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Sample records for acetylation microarray reveals

  1. Proteomic profiling of lysine acetylation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals the diversity of acetylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Tassadit; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Hardouin, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and highly regulated post-translational modification with the well demonstrated physiological relevance in eukaryotes. Recently, its important role in the regulation of metabolic processes in bacteria was highlighted. Here, we reported the lysine acetylproteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a proteomic approach. We identified 430 unique peptides corresponding to 320 acetylated proteins. In addition to the proteins involved in various metabolic pathways, several enzymes contributing to the lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis were characterized as acetylated. This data set illustrated the abundance and the diversity of acetylated lysine proteins in P. aeruginosa and opens opportunities to explore the role of the acetylation in the bacterial physiology. PMID:25900529

  2. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal how ornithine acetyl transferase binds acidic and basic amino acid substrates.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Aman; Clifton, Ian J; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Ivison, David; Domene, Carmen; Schofield, Christopher J

    2011-09-21

    Structural and biochemical analyses reveal how ornithine acetyl-transferases catalyse the reversible transfer of an acetyl-group from a basic (ornithine) to an acidic (glutamate) amino acid by employing a common mechanism involving an acetyl-enzyme intermediate but using different side chain binding modes. PMID:21796301

  3. Nucleosome competition reveals processive acetylation by the SAGA HAT module.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Alison E; Cieniewicz, Anne M; Taverna, Sean D; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2015-10-01

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) coactivator complex hyperacetylates histone tails in vivo in a manner that depends upon histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), a histone mark enriched at promoters of actively transcribed genes. SAGA contains a separable subcomplex known as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) module that contains the HAT, Gcn5, bound to Sgf29, Ada2, and Ada3. Sgf29 contains a tandem Tudor domain that recognizes H3K4me3-containing peptides and is required for histone hyperacetylation in vivo. However, the mechanism by which H3K4me3 recognition leads to lysine hyperacetylation is unknown, as in vitro studies show no effect of the H3K4me3 modification on histone peptide acetylation by Gcn5. To determine how H3K4me3 binding by Sgf29 leads to histone hyperacetylation by Gcn5, we used differential fluorescent labeling of histones to monitor acetylation of individual subpopulations of methylated and unmodified nucleosomes in a mixture. We find that the SAGA HAT module preferentially acetylates H3K4me3 nucleosomes in a mixture containing excess unmodified nucleosomes and that this effect requires the Tudor domain of Sgf29. The H3K4me3 mark promotes processive, multisite acetylation of histone H3 by Gcn5 that can account for the different acetylation patterns established by SAGA at promoters versus coding regions. Our results establish a model for Sgf29 function at gene promoters and define a mechanism governing crosstalk between histone modifications. PMID:26401015

  4. Microarrays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.

    2007-01-01

    Microarrays are revolutionizing genetics by making it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of DNA markers and to assess the expression (RNA transcripts) of all of the genes in the genome. Microarrays are slides the size of a postage stamp that contain millions of DNA sequences to which single-stranded DNA or RNA can hybridize. This…

  5. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  6. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  7. Biochemical and cellular analysis of Ogden syndrome reveals downstream Nt-acetylation defects

    PubMed Central

    Myklebust, Line M.; Van Damme, Petra; Støve, Svein I.; Dörfel, Max J.; Abboud, Angèle; Kalvik, Thomas V.; Grauffel, Cedric; Jonckheere, Veronique; Wu, Yiyang; Swensen, Jeffrey; Kaasa, Hanna; Liszczak, Glen; Marmorstein, Ronen; Reuter, Nathalie; Lyon, Gholson J.; Gevaert, Kris; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The X-linked lethal Ogden syndrome was the first reported human genetic disorder associated with a mutation in an N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) gene. The affected males harbor an Ser37Pro (S37P) mutation in the gene encoding Naa10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major human NAT involved in the co-translational acetylation of proteins. Structural models and molecular dynamics simulations of the human NatA and its S37P mutant highlight differences in regions involved in catalysis and at the interface between Naa10 and the auxiliary subunit hNaa15. Biochemical data further demonstrate a reduced catalytic capacity and an impaired interaction between hNaa10 S37P and Naa15 as well as Naa50 (NatE), another interactor of the NatA complex. N-Terminal acetylome analyses revealed a decreased acetylation of a subset of NatA and NatE substrates in Ogden syndrome cells, supporting the genetic findings and our hypothesis regarding reduced Nt-acetylation of a subset of NatA/NatE-type substrates as one etiology for Ogden syndrome. Furthermore, Ogden syndrome fibroblasts display abnormal cell migration and proliferation capacity, possibly linked to a perturbed retinoblastoma pathway. N-Terminal acetylation clearly plays a role in Ogden syndrome, thus revealing the in vivo importance of N-terminal acetylation in human physiology and disease. PMID:25489052

  8. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L; Huber, Steven C; Zhao, Youfu

    2013-02-21

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence. PMID:23234799

  9. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Wang, Dongping; Zamdborg, Leonid; Kelleher, Neil L.; Huber, Steven C.; Zhao, Youfu

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella, and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we first report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterium causing serious fire blight disease of apples and pears. Immunoblots using generic anti-lysine acetylation antibodies demonstrated that growth conditions strongly affected the LysAc profiles in E. amylovora. Differential LysAc profiles were also observed for two E. amylovora strains, known to have differential virulence in plants, indicating translational modification of proteins may be important in determining virulence of bacterial strains. Proteomic analysis of LysAc in two E. amylovora strains identified 141 LysAc sites in 96 proteins that function in a wide range of biological pathways. Consistent with previous reports, 44% of the proteins are involved in metabolic processes, including central metabolism, lipopolysaccharide, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, several proteins involved in E. amylovora virulence, including exopolysaccharide amylovoran biosynthesis- and type III secretion-associated proteins, were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that LysAc may play a major role in bacterial virulence. Comparative analysis of LysAc sites in E. amylovora and E. coli further revealed the sequence and structural commonality for LysAc in the two organisms. Collectively, these results reinforce the notion that LysAc of proteins is widespread in bacterial metabolism and virulence. PMID:23234799

  10. Crystal structure of tabtoxin resistance protein complexed with acetyl coenzyme A reveals the mechanism for {beta}-lactam acetylation.

    SciTech Connect

    He, H.; Ding, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Sun, F.; Le, Y.; Qin, X.; Tang, H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Liu, J.; Zhao, N.; Rao, Z.; Biosciences Division; Tsinghua Univ.; Chinese Academy of Science

    2003-01-31

    Tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) is an enzyme that renders tabtoxin-producing pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, tolerant to their own phytotoxins. Here, we report the crystal structure of TTR complexed with its natural cofactor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to 1.55 {angstrom} resolution. The binary complex forms a characteristic 'V' shape for substrate binding and contains the four motifs conserved in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, which also includes the histone acetyltransferases (HATs). A single-step mechanism is proposed to explain the function of three conserved residues, Glu92, Asp130 and Tyr141, in catalyzing the acetyl group transfer to its substrate. We also report that TTR possesses HAT activity and suggest an evolutionary relationship between TTR and other GNAT members.

