compact and facilitated release of the endogenous MLCK/CaM complex. For a mixture of the filaments with or without the complex, the configuration change resulted in an increase of the phosphorylation rate but not in its inhibition. The increase of the rate resulting from the liberation of the complex was also observed in mixtures of the filamentous myosin with added isolated regulatory light chain (ReLC) or soluble myosin head subfragment. This observation reinforces the above conclusions. The acceleration of the MLCP activity by telokin was shown to

  4. PKC activation increases Ca2+ sensitivity of permeabilized lymphatic muscle via myosin light chain 20 phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Patrick J.; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna V.; Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Wang, Wei; Davis, Michael J.; Zawieja, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The contractile activity of muscle cells lining the walls of collecting lymphatics is responsible for generating and regulating flow within the lymphatic system. Activation of PKC signaling contributes to the regulation of smooth muscle contraction by enhancing sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+. It is currently unknown whether PKC signaling contributes to the regulation of lymphatic muscle contraction. We hypothesized that the activation of PKC signaling would increase the sensitivity of the lymphatic myofilament to Ca2+. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of PKC activation with phorbol esters [PMA or phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu)] on the contractile behavior of α-toxin-permeabilized rat mesenteric and cervical lymphatics or the thoracic duct. The addition of PMA or PDBu induced a significant increase in the contractile force of submaximally activated α-toxin-permeabilized lymphatic muscle independent of a change in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and the Ca2+-force relationship of lymphatic muscle was significantly left shifted, indicating greater myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Phorbol esters increased the maximal rate of force development, whereas the rate of relaxation was reduced. Western blot and immunohistochemistry data indicated that the initial rapid increase in tension development after stimulation by PDBu was associated with myosin light chain (MLC)20 phosphorylation; however, the later, steady-state Ca2+ sensitization of permeabilized lymphatic muscle was not associated with increased phosphorylation of MLC20 at Ser19, 17-kDa C-kinase-potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor at Thr38, or caldesmon at Ser789. Thus, these data indicate that PKC-dependent Ca2+ sensitization of lymphatic muscle may involve MLC20 phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanism(s). PMID:24414065

  5. EFIA/YB-1 is a component of cardiac HF-1A binding activity and positively regulates transcription of the myosin light-chain 2v gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Y; Chien, K R

    1995-01-01

    Transient assays in cultured ventricular muscle cells and studies in transgenic mice have identified two adjacent regulatory elements (HF-1a and HF-1b/MEF-2) as required to maintain ventricular chamber-specific expression of the myosin light-chain 2v (MLC-2v) gene. A rat neonatal heart cDNA library was screened with an HF-1a binding site, resulting in the isolation of EFIA, the rat homolog of human YB-1. Purified recombinant EFIA/YB-1 protein binds to the HF-1a site in a sequence-specific manner and contacts a subset of the HF-1a contact points made by the cardiac nuclear factor(s). The HF-1a sequence contains AGTGG, which is highly homologous to the inverted CCAAT core of the EFIA/YB-1 binding sites and is found to be essential for binding of the recombinant EFIA/YB-1. Antiserum against Xenopus YB-3 (100% identical in the DNA binding domain and 89% identical in overall amino acid sequence to rat EFIA) can specifically abolish a component of the endogenous HF-1a complex in the rat cardiac myocyte nuclear extracts. In cotransfection assays, EFIA/YB-1 increased 250-bp MLC-2v promoter activity by 3.4-fold specifically in the cardiac cell context and in an HF-1a site-dependent manner. EFIA/YB-1 complexes with an unknown protein in cardiac myocyte nuclear extracts to form the endogenous HF-1a binding activity. Immunocoprecipitation revealed that EFIA/YB-1 has a major associated protein of approximately 30 kDa (p30) in cardiac muscle cells. This study suggests that EFIA/YB-1, together with the partner p30, binds to the HF-1a site and, in conjunction with HF-1b/MEF-2, mediates ventricular chamber-specific expression of the MLC-2v gene. PMID:7760795

  6. Repression of the cardiac myosin light chain‐2 gene in skeletal muscle requires site‐specific association of antithetic regulator, Nished, and HDACs

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sumy; Galatioto, Josephine; Mascareno, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The transcriptional activation mechanisms that regulate tissue‐specific expression of cardiac muscle genes have been extensively investigated, but little is known of the regulatory events involved in repression of cardiac‐specific genes in non‐cardiac cells. We have previously reported that Nished, a ubiquitous transcription factor, interacts with a positive sequence element, the Intron Regulatory Element (IRE) as well as a negatively acting element, the Cardiac‐Specific Sequence (CSS), in myosin light chain‐2 (MLC2v) gene to promote activation and repression of the gene in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells respectively. Here, we show that the negative regulation of cardiac MLC2v gene in skeletal muscle cells is mediated via the interaction of Nished with histone deacetylase (HDAC) co‐repressor. Treatment of cells with the HDAC inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), alleviates the repressor activity of Nished in a dose‐dependent manner. Co‐transfection studies in primary muscle cells in culture and in Nished expressing stable skeletal muscle cell line demonstrate that Nished down‐regulates the cardiac MLC2 gene expression when its association is restricted to CSS alone. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest that the CSS‐mediated repression of cardiac MLC2v gene in skeletal muscle cells excludes the participation of the positive element IRE despite the presence of an identical Nished binding site. Taken together, it appears that the negative control of MLC2v transcription is based on a dual mode of regulations, one that affords inaccessibility of IRE to Nished and second that promotes the formation of the transcription repression complex at the inhibitory CSS site to silence the cardiac gene in skeletal muscle cell. PMID:19604314

  7. Sp1-mediated nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase expression and enhanced activity in vascular endothelial growth factor–induced vascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the important role played by the nonmuscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in vascular barrier regulation and the implication of both nmMLCK and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the role played by nmMLCK in VEGF-induced vascular permeability is poorly understood. In this study, the role played by nmMLCK in VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability was investigated. Human lung endothelial cell barrier integrity in response to VEGF is examined in both the absence and the presence of nmMLCK small interfering RNAs. Levels of nmMLCK messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and promoter activity expression were monitored after VEGF stimulation in lung endothelial cells. nmMYLK promoter activity was assessed using nmMYLK promoter luciferase reporter constructs with a series of nested deletions. nmMYLK transcriptional regulation was further characterized by examination of a key transcriptional factor. nmMLCK plays an important role in VEGF-induced permeability. We found that activation of the VEGF signaling pathway in lung endothelial cells increases MYLK gene product at both mRNA and protein levels. Increased nmMLCK mRNA and protein expression is a result of increased nmMYLK promoter activity, regulated in part by binding of the Sp1 transcription factor on triggering by the VEGF signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that MYLK is an important ARDS candidate gene and a therapeutic target that is highly influenced by excessive VEGF concentrations in the inflamed lung. PMID:26697178

  8. Ocular Inflammation and Corneal Permeability Alteration by Benzalkonium Chloride in Rats: A Protective Effect of a Myosin Light Chain Kinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Droy-Lefaix, Marie Thérèse; Bueno, Lionel; Caron, Philippe; Belot, Eric; Roche, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of an ophthalmic eyedrop preparation containing a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, ML-7, in the treatment of ocular surface. The local protective effect on the inflammation and the increase of corneal permeability induced by benzalkonium (BAK) was evaluated. Methods. An ocular instillation of 10 μL BAK at a concentration of 0.1% in PBS was performed on rats. The eyes were rinsed with sterilized water, 10 minutes after BAK preceded by instillation at T −24, −12, and −0.5 hours of 10 μL of ML-7: 100 μg (10 μL) into a gel form vehicle. All animals were sacrificed 6 hours after BAK instillation. The eyes were isolated for study in a masked manner. The ocular surface inflammation was assessed by measuring the inflammatory cell infiltration by a histologic quantitative analysis and for total ocular myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The tight junction permeability was tested. Results. Instillation of 0.1% BAK increased the inflammation of the eye. The quantitative analysis showed an increase in the number of eosinophil and neutrophil polynuclears, and MPO activity. Pretreatment with ML-7 reduced inflammation (P < 0.05). The vehicle alone produced no notable effects. BAK instillation also thickened the fluorescent corneal front on frozen sections, indicating an increase of tight junction permeability. Pretreatment with ML-7 suppressed BAK-induced alterations of paracellular permeability while the vehicle had no visible effects. Conclusions. Our study indicates that the inhibition of corneal cytoskeleton contraction by an MLCK inhibitor prevents BAK-induced ocular inflammatory response, and that ML-7 may be a new and original preparation in the treatment of ocular surface pathologies. PMID:23518768

  9. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  10. Movement of scallop myosin on Nitella actin filaments: regulation by calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Vale, R D; Szent-Gyorgyi, A G; Sheetz, M P

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine if Ca2+ regulates scallop myosin movement on actin, we have measured motility of scallop myosin along actin filaments using a direct visual assay. This procedure consists of covalently linking myosin to 1-micron beads and pipetting them onto a parallel array of actin filaments located on the cytoplasmic face of a Nitella internodal cell. In the absence of Ca2+, scallop myosin-coated beads exhibit no directed motion; however, in the presence of pCa2+ of greater than 5.84, these beads undergo linear translocations with average velocities of 2.0 micron/s. This Ca2+ -sensitive motility requires the presence of regulatory light chains on the scallop myosin. Removal of regulatory light chains with 10 mM EDTA produces a "desensitized" myosin, no longer sensitive to Ca2+, which moves at rates of 0.09-0.3 micron in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Readdition of regulatory light chains to preparations of desensitized myosin once again confers Ca2+-sensitive motility. The Ca2+ dependence of scallop-myosin motility shows a sharp transition, consistent with the Ca2+ activation sensitivity of the actin-activated ATPase. Furthermore, relative rates of movement of calcium-regulated myosins from various molluscan species are consistent with their respective rates of ATP hydrolysis. Thus, myosin motility along actin filaments provides a sensitive and direct assay of myosin activity and is suitable for studying myosin regulation. PMID:6238334

  11. Definite differences between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction as revealed using antibodies to myosin head.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Abe, Takahiro; Kimura, Kazushige; Saeki, Yasutake; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2014-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from attachment-detachment cycles between myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and actin filaments. It is generally believed that a myosin head first attaches to actin, undergoes conformational changes to produce force and motion in muscle, and then detaches from actin. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanism of myosin head conformational changes still remains to be a matter for debate and speculation. The myosin head consists of catalytic (CAD), converter (CVD) and lever arm (LD) domains. To give information about the role of these domains in the myosin head performance, we have examined the effect of three site-directed antibodies to the myosin head on in vitro ATP-dependent actin-myosin sliding and Ca2+-activated contraction of muscle fibers. Antibody 1, attaching to junctional peptide between 50K and 20K heavy chain segments in the CAD, exhibited appreciable effects neither on in vitro actin-myosin sliding nor muscle fiber contraction. Since antibody 1 covers actin-binding sites of the CAD, one interpretation of this result is that rigor actin-myosin linkage is absent or at most a transient intermediate in physiological actin-myosin cycling. Antibody 2, attaching to reactive lysine residue in the CVD, showed a marked inhibitory effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding without changing actin-activated myosin head (S1) ATPase activity, while it showed no appreciable effect on muscle contraction. Antibody 3, attaching to two peptides of regulatory light chains in the LD, had no significant effect on in vitro actin-myosin sliding, while it reduced force development in muscle fibers without changing MgATPase activity. The above definite differences in the effect of antibodies 2 and 3 between in vitro actin-myosin sliding and muscle contraction can be explained by difference in experimental conditions; in the former, myosin heads are randomly oriented on a glass surface, while in the latter myosin heads are regularly

  12. Effects of proteolysis on the adenosinetriphosphatase activities of thymus myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, N.D.; Wagner, P.D.

    1987-07-28

    Limited proteolysis was used to identify regions on the heavy chains of calf thymus myosin which may be involved in ATP and actin binding. Assignments of the various proteolytic fragments to different parts of the myosin heavy chain were based on solubility, gel filtration, electron microscopy, and binding of /sup 32/P-labeled regulatory light chains. Chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved within the head of thymus myosin to give a 70,000-dalton N-terminal fragment and a 140,000-dalton C-terminal fragment. These two fragments did not dissociate under nondenaturing conditions. Cleavage within the myosin tail to give heavy meromyosin occurred more slowly. Cleavage at the site 70,000 daltons from the N-terminus of the heavy chain caused about a 30-fold decrease in the actin concentration required to achieve half-maximal stimulation of the magnesium-adenosinetriphosphatase (Mg-ATPase) activity of unphosphorylated thymus myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of this digested myosin was only slightly affected by light chain phosphorylation. Actin inhibited the cleavage at this site by chymotrypsin. In the presence of ATP, chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain at an additional site about 4000 daltons from the N-terminus. Cleavage at this site caused a 2-fold increase in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-ATPase activity and 3-fold decreases in the Ca/sup 2 +/- and Mg-ATPase activities of thymus myosin. Thus, cleavage at the N-terminus of thymus myosin was affected by ATP, and this cleavage altered ATPase activity. Papain cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain about 94,000 daltons from the N-terminus to give subfragment 1. Although this subfragment 1 contained intact light chains, its actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by light chain phosphorylation.