  11. Proteome-wide analysis reveals widespread lysine acetylation of major protein complexes in the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Cobbold, Simon A.; Santos, Joana M.; Ochoa, Alejandro; Perlman, David H.; Llinás, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification in many organisms including the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, yet the full extent of acetylation across the parasite proteome remains unresolved. Moreover, the functional significance of acetylation or how specific acetyl-lysine sites are regulated is largely unknown. Here we report a seven-fold expansion of the known parasite ‘acetylome’, characterizing 2,876 acetylation sites on 1,146 proteins. We observe that lysine acetylation targets a diverse range of protein complexes and is particularly enriched within the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) DNA-binding protein family. Using quantitative proteomics we determined that artificial perturbation of the acetate/acetyl-CoA balance alters the acetyl-lysine occupancy of several ApiAP2 DNA-binding proteins and related transcriptional proteins. This metabolic signaling could mediate significant downstream transcriptional responses, as we show that acetylation of an ApiAP2 DNA-binding domain ablates its DNA-binding propensity. Lastly, we investigated the acetyl-lysine targets of each class of lysine deacetylase in order to begin to explore how each class of enzyme contributes to regulating the P. falciparum acetylome. PMID:26813983

  12. Identification and Analysis of the Acetylated Status of Poplar Proteins Reveals Analogous N-Terminal Protein Processing Mechanisms with Other Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Cai; Zhu, Hang-Yong; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Ning, De-Li; Wang, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei-Hua; Yang, Chuan-Ping; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background The N-terminal protein processing mechanism (NPM) including N-terminal Met excision (NME) and N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation) represents a common protein co-translational process of some eukaryotes. However, this NPM occurred in woody plants yet remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To reveal the NPM in poplar, we investigated the Nα-acetylation status of poplar proteins during dormancy by combining tandem mass spectrometry with TiO2 enrichment of acetylated peptides. We identified 58 N-terminally acetylated (Nα-acetylated) proteins. Most proteins (47, >81%) are subjected to Nα-acetylation following the N-terminal removal of Met, indicating that Nα-acetylation and NME represent a common NPM of poplar proteins. Furthermore, we confirm that poplar shares the analogous NME and Nα-acetylation (NPM) to other eukaryotes according to analysis of N-terminal features of these acetylated proteins combined with genome-wide identification of the involving methionine aminopeptidases (MAPs) and N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) enzymes in poplar. The Nα-acetylated reactions and the involving enzymes of these poplar proteins are also identified based on those of yeast and human, as well as the subcellular location information of these poplar proteins. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the first extensive investigation of Nα-acetylation events in woody plants, the results of which will provide useful resources for future unraveling the regulatory mechanisms of Nα-acetylation of proteins in poplar. PMID:23536812

  13. Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of glutamine synthetases reveals an autofeedback loop in nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    You, Di; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Li, Zhi-Hai; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Wen-Bang; Zuo, Peng; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2016-06-14

    In cells of all domains of life, reversible lysine acetylation modulates the function of proteins involved in central cellular processes such as metabolism. In this study, we demonstrate that the nitrogen regulator GlnR of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea directly regulates transcription of the acuA gene (SACE_5148), which encodes a Gcn5-type lysine acetyltransferase. We found that AcuA acetylates two glutamine synthetases (GlnA1 and GlnA4) and that this lysine acetylation inactivated GlnA4 (GSII) but had no significant effect on GlnA1 (GSI-β) activity under the conditions tested. Instead, acetylation of GlnA1 led to a gain-of-function that modulated its interaction with the GlnR regulator and enhanced GlnR-DNA binding. It was observed that this regulatory function of acetylated GSI-β enzymes is highly conserved across actinomycetes. In turn, GlnR controls the catalytic and regulatory activities (intracellular acetylation levels) of glutamine synthetases at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, indicating an autofeedback loop that regulates nitrogen metabolism in response to environmental change. Thus, this GlnR-mediated acetylation pathway provides a signaling cascade that acts from nutrient sensing to acetylation of proteins to feedback regulation. This work presents significant new insights at the molecular level into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of protein acetylation and nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes. PMID:27247389

  14. Genomewide Histone H3 Lysine 9 Acetylation Profiling in CD4+ T Cells Revealed Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Deficiency in Patients with Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, K; Liu, H; Chen, T; Yang, Y; Ma, X; Wang, J; Li, Y; Du, D; Zhao, Y; He, Y

    2015-11-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) displayed 'sepsis-like' immune paralysis. Little is known about the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes, the primary regulator of innate and adopted immune system, played in ACLF. Acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac), a key epigenetic modification, tightly controls gene transcription. Whether and how does H3K9ac modification regulate CD4+ T cells in ACLF remains unclear. PBMCs were isolated from patients with ACLF, immune tolerance of chronic hepatitis B (CHB-T) and immune active of chronic hepatitis B (CHB-A). Then, CD4+ T lymphocytes were purified by magnetic microbeads, and the purity was confirmed by flow cytometry. H3K9ac variations were analysed in CD4+ T cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray and then confirmed by quantitative PCR. Whole-genome H3K9 acetylation analyses were conducted by bioinformatics. A total of 70 genes were differently modified in H3K9ac between CHB-A and ACLF groups, while 44 genes were differently modified in H3K9ac between CHB-T and ACLF groups. Clustering algorithm analysis showed patients with ACLF displayed 'sepsis-like' immune paralysis. Functional analysis showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, or downstream pathway-related genes, such as BIP, ATF4, PER1, CSNK1D, IRF3, BNIP1, AKT1 and UBC, were differentially modified in ACLF. We profiled H3K9 acetyl modification in CD4+ T lymphocytes from HBV-infected patients with three different immune states, that is ACLF, immune tolerance and immune active phases. ACLF displayed 'sepsis-like' immune paralysis. ER stress in CD4+ T lymphocytes attributed to ACLF. This study provides some useful clues for revealing the mechanisms underlying ACLF. PMID:26173605

  15. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in biosynthesis of antibiotics in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Guangyuan; Song, Limin; Lv, Binna; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, a Gram-positive bacterium, is very effective for the control of plant pathogens. However, very little is known about the function of lysine acetylation in this organism. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in B. amyloliquefaciens through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC−MS/MS. Overall, we identified 3268 lysine acetylation sites in 1254 proteins, which account for 32.9% of the total proteins in this bacterium. Till date, this is the highest ratio of acetylated proteins that have been identified in bacteria. Acetylated proteins are associated with a variety of biological processes and a large fraction of these proteins are involved in metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, we found that about 71.1% (27/38) and 78.6% (22/28) of all the proteins tightly related to the synthesis of three types of pepketides and five families of lipopeptides were acetylated, respectively. These findings suggest that lysine acetylation plays a critical role in the regulation of antibiotics biosynthesis. These data serves as an important resource for further elucidation of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in B. amyloliquefaciens. PMID:26822828

  16. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens. PMID:27412925

  17. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens. PMID:27412925

  18. A new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature of melanoma revealed by integrated microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanting

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray technology has facilitated the systematic discovery of diagnostic biomarkers of cancers and other pathologies. However, meta-analyses of published arrays often uncover significant inconsistencies that hinder advances in clinical practice. Here we present an integrated microarray analysis framework, based on a genome-wide relative significance (GWRS) and genome-wide global significance (GWGS) model. When applied to five microarray datasets on melanoma published between 2000 and 2011, this method revealed a new signature of 200 genes. When these were linked to so-called ‘melanoma driver’ genes involved in MAPK, Ca2+, and WNT signaling pathways we were able to produce a new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature for melanoma (i.e., EGFR, FGFR2, FGFR3, IL8, PTPRF, TNC, CXCL13, COL11A1, CHP2, SHC4, PPP2R2C, and WNT4). We have begun to experimentally validate a subset of these genes involved in MAPK signaling at the protein level, including CXCL13, COL11A1, PTPRF and SHC4 and found these to be over-expressed in metastatic and primary melanoma cells in vitro and in situ compared to melanocytes cultured from healthy skin epidermis and normal healthy human skin. While SHC4 has been reported previously to be associated to melanoma, this is the first time CXCL13, COL11A1, and PTPRF have been associated with melanoma on experimental validation. Our computational evaluation indicates that this 12-gene biomarker signature achieves excellent diagnostic power in distinguishing metastatic melanoma from normal skin and benign nevus. Further experimental validation of the role of these 12 genes in a new signaling network may provide new insights into the underlying biological mechanisms driving the progression of melanoma. PMID:23638386

  19. Comprehensive benchmarking reveals H2BK20 acetylation as a distinctive signature of cell-state-specific enhancers and promoters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vibhor; Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Muratani, Masafumi; Lim, Stefan; Elanggovan, Bavani; Xin, Lixia; Lu, Tess; Makhija, Harshyaa; Poschmann, Jeremie; Lufkin, Thomas; Ng, Huck Hui; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2016-05-01

    Although over 35 different histone acetylation marks have been described, the overwhelming majority of regulatory genomics studies focus exclusively on H3K27ac and H3K9ac. In order to identify novel epigenomic traits of regulatory elements, we constructed a benchmark set of validated enhancers by performing 140 enhancer assays in human T cells. We tested 40 chromatin signatures on this unbiased enhancer set and identified H2BK20ac, a little-studied histone modification, as the most predictive mark of active enhancers. Notably, we detected a novel class of functionally distinct enhancers enriched in H2BK20ac but lacking H3K27ac, which was present in all examined cell lines and also in embryonic forebrain tissue. H2BK20ac was also unique in highlighting cell-type-specific promoters. In contrast, other acetylation marks were present in all active promoters, regardless of cell-type specificity. In stimulated microglial cells, H2BK20ac was more correlated with cell-state-specific expression changes than H3K27ac, with TGF-beta signaling decoupling the two acetylation marks at a subset of regulatory elements. In summary, our study reveals a previously unknown connection between histone acetylation and cell-type-specific gene regulation and indicates that H2BK20ac profiling can be used to uncover new dimensions of gene regulation. PMID:26957309

  20. Differential lysine acetylation profiles of Erwinia amylovora strains revealed by proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein lysine acetylation (LysAc) in bacteria has recently been demonstrated to be widespread in E. coli and Salmonella and to broadly regulate bacterial physiology and metabolism. However, LysAc in plant pathogenic bacteria is largely unknown. Here we report the lysine acetylome of Erwinia amylovo...

  1. Novel tumor suppressor candidates on chromosome 3 revealed by NotI-microarrays in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Senchenko, Vera N.; Kisseljova, Natalia P.; Ivanova, Tatyana A.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krasnov, George S.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Panasenko, Grigory V.; Tsitrin, Evgeny B.; Lerman, Michael I.; Kisseljov, Fyodor L.; Kashuba, Vladimir I.; Zabarovsky, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations in cervical carcinomas were investigated using NotI-microarrays containing 180 cloned sequences flanking all NotI-sites associated with genes on chromosome 3. In total, 48 paired normal/tumor DNA samples, specifically enriched in NotI-sites, were hybridized to NotI-microarrays. Thirty genes, including tumor suppressors or candidates (for example, VHL, RBSP3/CTDSPL, ITGA9, LRRC3B, ALDH1L1, EPHB1) and genes previously unknown as cancer-associated (ABHD5, C3orf77, PRL32, LOC285375, FGD5 and others), showed methylation/deletion in 21–44% of tumors. The genes were more frequently altered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) than in adenocarcinomas (ADC, p < 0.01). A set of seven potential markers (LRRN1, PRICKLE2, VHL, BHLHE40, RBSP3, CGGBP1 and SOX14) is promising for discrimination of ADC and SCC. Alterations of more than 20 genes simultaneously were revealed in 23% of SCC. Bisulfite sequencing analysis confirmed methylation as a frequent event in SCC. High down-regulation frequency was shown for RBSP3, ITGA9, VILL, APRG1/C3orf35 and RASSF1 (isoform A) genes (3p21.3 locus) in SCC. Both frequency and extent of RASSF1A and RBSP3 mRNA level decrease were more pronounced in tumors with lymph node metastases compared with non-metastatic ones (p ≤ 0.05). We confirmed by bisulfite sequencing that RASSF1 promoter methylation was a rare event in SCC and, for the first time, demonstrated RASSF1A down-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels without promoter methylation in tumors of this histological type. Thus, our data revealed novel tumor suppressor candidates located on chromosome 3 and a frequent loss of epigenetic stability of 3p21.3 locus in combination with down-regulation of genes in cervical cancer. PMID:23478628

  2. Microarrays with varying carbohydrate density reveal distinct subpopulations of serum antibodies.

    PubMed

    Oyelaran, Oyindasola; Li, Qian; Farnsworth, David; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2009-07-01

    Antigen arrays have become important tools for profiling complex mixtures of proteins such as serum antibodies. These arrays can be used to better understand immune responses, discover new biomarkers, and guide the development of vaccines. Nevertheless, they are not perfect and improved array designs would enhance the information derived from this technology. In this study, we describe and evaluate a strategy for varying antigen density on an array and then use the array to study binding of lectins, monoclonal antibodies, and serum antibodies. To vary density, neoglycoproteins containing differing amounts of carbohydrate were synthesized and used to make a carbohydrate microarray with variations in both structure and density. We demonstrate that this method provides variations in density on the array surface within a range that is relevant for biological recognition events. The array was used to evaluate density dependent binding properties of three lectins (Vicia villosa lectin B4, Helix pomatia agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin) and three monoclonal antibodies (HBTn-1, B1.1, and Bric111) that bind the tumor-associated Tn antigen. In addition, serum antibodies were profiled from 30 healthy donors. The results show that variations in antigen density are required to detect the full spectrum of antibodies that bind a particular antigen and can be used to reveal differences in antibody populations between individuals that are not detectable using a single antigen density. PMID:19366269

  3. Extensive Antibody Cross-reactivity among Infectious Gram-negative Bacteria Revealed by Proteome Microarray Analysis *

    PubMed Central

    Keasey, Sarah L.; Schmid, Kara E.; Lee, Michael S.; Meegan, James; Tomas, Patricio; Minto, Michael; Tikhonov, Alexander P.; Schweitzer, Barry; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies provide a sensitive indicator of proteins displayed by bacteria during sepsis. Because signals produced by infection are naturally amplified during the antibody response, host immunity can be used to identify biomarkers for proteins that are present at levels currently below detectable limits. We developed a microarray comprising ∼70% of the 4066 proteins contained within the Yersinia pestis proteome to identify antibody biomarkers distinguishing plague from infections caused by other bacterial pathogens that may initially present similar clinical symptoms. We first examined rabbit antibodies produced against proteomes extracted from Y. pestis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia cepecia, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli, all pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. These antibodies enabled detection of shared cross-reactive proteins, fingerprint proteins common for two or more bacteria, and signature proteins specific to each pathogen. Recognition by rabbit and non-human primate antibodies involved less than 100 of the thousands of proteins present within the Y. pestis proteome. Further antigen binding patterns were revealed that could distinguish plague from anthrax, caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, using sera from acutely infected or convalescent primates. Thus, our results demonstrate potential biomarkers that are either specific to one strain or common to several species of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:19112181

  4. Deciphering Carbamoylpolyoxamic Acid Biosynthesis Reveals Unusual Acetylation Cycle Associated with Tandem Reduction and Sequential Hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianzhao; Wan, Dan; Ma, Hongmin; Liu, Yuanzhen; Gong, Rong; Qu, Xudong; Sun, Yuhui; Deng, Zixin; Chen, Wenqing

    2016-08-18

    Polyoxin, produced by Streptomcyes cacaoi var. asoensis and Streptomyces aureochromogenes, contains two non-proteinogenic amino acids, carbamoylpolyoxamic acid (CPOAA) and polyoximic acid. Although the CPOAA moiety is highly unusual, its biosynthetic logic has remained enigmatic for decades. Here, we address CPOAA biosynthesis by reconstitution of its pathway. We demonstrated that its biosynthesis is initiated by a versatile N-acetyltransferase, PolN, catalyzing L-glutamate (1) to N-acetyl glutamate (2). Remarkably, we verified that PolM, a previously annotated dehydrogenase, catalyzes an unprecedented tandem reduction of acyl-phosphate to aldehyde, and subsequently to alcohol. We also unveiled a distinctive acetylation cycle catalyzed by PolN to synthesize α-amino-δ-hydroxyvaleric acid (6). Finally, we report that PolL is capable of converting a rare sequential hydroxylation of α-amino-δ-carbamoylhydroxyvaleric acid (7) to CPOAA. PolL represents an intriguing family of Fe(II)-dependent α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase with a cupin fold. These data illustrate several novel enzymatic reactions, and also set a foundation for rational pathway engineering for polyoxin production. PMID:27541195