  13. Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML7 improves vascular endothelial dysfunction via tight junction regulation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaobian; Wan, Yufeng; Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Huaqing; Wang, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial permeability is increased in diet‑induced AS. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze whether the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML7 is able to improve VED and AS by regulating the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens (ZO)‑1 and occludin via mechanisms involving MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in high‑fat diet‑fed rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, AS group and ML7 group. The rabbits were fed a standard diet (control group), a high‑fat diet (AS group) or a high‑fat diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg/day ML7 (ML7 group). After 12 weeks, endothelium‑dependent relaxation and endothelium‑independent relaxation were measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Administration of a high‑fat diet significantly increased the levels of serum lipids and inflammatory markers in the rabbits in the AS group, as compared with those in the rabbits in the control group. Furthermore, a high‑fat diet contributed to the formation of a typical atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an increase in endothelial permeability and VED. These symptoms of AS were significantly improved following treatment with ML7, as demonstrated in the ML7 group. Hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical staining indicated that ML7 was able to decrease the expression of MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in the arterial wall of rabbits fed a high‑fat diet. A similar change was observed for the TJ proteins ZO‑1 and occludin. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that ML7 increased the expression levels of occludin in the precipitate, but reduced its expression in the supernatant of lysed aortas. These results indicated that occludin, which is a dynamic protein at the TJ

  14. Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML7 improves vascular endothelial dysfunction via tight junction regulation in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIAOWEN; WANG, XIAOBIAN; WAN, YUFENG; ZHOU, QING; ZHU, HUAQING; WANG, YUAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial permeability is increased in diet-induced AS. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze whether the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML7 is able to improve VED and AS by regulating the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin via mechanisms involving MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in high-fat diet-fed rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, AS group and ML7 group. The rabbits were fed a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (AS group) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 1 mg/kg/day ML7 (ML7 group). After 12 weeks, endothelium-dependent relaxation and endothelium-independent relaxation were measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Administration of a high-fat diet significantly increased the levels of serum lipids and inflammatory markers in the rabbits in the AS group, as compared with those in the rabbits in the control group. Furthermore, a high-fat diet contributed to the formation of a typical atherosclerotic plaque, as well as an increase in endothelial permeability and VED. These symptoms of AS were significantly improved following treatment with ML7, as demonstrated in the ML7 group. Hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical staining indicated that ML7 was able to decrease the expression of MLCK and MLC phosphorylation in the arterial wall of rabbits fed a high-fat diet. A similar change was observed for the TJ proteins ZO-1 and occludin. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that ML7 increased the expression levels of occludin in the precipitate, but reduced its expression in the supernatant of lysed aortas. These results indicated that occludin, which is a dynamic protein at the TJ, is associated with

  15. Deletion of 1-43 amino acids in cardiac myosin essential light chain blunts length dependency of Ca(2+) sensitivity and cross-bridge detachment kinetics.

    PubMed

    Michael, John Jeshurun; Gollapudi, Sampath K; Ford, Steven J; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Chandra, Murali

    2013-01-15

    The role of cardiac myosin essential light chain (ELC) in the sarcomere length (SL) dependency of myofilament contractility is unknown. Therefore, mechanical and dynamic contractile properties were measured at SL 1.9 and 2.2 μm in cardiac muscle fibers from two groups of transgenic (Tg) mice: 1) Tg-wild-type (WT) mice that expressed WT human ventricular ELC and 2) Tg-Δ43 mice that expressed a mutant ELC lacking 1-43 amino acids. In agreement with previous studies, Ca(2+)-activated maximal tension decreased significantly in Tg-Δ43 fibers. pCa(50) (-log(10) [Ca(2+)](free) required for half maximal activation) values at SL of 1.9 μm were 5.64 ± 0.02 and 5.70 ± 0.02 in Tg-WT and Tg-Δ43 fibers, respectively. pCa(50) values at SL of 2.2 μm were 5.70 ± 0.01 and 5.71 ± 0.01 in Tg-WT and Tg-Δ43 fibers, respectively. The SL-mediated increase in the pCa(50) value was statistically significant only in Tg-WT fibers (P < 0.01), indicating that the SL dependency of myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity was blunted in Tg-Δ43 fibers. The SL dependency of cross-bridge (XB) detachment kinetics was also blunted in Tg-Δ43 fibers because the decrease in XB detachment kinetics was significant (P < 0.001) only at SL 1.9 μm. Thus the increased XB dwell time at the short SL augments Ca(2+) sensitivity at short SL and thus blunts SL-mediated increase in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Our data suggest that the NH(2)-terminal extension of cardiac ELC not only augments the amplitude of force generation, but it also may play a role in mediating the SL dependency of XB detachment kinetics and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. PMID:23144314

  16. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  17. In vivo myosin step-size from zebrafish skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ajtai, Katalin; Sun, Xiaojing; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Muscle myosins transduce ATP free energy into actin displacement to power contraction. In vivo, myosin side chains are modified post-translationally under native conditions, potentially impacting function. Single myosin detection provides the ‘bottom-up’ myosin characterization probing basic mechanisms without ambiguities inherent to ensemble observation. Macroscopic muscle physiological experimentation provides the definitive ‘top-down’ phenotype characterizations that are the concerns in translational medicine. In vivo single myosin detection in muscle from zebrafish embryo models for human muscle fulfils ambitions for both bottom-up and top-down experimentation. A photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in transgenic zebrafish skeletal muscle specifically modifies the myosin lever-arm. Strychnine induces the simultaneous contraction of the bilateral tail muscles in a live embryo, causing them to be isometric while active. Highly inclined thin illumination excites the GFP tag of single lever-arms and its super-resolution orientation is measured from an active isometric muscle over a time sequence covering many transduction cycles. Consecutive frame lever-arm angular displacement converts to step-size by its product with the estimated lever-arm length. About 17% of the active myosin steps that fall between 2 and 7 nm are implicated as powerstrokes because they are beyond displacements detected from either relaxed or ATP-depleted (rigor) muscle. PMID:27249818

  18. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made. PMID:21281603

  19. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Tarantula Myosin Filaments Suggests How Phosphorylation May Regulate Myosin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Wriggers, Willy; Pinto, Antonio; Bártoli, Fulvia; Salazar, Leiría; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger; Padrón, Raúl

    2008-01-01

    Summary Muscle contraction involves the interaction of the myosin heads of the thick filaments with actin subunits of the thin filaments. Relaxation occurs when this interaction is blocked by molecular switches on these filaments. In many muscles, myosin-linked regulation involves phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chains (RLC). Electron microscopy of vertebrate smooth muscle myosin molecules (regulated by phosphorylation) has provided insight into the relaxed structure, revealing that myosin is switched off by intramolecular interactions between its two heads, the free-head and the blocked head. Three-dimensional reconstruction of frozen-hydrated specimens reveals that this asymmetric head interaction is also present in native thick filaments of tarantula striated muscle. Our goal here has been to elucidate the structural features of the tarantula filament involved in phosphorylation-based regulation. A new reconstruction reveals intra- and intermolecular myosin interactions in addition to those seen previously. To help interpret the interactions, we sequenced the tarantula RLC, and fitted to the reconstruction an atomic model of the myosin head that included the predicted RLC atomic structure and an S2 crystal structure. The fitting suggests an intramolecular interaction between the cardiomyopathy loop of the free-head and its own S2 and two intermolecular interactions—between the cardio-loop of the free head and the ELC of the blocked head, and between the Leu-305 - Gln-327 “interaction loop” (loop I) of the free-head and the N-terminal fragment of the RLC of the blocked-head. These interactions, added to those previously described, would help to switch off the thick filament. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest how phosphorylation could increase the helical content of the RLC N-terminus, weakening these interactions, thus releasing both heads and activating the thick filament. PMID:18951904

  20. The Conformation of Myosin Heads in Relaxed Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Myosin-Based Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Luca; Huang, Zhe; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-08-18

    In isolated thick filaments from many types of muscle, the two head domains of each myosin molecule are folded back against the filament backbone in a conformation called the interacting heads motif (IHM) in which actin interaction is inhibited. This conformation is present in resting skeletal muscle, but it is not known how exit from the IHM state is achieved during muscle activation. Here, we investigated this by measuring the in situ conformation of the light chain domain of the myosin heads in relaxed demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle using fluorescence polarization from bifunctional rhodamine probes at four sites on the C-terminal lobe of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The order parameter 〈P2〉 describing probe orientation with respect to the filament axis had a roughly sigmoidal dependence on temperature in relaxing conditions, with a half-maximal change at ∼19°C. Either lattice compression by 5% dextran T500 or addition of 25 μM blebbistatin decreased the transition temperature to ∼14°C. Maximum entropy analysis revealed three preferred orientations of the myosin RLC region at 25°C and above, two with its long axis roughly parallel to the filament axis and one roughly perpendicular. The parallel orientations are similar to those of the so-called blocked and free heads in the IHM and are stabilized by either lattice compression or blebbistatin. In relaxed skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperature and myofilament lattice spacing, the majority of the myosin heads have their light chain domains in IHM-like conformations, with a minority in a distinct conformation with their RLC regions roughly perpendicular to the filament axis. None of these three orientation populations were present during active contraction. These results are consistent with a regulatory transition of the thick filament in skeletal muscle associated with a conformational equilibrium of the myosin heads. PMID:26287630

  1. The Conformation of Myosin Heads in Relaxed Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Myosin-Based Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Luca; Huang, Zhe; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    In isolated thick filaments from many types of muscle, the two head domains of each myosin molecule are folded back against the filament backbone in a conformation called the interacting heads motif (IHM) in which actin interaction is inhibited. This conformation is present in resting skeletal muscle, but it is not known how exit from the IHM state is achieved during muscle activation. Here, we investigated this by measuring the in situ conformation of the light chain domain of the myosin heads in relaxed demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle using fluorescence polarization from bifunctional rhodamine probes at four sites on the C-terminal lobe of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The order parameter 〈P2〉 describing probe orientation with respect to the filament axis had a roughly sigmoidal dependence on temperature in relaxing conditions, with a half-maximal change at ∼19°C. Either lattice compression by 5% dextran T500 or addition of 25 μM blebbistatin decreased the transition temperature to ∼14°C. Maximum entropy analysis revealed three preferred orientations of the myosin RLC region at 25°C and above, two with its long axis roughly parallel to the filament axis and one roughly perpendicular. The parallel orientations are similar to those of the so-called blocked and free heads in the IHM and are stabilized by either lattice compression or blebbistatin. In relaxed skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperature and myofilament lattice spacing, the majority of the myosin heads have their light chain domains in IHM-like conformations, with a minority in a distinct conformation with their RLC regions roughly perpendicular to the filament axis. None of these three orientation populations were present during active contraction. These results are consistent with a regulatory transition of the thick filament in skeletal muscle associated with a conformational equilibrium of the myosin heads. PMID:26287630

  2. The modulatory effect of MgATP on heterotrimeric smooth muscle myosin phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Sato, O; Ogawa, Y

    1999-10-01

    Regulation of the enzymatic activity of heterotrimeric smooth muscle myosin phosphatase (SMMP) by MgATP was examined using phosphorylated myosin (P-myosin), heavy meromyosin (P-HMM), subfragment-1 (P-S1), and 20 kDa myosin light chain (P-MLC(20)) as substrates. The activity toward P-myosin and P-HMM was dose-dependently reduced by MgATP, whereas that toward P-S1 or P-MLC(20) was unchanged. The reduction was mainly due to a decrease in the affinity of SMMP for the substrate with the unchanged maximum activity. This regulation is entirely new in the respect that the responsible molecule is the substrate, not SMMP. Because P-myosin derived from myosin stored in 50% glycerol at -20 degrees C was insensitive to MgATP, the proper integrity of P-myosin is required. Coexisting myosin did not affect this regulation, but it inhibited the SMMP activity in the absence of MgATP. With P-myosin, the enzyme activity was biphasically steeply dependent on the ionic strength. This requires that determinations are conducted with a fixed ionic strength. The Q(10) value was about 2, which was quite similar to that for myosin light chain kinase. These results suggest that the rate of dephosphorylation of P-myosin is lowered at rest, but that it may reach a value comparable to the rate of phosphorylation of myosin in the sarcoplasm with the increased level of P-myosin during muscle activation. This regulation by MgATP may underlie the "latch mechanism" in some respects. PMID:10502690

  3. Actin age orchestrates myosin-5 and myosin-6 run lengths.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Santos, Alicja; Kovar, David R; Rock, Ronald S

    2015-08-01

    Unlike a static and immobile skeleton, the actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymers that continuously turn over. In addition to generating mechanical forces and sensing mechanical deformation, dynamic F-actin networks serve as cellular tracks for myosin motor traffic. However, much of our mechanistic understanding of processive myosins comes from in vitro studies in which motility was studied on pre-assembled and artificially stabilized, static F-actin tracks. In this work, we examine the role of actin dynamics in single-molecule myosin motility using assembling F-actin and two highly processive motors, myosin-5 and myosin-6. These two myosins have distinct functions in the cell and travel in opposite directions along actin filaments [1-3]. Myosin-5 walks toward the barbed ends of F-actin, traveling to sites of actin polymerization at the cell periphery [4]. Myosin-6 walks toward the pointed end of F-actin [5], traveling toward the cell center along older segments of the actin filament. We find that myosin-5 takes 1.3- to 1.5-fold longer runs on ADP•Pi (young) F-actin, whereas myosin-6 takes 1.7- to 3.6-fold longer runs along ADP (old) F-actin. These results suggest that conformational differences between ADP•Pi and ADP F-actin tailor these myosins to walk farther toward their preferred actin filament end. Taken together, these experiments define a new mechanism by which myosin traffic may sort to different F-actin networks depending on filament age. PMID:26190073

  4. Sensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Detection of N-Acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase Based on a "Light-Switch" Molecule Combined with DNA Dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Yali; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-06-01

    Here, a novel "light-switch" molecule of Ru (II) complex ([Ru(dcbpy)2dppz](2+)-DPEA) with self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) property is proposed, which is almost nonemissive in aqueous solution but is brightly luminescent when it intercalates into DNA duplex. Owing to less energy loss and shorter electron-transfer distance, the intramolecular ECL reaction between the luminescent [Ru(dcbpy)2dppz](2+) and coreactive tertiary amine group in N,N-diisopropylethylenediamine (DPEA) makes the obtained "light-switch" molecule possess much higher light-switch efficiency compared with the traditional "light-switch" molecule. For increasing the loading amount and further enhancing the luminous efficiency of the "light-switch" molecule, biotin labeled DNA dendrimer (the fourth generation, G4) is prepared from Y-shape DNA by a step-by-step assembly strategy, which provides abundant intercalated sites for [Ru(dcbpy)2dppz](2+)-DPEA. Meanwhile, the obtained nanocomposite (G4-[Ru(dcbpy)2dppz](2+)-DPEA) could well bind with streptavidin labeled detection antibody (SA-Ab2) due to the existence of abundant biotin. Through sandwiched immunoreaction, an ECL immunosensor was fabricated for sensitive determination of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), a typical biomarker for diabetic nephropathy (DN). The detemination linear range was 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 1 ng mL(-1), and the detection limit was 0.028 pg mL(-1). The developed strategy combining the ECL self-enhanced "light-switch" molecular and DNA nanotechnology offers an effective signal amplification mean and provides ample potential for further bioanalysis and clinical study. PMID:27185239

  5. Electron microscopic evidence for the myosin head lever arm mechanism in hydrated myosin filaments using the gas environmental chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, Hiroki; Okabe, Tatsuhiro; Inayoshi, Yuhri; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Katayama, Eisaku; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Haruo

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We succeeded in recording structural changes of hydrated myosin cross-bridges. {yields} We succeeded in position-marking the cross-bridges with site-directed antibodies. {yields} We recorded cross-bridge movement at different regions in individual cross-bridge. {yields} The movement was smallest at the cross-bridge-subfragment two boundary. {yields} The results provide evidence for the cross-bridge lever arm mechanism. -- Abstract: Muscle contraction results from an attachment-detachment cycle between the myosin heads extending from myosin filaments and the sites on actin filaments. The myosin head first attaches to actin together with the products of ATP hydrolysis, performs a power stroke associated with release of hydrolysis products, and detaches from actin upon binding with new ATP. The detached myosin head then hydrolyses ATP, and performs a recovery stroke to restore its initial position. The strokes have been suggested to result from rotation of the lever arm domain around the converter domain, while the catalytic domain remains rigid. To ascertain the validity of the lever arm hypothesis in muscle, we recorded ATP-induced movement at different regions within individual myosin heads in hydrated myosin filaments, using the gas environmental chamber attached to the electron microscope. The myosin head were position-marked with gold particles using three different site-directed antibodies. The amplitude of ATP-induced movement at the actin binding site in the catalytic domain was similar to that at the boundary between the catalytic and converter domains, but was definitely larger than that at the regulatory light chain in the lever arm domain. These results are consistent with the myosin head lever arm mechanism in muscle contraction if some assumptions are made.

  6. Chaperone-enhanced purification of unconventional myosin 15, a molecular motor specialized for stereocilia protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bird, Jonathan E; Takagi, Yasuharu; Billington, Neil; Strub, Marie-Paule; Sellers, James R; Friedman, Thomas B

    2014-08-26

    Unconventional myosin 15 is a molecular motor expressed in inner ear hair cells that transports protein cargos within developing mechanosensory stereocilia. Mutations of myosin 15 cause profound hearing loss in humans and mice; however, the properties of this motor and its regulation within the stereocilia organelle are unknown. To address these questions, we expressed a subfragment 1-like (S1) truncation of mouse myosin 15, comprising the predicted motor domain plus three light-chain binding sites. Following unsuccessful attempts to express functional myosin 15-S1 using the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)-baculovirus system, we discovered that coexpression of the muscle-myosin-specific chaperone UNC45B, in addition to the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) significantly increased the yield of functional protein. Surprisingly, myosin 15-S1 did not bind calmodulin with high affinity. Instead, the IQ domains bound essential and regulatory light chains that are normally associated with class II myosins. We show that myosin 15-S1 is a barbed-end-directed motor that moves actin filaments in a gliding assay (∼ 430 nm · s(-1) at 30 °C), using a power stroke of 7.9 nm. The maximum ATPase rate (k(cat) ∼ 6 s(-1)) was similar to the actin-detachment rate (k(det) = 6.2 s(-1)) determined in single molecule optical trapping experiments, indicating that myosin 15-S1 was rate limited by transit through strongly actin-bound states, similar to other processive myosin motors. Our data further indicate that in addition to folding muscle myosin, UNC45B facilitates maturation of an unconventional myosin. We speculate that chaperone coexpression may be a simple method to optimize the purification of other myosin motors from Sf9 insect cells. PMID:25114250

  7. Distance measurements near the myosin head-rod junction using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Kekic, M; Huang, W; Moens, P D; Hambly, B D; dos Remedios, C G

    1996-01-01

    We reacted a fluorescent probe, N-methyl-2-anilino-6-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride (MNS-Ci), with a specific lysine residue of porcine cardiac myosin located in the S-2 region of myosin. We performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy measurements between this site and three loci (Cys109, Cys125, and Cys154) located within different myosin light-chain 2s (LC2) bound to the myosin "head". We used LC2s from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin (Cys125), chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (Cys109), or a genetically engineered mutant of chicken skeletal muscle myosin (Cys154). The atomic coordinates of these LC2 loci can be closely approximated, and the FRET measurements were used to determine the position of the MNS-labeled lysine with respect to the myosin head. The C-terminus of myosin subfragment-1 determined by Rayment et al. ends abruptly after a sharp turn of its predominantly alpha-helical structure. We have constructed a model based on our FRET distance data combined with the known structure of chicken skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1. This model suggests that the loci that bracket the head-rod junction will be useful for evaluating dynamic changes in this region. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:8804587

  8. Myosin VI: an innovative motor that challenged the swinging lever arm hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2010-01-01

    The swinging crossbridge hypothesis states that energy from ATP hydrolysis is transduced to mechanical movement of the myosin head while bound to actin. The light chain-binding region of myosin is thought to act as a lever arm that amplifies movements near the catalytic site. This model has been challenged by findings that myosin VI takes larger steps along actin filaments than early interpretations of its structure seem to allow. We now know that myosin VI does indeed operate by an unusual ~ 180° lever arm swing and achieves its large step size using special structural features in its tail domain. PMID:20094053

  9. Myosin II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M.; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large scale highly coordinated flows of over 100.000 cells in the epiblast. These large scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combined light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression as well as asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localisation and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active Myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of a class specific Myosin inhibitors and gene specific knockdowns show that apical contraction and intercalation are Myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for Myosin I and Myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional Myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  10. Myosin V is a biological Brownian machine

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Keisuke; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Myosin V is a vesicle transporter that unidirectionally walks along cytoskeletal actin filaments by converting the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. Recently, it was found that myosin V force generation is a composition of two processes: a lever-arm swing, which involves a conformational change in the myosin molecule, and a Brownian search-and-catch, which involves a diffusive “search” by the motor domain that is followed by an asymmetric “catch” in the forward actin target such that Brownian motion is rectified. Here we developed a system that combines optical tweezers with DNA nano-material to show that the Brownian search-and-catch mechanism is the energetically dominant process at near stall force, providing 13 kBT of work compared to just 3 kBT by the lever-arm swing. Our result significantly reconsiders the lever-arm swinging model, which assumes the swing dominantly produces work (>10 kBT), and sheds light on the Brownian search-and-catch as a driving process. PMID:27493501

  11. Canine cardiac myosin with special referrence to pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy. I. Subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Siemankowski, R F; Dreizen, P

    1978-12-10

    In studies of myosin from left and right ventricles of normal hearts and hypertrophic hearts at 5 weeks and 13 weeks after aortic banding, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows intermediate molecular weight components which derive from heavy chains fragmented in the presence of dodecyl sulfate. The proportion of degraded heavy chains is greater in myosin from hypertrophic hearts than normal hearts, with comparable degradation in left and right ventricle myosin. The observed fragmentation of myosin results from proteolysis due to contaminant proteases or a thermally activated, heat-stable nonenzymatic process, or both. The susceptibility of heavy chains to crude myofibrillar proteases differs in normal and hypertrophic cardiac myosin; however, the kinetics of tryptic digestion are identical for both myosins. With precautions to minimize proteolytic artifacts on dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, preparations of myosin from left and right ventricles of normal and hypertrophic hearts exhibit comparable subunit composition, with approximately molar ratios of heavy chains, light chain L1, and light chain L2. Comparable stoichiometry for the light chain fraction is determined by high speed sedimentation equilibrium at pH 11 and direct fractionation of the different cardiac myosins. We do not confirm reports (e.g. Wikman-Coffelt, J., Fenner, C., Smith, A., and Mason, D. T. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 1257-1262) of different proportions of light chains in left and right ventricle myosin of normal and hypertrophic canine hearts. The light chains display microheterogeneity, with L1 generating two isoelectric variants and L2 generating two major and two minor variants, but identical mobilities and isoelectric values are obtained in the different myosin preparations. PMID:152317

  12. Diversity and Similarity of Motor Function and Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Papillary Muscles of Transgenic Mice Carrying Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Mutations D166V and R58Q

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Muthu, Priya; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Kawai, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties of skinned papillary muscle fibers from transgenic mice expressing familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated mutations D166V and R58Q in myosin regulatory light chain were investigated. Elementary steps and the apparent rate constants of the cross-bridge cycle were characterized from the tension transients induced by sinusoidal length changes during maximal Ca2+ activation, together with ATP, ADP, and Pi studies. The tension-pCa relation was also tested in two sets of solutions with differing Pi and ionic strength. Our results showed that in both mutants, the fast apparent rate constant 2πc and the rate constants of the cross-bridge detachment step (k2) were smaller than those of wild type (WT), demonstrating the slower cross-bridge kinetics. D166V showed significantly smaller ATP (K1) and ADP (K0) association constants than WT, displaying weaker ATP binding and easier ADP release, whereas those of R58Q were not significantly different from WT. In tension-pCa study, both D166V and R58Q mutations exhibited increased Ca2+ sensitivity and less cooperativity. We conclude that, while the two FHC mutations have similar clinical manifestations and prognosis, some of the mechanical parameters of cross-bridges (K0, K1) are differently modified, whereas some others (Ca2+-sensitivity, cooperativity, k2) are similarly modified by these two FHC associated mutations. PMID:23727233

  13. Excessive Myosin Activity in Mbs Mutants Causes Photoreceptor Movement Out of the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Arnold; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal cells must extend a motile growth cone while maintaining the cell body in its original position. In migrating cells, myosin contraction provides the driving force that pulls the rear of the cell toward the leading edge. We have characterized the function of myosin light chain phosphatase, which down-regulates myosin activity, in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons. Mutations in the gene encoding the myosin binding subunit of this enzyme cause photoreceptors to drop out of the eye disc epithelium and move toward and through the optic stalk. We show that this phenotype is due to excessive phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain Spaghetti squash rather than another potential substrate, Moesin, and that it requires the nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain Zipper. Myosin binding subunit mutant cells continue to express apical epithelial markers and do not undergo ectopic apical constriction. In addition, mutant cells in the wing disc remain within the epithelium and differentiate abnormal wing hairs. We suggest that excessive myosin activity in photoreceptor neurons may pull the cell bodies toward the growth cones in a process resembling normal cell migration. PMID:15075368

  14. The neck region of the myosin motor domain acts as a lever arm to generate movement.

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, T Q; Abramson, P D; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    The myosin head consists of a globular catalytic domain that binds actin and hydrolyzes ATP and a neck domain that consists of essential and regulatory light chains bound to a long alpha-helical portion of the heavy chain. The swinging neck-level model assumes that a swinging motion of the neck relative to the catalytic domain is the origin of movement. This model predicts that the step size, and consequently the sliding velocity, are linearly related to the length of the neck. We have tested this point by characterizing a series of mutant Dictyostelium myosins that have different neck lengths. The 2xELCBS mutant has an extra binding site for essential light chain. The delta RLCBS mutant myosin has an internal deletion that removes the regulatory light chain binding site. The delta BLCBS mutant lacks both light chain binding sites. Wild-type myosin and these mutant myosins were subjected to the sliding filament in vitro motility assay. As expected, mutants with shorter necks move slower than wild-type myosin in vitro. Most significantly, a mutant with a longer neck moves faster than the wild type, and the sliding velocities of these myosins are linearly related to the neck length, as predicted by the swinging neck-lever model. A simple extrapolation to zero speed predicts that the fulcrum point is in the vicinity of the SH1-SH2 region in the catalytic domain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8633089

  15. Involvement of myosin in intracellular motility and cytomorphogenesis in Micrasterias.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Anke; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2003-01-01

    Myosin was detected on Western blots of Micrasterias denticulata extracts by use of antibodies from different sources. Inhibitors with different targets of the actomyosin system, such as the myosin ATPase-blockers N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), or the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexhydro-1,4-diazapine (ML7), had similar effects on intracellular motility during cell development in the green alga Micrasterias, thus pointing towards a participation of myosin in these processes. The drugs markedly altered the mode of postmitotic nuclear migration, slowed down cytoplasmic streaming, changed cell pattern development and prevented normal chloroplast distribution and spreading into the growing semicell. In addition, an increase and dilatations in ER cisternae and marked morphological changes of the Golgi system were observed by transmission electron microscopy after exposure of growing cells to BDM. Neither BDM nor ML7 exhibited any effect on the distribution or arrangement of the cortical F-actin network nor on the F-actin basket around the nucleus, characteristic of untreated growing Micrasterias cells (J Cell Sci 107 (1994) 1929). This is particularly interesting since BDM caused disintegration of the microtubule system co-localized to the F-actin cage during normal nuclear migration. Together with the fact that other microtubules not connected to the F-actin system remained uninfluenced by BDM, this observation is evidence of an integrative function of myosin between the cytoskeleton elements. PMID:14642529

  16. In vitro and in vivo single myosin step-sizes in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Sun, Xiaojing; Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Myosin in muscle transduces ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. It has a motor domain transducer containing ATP and actin binding sites, and, mechanical elements coupling motor impulse to the myosin filament backbone providing transduction/mechanical-coupling. The mechanical coupler is a lever-arm stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains. The lever-arm rotates cyclically to impel bound filamentous actin. Linear actin displacement due to lever-arm rotation is the myosin step-size. A high-throughput quantum dot labeled actin in vitro motility assay (Qdot assay) measures motor step-size in the context of an ensemble of actomyosin interactions. The ensemble context imposes a constant velocity constraint for myosins interacting with one actin filament. In a cardiac myosin producing multiple step-sizes, a "second characterization" is step-frequency that adjusts longer step-size to lower frequency maintaining a linear actin velocity identical to that from a shorter step-size and higher frequency actomyosin cycle. The step-frequency characteristic involves and integrates myosin enzyme kinetics, mechanical strain, and other ensemble affected characteristics. The high-throughput Qdot assay suits a new paradigm calling for wide surveillance of the vast number of disease or aging relevant myosin isoforms that contrasts with the alternative model calling for exhaustive research on a tiny subset myosin forms. The zebrafish embryo assay (Z assay) performs single myosin step-size and step-frequency assaying in vivo combining single myosin mechanical and whole muscle physiological characterizations in one model organism. The Qdot and Z assays cover "bottom-up" and "top-down" assaying of myosin characteristics. PMID:26728749