  5. Early iron-deficiency-induced transcriptional changes in Arabidopsis roots as revealed by microarray analyses

    PubMed Central

    Buckhout, Thomas J; Yang, Thomas JW; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Background Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient in plants and animals, and Fe deficiency results in decreased vitality and performance. Due to limited bio-availability of Fe, plants have evolved sophisticated adaptive alterations in development, biochemistry and metabolism that are mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. We have investigated the early transcriptional response to Fe deficiency in roots of the model plant Arabidopsis, using a hydroponic system that permitted removal of Fe from the nutrient solution within seconds and transferring large numbers of plants with little or no mechanical damage to the root systems. We feel that this experimental approach offers significant advantages over previous and recent DNA microarray investigations of the Fe-deficiency response by increasing the resolution of the temporal response and by decreasing non-Fe deficiency-induced transcriptional changes, which are common in microarray analyses. Results The expression of sixty genes were changed after 6 h of Fe deficiency and 65% of these were found to overlap with a group of seventy-nine genes that were altered after 24 h. A disproportionally high number of transcripts encoding ion transport proteins were found, which function to increase the Fe concentration and decrease the zinc (Zn) concentration in the cytosol. Analysis of global changes in gene expression revealed that changes in Fe availability were associated with the differential expression of genes that encode transporters with presumed function in uptake and distribution of transition metals other than Fe. It appeared that under conditions of Fe deficiency, the capacity for Zn uptake increased, most probably the result of low specificity of the Fe transporter IRT1 that was induced upon Fe deficiency. The transcriptional regulation of several Zn transports under Fe deficiency led presumably to the homeostatic regulation of the cytosolic concentration of Zn and of other transition metal ions such as Mn to

  6. A novel mechanism of gall midge resistance in the rice variety Kavya revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Nidhi; Chiruvuri Naga, Neeraja; Raman Meenakshi, Sundaram; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, Jagadish S

    2012-06-01

    The Asian rice gall midge [Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason)] is an important rice pest causing an annual average yield loss of about US $80 million in India. Rice varieties possess several discrete resistance (R) genes conferring resistance against the pest in two distinct ways, i.e., with (HR+ type) or without (HR- type) the expression of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The aim of the present work is to understand the molecular basis of compatible and incompatible (HR- type) rice gall midge interactions between the rice variety Kavya and the two gall midge biotypes: the virulent GMB4M and the avirulent GMB1 using transcriptional microarray gene expression analysis. A large number of differentially expressed genes (602genes in incompatible interaction and 1,330 genes in compatible interaction with at least twofold changes, p value <0.05) was obtained from the microarray analysis that could be grouped into six clusters based on their induction during both or either of the interactions. MapMan software was used for functional characterization of these genes into 13 categories (BINs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction validation of 26 genes selected through the analysis revealed four genes viz. NADPH oxidase, AtrbohF, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and von Willebrand factor type A domain containing protein coding genes to be significantly upregulated during the incompatible interaction. But most of the signature genes related to HR+ type resistance like salicylic acid pathway-related genes and disease resistance protein coding genes were downregulated. On the other hand, during the compatible interaction, genes related to primary metabolism and nutrient transport were upregulated and genes for defense and signaling were downregulated. We propose a hypothesis that HR- type of resistance in the rice variety Kavya against gall midge could be due to the constitutive expression of an R gene and a case of extreme resistance which is devoid of cell death. Compatible interaction

  7. cDNA Microarray Analysis Revealing Candidate Biomineralization Genes of the Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaohua; Zheng, Xing; Zhan, Xin; Wang, Aimin; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-06-01

    Biomineralization is a common biological phenomenon resulting in strong tissue, such as bone, tooth, and shell. Pinctada fucata martensii is an ideal animal for the study of biomineralization. Here, microarray technique was used to identify biomineralization gene in mantle edge (ME), mantle center (MC), and both ME and MC (ME-MC) for this pearl oyster. Results revealed that 804, 306, and 1127 contigs expressed at least three times higher in ME, MC, and ME-MC as those in other tissues. Blast against non-redundant database showed that 130 contigs (16.17 %), 53 contigs (17.32 %), and 248 contigs (22.01 %) hit reference genes (E ≤ -10), among which 91 contigs, 48 contigs, and 168 contigs could be assigned to 32, 26, and 63 biomineralization genes in tissue of ME, MC, and ME-MC at a threshold of 3 times upregulated expression level. The ratios of biomineralization contigs to homologous contigs were similar at 3 times, 10 times, and 100 times of upregulated expression level in either ME, MC, or ME-MC. Moreover, the ratio of biomineralization contigs was highest in MC. Although mRNA distribution characters were similar to those in other studies for eight biomineralization genes of PFMG3, Pif, nacrein, MSI7, mantle gene 6, Pfty1, prismin, and the shematrin, most biomineralization genes presented different expression profiles from existing reports. These results provided massive fundamental information for further study of biomineralization gene function, and it may be helpful for revealing gene nets of biomineralization and the molecular mechanisms underlining formation of shell and pearl for the oyster. PMID:27184264

  8. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveals Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Heidi A; Pelletier, Dale A; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein acetylation is widespread in prokaryotes. Results: Six new acyl-CoA synthetases whose activities are controlled by acetylation were identified, and their substrate preference established. A new protein acetyltransferase was also identified and its substrate specificity determined. Conclusion: Protein acetyltransferases acetylate a conserved lysine residue in protein substrates. Significance: The R. palustris Pat enzyme specifically acetylates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases and regulates fatty acid metabolism.

  9. DNA microarray analysis reveals a role for lysophosphatidic acid in the regulation of anti-inflammatory genes in MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Genetos, Damian C.; Verma, Seema; Yellowley, Clare E.; Karin, Norm J.

    2007-11-01

    DNA microarray analysis revealed that treatment of bone cells with a lipid growth factor led to extensive changes in gene expression. Particular relevance to fracture healing and inflammation was revealed.

  10. Microarray reveals complement components are regulated in the serum-deprived rat retinal ganglion cell line

    PubMed Central

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Chlon, Timothy; Qiang, He; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    H (CFH), the major inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway is downregulated in serum-deprived RGC-5. CFH protein was detected within RGC-5 cells as well as the rat retina with the aid of immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Conclusions This study was undertaken to generate a genome-wide gene expression profile of RGC-5 after serum deprivation, and to identify candidate and novel genes that may be involved in the signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis. RGC-5 serum deprivation revealed up-and downregulation in gene expression profiles. The data gathered from this study was the first report that the genes identified in microarray data and validated by real-time RT-PCR may play an important role in RGC-5 cell death. Among the validated genes, C3 and C1s showed significant upregulation of the complement component pathway. The results further indicate that components of the complement pathway are present in neurons of the rat retina. The data indicated that complement factors are likely involved in the pathway leading to ganglion cell death in the serum-deprivation paradigm, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. PMID:17356516

  11. Quality Control Usage in High-Density Microarrays Reveals Differential Gene Expression Profiles in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Ruiz, Vanessa; Moreno, Jose; Jacome-Lopez, Karina; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Juarez-Mendez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    There are several existing reports of microarray chip use for assessment of altered gene expression in different diseases. In fact, there have been over 1.5 million assays of this kind performed over the last twenty years, which have influenced clinical and translational research studies. The most commonly used DNA microarray platforms are Affymetrix GeneChip and Quality Control Software along with their GeneChip Probe Arrays. These chips are created using several quality controls to confirm the success of each assay, but their actual impact on gene expression profiles had not been previously analyzed until the appearance of several bioinformatics tools for this purpose. We here performed a data mining analysis, in this case specifically focused on ovarian cancer, as well as healthy ovarian tissue and ovarian cell lines, in order to confirm quality control results and associated variation in gene expression profiles. The microarray data used in our research were downloaded from ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed with Expression Console Software using RMA, MAS5 and Plier algorithms. The gene expression profiles were obtained using Partek Genomics Suite v6.6 and data were visualized using principal component analysis, heat map, and Venn diagrams. Microarray quality control analysis showed that roughly 40% of the microarray files were false negative, demonstrating over- and under-estimation of expressed genes. Additionally, we confirmed the results performing second analysis using independent samples. About 70% of the significant expressed genes were correlated in both analyses. These results demonstrate the importance of appropriate microarray processing to obtain a reliable gene expression profile. PMID:27268623

  12. Microarray analysis reveals strategies of Tribolium castaneum larvae to compensate for cysteine and serine protease inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarrays containing Tribolium castaneum whole-genome sequences were developed to study the transcriptome response of T. castaneum larvae to dietary protease inhibitors. In larvae fed diets containing 0.1% of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 alone or in combination with 5.0% of the serine pro...