  17. Possible roles of actin and myosin during anaphase chromosome movements in locust spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Lacramioara; Forer, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether the mechanisms of chromosome movement during anaphase in locust (Locusta migratoria L.) spermatocytes might be similar to those described for crane-fly spermatocytes. Actin and myosin have been implicated in anaphase chromosome movements in crane-fly spermatocytes, as indicated by the effects of inhibitors and by the localisations of actin and myosin in spindles. In this study, we tested whether locust spermatocyte spindles also utilise actin and myosin, and whether actin is involved in microtubule flux. Living locust spermatocytes were treated with inhibitors of actin (latrunculin B and cytochalasin D), myosin (BDM), or myosin phosphorylation (Y-27632 and ML-7). We added drugs (individually) during anaphase. Actin inhibitors alter anaphase: chromosomes either completely stop moving, slow, or sometimes accelerate. The myosin inhibitor, BDM, also alters anaphase: in most cases, the chromosomes drastically slow or stop. ML-7, an inhibitor of MLCK, causes chromosomes to stop, slow, or sometimes accelerate, similar to actin inhibitors. Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, drastically slows or stops anaphase chromosome movements. The effects of the drugs on anaphase movement are reversible: most of the half-bivalents resumed movement at normal speed after these drugs were washed out. Actin and myosin were present in the spindles in locations consistent with their possible involvement in force production. Microtubule flux along kinetochore fibres is an actin-dependent process, since LatB completely removes or drastically reduces the gap in microtubule acetylation at the kinetochore. These results suggest that actin and myosin are involved in anaphase chromosome movements in locust spermatocytes. PMID:17922265

  18. Dictyostelium discoideum myoJ: a member of a broadly defined myosin V class or a class XI unconventional myosin?

    PubMed

    Peterson, M D; Urioste, A S; Titus, M A

    1996-08-01

    The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum contains at least 12 unconventional myosin genes. Here we report the characterization of one of these, myoJ, a gene initially identified through a physical mapping screen. The myoJ gene encodes a high molecular weight myosin, and analysis of the available deduced amino acid sequence reveals that it possesses six IQ motifs and sequences typical of alpha helical coiled coils in the tail region. Therefore, myoJ is predicted to exist as a dimer with up to 12 associated light chains (six per heavy chain). The 7.8 kb myoJ mRNA is expressed all throughout the life cycle of D. discoideum. The myoJ gene has been disrupted and a phenotypic analysis of the mutant cells initiated. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of the head region reveals that myoJ is most similar to two plant myosin genes, Arabidopsis MYA1 and MYA2, that have been alternatively suggested to be either members of the myosin V class or founding members of the myosin XI class. PMID:8884597

  19. Heat-induced formation of myosin oligomer-soluble filament complex in high-salt solution.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masato; Takai, Eisuke; Ejima, Daisuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    Heat-induced aggregation of myosin into an elastic gel plays an important role in the water-holding capacity and texture of meat products. Here, we investigated thermal aggregation of porcine myosin in high-salt solution over a wide temperature range by dynamic light scattering experiments. The myosin samples were readily dissolved in 1.0 M NaCl at 25 °C followed by dilution into various salt concentrations. The diluted solutions consistently contained both myosin monomers and soluble filaments. The filament size decreased with increasing salt concentration and temperature. High temperatures above Tm led to at least partial dissociation of soluble filaments and thermal unfolding, resulting in the formation of soluble oligomers and binding to the persistently present soluble filaments. Such a complex formation between the oligomers and filaments has never been observed. Our results provide new insight into the heat-induced myosin gelation in high-salt solution. PMID:25445683

  20. Two distinct myosin II populations coordinate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath in the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The myoepithelial sheath in the somatic gonad of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has nonstriated contractile actomyosin networks that produce highly coordinated contractility for ovulation of mature oocytes. Two myosin heavy chains are expressed in the myoepithelial sheath, which are also expressed in the body-wall striated muscle. The troponin/tropomyosin system is also present and essential for ovulation. Therefore, although the myoepithelial sheath has smooth muscle–like contractile apparatuses, it has a striated muscle–like regulatory mechanism through troponin/tropomyosin. Here we report that the myoepithelial sheath has a distinct myosin population containing nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, which is regulated by phosphorylation and essential for ovulation. MLC-4, a nonmuscle myosin regulatory light chain, localizes to small punctate structures and does not colocalize with large, needle-like myosin filaments containing MYO-3, a striated-muscle myosin isoform. RNA interference of MLC-4, as well as of its upstream regulators, LET-502 (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase) and MEL-11 (a myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase), impairs ovulation. Expression of a phosphomimetic MLC-4 mutant mimicking a constitutively active state also impairs ovulation. A striated-muscle myosin (UNC-54) appears to provide partially compensatory contractility. Thus the results indicate that the two spatially distinct myosin II populations coordinately regulate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath. PMID:26864628

  1. Two distinct myosin II populations coordinate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath in the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-04-01

    The myoepithelial sheath in the somatic gonad of the nematodeCaenorhabditis eleganshas nonstriated contractile actomyosin networks that produce highly coordinated contractility for ovulation of mature oocytes. Two myosin heavy chains are expressed in the myoepithelial sheath, which are also expressed in the body-wall striated muscle. The troponin/tropomyosin system is also present and essential for ovulation. Therefore, although the myoepithelial sheath has smooth muscle-like contractile apparatuses, it has a striated muscle-like regulatory mechanism through troponin/tropomyosin. Here we report that the myoepithelial sheath has a distinct myosin population containing nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, which is regulated by phosphorylation and essential for ovulation. MLC-4, a nonmuscle myosin regulatory light chain, localizes to small punctate structures and does not colocalize with large, needle-like myosin filaments containing MYO-3, a striated-muscle myosin isoform. RNA interference of MLC-4, as well as of its upstream regulators, LET-502 (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase) and MEL-11 (a myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase), impairs ovulation. Expression of a phosphomimetic MLC-4 mutant mimicking a constitutively active state also impairs ovulation. A striated-muscle myosin (UNC-54) appears to provide partially compensatory contractility. Thus the results indicate that the two spatially distinct myosin II populations coordinately regulate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath. PMID:26864628

  2. Protein Phosphatase 1 β Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1β, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1β, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  3. Directional Mechanosensing in Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yubo; Tehver, Riina

    2013-03-01

    Myosin is a family of versatile motor proteins that perform various tasks, such as organelle transport, anchoring and cell deformation. Although the general mechanism of the motors has been fairly well established, details on dynamic aspects like force response of the motor, and force propagation are yet to be fully understood. In this poster, we present the response of the ATP binding region to force exerted on the tail domain in order to test the proposed tension-dependent gating mechanism of myosin VI processive motion. We employed the Self-Organized Polymer model in a computer simulation to explore the effect. Current results show that the ATP binding domain of myosin VI indeed exhibits tension dependence - both structurally and dynamically.

  4. Heavy chain of Acanthamoeba myosine IB is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Korn, E.D.; Hammer, J.A. III

    1987-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii myosins IA and IB demonstrate the catalytic properties of a myosin and can support analogues of contractile and motile activity in vitro, but their single, low molecular weight heavy chains, roughly globular shapes, and inabilities to self-assemble into filaments make them structurally atypical myosins. The authors present the complete amino acid sequence of the 128-kDa myosin IB heavy chain, which they deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene and which reveals that the polypeptide is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences. Specifically, the amino-terminal approx. 76 kDa of amino acid sequence is highly similar to the globular head sequences of conventional myosins. By contrast, the remaining approx. 51 kDa of sequence shows no similarity to any portion of conventional myosin sequences, contains regions that are rich in glycine, proline, and alanine residues, and lacks the distinctive sequence characteristics of an ..cap alpha..-helical, coiled-coil structure. They conclude, therefore, that the protein is composed of a myosin globular head fused not to the typical coiled-coil rod-like myosin tail structure but rather to an unusual carboxyl-terminal domain. These results support the conclusion that filamentous myosin is not required for force generation and provide a further perspective on the structural requirements for myosin function. Finally, they find a striking conservation of intron/exon structure between this gene and a vertebrate muscle myosin gene. They discuss this observation in relation to the evolutionary origin of the myosin IB gene and the antiquity of myosin gene intron/exon structure.

  5. Pregnane X Receptor Activation Attenuates Inflammation-Associated Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction by Inhibiting Cytokine-Induced Myosin Light-Chain Kinase Expression and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1/2 Activation.

    PubMed

    Garg, Aditya; Zhao, Angela; Erickson, Sarah L; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Lau, Aik Jiang; Alston, Laurie; Chang, Thomas K H; Mani, Sridhar; Hirota, Simon A

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with a complex etiology. IBD is thought to arise in genetically susceptible individuals in the context of aberrant interactions with the intestinal microbiota and other environmental risk factors. Recently, the pregnane X receptor (PXR) was identified as a sensor for microbial metabolites, whose activation can regulate the intestinal epithelial barrier. Mutations in NR1I2, the gene that encodes the PXR, have been linked to IBD, and in animal models, PXR deletion leads to barrier dysfunction. In the current study, we sought to assess the mechanism(s) through which the PXR regulates barrier function during inflammation. In Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayers, tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ exposure disrupted the barrier and triggered zonula occludens-1 relocalization, increased expression of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2). Activation of the PXR [rifaximin and [[3,5-Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethenylidene]bis-phosphonic acid tetraethyl ester (SR12813); 10 μM] protected the barrier, an effect that was associated with attenuated MLCK expression and JNK1/2 activation. In vivo, activation of the PXR [pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN)] attenuated barrier disruption induced by toll-like receptor 4 activation in wild-type, but not Pxr-/-, mice. Furthermore, PCN treatment protected the barrier in the dextran-sulfate sodium model of experimental colitis, an effect that was associated with reduced expression of mucosal MLCK and phosphorylated JNK1/2. Together, our data suggest that the PXR regulates the intestinal epithelial barrier during inflammation by modulating cytokine-induced MLCK expression and JNK1/2 activation. Thus, targeting the PXR may prove beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-associated barrier disruption in the context of IBD. PMID:27440420

  6. Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) administration to creep-fed beef calves increases muscle mass but does not affect satellite cell number or concentration of myosin light chain-1f mRNA.

    PubMed

    Vann, R C; Althen, T G; Smith, W K; Veenhuizen, J J; Smith, S B

    1998-05-01

    Our objective in this study was to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on indices of muscle development in creep-fed beef calves. Crossbred steer calves were assigned to one of two treatment groups: control (sham-injected; n = 12) or rbST-treated (.09 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1); n = 12). Calves were injected every 14 d starting at d 28 of age and were weaned at 205 d of age. Supplemental creep feed was supplied free access to all calves to compensate for an expected increased protein and energy requirement in calves given rbST. Biopsy (d 100) and slaughter (d 206) samples of semitendinosus muscle were evaluated for satellite cell, myofiber nuclei numbers, and myosin light chain (MLC-1f) mRNA quantification. Myofiber nuclei and satellite cell numbers per 100 myofibers and MLC-1f mRNA:rRNA ratios at 100 and 206 d of age were not different (P > .10) between control and rbST-treated calves. Total gain, ADG, quality grade, femur length, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, dressing percentage, plasma IGF-I, and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations did not differ (P > .10) between control and rbST-treated calves. However, rbST-treated calves had larger longissimus muscle areas (P < .03), less marbling (P < .001), higher carcass conformation scores (P < .04), greater mass of separated muscle (P < .03), more ground meat (P < .01), and heavier carcass weights (P < .05) than control calves. Thus, rbST treatment increased muscle characteristics while nuclei number and MLC-1f mRNA concentrations remained the same, implying that the additional muscle growth was in a normal fashion. PMID:9621943

  7. In Vivo Orientation of Single Myosin Lever Arms in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojing; Ekker, Stephen C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Takubo, Naoko; Wang, Yihua; Burghardt, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal myosin assembled in the muscle lattice power contraction by transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. Myosin catalytic/lever-arm domains comprise the transduction/mechanical coupling machinery that move actin by lever-arm rotation. In vivo, myosin is crowded and constrained by the fiber lattice as side chains are mutated and otherwise modified under normal, diseased, or aging conditions that collectively define the native myosin environment. Single-myosin detection uniquely defines bottom-up characterization of myosin functionality. The marriage of in vivo and single-myosin detection to study zebrafish embryo models of human muscle disease is a multiscaled technology that allows one-to-one registration of a selected myosin molecular alteration with muscle filament-sarcomere-cell-fiber-tissue-organ- and organism level phenotypes. In vivo single-myosin lever-arm orientation was observed at superresolution using a photoactivatable-green-fluorescent-protein (PAGFP)-tagged myosin light chain expressed in zebrafish skeletal muscle. By simultaneous observation of multiphoton excitation fluorescence emission and second harmonic generation from myosin, we demonstrated tag specificity for the lever arm. Single-molecule detection used highly inclined parallel beam illumination and was verified by quantized photoactivation and photobleaching. Single-molecule emission patterns from relaxed muscle in vivo provided extensive superresolved dipole orientation constraints that were modeled using docking scenarios generated for the myosin (S1) and GFP crystal structures. The dipole orientation data provided sufficient constraints to estimate S1/GFP coordination. The S1/GFP coordination in vivo is rigid and the lever-arm orientation distribution is well-ordered in relaxed muscle. For comparison, single myosins in relaxed permeabilized porcine papillary muscle fibers indicated slightly differently oriented lever arms and rigid S1

  8. Myosin‑II heavy chain and formin mediate the targeting of myosin essential light chain to the division site before and during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhonghui; Okada, Satoshi; Cai, Guoping; Zhou, Bing; Bi, Erfei

    2015-04-01

    MLC1 is a haploinsufficient gene encoding the essential light chain for Myo1, the sole myosin‑II heavy chain in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mlc1 defines an essential hub that coordinates actomyosin ring function, membrane trafficking, and septum formation during cytokinesis by binding to IQGAP, myosin‑II, and myosin‑V. However, the mechanism of how Mlc1 is targeted to the division site during the cell cycle remains unsolved. By constructing a GFP‑tagged MLC1 under its own promoter control and using quantitative live‑cell imaging coupled with yeast mutants, we found that septin ring and actin filaments mediate the targeting of Mlc1 to the division site before and during cytokinesis, respectively. Both mechanisms contribute to and are collectively required for the accumulation of Mlc1 at the division site during cytokinesis. We also found that Myo1 plays a major role in the septin‑dependent Mlc1 localization before cytokinesis, whereas the formin Bni1 plays a major role in the actin filament-dependent Mlc1 localization during cytokinesis. Such a two‑tiered mechanism for Mlc1 localization is presumably required for the ordered assembly and robustness of cytokinesis machinery and is likely conserved across species. PMID:25631819

  9. The properties of the actin-myosin interaction in the heart muscle depend on the isoforms of myosin but not of α-actin.

    PubMed

    Kopylova, G; Nabiev, S; Nikitina, L; Shchepkin, D; Bershitsky, S

    2016-08-01

    In myocardium of mammals there are two isoforms of myosin heavy chains, α and β. In ventricle, together with ventricular isoforms of light chains they form two isomyosins: V1 and V3, homodimers of α- and β-heavy chains, respectively. In atria, α- and β-heavy chains together with atrial light chains form A1 (αα) and A2 (ββ) isomyosins. Besides in myocardium two isoforms of α-actin, skeletal and cardiac, are expressed. We assume that the differences in the amino acid sequence of cardiac and skeletal actin may affect its interaction with myosin. To test this hypothesis, we investigated characteristics of actin-myosin interactions of cardiac and skeletal isoforms of α-actin with the isoforms of cardiac myosin using an optical trap technique and an in vitro motility assay. It was found that the mechanical and kinetic characteristics of the interactions of the isoforms of cardiac myosin with actin depend on the isoforms of myosin not α-actin. PMID:27264951

  10. Myosin II Motors and F-Actin Dynamics Drive the Coordinated Movement of the Centrosome and Soma during CNS Glial-Guided Neuronal Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Solecki, Dr. David; Trivedi, Dr. Niraj; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Kerekes, Ryan A; Gleason, Shaun Scott; Hatten, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Lamination of cortical regions of the vertebrate brain depends on glial-guided neuronal migration. The conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha} localizes to the centrosome and coordinates forward movement of the centrosome and soma in migrating neurons. The cytoskeletal components that produce this unique form of cell polarity and their relationship to polarity signaling cascades are unknown. We show that F-actin and Myosin II motors are enriched in the neuronal leading process and that Myosin II activity is necessary for leading process actin dynamics. Inhibition of Myosin II decreased the speed of centrosome and somal movement, whereas Myosin II activation increased coordinated movement. Ectopic expression or silencing of Par6{alpha} inhibited Myosin II motors by decreasing Myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to 'pull' the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6{alpha}.

  11. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  12. Expression of the inclusion body myopathy 3 mutation in Drosophila depresses myosin function and stability and recapitulates muscle inclusions and weakness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Melkani, Girish C; Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Anju; Kronert, William A; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2012-06-01

    Hereditary myosin myopathies are characterized by variable clinical features. Inclusion body myopathy 3 (IBM-3) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a missense mutation (E706K) in the myosin heavy chain IIa gene. Adult patients experience progressive muscle weakness. Biopsies reveal dystrophic changes, rimmed vacuoles with cytoplasmic inclusions, and focal disorganization of myofilaments. We constructed a transgene encoding E706K myosin and expressed it in Drosophila (E701K) indirect flight and jump muscles to establish a novel homozygous organism with homogeneous populations of fast IBM-3 myosin and muscle fibers. Flight and jump abilities were severely reduced in homozygotes. ATPase and actin sliding velocity of the mutant myosin were depressed >80% compared with wild-type myosin. Light scattering experiments and electron microscopy revealed that mutant myosin heads bear a dramatic propensity to collapse and aggregate. Thus E706K (E701K) myosin appears far more labile than wild-type myosin. Furthermore, mutant fly fibers exhibit ultrastructural hallmarks seen in patients, including cytoplasmic inclusions containing aberrant proteinaceous structures and disorganized muscle filaments. Our Drosophila model reveals the unambiguous consequences of the IBM-3 lesion on fast muscle myosin and fibers. The abnormalities observed in myosin function and muscle ultrastructure likely contribute to muscle weakness observed in our flies and patients. PMID:22496423

  13. Dynamics of myosin II organization into contractile networks and fibers at the medial cell cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei

    The cellular morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of non-muscle myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin (which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers). Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested the following processes: myosin minifilament assembly and disassembly; aligning and contraction; myosin filament stabilization upon increasing contractile tension. Numerical simulations that include those processes capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. We discuss methods to monitor myosin reorganization using non-linear imaging methods.

  14. Dynamics of myosin II organization into cortical contractile networks and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2014-03-01

    The morphology of adhered cells critically depends on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked stress fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and mini-filament assembly of non-muscle myosin II is an important component of cell-level cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. To monitor the dynamics of myosin II, we used confocal microscopy to image cultured HeLa cells that stably express myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). MRLC-GFP was monitored in time-lapse movies at steady state and during the response of cells to varying concentrations of blebbistatin which disrupts actomyosin stress fibers. Using image correlation spectroscopy analysis, we quantified the kinetics of disassembly and reassembly of actomyosin networks and compared them to studies by other groups. This analysis suggested that the following processes contribute to the assembly of cortical actomyosin into fibers: random myosin mini-filament assembly and disassembly along the cortex; myosin mini-filament aligning and contraction; stabilization of cortical myosin upon increasing contractile tension. We developed simple numerical simulations that include those processes. The results of simulations of cells at steady state and in response to blebbistatin capture some of the main features observed in the experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness.

  15. SLOW MYOSIN ATP TURNOVER IN THE SUPER-RELAXED STATE IN TARANTULA MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Cooke, Roger

    2011-01-01

    We measured the nucleotide turnover rate of myosin in tarantula leg-muscle fibers by observing single turnovers of the fluorescent nucleotide analog, mantATP, as monitored by the decrease in fluorescence when mantATP is replaced by ATP in a chase experiment. We find a multi-exponential process, with approximately two-thirds of the myosin showing a very slow nucleotide turnover time constant, ~30 minutes. This slow-turnover state is termed the super-relaxed state (SRX). If fibers are incubated in mantADP and chased with ADP, the SRX is not seen, indicating that trinucleotide-relaxed myosins are responsible for the SRX. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain eliminates the fraction of myosin with the very long lifetime. The data imply that the very long-lived SRX in tarantula fibers is a highly novel adaptation for energy conservation in an animal that spends extremely long periods of time in a quiescent state employing a lie-in-wait hunting strategy. The presence of the SRX measured here correlates well with the binding of myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the “interacting-heads motif” observed previously by electron microscopy. Both the structural array and the long-lived SRX require relaxed filaments or relaxed fibers, both are lost upon myosin phosphorylation, and both appear to be more stable in tarantula than in vertebrate skeletal or vertebrate cardiac preparations. PMID:21763701

  16. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  17. Cooperativity of thiol-modified myosin filaments. ATPase and motility assays of myosin function.

    PubMed Central

    Root, D D; Reisler, E

    1992-01-01

    The effects of chemical modifications of myosin's reactive cysteines on actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and sliding velocities in the in vitro motility assays were examined in this work. The three types of modifications studied were 4-[N-[(iodoacetoxy)ethyl]-N-methylamino]-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3- diazole labeling of SH2 (based on Ajtai and Burghart. 1989. Biochemistry. 28:2204-2210.), phenylmaleimide labeling of SH1, and phenylmaleimide labeling of myosin in myofibrils under rigor conditions. Each type of modified myosin inhibited the sliding of actin in motility assays. The sliding velocities of actin over copolymers of modified and unmodified myosins in the motility assay were slowest with rigor-modified myosin and most rapid with SH2-labeled myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activities of similarly copolymerized myosins were lowest with SH2-labeled myosin and highest with rigor-modified myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activities of myosin subfragment-1 obtained from these modified myosins decreased in the same linear manner with the fraction of modified heads. These results are interpreted using a model in which the sliding of actin filaments over myosin filaments decreases the probability of myosin activation by actin. The sliding velocity of actin over monomeric rigor-modified myosin exceeded that over the filamentous form, which suggests for this myosin that filament structure is important for the inhibition of actin sliding in motility assays. The fact that all cysteine modifications examined inhibited the actomyosin ATPase activities and sliding velocities of actin over myosin poses questions concerning the information about the activated crossbridge obtained from probes attached to SH1 or SH2 on myosin. PMID:1420910

  18. Electron microscopic recording of myosin head power stroke in hydrated myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Haruo; Chaen, Shigeru; Akimoto, Tsuyoshi; Minoda, Hiroki; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contraction results from cyclic attachment and detachment between myosin heads and actin filaments, coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive studies, however, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke still remains to be a mystery. Using the gas environmental chamber, we have succeeded in recording the power stroke of position-marked myosin heads in hydrated mixture of actin and myosin filaments in a nearly isometric condition, in which myosin heads do not produce gross myofilament sliding, but only stretch adjacent elastic structures. On application of ATP, individual myosin heads move by ~3.3 nm at the distal region, and by ~2.5 nm at the proximal region of myosin head catalytic domain. After exhaustion of applied ATP, individual myosin heads return towards their initial position. At low ionic strength, the amplitude of myosin head power stroke increases to >4 nm at both distal and proximal regions of myosin heads catalytic domain, being consistent with the report that the force generated by individual myosin heads in muscle fibers is enhanced at low ionic strength. The advantages of the present study over other in vitro motility assay systems, using myosin heads detached from myosin filaments, are discussed. PMID:26498981

  19. Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2 regulate nonmuscle myosin IIA activity by anchoring myosin phosphatase complex

    PubMed Central

    Le, Kang; Li, Chun-Chun; Ye, Guan; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2 activate, through their Sec7 domains, ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of Arf-bound GDP with GTP for initiation of vesicular transport or activation of specific enzymes that modify important phospholipids. They are also implicated in regulation of cell polarization and actin dynamics for directed migration. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous HeLa cell BIG1 and BIG2 with myosin IIA was demonstrably independent of Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activity, because effects of BIG1 and BIG2 depletion were reversed by overexpression of the cognate BIG molecule C-terminal sequence that follows the Arf activation site. Selective depletion of BIG1 or BIG2 enhanced specific phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (T18/S19) and F-actin content, which impaired cell migration in Transwell assays. Our data are clear evidence of these newly recognized functions for BIG1 and BIG2 in transduction or integration of mechanical signals from integrin adhesions and myosin IIA-dependent actin dynamics. Thus, by anchoring or scaffolding the assembly, organization, and efficient operation of multimolecular myosin phosphatase complexes that include myosin IIA, protein phosphatase 1δ, and myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1, BIG1 and BIG2 serve to integrate diverse biophysical and biochemical events in cells. PMID:23918382

  20. Mouse Myosin-19 Is a Plus-end-directed, High-duty Ratio Molecular Motor*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zekuan; Ma, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Ji, Huan-Hong; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Dan; Sun, Yujie; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-01-01

    Class XIX myosin (Myo19) is a vertebrate-specific unconventional myosin, responsible for the transport of mitochondria. To characterize biochemical properties of Myo19, we prepared recombinant mouse Myo19-truncated constructs containing the motor domain and the IQ motifs using the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system. We identified regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle/non-muscle myosin-2 as the light chain of Myo19. The actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding velocity of Myo19-truncated constructs were about one-third and one-sixth as those of myosin-5a, respectively. The apparent affinity of Myo19 to actin was about the same as that of myosin-5a. The RLCs bound to Myo19 could be phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase, but this phosphorylation had little effect on the actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Using dual fluorescence-labeled actin filaments, we determined that Myo19 is a plus-end-directed molecular motor. We found that, similar to that of the high-duty ratio myosin, such as myosin-5a, ADP release rate was comparable with the maximal actin-activated ATPase activity of Myo19, indicating that ADP release is a rate-limiting step for the ATPase cycle of acto-Myo19. ADP strongly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity and actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Based on the above results, we concluded that Myo19 is a high-duty ratio molecular motor moving to the plus-end of the actin filament. PMID:24825904

  1. Myosin XI-I is Mechanically and Enzymatically Unique Among Class-XI Myosins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Tominaga, Motoki; Nakano, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Ito, Kohji

    2016-08-01

    Arabidopsis possesses 13 genes encoding class-XI myosins. Among these, myosin XI-I is phylogenetically distant. To examine the molecular properties of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-I (At myosin XI-I), we performed in vitro mechanical and enzymatic analyses using recombinant constructs of At myosin XI-I. Unlike other biochemically studied class-XI myosins, At myosin XI-I showed extremely low actin-activated ATPase activity (Vmax = 3.7 Pi s(-1) head(-1)). The actin-sliding velocity of At myosin XI-I was 0.25 µm s(-1), >10 times lower than those of other class-XI myosins. The ADP dissociation rate from acto-At myosin XI-I was 17 s(-1), accounting for the low actin-sliding velocity. In contrast, the apparent affinity for actin in the presence of ATP, estimated from Kapp (0.61 µM) of actin-activated ATPase, was extremely high. The equilibrium dissociation constant for actin was very low in both the presence and absence of ATP, indicating a high affinity for actin. To examine At myosin XI-I motility in vivo, green fluorescent protein-fused full-length At myosin XI-I was expressed in cultured Arabidopsis cells. At myosin XI-I localized not only on the nuclear envelope but also on small dots moving slowly (0.23 µm s(-1)) along actin filaments. Our results show that the properties of At myosin XI-I differ from those of other Arabidopsis class-XI myosins. The data suggest that At myosin XI-I does not function as a driving force for cytoplasmic streaming but regulates the organelle velocity, supports processive organelle movement or acts as a tension generator. PMID:27273580

  2. Molecular mechanism regulating myosin and cardiac functions by ELC.

    PubMed

    Lossie, Janine; Köhncke, Clemens; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Steffen, Walter; Canepari, Monica; Maffei, Manuela; Taube, Martin; Larchevêque, Oriane; Baumert, Philipp; Haase, Hannelore; Bottinelli, Roberto; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Morano, Ingo

    2014-07-18

    The essential myosin light chain (ELC) is involved in modulation of force generation of myosin motors and cardiac contraction, while its mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that ELC could modulate myosin stiffness which subsequently determines its force production and cardiac contraction. Therefore, we generated heterologous transgenic mouse (TgM) strains with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of ELC with human ventricular ELC (hVLC-1; TgM(hVLC-1)) or E56G-mutated hVLC-1 (hVLC-1(E56G); TgM(E56G)). hVLC-1 or hVLC-1(E56G) expression in TgM was around 39% and 41%, respectively of total VLC-1. Laser trap and in vitro motility assays showed that stiffness and actin sliding velocity of myosin with hVLC-1 prepared from TgM(hVLC-1) (1.67 pN/nm and 2.3 μm/s, respectively) were significantly higher than myosin with hVLC-1(E56G) prepared from TgM(E56G) (1.25 pN/nm and 1.7 μm/s, respectively) or myosin with mouse VLC-1 (mVLC-1) prepared from C57/BL6 (1.41 pN/nm and 1.5 μm/s, respectively). Maximal left ventricular pressure development of isolated perfused hearts in vitro prepared from TgM(hVLC-1) (80.0 mmHg) were significantly higher than hearts from TgM(E56G) (66.2 mmHg) or C57/BL6 (59.3±3.9 mmHg). These findings show that ELCs decreased myosin stiffness, in vitro motility, and thereby cardiac functions in the order hVLC-1>hVLC-1(E56G)≈mVLC-1. They also suggest a molecular pathomechanism of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by hVLC-1 mutations. PMID:24911555