  13. System-wide Studies of N-Lysine Acetylation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Reveal Substrate Specificity of Protein Acetyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Heidi A.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2012-01-01

    N-Lysine acetylation is a posttranslational modification that has been well studied in eukaryotes and is likely widespread in prokaryotes as well. The central metabolic enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase is regulated in both bacteria and eukaryotes by acetylation of a conserved lysine residue in the active site. In the purple photosynthetic α-proteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, two protein acetyltransferases (RpPat and the newly identified RpKatA) and two deacetylases (RpLdaA and RpSrtN) regulate the activities of AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases. In this work, we used LC/MS/MS to identify other proteins regulated by the N-lysine acetylation/deacetylation system of this bacterium. Of the 24 putative acetylated proteins identified, 14 were identified more often in a strain lacking both deacetylases. Nine of these proteins were members of the AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase family. RpPat acetylated all nine of the acyl-CoA synthetases identified by this work, and RpLdaA deacetylated eight of them. In all cases, acetylation occurred at the conserved lysine residue in the active site, and acetylation decreased activity of the enzymes by >70%. Our results show that many different AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases are regulated by N-lysine acetylation. Five non-acyl-CoA synthetases were identified as possibly acetylated, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Rpa1177, a putative 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase. Neither RpPat nor RpKatA acetylated either of these proteins in vitro. It has been reported that Salmonella enterica Pat (SePat) can acetylate a number of metabolic enzymes, including GAPDH, but we were unable to confirm this claim, suggesting that the substrate range of SePat is not as broad as suggested previously. PMID:22416131

  14. A novel microarray approach reveals new tissue-specific signatures of known and predicted mammalian microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Beuvink, Iwan; Kolb, Fabrice A.; Budach, Wolfgang; Garnier, Arlette; Lange, Joerg; Natt, Francois; Dengler, Uwe; Hall, Jonathan; Weiler, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Microarrays to examine the global expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a systematic in-parallel manner have become important tools to help unravel the functions of miRNAs and to understand their roles in RNA-based regulation and their implications in human diseases. We have established a novel miRNA-specific microarray platform that enables the simultaneous expression analysis of both known and predicted miRNAs obtained from human or mouse origin. Chemically modified 2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-(MOE) oligoribonucleotide probes were arrayed onto Evanescent Resonance (ER) microchips by robotic spotting. Supplementing the complementary probes against miRNAs with carefully designed mismatch controls allowed for accurate sequence-specific determination of miRNA expression profiles obtained from a panel of mouse tissues. This revealed new expression signatures of known miRNAs as well as of novel miRNAs previously predicted using bioinformatic methods. Systematic confirmation of the array data with northern blotting and, in particular, real-time PCR suggests that the described microarray platform is a powerful tool to analyze miRNA expression patterns with rapid throughput and high fidelity. PMID:17355992

  15. Quantitative Measurement of Histone Tail Acetylation Reveals Stage-Specific Regulation and Response to Environmental Changes during Drosophila Development.

    PubMed

    Henry, Ryan A; Singh, Tanu; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Biester, Alison; O'Keefe, Abigail; Lee, Sandy; Andrews, Andrew J; O'Reilly, Alana M

    2016-03-22

    Histone modification plays a major role in regulating gene transcription and ensuring the healthy development of an organism. Numerous studies have suggested that histones are dynamically modified during developmental events to control gene expression levels in a temporal and spatial manner. However, the study of histone acetylation dynamics using currently available techniques is hindered by the difficulty of simultaneously measuring acetylation of the numerous potential sites of modification present in histones. Here, we present a methodology that allows us to combine mass spectrometry-based histone analysis with Drosophila developmental genetics. Using this system, we characterized histone acetylation patterns during multiple developmental stages of the fly. Additionally, we utilized this analysis to characterize how treatments with pharmacological agents or environmental changes such as γ-irradiation altered histone acetylation patterns. Strikingly, γ-irradiation dramatically increased the level of acetylation at H3K18, a site linked to DNA repair via nonhomologous end joining. In mutant fly strains deficient in DNA repair proteins, however, this increase in the level of H3K18 acetylation was lost. These results demonstrate the efficacy of our combined mass spectrometry system with a Drosophila model system and provide interesting insight into the changes in histone acetylation during development, as well as the effects of both pharmacological and environmental agents on global histone acetylation. PMID:26836402

  16. Microarray karyotyping of commercial wine yeast strains reveals shared, as well as unique, genomic signatures

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Barbara; Levine, R Paul; Sherlock, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    Background Genetic differences between yeast strains used in wine-making may account for some of the variation seen in their fermentation properties and may also produce differing sensory characteristics in the final wine product itself. To investigate this, we have determined genomic differences among several Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains by using a "microarray karyotyping" (also known as "array-CGH" or "aCGH") technique. Results We have studied four commonly used commercial wine yeast strains, assaying three independent isolates from each strain. All four wine strains showed common differences with respect to the laboratory S. cerevisiae strain S288C, some of which may be specific to commercial wine yeasts. We observed very little intra-strain variation; i.e., the genomic karyotypes of different commercial isolates of the same strain looked very similar, although an exception to this was seen among the Montrachet isolates. A moderate amount of inter-strain genomic variation between the four wine strains was observed, mostly in the form of depletions or amplifications of single genes; these differences allowed unique identification of each strain. Many of the inter-strain differences appear to be in transporter genes, especially hexose transporters (HXT genes), metal ion sensors/transporters (CUP1, ZRT1, ENA genes), members of the major facilitator superfamily, and in genes involved in drug response (PDR3, SNQ1, QDR1, RDS1, AYT1, YAR068W). We therefore used halo assays to investigate the response of these strains to three different fungicidal drugs (cycloheximide, clotrimazole, sulfomethuron methyl). Strains with fewer copies of the CUP1 loci showed hypersensitivity to sulfomethuron methyl. Conclusion Microarray karyotyping is a useful tool for analyzing the genome structures of wine yeasts. Despite only small to moderate variations in gene copy numbers between different wine yeast strains and within different isolates of a given strain, there was enough

  17. Gene microarray analysis reveals a novel hypoxia signal transduction pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Scandurro, A B; Weldon, C W; Figueroa, Y G; Alam, J; Beckman, B S

    2001-07-01

    The molecular details of hypoxia-induced cellular responses have been difficult to identify since there is as yet no known oxygen receptor. We used cDNA microarray technology to extend our studies pertaining to these molecular details in human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B) cells that produce erythropoietin (Epo) in response to hypoxia. Of approximately 1200 genes in the array, those associated with integrin-linked kinase (ILK), fibronectin precursor and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) were markedly stimulated after exposure of Hep3B cells to low oxygen (1%) for 6 h. Epo, HIF-1, and von Hippel-Lindau cDNAs were measured in parallel as markers of low oxygen responses in Hep3B cells. ILK is a serine, threonine protein kinase that interacts with the cytoplasmic domains of integrin beta1 and beta3. This interaction localizes ILK to focal adhesion plaques. ILK is stimulated by cell-fibronectin interaction as well as insulin. It is regulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent manner and can phosphorylate protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and GSK-3beta. As a result of these and other activities ILK has been shown to affect anchorage-independent cell survival, cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis in nude mice. ILK has also been implicated in the Wnt pathway and as a critical target in PTEN-dependent tumor therapies. To our knowledge this is the first report implicating the ILK pathway in low oxygen responses. Other genes identified as a result of the microarray analysis not previously known to change as a result of low oxygen treatment were elongation factor-1alpha, glycyl-tRNA synthetase, and laminin receptor protein-1. These findings were all corroborated by RT-PCR assays and in some instances Western blot analysis. PMID:11408933