  3. Isolation of myosin from starfish sperm heads.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, I

    1976-08-01

    Myosin was extracted and partially purified from the head portion of spermatozoa of the starfish, Asterias amurensis. The sperm myosin showed a specific Ca2+-activated ATPase [EC 3.6.1.3] activity of 0.2 mumoles Pi/min/mg at high ionic strength and pH 6.5. It resembled egg myosin in forming thick filaments, becoming attached to actin filaments. subunit composition, and serological properties. PMID:12147

  4. Emerging Functions for N-Terminal Protein Acetylation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    N-terminal (Nt-) acetylation is a widespread but poorly understood co-translational protein modification. Two reports now shed light onto the proteome-wide dynamics and protein-specific consequences of Nt-acetylation in relation to plant development, stress-response, and protein stability, identifying this modification as a key regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and behaviour. PMID:26319188

  5. Flagellar localization of a novel isoform of myosin, myosin XXI, in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Katta, Santharam S; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2009-04-01

    Leishmania major genome analysis revealed the presence of putative genes corresponding to two myosins, which have been designated to class IB and a novel class, class XXI, specifically present in kinetoplastids. To characterize these myosin homologs in Leishmania, we have cloned and over-expressed the full-length myosin XXI gene and variable region of myosin IB gene in bacteria, purified the corresponding proteins, and then used the affinity purified anti-sera to analyze the expression and intracellular distribution of these proteins. Whereas myosin XXI was expressed in both the promastigote and amastigote stages, no expression of myosin IB could be detected in any of the two stages of these parasites. Further, myosin XXI expression was more predominant in the promastigote stage where it was preferentially localized in the proximal region of the flagellum. The observed flagellar localization was not dependent on the myosin head region or actin but was exclusively determined by the myosin tail region, as judged by over-expressing GFP conjugates of full-length myosin XXI, its head domain and its tail domain separately in Leishmania. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immuno-gold electron microscopy analyses revealed that this protein was partly associated with paraflagellar rod proteins but not with tubulins in the flagellar axoneme. Our results, for the first time, report the expression and detailed analysis of cellular localization of a novel class of myosin, myosin XXI in trypanosomatids. PMID:19121339

  6. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  7. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  8. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  9. Affinity chromatography of immobilized actin and myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, R C; Trayer, I P

    1975-01-01

    Actin and myosin were immobilized by coupling them to agarose matrices. Both immobilized G-actin and immobilized myosin retain most of the properties of the proteins in free solution and are reliable over long periods of time. Sepharose-F-actin, under the conditions used in this study, has proved unstable and variable in its properties. Sepharose-G-actin columns were used to bind heavy meromyosin and myosin subfragment 1 specifically and reversibly. The interaction involved is sensitive to variation in ionic strength, such that myosin itself is not retained by the columns at the high salt concentration required for its complete solubilization. Myosin, rendered soluble at low ionic strength by polyalanylation, will interact successfully with the immobilized actin. The latter can distinguish between active and inactive fractions of the proteolytic and polyalanyl myosin derivatives, and was used in the preparation of these molecules. The complexes formed between the myosin derivatives and Sepharose-G-actin can be dissociated by low concentrations of ATP, ADP and pyrophosphate in both the presence and the absence of Mg2+. The G-actin columns were used to evaluate the results of chemical modifications of myosin subfragments on their interactions with actin. F-Actin in free solution is bound specifically and reversibly to columns of insolubilized myosin. Thus, with elution by either ATP or pyrophosphate, actin has been purified in one step from extracts of acetone-dried muscle powder. PMID:241335

  10. The effect of age on in vitro motility speed of slow myosin extracted from single rat soleus fibres.

    PubMed

    Höök, P; Li, X; Sleep, J; Hughes, S; Larsson, L

    1999-12-01

    The effect of age on the motor protein myosin was examined in a novel in vitro motility assay. Myosin was extracted from soleus fibres of young (3-6 month) and old (20-24 month) rats. All fibres expressed the type I myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and the slow isoforms of the myosin light chains (MyLCs). In vitro motility speed was significantly (P < 0.001) faster in the young adult (1.43 +/- 0.23 microm s-1) than in the aged group (1.27 +/- 0.23 microm s-1). The result indicates that the age-related decrease in contractile speed observed in slow fibres may be the effect of a change in the properties of myosin with age. PMID:10632634

  11. Myosin II Dynamics during Embryo Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasza, Karen

    2013-03-01

    During embryonic morphogenesis, the myosin II motor protein generates forces that help to shape tissues, organs, and the overall body form. In one dramatic example in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, the epithelial tissue that will give rise to the body of the adult animal elongates more than two-fold along the head-to-tail axis in less than an hour. This elongation is accomplished primarily through directional rearrangements of cells within the plane of the tissue. Just prior to elongation, polarized assemblies of myosin II accumulate perpendicular to the elongation axis. The contractile forces generated by myosin activity orient cell movements along a common axis, promoting local cell rearrangements that contribute to global tissue elongation. The molecular and mechanical mechanisms by which myosin drives this massive change in embryo shape are poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we generated a collection of transgenic flies expressing variants of myosin II with altered motor function and regulation. We found that variants that are predicted to have increased myosin activity cause defects in tissue elongation. Using biophysical approaches, we found that these myosin variants also have decreased turnover dynamics within cells. To explore the mechanisms by which molecular-level myosin dynamics are translated into tissue-level elongation, we are using time-lapse confocal imaging to observe cell movements in embryos with altered myosin activity. We are utilizing computational approaches to quantify the dynamics and directionality of myosin localization and cell rearrangements. These studies will help elucidate how myosin-generated forces control cell movements within tissues. This work is in collaboration with J. Zallen at the Sloan-Kettering Institute.

  12. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-10

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0/sup 0/C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain.

  13. Nuclear actin and myosins in adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Serebryannyy, Leonid A; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2015-11-01

    Adenovirus serotypes have been shown to cause drastic changes in nuclear organization, including the transcription machinery, during infection. This ability of adenovirus to subvert transcription in the host cell facilitates viral replication. Because nuclear actin and nuclear myosin I, myosin V and myosin VI have been implicated as direct regulators of transcription and important factors in the replication of other viruses, we sought to determine how nuclear actin and myosins are involved in adenovirus infection. We first confirmed reorganization of the host's transcription machinery to viral replication centers. We found that nuclear actin also reorganizes to sites of transcription through the intermediate but not the advanced late phase of viral infection. Furthermore, nuclear myosin I localized with nuclear actin and sites of transcription in viral replication centers. Intriguingly, nuclear myosins V and VI, which also reorganized to viral replication centers, exhibited different localization patterns, suggesting specialized roles for these nuclear myosins. Finally, we assessed the role of actin in adenovirus infection and found both cytoplasmic and nuclear actin likely play roles in adenovirus infection and replication. Together our data suggest the involvement of actin and multiple myosins in the nuclear replication and late viral gene expression of adenovirus. PMID:26226218

  14. Myosin Va bound to phagosomes binds to F-actin and delays microtubule-dependent motility.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, A; Shonn, M A; Redlich, B; Blocker, A; Burkhardt, J K; Yu, H; Hammer, J A; Weiss, D G; Steffen, W; Griffiths, G; Kuznetsov, S A

    2001-09-01

    We established a light microscopy-based assay that reconstitutes the binding of phagosomes purified from mouse macrophages to preassembled F-actin in vitro. Both endogenous myosin Va from mouse macrophages and exogenous myosin Va from chicken brain stimulated the phagosome-F-actin interaction. Myosin Va association with phagosomes correlated with their ability to bind F-actin in an ATP-regulated manner and antibodies to myosin Va specifically blocked the ATP-sensitive phagosome binding to F-actin. The uptake and retrograde transport of phagosomes from the periphery to the center of cells in bone marrow macrophages was observed in both normal mice and mice homozygous for the dilute-lethal spontaneous mutation (myosin Va null). However, in dilute-lethal macrophages the accumulation of phagosomes in the perinuclear region occurred twofold faster than in normal macrophages. Motion analysis revealed saltatory phagosome movement with temporarily reversed direction in normal macrophages, whereas almost no reversals in direction were observed in dilute-lethal macrophages. These observations demonstrate that myosin Va mediates phagosome binding to F-actin, resulting in a delay in microtubule-dependent retrograde phagosome movement toward the cell center. We propose an "antagonistic/cooperative mechanism" to explain the saltatory phagosome movement toward the cell center in normal macrophages. PMID:11553713

  15. Supervillin binding to myosin II and synergism with anillin are required for cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tara C.; Fridy, Peter C.; Li, Yinyin; Basil, Shruti; Arjun, Sneha; Friesen, Ryan M.; Leszyk, John; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.; Luna, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the process by which cytoplasm is apportioned between dividing daughter cells, requires coordination of myosin II function, membrane trafficking, and central spindle organization. Most known regulators act during late cytokinesis; a few, including the myosin II–binding proteins anillin and supervillin, act earlier. Anillin's role in scaffolding the membrane cortex with the central spindle is well established, but the mechanism of supervillin action is relatively uncharacterized. We show here that two regions within supervillin affect cell division: residues 831–1281, which bind central spindle proteins, and residues 1–170, which bind the myosin II heavy chain (MHC) and the long form of myosin light-chain kinase. MHC binding is required to rescue supervillin deficiency, and mutagenesis of this site creates a dominant-negative phenotype. Supervillin concentrates activated and total myosin II at the furrow, and simultaneous knockdown of supervillin and anillin additively increases cell division failure. Knockdown of either protein causes mislocalization of the other, and endogenous anillin increases upon supervillin knockdown. Proteomic identification of interaction partners recovered using a high-affinity green fluorescent protein nanobody suggests that supervillin and anillin regulate the myosin II and actin cortical cytoskeletons through separate pathways. We conclude that supervillin and anillin play complementary roles during vertebrate cytokinesis. PMID:24088567

  16. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  17. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chii J.; Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J.; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  18. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  19. A mechanochemical model for myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehver, Riina; Jack, Amanda; Lowe, Ian

    Myosin VI is a motor protein that transports cellular cargo along actin filaments. This transport takes place as a result of a coordinated mechano-chemical cycle that is controlled by external variables including imposed force and nucleotide concentrations. We present a model that captures the different dynamic pathways that myosin VI can take in response to these variables. The results of our model for experimentally observable quantities, such as the motor velocity or run length, agree with available experimental data, and we can also make predictions beyond the tested regimes. Using the model, we study how myosin VI reacts to its environment and test its operational efficiency.

  20. Pseudo-acetylation of K326 and K328 of actin disrupts Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle structure and performance

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Meera C.; Blice-Baum, Anna C.; Schmidt, William; Foster, D. Brian; Cammarato, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In striated muscle tropomyosin (Tm) extends along the length of F-actin-containing thin filaments. Its location governs access of myosin binding sites on actin and, hence, force production. Intermolecular electrostatic associations are believed to mediate critical interactions between the proteins. For example, actin residues K326, K328, and R147 were predicted to establish contacts with E181 of Tm. Moreover, K328 also potentially forms direct interactions with E286 of myosin when the motor is strongly bound. Recently, LC-MS/MS analysis of the cardiac acetyl-lysine proteome revealed K326 and K328 of actin were acetylated, a post-translational modification (PTM) that masks the residues' inherent positive charges. Here, we tested the hypothesis that by removing the vital actin charges at residues 326 and 328, the PTM would perturb Tm positioning and/or strong myosin binding as manifested by altered skeletal muscle function and structure in the Drosophila melanogaster model system. Transgenic flies were created that permit tissue-specific expression of K326Q, K328Q, or K326Q/K328Q acetyl-mimetic actin and of wild-type actin via the UAS-GAL4 bipartite expression system. Compared to wild-type actin, muscle-restricted expression of mutant actin had a dose-dependent effect on flight ability. Moreover, excessive K328Q and K326Q/K328Q actin overexpression induced indirect flight muscle degeneration, a phenotype consistent with hypercontraction observed in other Drosophila myofibrillar mutants. Based on F-actin-Tm and F-actin-Tm-myosin models and on our physiological data, we conclude that acetylating K326 and K328 of actin alters electrostatic associations with Tm and/or myosin and thereby augments contractile properties. Our findings highlight the utility of Drosophila as a model that permits efficient targeted design and assessment of molecular and tissue-specific responses to muscle protein modifications, in vivo. PMID:25972811

  1. Native myosin from adult rabbit skeletal muscle: isoenzymes and states of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Morel, J E; D'hahan, N; Taouil, K; Francin, M; Aguilar, A; Dalbiez, J P; Merah, Z; Grussaute, H; Hilbert, B; Ollagnon, F; Selva, G; Piot, F

    1998-04-21

    The globular heads of skeletal muscle myosin have been shown to exist as isoenzymes S1 (A1) and S1 (A2), and there are also isoforms of the heavy chains. Using capillary electrophoresis, we found two dominant isoenzymes of the whole native myosin molecule, in agreement with what has previously been found by various techniques for native and nondenatured myosin from adult rabbits. Findings about possible states of aggregation of myosin and its heads are contradictory. By analytical ultracentrifugation, we confirmed the existence of a tail-tail dimer. By laser light scattering, we found a head-head dimer in the presence of MgATP. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with analytical ultracentrifugation and laser light scattering led us to refine these results. We found tail-tail dimers in a conventional buffer. We found tail-tail and head-head dimers in the presence of 0.5 mM MgATP and pure head-head dimers in the presence of 6 mM MgATP. All the dimers were homodimers. Naming the dominant isoenzymes of myosin a and b, we observed tail-tail dimers with isoenzyme a (TaTa) and with isoenzyme b (TbTb) and also head-head dimers with isoenzyme a (HaHa) and with isoenzyme b (HbHb). PMID:9548927

  2. Major nonhistone proteins of rat liver chromatin: preliminary identification of myosin, actin, tubulin, and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Douvas, A S; Harrington, C A; Bonner, J

    1975-01-01

    Two major nonhistone polypeptides from rat liver chromatin have been identified as myosin and actin. Preliminary observations indicate that three other chromatin polypeptides of molecular weights 50,000, 34,000, and 32,000 are tubulin and heavy and light tropomyosin, respectively. A sixth component of molecular weight 65,000 which has been purified and electrophoreses as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels may be composed in part of protease-digested myosin. These six polypeptides together account for as much as 38% of the nonhistone protein mass of chromatin in this tissue. Images PMID:1060072

  3. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression. PMID:26940917

  4. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-04-15

    Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression. PMID:26940917

  5. Dictyostelium Myosin Bipolar Thick Filament Formation: Importance of Charge and Specific Domains of the Myosin Rod

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Myosin-II thick filament formation in Dictyostelium is an excellent system for investigating the phenomenon of self-assembly, as the myosin molecule itself contains all the information required to form a structure of defined size. Phosphorylation of only three threonine residues can dramatically change the assembly state of myosin-II. We show here that the C-terminal 68 kDa of the myosin-II tail (termed AD-Cterm) assembles in a regulated manner similar to full-length myosin-II and forms bipolar thick filament (BTF) structures when a green fluorescent protein (GFP) “head” is added to the N terminus. The localization of this GFP-AD-Cterm to the cleavage furrow of dividing Dictyostelium cells depends on assembly state, similar to full-length myosin-II. This tail fragment therefore represents a good model system for the regulated formation and localization of BTFs. By reducing regulated BTF assembly to a more manageable model system, we were able to explore determinants of myosin-II self-assembly. Our data support a model in which a globular head limits the size of a BTF, and the large-scale charge character of the AD-Cterm region is important for BTF formation. Truncation analysis of AD-Cterm tail fragments shows that assembly is delicately balanced, resulting in assembled myosin-II molecules that are poised to disassemble due to the phosphorylation of only three threonines. PMID:15492777

  6. Dictyostelium myosin bipolar thick filament formation: importance of charge and specific domains of the myosin rod.

    PubMed

    Hostetter, Daniel; Rice, Sarah; Dean, Sara; Altman, David; McMahon, Peggy M; Sutton, Shirley; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Spudich, James A

    2004-11-01

    Myosin-II thick filament formation in Dictyostelium is an excellent system for investigating the phenomenon of self-assembly, as the myosin molecule itself contains all the information required to form a structure of defined size. Phosphorylation of only three threonine residues can dramatically change the assembly state of myosin-II. We show here that the C-terminal 68 kDa of the myosin-II tail (termed AD-Cterm) assembles in a regulated manner similar to full-length myosin-II and forms bipolar thick filament (BTF) structures when a green fluorescent protein (GFP) "head" is added to the N terminus. The localization of this GFP-AD-Cterm to the cleavage furrow of dividing Dictyostelium cells depends on assembly state, similar to full-length myosin-II. This tail fragment therefore represents a good model system for the regulated formation and localization of BTFs. By reducing regulated BTF assembly to a more manageable model system, we were able to explore determinants of myosin-II self-assembly. Our data support a model in which a globular head limits the size of a BTF, and the large-scale charge character of the AD-Cterm region is important for BTF formation. Truncation analysis of AD-Cterm tail fragments shows that assembly is delicately balanced, resulting in assembled myosin-II molecules that are poised to disassemble due to the phosphorylation of only three threonines. PMID:15492777

  7. PRIMARY PEPTIDE SEQUENCES FROM SQUID MUSCLE AND OPTIC LOBE MYOSIN IIs: A STRATEGY TO IDENTIFY AN ORGANELLE MYOSIN

    PubMed Central

    MEDEIROS, NELSON A.; REESE, THOMAS S.; JAFFE, HOWARD; DEGIORGIS, JOSEPH A.; BEARER, ELAINE L.

    2013-01-01

    The squid giant axon provides an excellent model system for the study of actin-based organelle transport likely to be mediated by myosins, but the identification of these motors has proven to be difficult. Here the authors purified and obtained primary peptide sequence of squid muscle myosin as a first step in a strategy designed to identify myosins in the squid nervous system. Limited digestion yielded fourteen peptides derived from the muscle myosin which possess high amino acid sequence identities to myosin II from scallop (60–95%) and chick pectoralis muscle (31–83%). Antibodies generated to this purified muscle myosin were used to isolate a potential myosin from squid optic lobe which yielded 11 peptide fragments. Sequences from six of these fragments identified this protein as a myosin II. The other five sequences matched myosin II (50–60%, identities), and some also matched unconventional myosins (33–50%). A single band that has a molecular weight similar to the myosin purified from optic lobe copurifies with axoplasmic organelles, and, like the optic lobe myosin, this band is also recognized by the antibodies raised against squid muscle myosin II. Hence, this strategy provides an approach to the identification of a myosin associated with motile axoplasmic organelles. PMID:9878103

  8. Atg1-mediated myosin II activation regulates autophagosome formation during starvation-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang, Shiu-Lan; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Yu; Chen, Guang-Chao

    2011-02-16

    Autophagy is a membrane-mediated degradation process of macromolecule recycling. Although the formation of double-membrane degradation vesicles (autophagosomes) is known to have a central role in autophagy, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. The serine/threonine kinase Atg1 has a key role in the induction of autophagy. In this study, we show that overexpression of Drosophila Atg1 promotes the phosphorylation-dependent activation of the actin-associated motor protein myosin II. A novel myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-like protein, Spaghetti-squash activator (Sqa), was identified as a link between Atg1 and actomyosin activation. Sqa interacts with Atg1 through its kinase domain and is a substrate of Atg1. Significantly, myosin II inhibition or depletion of Sqa compromised the formation of autophagosomes under starvation conditions. In mammalian cells, we found that the Sqa mammalian homologue zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) and myosin II had a critical role in the regulation of starvation-induced autophagy and mammalian Atg9 (mAtg9) trafficking when cells were deprived of nutrients. Our findings provide evidence of a link between Atg1 and the control of Atg9-mediated autophagosome formation through the myosin II motor protein. PMID:21169990

  9. Protein Acetylation and Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Galdieri, Luciano; Zhang, Tiantian; Rogerson, Daniella; Lleshi, Rron

    2014-01-01

    Cells sense and appropriately respond to the physical conditions and availability of nutrients in their environment. This sensing of the environment and consequent cellular responses are orchestrated by a multitude of signaling pathways and typically involve changes in transcription and metabolism. Recent discoveries suggest that the signaling and transcription machineries are regulated by signals which are derived from metabolism and reflect the metabolic state of the cell. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a key metabolite that links metabolism with signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Acetyl-CoA is produced by glycolysis as well as other catabolic pathways and used as a substrate for the citric acid cycle and as a precursor in synthesis of fatty acids and steroids and in other anabolic pathways. This central position in metabolism endows acetyl-CoA with an important regulatory role. Acetyl-CoA serves as a substrate for lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), which catalyze the transfer of acetyl groups to the epsilon-amino groups of lysines in histones and many other proteins. Fluctuations in the concentration of acetyl-CoA, reflecting the metabolic state of the cell, are translated into dynamic protein acetylations that regulate a variety of cell functions, including transcription, replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and aging. This review highlights the synthesis and homeostasis of acetyl-CoA and the regulation of transcriptional and signaling machineries in yeast by acetylation. PMID:25326522

  10. [Dynamic of myocarditis development in rats after injection of cardiac myosine combined with IFA].

    PubMed

    Morozova, M P; Gavrilova, S A; Zemtsova, L V; Pogodina, L S; Postnikov, A B; Chentsov, Iu S

    2012-02-01

    Myocarditis development was investigated after immunization rats with single subcutaneous injection of cardiac myosin (800 microg/kg) with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) (M + IFA group). Control group received equal volume of IFA alone or nothing (intact group). On days 4, 14, and 21 after injection, light and electron microscopy of heart sections, morphometric analysis, estimation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1p, IL-6, VEGF, TNFa and iNOS) expression were used to evaluate inflammatory response in myocardium. In addition, we estimated cardiac myosin antibody levels in blood serum and nitrite and nitrate levels in blood serum. Our data showed that immunization with cardiac myosin combined with IFA led to inflammatory response in the rat myocardium. Acute inflammation (i.e. lymphocyte infiltration of myocardium and increase of proinflammatory cytokines level) in M + IFA group occurred on 21 days after immunization. PMID:22650071

  11. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase interacts with dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 at Golgi outposts in neuronal dendritic branch points

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Ariful; Sharif, Syeda Ridita; Lee, HyunSook; Seog, Dae-Hyun; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylglucosamine kinase (GlcNAc kinase or NAGK) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme in mammalian cells. Recent studies have shown that NAGK has an essential structural, non-enzymatic role in the upregulation of dendritogenesis. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screening to search for NAGK-binding proteins and found a specific interaction between NAGK and dynein light-chain roadblock type 1 (DYNLRB1). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) on hippocampal neurons using antibodies against NAGK and DYNLRB1 or dynein heavy chain showed some colocalization, which was increased by treating the live cells with a crosslinker. A proximity ligation assay (PLA) of NAGK-dynein followed by tubulin ICC showed the localization of PLA signals on microtubule fibers at dendritic branch points. NAGK-dynein PLA combined with Golgi ICC showed the colocalization of PLA signals with somal Golgi facing the apical dendrite and with Golgi outposts in dendritic branch points and distensions. NAGK-Golgi PLA followed by tubulin or DYNLRB1 ICC showed that PLA signals colocalize with DYNLRB1 at dendritic branch points and at somal Golgi, indicating a tripartite interaction between NAGK, dynein and Golgi. Finally, the ectopic introduction of a small peptide derived from the C-terminal amino acids 74–96 of DYNLRB1 resulted in the stunting of hippocampal neuron dendrites in culture. Our data indicate that the NAGK-dynein-Golgi tripartite interaction at dendritic branch points functions to regulate dendritic growth and/or branching. PMID:26272270

  12. Formation of contractile networks and fibers in the medial cell cortex through myosin-II turnover, contraction, and stress-stabilization.

    PubMed

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, H Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and minifilament assembly of non-muscle myosin-II is an important component of cortical cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. We used experiments and computational modeling to study cortical myosin-II dynamics in adhered cells. Confocal microscopy was used to image the medial cell cortex of HeLa cells stably expressing myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). The distribution of MRLC-GFP fibers and focal adhesions was classified into three types of network morphologies. Time-lapse movies show: myosin foci appearance and disappearance; aligning and contraction; stabilization upon alignment. Addition of blebbistatin, which perturbs myosin motor activity, leads to a reorganization of the cortical networks and to a reduction of contractile motions. We quantified the kinetics of contraction, disassembly and reassembly of myosin networks using spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS). Coarse-grained numerical simulations include bipolar minifilaments that contract and align through specified interactions as basic elements. After assuming that minifilament turnover decreases with increasing contractile stress, the simulations reproduce stress-dependent fiber formation in between focal adhesions above a threshold myosin concentration. The STICS correlation function in simulations matches the function measured in experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. PMID:25641802

  13. Impact of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutations in the NH2 terminus of the RLC on β-myosin cross-bridge mechanics.

    PubMed

    Farman, Gerrie P; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with mutations in sarcomeric proteins, including the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). Here we studied the impact of three HCM mutations located in the NH2 terminus of the RLC on the molecular mechanism of β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) cross-bridge mechanics using the in vitro motility assay. To generate mutant β-myosin, native RLC was depleted from porcine cardiac MHC and reconstituted with mutant (A13T, F18L, and E22K) or wild-type (WT) human cardiac RLC. We characterized the mutant myosin force and motion generation capability in the presence of a frictional load. Compared with WT, all three mutants exhibited reductions in maximal actin filament velocity when tested under low or no frictional load. The actin-activated ATPase showed no significant difference between WT and HCM-mutant-reconstituted myosins. The decrease in velocity has been attributed to a significantly increased duty cycle, as was measured by the dependence of actin sliding velocity on myosin surface density, for all three mutant myosins. These results demonstrate a mutation-induced alteration in acto-myosin interactions that may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCM. PMID:25324513

  14. The unique enzymatic and mechanistic properties of plant myosins.

    PubMed

    Henn, Arnon; Sadot, Einat

    2014-12-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that move along actin-filament tracks. Plants express two main classes of myosins, myosin VIII and myosin XI. Along with their relatively conserved sequence and functions, plant myosins have acquired some unique features. Myosin VIII has the enzymatic characteristics of a tension sensor and/or a tension generator, similar to functions found in other eukaryotes. Interestingly, class XI plant myosins have gained a novel function that consists of propelling the exceptionally rapid cytoplasmic streaming. This specific class includes the fastest known translocating molecular motors, which can reach an extremely high velocity of about 60μms(-1). However, the enzymatic properties and mechanistic basis for these remarkable manifestations are not yet fully understood. Here we review recent progress in understanding the uniqueness of plant myosins, while emphasizing the unanswered questions. PMID:25435181

  15. Unconventional Myosins in Inner-Ear Sensory Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Tama; Gillespie, Peter G.; Garcia, Jesus A.; MacDonald, Richard B.; Zhao, Yi-dong; Yee, Ann G.; Mooseker, Mark S.; Corey, David P.

    1997-01-01

    To understand how cells differentially use the dozens of myosin isozymes present in each genome, we examined the distribution of four unconventional myosin isozymes in the inner ear, a tissue that is particularly reliant on actin-rich structures and unconventional myosin isozymes. Of the four isozymes, each from a different class, three are expressed in the hair cells of amphibia and mammals. In stereocilia, constructed of cross-linked F-actin filaments, myosin-Iβ is found mostly near stereociliary tips, myosin-VI is largely absent, and myosin-VIIa colocalizes with crosslinks that connect adjacent stereocilia. In the cuticular plate, a meshwork of actin filaments, myosin-Iβ is excluded, myosin-VI is concentrated, and modest amounts of myosin-VIIa are present. These three myosin isozymes are excluded from other actin-rich domains, including the circumferential actin belt and the cortical actin network. A member of a fourth class, myosin-V, is not expressed in hair cells but is present at high levels in afferent nerve cells that innervate hair cells. Substantial amounts of myosins-Iβ, -VI, and -VIIa are located in a pericuticular necklace that is largely free of F-actin, squeezed between (but not associated with) actin of the cuticular plate and the circumferential belt. Our localization results suggest specific functions for three hair-cell myosin isozymes. As suggested previously, myosin-Iβ probably plays a role in adaptation; concentration of myosin-VI in cuticular plates and association with stereociliary rootlets suggest that this isozyme participates in rigidly anchoring stereocilia; and finally, colocalization with cross-links between adjacent stereocilia indicates that myosin-VIIa is required for the structural integrity of hair bundles. PMID:9182663

  16. The world of protein acetylation.

    PubMed

    Drazic, Adrian; Myklebust, Line M; Ree, Rasmus; Arnesen, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Acetylation is one of the major post-translational protein modifications in the cell, with manifold effects on the protein level as well as on the metabolome level. The acetyl group, donated by the metabolite acetyl-coenzyme A, can be co- or post-translationally attached to either the α-amino group of the N-terminus of proteins or to the ε-amino group of lysine residues. These reactions are catalyzed by various N-terminal and lysine acetyltransferases. In case of lysine acetylation, the reaction is enzymatically reversible via tightly regulated and metabolism-dependent mechanisms. The interplay between acetylation and deacetylation is crucial for many important cellular processes. In recent years, our understanding of protein acetylation has increased significantly by global proteomics analyses and in depth functional studies. This review gives a general overview of protein acetylation and the respective acetyltransferases, and focuses on the regulation of metabolic processes and physiological consequences that come along with protein acetylation. PMID:27296530

  17. Phosphorylated peptides occur in a non-helical portion of the tail of a catch muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Castellani, L.; Elliott, B.W. Jr.; Cohen, C.