  18. Large-scale microarray profiling reveals four stages of immune escape in non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Tosolini, Marie; Algans, Christelle; Pont, Frédéric; Ycart, Bernard; Fournié, Jean-Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) are aggressive lymphoid malignancies that develop in patients due to oncogenic activation, chemo-resistance, and immune evasion. Tumor biopsies show that B-NHL frequently uses several immune escape strategies, which has hindered the development of checkpoint blockade immunotherapies in these diseases. To gain a better understanding of B-NHL immune editing, we hypothesized that the transcriptional hallmarks of immune escape associated with these diseases could be identified from the meta-analysis of large series of microarrays from B-NHL biopsies. Thus, 1446 transcriptome microarrays from seven types of B-NHL were downloaded and assembled from 33 public Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets, and a method for scoring the transcriptional hallmarks in single samples was developed. This approach was validated by matching scores to phenotypic hallmarks of B-NHL such as proliferation, signaling, metabolic activity, and leucocyte infiltration. Through this method, we observed a significant enrichment of 33 immune escape genes in most diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) samples, with fewer in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) samples. Comparing these gene expression patterns with overall survival data evidenced four stages of cancer immune editing in B-NHL: non-immunogenic tumors (stage 1), immunogenic tumors without immune escape (stage 2), immunogenic tumors with immune escape (stage 3), and fully immuno-edited tumors (stage 4). This model complements the standard international prognostic indices for B-NHL and proposes that immune escape stages 3 and 4 (76% of the FL and DLBCL samples in this data set) identify patients relevant for checkpoint blockade immunotherapies. PMID:27622044

  19. Microarray Data Reveal Relationship between Jag1 and Ddr1 in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Underkoffler, Lara A.; Carr, Erikka; Nelson, Anthony; Ryan, Matthew J.; Schultz, Reiner; Loomes, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder involving bile duct paucity and cholestasis in addition to cardiac, skeletal, ophthalmologic, renal and vascular manifestations. Mutations in JAG1, encoding a ligand in the Notch signaling pathway, are found in 95% of patients meeting clinical criteria for Alagille syndrome. In order to define the role of Jag1 in the bile duct developmental abnormalities seen in ALGS, we previously created a Jag1 conditional knockout mouse model. Mice heterozygous for the Jag1 conditional and null alleles demonstrate abnormalities in postnatal bile duct growth and remodeling, with portal expansion and increased numbers of malformed bile ducts. In this study we report the results of microarray analysis and identify genes and pathways differentially expressed in the Jag1 conditional/null livers as compared with littermate controls. In the initial microarray analysis, we found that many of the genes up-regulated in the Jag1 conditional/null mutant livers were related to extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, cell adhesion and cell migration. One of the most highly up-regulated genes was Ddr1, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to a large RTK family. We have found extensive co-localization of Jag1 and Ddr1 in bile ducts and blood vessels in postnatal liver. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation data provide evidence for a novel protein interaction between Jag1 and Ddr1. Further studies will be required to define the nature of this interaction and its functional consequences, which may have significant implications for bile duct remodeling and repair of liver injury. PMID:24391948

  20. Meta-Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Microarray Data Reveals Dysregulation in RNA Splicing Regulatory Genes.

    PubMed

    Paraboschi, Elvezia Maria; Cardamone, Giulia; Rimoldi, Valeria; Gemmati, Donato; Spreafico, Marta; Duga, Stefano; Soldà, Giulia; Asselta, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in RNA metabolism and alternative splicing (AS) are emerging as important players in complex disease phenotypes. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests the existence of pathogenic links between multiple sclerosis (MS) and altered AS, including functional studies showing that an imbalance in alternatively-spliced isoforms may contribute to disease etiology. Here, we tested whether the altered expression of AS-related genes represents a MS-specific signature. A comprehensive comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of publicly-available microarray datasets (190 MS cases, 182 controls), followed by gene-ontology enrichment analysis, highlighted a significant enrichment for differentially-expressed genes involved in RNA metabolism/AS. In detail, a total of 17 genes were found to be differentially expressed in MS in multiple datasets, with CELF1 being dysregulated in five out of seven studies. We confirmed CELF1 downregulation in MS (p=0.0015) by real-time RT-PCRs on RNA extracted from blood cells of 30 cases and 30 controls. As a proof of concept, we experimentally verified the unbalance in alternatively-spliced isoforms in MS of the NFAT5 gene, a putative CELF1 target. In conclusion, for the first time we provide evidence of a consistent dysregulation of splicing-related genes in MS and we discuss its possible implications in modulating specific AS events in MS susceptibility genes. PMID:26437396

  1. Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Rita; Saibo, Nelson; Lourenço, Tiago; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2008-01-01

    Controversy regarding genetically modified (GM) plants and their potential impact on human health contrasts with the tacit acceptance of other plants that were also modified, but not considered as GM products (e.g., varieties raised through conventional breeding such as mutagenesis). What is beyond the phenotype of these improved plants? Should mutagenized plants be treated differently from transgenics? We have evaluated the extent of transcriptome modification occurring during rice improvement through transgenesis versus mutation breeding. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze gene expression in four different pools of four types of rice plants and respective controls: (i) a γ-irradiated stable mutant, (ii) the M1 generation of a 100-Gy γ-irradiated plant, (iii) a stable transgenic plant obtained for production of an anticancer antibody, and (iv) the T1 generation of a transgenic plant produced aiming for abiotic stress improvement, and all of the unmodified original genotypes as controls. We found that the improvement of a plant variety through the acquisition of a new desired trait, using either mutagenesis or transgenesis, may cause stress and thus lead to an altered expression of untargeted genes. In all of the cases studied, the observed alteration was more extensive in mutagenized than in transgenic plants. We propose that the safety assessment of improved plant varieties should be carried out on a case-by-case basis and not simply restricted to foods obtained through genetic engineering. PMID:18303117

  2. Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rita; Saibo, Nelson; Lourenço, Tiago; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2008-03-01

    Controversy regarding genetically modified (GM) plants and their potential impact on human health contrasts with the tacit acceptance of other plants that were also modified, but not considered as GM products (e.g., varieties raised through conventional breeding such as mutagenesis). What is beyond the phenotype of these improved plants? Should mutagenized plants be treated differently from transgenics? We have evaluated the extent of transcriptome modification occurring during rice improvement through transgenesis versus mutation breeding. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze gene expression in four different pools of four types of rice plants and respective controls: (i) a gamma-irradiated stable mutant, (ii) the M1 generation of a 100-Gy gamma-irradiated plant, (iii) a stable transgenic plant obtained for production of an anticancer antibody, and (iv) the T1 generation of a transgenic plant produced aiming for abiotic stress improvement, and all of the unmodified original genotypes as controls. We found that the improvement of a plant variety through the acquisition of a new desired trait, using either mutagenesis or transgenesis, may cause stress and thus lead to an altered expression of untargeted genes. In all of the cases studied, the observed alteration was more extensive in mutagenized than in transgenic plants. We propose that the safety assessment of improved plant varieties should be carried out on a case-by-case basis and not simply restricted to foods obtained through genetic engineering. PMID:18303117

  3. Circadian clock in Ciona intestinalis revealed by microarray analysis and oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Toshifumi; Hanai, Shuji; Kadota, Koji; Oishi, Katsutaka; Matsumae, Hiromi; Fujie, Manabu; Azumi, Kaoru; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satake, Masanobu; Ishida, Norio

    2010-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the endogenous circadian clocks that allow most animals to adapt to environmental cycles have recently been uncovered. The draft genome of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, a model animal that is close to vertebrates, has been described. However, the C. intestinalis genome lacks the canonical clock genes such as Per, Bmal and Clock that are shared by vertebrates and insects. Here, we found the circadian rhythms at the physiological and molecular levels. The oxygen consumption rate was lower during the light phase and higher during the dark phase during a day, and the rhythm highly damped and continued under constant darkness. From the microarray analysis, the 396 spots (1.8% of the total; corresponding to 388 clones) were extracted as candidates for circadian expression. We confirmed the circadian expression of several candidate genes by northern blotting. Furthermore, three of four rhythmic expressed genes showed phase-shifts to prolonged light period. However, most of known clock genes did not oscillate. These data suggest that C. intestinalis have a unique molecular circadian clock and the daily environmental change is not such a strong effect for sea squirt in its evolution when compared to vertebrates and insects. PMID:19855119

  4. Fluorescent cDNA microarray hybridization reveals complexity and heterogeneity of cellular genotoxic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Amundson, S A; Bittner, M; Chen, Y; Trent, J; Meltzer, P; Fornace, A J

    1999-06-17

    The fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) may depend greatly on changes in gene expression, so that an improved view of gene induction profiles is important for understanding mechanisms of checkpoint control, repair and cell death following such exposures. We have used a quantitative fluorescent cDNA microarray hybridization approach to identify genes regulated in response to 7-irradiation in the p53 wild-type ML-1 human myeloid cell line. Hybridization of the array to fluorescently-labeled RNA from treated and untreated cells was followed by computer analysis to derive relative changes in expression levels of the genes present in the array, which agreed well with actual quantitative changes in expression. Forty-eight sequences, 30 not previously identified as IR-responsive, were significantly regulated by IR. Induction by IR and other stresses of a subset of these genes, including the previously characterized CIP1/ WAF1, MDM2 and BAX genes, as well as nine genes not previously reported to be IR-responsive, was examined in a panel of 12 human cell lines. Responses varied widely in cell lines with different tissues of origin and different genetic backgrounds, highlighting the importance of cellular context to genotoxic stress responses. Two of the newly identified IR-responsive genes, FRA-1 and ATF3, showed a p53-associated component to their IR-induction, and this was confirmed both in isogenic human cell lines and in mouse thymus. The majority of the IR-responsive genes, however, showed no indication of p53-dependent regulation, representing a potentially important class of stress-responsive genes in leukemic cells. PMID:10380890

  5. DNA Microarray Analysis of Anaerobic Methanosarcina Barkeri Reveals Responses to Heat Shock and Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Nie, Lei; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-04-08

    Summary Methanosarcina barkeri can grow only under strictly anoxic conditions because enzymes in methane formation pathways of are very oxygen sensitive. However, it has been determined that M. barkeri can survive oxidative stress. To obtain further knowledge of cellular changes in M. barkeri in responsive to oxidative and other environmental stress, a first whole-genome M. barkeri oligonucleotide microarray was constructed according to the draft genome sequence that contains 5072 open reading frames (ORFs) and was used to investigate the global transcriptomic response of M. barkeri to oxidative stress and heat shock. The result showed that 552 genes in the M. barkeri genome were responsive to oxidative stress, while 177 genes responsive to heat-shock, respectively using a cut off of 2.5 fold change. Among them, 101 genes were commonly responsive to both environmental stimuli. In addition to various house-keeping genes, large number of functionally unknown genes (38-57% of total responsive genes) was regulated by both stress conditions. The result showed that the Hsp60 (GroEL) system, which was previously thought not present in archaea, was up-regulated and may play important roles in protein biogenesis in responsive to heat shock in M. barkeri. No gene encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, nonspecific peroxidases or thioredoxin reductase was differentially expressed when subjected to oxidative stress. Instead, significant downregulation of house-keeping genes and up-regulation of genes encoding transposase was found in responsive to oxidative stress, suggesting that M. barkeri may be adopting a passive protective mechanism by slowing down cellular activities to survive the stress rather than activating a means against oxidative stress.

  6. Dichotomy in the Epigenetic Mark Lysine Acetylation is Critical for the Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ravi; Philizaire, Marc; Mujtaba, Shiraz

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of lysine acetylation serve as a major epigenetic mark, which regulates cellular response to inflammation, DNA damage and hormonal changes. Microarray assays reveal changes in gene expression, but cannot predict regulation of a protein function by epigenetic modifications. The present study employs computational tools to inclusively analyze microarray data to understand the potential role of acetylation during development of androgen-independent PCa. The data revealed that the androgen receptor interacts with 333 proteins, out of which at least 92 proteins were acetylated. Notably, the number of cellular proteins undergoing acetylation in the androgen-dependent PCa was more as compared to the androgen-independent PCa. Specifically, the 32 lysine-acetylated proteins in the cellular models of androgen-dependent PCa were mainly involved in regulating stability as well as pre- and post-processing of mRNA. Collectively, the data demonstrate that protein lysine acetylation plays a crucial role during the transition of androgen-dependent to -independent PCa, which importantly, could also serve as a functional axis to unravel new therapeutic targets. PMID:26295410

  7. Comparative Large Scale Characterization of Plant versus Mammal Proteins Reveals Similar and Idiosyncratic N-α-Acetylation Features*

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenut, Willy V.; Sumpton, David; Martinez, Aude; Lilla, Sergio; Espagne, Christelle; Meinnel, Thierry; Giglione, Carmela

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal modifications play a major role in the fate of proteins in terms of activity, stability, or subcellular compartmentalization. Such modifications remain poorly described and badly characterized in proteomic studies, and only a few comparison studies among organisms have been made available so far. Recent advances in the field now allow the enrichment and selection of N-terminal peptides in the course of proteome-wide mass spectrometry analyses. These targeted approaches unravel as a result the extent and nature of the protein N-terminal modifications. Here, we aimed at studying such modifications in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to compare these results with those obtained from a human sample analyzed in parallel. We applied large scale analysis to compile robust conclusions on both data sets. Our data show strong convergence of the characterized modifications especially for protein N-terminal methionine excision, co-translational N-α-acetylation, or N-myristoylation between animal and plant kingdoms. Because of the convergence of both the substrates and the N-α-acetylation machinery, it was possible to identify the N-acetyltransferases involved in such modifications for a small number of model plants. Finally, a high proportion of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins feature post-translational N-α-acetylation of the mature protein after removal of the transit peptide. Unlike animals, plants feature in a dedicated pathway for post-translational acetylation of organelle-targeted proteins. The corresponding machinery is yet to be discovered. PMID:22223895

  8. Microarray Analyses Reveal Marked Differences in Growth Factor and Receptor Expression Between 8-Cell Human Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vlismas, Antonis; Bletsa, Ritsa; Mavrogianni, Despina; Mamali, Georgina; Pergamali, Maria; Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Partsinevelos, George; Drakakis, Peter; Loutradis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Previous microarray analyses of RNAs from 8-cell (8C) human embryos revealed a lack of cell cycle checkpoints and overexpression of core circadian oscillators and cell cycle drivers relative to pluripotent human stem cells [human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem (hES/iPS)] and fibroblasts, suggesting growth factor independence during early cleavage stages. To explore this possibility, we queried our combined microarray database for expression of 487 growth factors and receptors. Fifty-one gene elements were overdetected on the 8C arrays relative to hES/iPS cells, including 14 detected at least 80-fold higher, which annotated to multiple pathways: six cytokine family (CSF1R, IL2RG, IL3RA, IL4, IL17B, IL23R), four transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family (BMP6, BMP15, GDF9, ENG), one fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family [FGF14(FH4)], one epidermal growth factor member (GAB1), plus CD36, and CLEC10A. 8C-specific gene elements were enriched (73%) for reported circadian-controlled genes in mouse tissues. High-level detection of CSF1R, ENG, IL23R, and IL3RA specifically on the 8C arrays suggests the embryo plays an active role in blocking immune rejection and is poised for trophectoderm development; robust detection of NRG1, GAB1, -2, GRB7, and FGF14(FHF4) indicates novel roles in early development in addition to their known roles in later development. Forty-four gene elements were underdetected on the 8C arrays, including 11 at least 80-fold under the pluripotent cells: two cytokines (IFITM1, TNFRSF8), five TGFBs (BMP7, LEFTY1, LEFTY2, TDGF1, TDGF3), two FGFs (FGF2, FGF receptor 1), plus ING5, and WNT6. The microarray detection patterns suggest that hES/iPS cells exhibit suppressed circadian competence, underexpression of early differentiation markers, and more robust expression of generic pluripotency genes, in keeping with an artificial state of continual uncommitted cell division. In contrast, gene expression patterns of the 8C embryo suggest that