    1987-05-01

    Myosin from a molluscan catch muscle (the Anterior Byssus Retractor (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis) is unusual in being phosphorylated in the rod by an endogenous heavy-chain kinase. This phosphorylation enhances myosin solubility at low ionic strength and induces molecular folding of the myosin tail. Papain and chymotryptic cleavage of this myosin, phosphorylated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP, indicates that the phosphorylated residues are associated with the carboxy-terminal end of the light meromyosin. Ion-exchange and reverse-phase HPLC of radiolabeled chymotryptic peptides allow the isolation of two different peptides with high specific activity. One of these peptides is rich in lysine and arginine residues, a finding consistent with the observation that basic residues often determine the substrate specificity of protein kinases. The second peptide contains proline residues. Taken together, these results suggest that, as in the case of Acanthamoeba myosin, phosphorylation occurs in a nonhelical portion of the rod that may also control solubility. Identification of the residues that are phosphorylated and their location in the rod may reveal how the phosphorylation-dependent changes observed in the myosin in vitro are related to changes in intermolecular interactions in the thick filaments in vivo.

  18. Mouse and computational models link Mlc2v dephosphorylation to altered myosin kinetics in early cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Farah; Ouyang, Kunfu; Campbell, Stuart G.; Lyon, Robert C.; Chuang, Joyce; Fitzsimons, Dan; Tangney, Jared; Hidalgo, Carlos G.; Chung, Charles S.; Cheng, Hongqiang; Dalton, Nancy D.; Gu, Yusu; Kasahara, Hideko; Ghassemian, Majid; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Peterson, Kirk L.; Granzier, Henk L.; Moss, Richard L.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Chen, Ju

    2012-01-01

    Actin-myosin interactions provide the driving force underlying each heartbeat. The current view is that actin-bound regulatory proteins play a dominant role in the activation of calcium-dependent cardiac muscle contraction. In contrast, the relevance and nature of regulation by myosin regulatory proteins (for example, myosin light chain-2 [MLC2]) in cardiac muscle remain poorly understood. By integrating gene-targeted mouse and computational models, we have identified an indispensable role for ventricular Mlc2 (Mlc2v) phosphorylation in regulating cardiac muscle contraction. Cardiac myosin cycling kinetics, which directly control actin-myosin interactions, were directly affected, but surprisingly, Mlc2v phosphorylation also fed back to cooperatively influence calcium-dependent activation of the thin filament. Loss of these mechanisms produced early defects in the rate of cardiac muscle twitch relaxation and ventricular torsion. Strikingly, these defects preceded the left ventricular dysfunction of heart disease and failure in a mouse model with nonphosphorylatable Mlc2v. Thus, there is a direct and early role for Mlc2 phosphorylation in regulating actin-myosin interactions in striated muscle contraction, and dephosphorylation of Mlc2 or loss of these mechanisms can play a critical role in heart failure. PMID:22426213

  19. Single Myosin Cross-Bridge Orientation in Cardiac Papillary Muscle Detects Lever-Arm Shear Strain in Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Josephson, Matthew P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley–Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons (1971) Nature 233, 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution. PMID:21819137

  20. Visualizing key hinges and a potential major source of compliance in the lever arm of myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.H.; Robinson, H.; Senthil Kumar, V. S.; O'Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Nguyen-McCarty, M.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-01-04

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  1. Visualizing Key Hinges and a Potential Major Source of Compliance in the Lever Arm of Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    J Brown; V Senthil Kumar; E ONeall-Hennessey; L Reshetnikova; H Robinson; M Nguyen-McCarty; A Szent-Gyorgyi; C Cohen

    2011-12-31

    We have determined the 2.3-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of a myosin light chain domain, corresponding to one type found in sea scallop catch ('smooth') muscle. This structure reveals hinges that may function in the 'on' and 'off' states of myosin. The molecule adopts two different conformations about the heavy chain 'hook' and regulatory light chain (RLC) helix D. This conformational change results in extended and compressed forms of the lever arm whose lengths differ by 10 {angstrom}. The heavy chain hook and RLC helix D hinges could thus serve as a potential major and localized source of cross-bridge compliance during the contractile cycle. In addition, in one of the molecules of the crystal, part of the RLC N-terminal extension is seen in atomic detail and forms a one-turn alpha-helix that interacts with RLC helix D. This extension, whose sequence is highly variable in different myosins, may thus modulate the flexibility of the lever arm. Moreover, the relative proximity of the phosphorylation site to the helix D hinge suggests a potential role for conformational changes about this hinge in the transition between the on and off states of regulated myosins.

  2. The effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine and ascorbic acid on visible-light-irradiated camphorquinone/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine-induced oxidative stress in two immortalized cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pagoria, D; Geurtsen, W

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies have revealed that visible-light (VL)-irradiated camphorquinone (CQ), in the presence of a tertiary amine (e.g., N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, DMT), generates initiating radicals that may indiscriminately react with molecular oxygen forming reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the ability of the antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and ascorbic acid (AA) to reduce intracellular oxidative stress induced by VL-irradiated CQ/DMT or VL-irradiated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was assessed in an immortalized Murine cementoblast cell line (OCCM.30) and an immortalized Murine fibroblast cell line, 3T3-Swiss albino (3T3). Intracellular oxidative stress was measured with the membrane permeable dye, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCF-DA). VL-irradiated CQ/DMT and VL-irradiated H(2)O(2) each produced significantly (p<0.001) elevated intracellular oxidative levels in both cell types compared to intracellular ROS levels in VL-irradiated untreated cells. OCCM.30 cementoblasts were found to be almost twice as sensitive to VL-irradiated CQ/DMT and VL-irradiated H(2)O(2) treatment compared to 3T3 fibroblasts. Furthermore, 10mm NAC and 10mm AA each eliminated oxidative stress induced by VL-irradiated CQ/DMT and VL-irradiated H(2)O(2) in both cell types. Our results suggest that NAC and AA may effectively reduce or eliminate oxidative stress in cells exposed to VL-irradiated CQ/DMT following polymerization. PMID:15919110

  3. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Myosin Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Elizabeth; Eftink, Maurice R.

    1985-01-01

    Students complete five experimental projects at the end of a senior-level biochemistry course which involves the isolation and characterization of myosin and its water-soluble subfragments. Procedures used and results obtained are provided for such projects as viscosity and ATPase measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments. (JN)

  5. Thermal transitions of myosin and its helical fragments. I. Shifts in proton equilibria accompanying unfolding.

    PubMed

    Goodno, C C; Swenson, C A

    1975-03-11

    The thermal transitions of myosin and its helical fragments have been studied with pH as the observable. Heating unbuffered solutions of these proteins near their pI values causes an abrupt rise in pH at a characteristic temperature (the "melting temperature," Tm) which is due to structural changes within the protein. Since the pH shift turns out to be insensitive to the degree of protein aggregation, we have obtained acceptable melting curves even under conditions where the protein coagulates during melting. The melting profiles and Tm vlaues of myosin, myosin rod, and light meromyosin have been found to be remarkably similar (Tm equal to 40 plus or minus 1 degree, 0.5 M KCl, pH 5.9). Proton binding which occurs during melting coincides with the unfolding of a section of myosin rod. Taken in the context of other studies, the proton binding is thought to occur near the "hinge region." PMID:235944

  6. Age-related slowing of myosin actin cross-bridge kinetics is sex specific and predicts decrements in whole skeletal muscle performance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bedrin, Nicholas G.; Callahan, Damien M.; Previs, Michael J.; Jennings, Mark E.; Ades, Philip A.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Toth, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction and physical disability may be partially explained by alterations in the function of the myosin molecule. To test this hypothesis, skeletal muscle function at the whole muscle, single fiber, and molecular levels was measured in young (21–35 yr) and older (65–75 yr) male and female volunteers with similar physical activity levels. After adjusting for muscle size, older adults had similar knee extensor isometric torque values compared with young, but had lower isokinetic power, most notably in women. At the single-fiber and molecular levels, aging was associated with increased isometric tension, slowed myosin actin cross-bridge kinetics (longer myosin attachment times and reduced rates of myosin force production), greater myofilament lattice stiffness, and reduced phosphorylation of the fast myosin regulatory light chain; however, the age effect was driven primarily by women (i.e., age-by-sex interaction effects). In myosin heavy chain IIA fibers, single-fiber isometric tension and molecular level mechanical and kinetic indexes were correlated with whole muscle isokinetic power output. Collectively, considering that contractile dysfunction scales up through various anatomical levels, our results suggest a potential sex-specific molecular mechanism, reduced cross-bridge kinetics, contributes to the reduced physical capacity with aging in women. Thus these results support our hypothesis that age-related alterations in the myosin molecule contribute to skeletal muscle dysfunction and physical disability and indicate that this effect is stronger in women. PMID:23887900

  7. Distinct Functional Interactions between Actin Isoforms and Nonsarcomeric Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Mirco; Diensthuber, Ralph P.; Chizhov, Igor; Claus, Peter; Heissler, Sarah M.; Preller, Matthias; Taft, Manuel H.; Manstein, Dietmar J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their near sequence identity, actin isoforms cannot completely replace each other in vivo and show marked differences in their tissue-specific and subcellular localization. Little is known about isoform-specific differences in their interactions with myosin motors and other actin-binding proteins. Mammalian cytoplasmic β- and γ-actin interact with nonsarcomeric conventional myosins such as the members of the nonmuscle myosin-2 family and myosin-7A. These interactions support a wide range of cellular processes including cytokinesis, maintenance of cell polarity, cell adhesion, migration, and mechano-electrical transduction. To elucidate differences in the ability of isoactins to bind and stimulate the enzymatic activity of individual myosin isoforms, we characterized the interactions of human skeletal muscle α-actin, cytoplasmic β-actin, and cytoplasmic γ-actin with human myosin-7A and nonmuscle myosins-2A, -2B and -2C1. In the case of nonmuscle myosins-2A and -2B, the interaction with either cytoplasmic actin isoform results in 4-fold greater stimulation of myosin ATPase activity than was observed in the presence of α-skeletal muscle actin. Nonmuscle myosin-2C1 is most potently activated by β-actin and myosin-7A by γ-actin. Our results indicate that β- and γ-actin isoforms contribute to the modulation of nonmuscle myosin-2 and myosin-7A activity and thereby to the spatial and temporal regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. FRET-based analyses show efficient copolymerization abilities for the actin isoforms in vitro. Experiments with hybrid actin filaments show that the extent of actomyosin coupling efficiency can be regulated by the isoform composition of actin filaments. PMID:23923011

  8. Does Interaction between the Motor and Regulatory Domains of the Myosin Head Occur during ATPase Cycle? Evidence from Thermal Unfolding Studies on Myosin Subfragment 1

    PubMed Central

    Logvinova, Daria S.; Markov, Denis I.; Nikolaeva, Olga P.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Ushakov, Dmitry S.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.

    2015-01-01

    Myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) consists of two major structural domains, the motor (or catalytic) domain and the regulatory domain. Functioning of the myosin head as a molecular motor is believed to involve a rotation of the regulatory domain (lever arm) relative to the motor domain during the ATPase cycle. According to predictions, this rotation can be accompanied by an interaction between the motor domain and the C-terminus of the essential light chain (ELC) associated with the regulatory domain. To check this assumption, we applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with temperature dependences of fluorescence to study changes in thermal unfolding and the domain structure of S1, which occur upon formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx that mimic S1 ATPase intermediate states S1**-ADP-Pi and S1*-ATP, respectively. To identify the thermal transitions on the DSC profiles (i.e. to assign them to the structural domains of S1), we compared the DSC data with temperature-induced changes in fluorescence of either tryptophan residues, located only in the motor domain, or recombinant ELC mutants (light chain 1 isoform), which were first fluorescently labeled at different positions in their C-terminal half and then introduced into the S1 regulatory domain. We show that formation of the ternary complexes S1-ADP-AlF4- and S1-ADP-BeFx significantly stabilizes not only the motor domain, but also the regulatory domain of the S1 molecule implying interdomain interaction via ELC. This is consistent with the previously proposed concepts and also adds some new interesting details to the molecular mechanism of the myosin ATPase cycle. PMID:26356744

  9. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  10. Nuclear myosin I regulates cell membrane tension.

    PubMed

    Venit, Tomáš; Kalendová, Alžběta; Petr, Martin; Dzijak, Rastislav; Pastorek, Lukáš; Rohožková, Jana; Malohlava, Jakub; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane tension is an important feature that determines the cell shape and influences processes such as cell motility, spreading, endocytosis and exocytosis. Unconventional class 1 myosins are potent regulators of plasma membrane tension because they physically link the plasma membrane with adjacent cytoskeleton. We identified nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) - a putative nuclear isoform of myosin 1c (Myo1c) - as a new player in the field. Although having specific nuclear functions, NM1 localizes predominantly to the plasma membrane. Deletion of NM1 causes more than a 50% increase in the elasticity of the plasma membrane around the actin cytoskeleton as measured by atomic force microscopy. This higher elasticity of NM1 knock-out cells leads to 25% higher resistance to short-term hypotonic environment and rapid cell swelling. In contrast, overexpression of NM1 in wild type cells leads to an additional 30% reduction of their survival. We have shown that NM1 has a direct functional role in the cytoplasm as a dynamic linker between the cell membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton, regulating the degree of effective plasma membrane tension. PMID:27480647