  9. Microarray Analyses Reveal Marked Differences in Growth Factor and Receptor Expression Between 8-Cell Human Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Vlismas, Antonis; Bletsa, Ritsa; Mavrogianni, Despina; Mamali, Georgina; Pergamali, Maria; Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Partsinevelos, George; Drakakis, Peter; Loutradis, Dimitris; Kiessling, Ann A

    2016-01-15

    Previous microarray analyses of RNAs from 8-cell (8C) human embryos revealed a lack of cell cycle checkpoints and overexpression of core circadian oscillators and cell cycle drivers relative to pluripotent human stem cells [human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem (hES/iPS)] and fibroblasts, suggesting growth factor independence during early cleavage stages. To explore this possibility, we queried our combined microarray database for expression of 487 growth factors and receptors. Fifty-one gene elements were overdetected on the 8C arrays relative to hES/iPS cells, including 14 detected at least 80-fold higher, which annotated to multiple pathways: six cytokine family (CSF1R, IL2RG, IL3RA, IL4, IL17B, IL23R), four transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family (BMP6, BMP15, GDF9, ENG), one fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family [FGF14(FH4)], one epidermal growth factor member (GAB1), plus CD36, and CLEC10A. 8C-specific gene elements were enriched (73%) for reported circadian-controlled genes in mouse tissues. High-level detection of CSF1R, ENG, IL23R, and IL3RA specifically on the 8C arrays suggests the embryo plays an active role in blocking immune rejection and is poised for trophectoderm development; robust detection of NRG1, GAB1, -2, GRB7, and FGF14(FHF4) indicates novel roles in early development in addition to their known roles in later development. Forty-four gene elements were underdetected on the 8C arrays, including 11 at least 80-fold under the pluripotent cells: two cytokines (IFITM1, TNFRSF8), five TGFBs (BMP7, LEFTY1, LEFTY2, TDGF1, TDGF3), two FGFs (FGF2, FGF receptor 1), plus ING5, and WNT6. The microarray detection patterns suggest that hES/iPS cells exhibit suppressed circadian competence, underexpression of early differentiation markers, and more robust expression of generic pluripotency genes, in keeping with an artificial state of continual uncommitted cell division. In contrast, gene expression patterns of the 8C embryo suggest that

  10. Cryptococcus gattii Virulence Composite: Candidate Genes Revealed by Microarray Analysis of High and Less Virulent Vancouver Island Outbreak Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Price, Jennifer; Sorrell, Tania; Perfect, John R.; Meyer, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Human and animal cryptococcosis due to an unusual molecular type of Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) emerged recently on Vancouver Island, Canada. Unlike C. neoformans, C. gattii causes disease mainly in immunocompetent hosts, despite producing a similar suite of virulence determinants. To investigate a potential relationship between the regulation of expression of a virulence gene composite and virulence, we took advantage of two subtypes of VGII (a and b), one highly virulent (R265) and one less virulent (R272), that were identified from the Vancouver outbreak. By expression microarray analysis, 202 genes showed at least a 2-fold difference in expression with 108 being up- and 94 being down-regulated in strain R265 compared with strain R272. Specifically, expression levels of genes encoding putative virulence factors (e.g. LAC1, LAC2, CAS3 and MPK1) and genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall assembly, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were increased in strain R265, whereas genes involved in the regulation of mitosis and ergosterol biosynthesis were suppressed. In vitro phenotypic studies and transcription analysis confirmed the microarray results. Gene disruption of LAC1 and MPK1 revealed defects in melanin synthesis and cell wall integrity, respectively, where CAS3 was not essential for capsule production. Moreover, MPK1 also controls melanin and capsule production and causes a severe attenuation of the virulence in a murine inhalational model. Overall, this study provides the basis for further genetic studies to characterize the differences in the virulence composite of strains with minor evolutionary divergences in gene expression in the primary pathogen C. gattii, that have led to a major invasive fungal infection outbreak. PMID:21249145

  11. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  12. The structure of putative N-acetyl glutamate kinase from Thermus thermophilus reveals an intermediate active site conformation of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, Ramya; Ragunathan, Preethi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2012-04-13

    The de novo biosynthesis of arginine in microorganisms and plants is accomplished via several enzymatic steps. The enzyme N-acetyl glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of the γ-COO(-) group of N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the second rate limiting step in arginine biosynthesis pathway. Here we report the crystal structure of putative N-acetyl glutamate kinase (NAGK) from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtNAGK) determined at 1.92Å resolution. The structural analysis of TtNAGK suggests that the dimeric quaternary state of the enzyme and arginine insensitive nature are similar to mesophilic Escherichia coli NAGK. These features are significantly different from its thermophilic homolog Thermatoga maritima NAGK which is hexameric and arginine-sensitive. TtNAGK is devoid of its substrates but contains two sulfates at the active site. Very interestingly the active site of the enzyme adopts a conformation which is not completely open or closed and likely represents an intermediate stage in the catalytic cycle unlike its structural homologs, which all exist either in the open or closed conformation. Engineering arginine biosynthesis pathway enzymes for the production of l-arginine is an important industrial application. The structural comparison of TtNAGK with EcNAGK revealed the structural basis of thermostability of TtNAGK and this information could be very useful to generate mutants of NAGK with increased overall stability. PMID:22452987

  13. Angiogenesis Interactome and Time Course Microarray Data Reveal the Distinct Activation Patterns in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang-Hui; Lee, Esak; Bader, Joel S.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves stimulation of endothelial cells (EC) by various cytokines and growth factors, but the signaling mechanisms are not completely understood. Combining dynamic gene expression time-course data for stimulated EC with protein-protein interactions associated with angiogenesis (the “angiome”) could reveal how different stimuli result in different patterns of network activation and could implicate signaling intermediates as points for control or intervention. We constructed the protein-protein interaction networks of positive and negative regulation of angiogenesis comprising 367 and 245 proteins, respectively. We used five published gene expression datasets derived from in vitro assays using different types of blood endothelial cells stimulated by VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A). We used the Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) to identify significant temporal gene expression profiles. The statistically significant patterns between 2D fibronectin and 3D type I collagen substrates for telomerase-immortalized EC (TIME) show that different substrates could influence the temporal gene activation patterns in the same cell line. We investigated the different activation patterns among 18 transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, and experimentally measured the protein level of the tyrosine-kinase receptors VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 in human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) and human microvascular EC (MEC). The results show that VEGFR1–VEGFR2 levels are more closely coupled than VEGFR1–VEGFR3 or VEGFR2–VEGFR3 in HUVEC and MEC. This computational methodology can be extended to investigate other molecules or biological processes such as cell cycle. PMID:25329517

  14. A comparative cDNA microarray analysis reveals a spectrum of genes regulated by Pax6 in mouse lens

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bharesh K.; Reed, Nathan A.; Yang, Ying; Čermák, Lukáš; Reneker, Lixing; Duncan, Melinda K.; Cvekl, Aleš

    2007-01-01

    Background Pax6 is a transcription factor that is required for induction, growth, and maintenance of the lens; however, few direct target genes of Pax6 are known. Results In this report, we describe the results of a cDNA microarray analysis of lens transcripts from transgenic mice over-expressing Pax6 in lens fibre cells in order to narrow the field of potential direct Pax6 target genes. This study revealed that the transcript levels were significantly altered for 508 of the 9700 genes analysed, including five genes encoding the cell adhesion molecules β1-integrin, JAM1, L1 CAM, NCAM-140 and neogenin. Notably, comparisons between the genes differentially expressed in Pax6 heterozygous and Pax6 over-expressing lenses identified 13 common genes, including paralemmin, GDIβ, ATF1, Hrp12 and Brg1. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that Brg1 is expressed in the embryonic and neonatal (2-week-old) but not in 14-week adult lenses, and confirmed altered expression in transgenic lenses over-expressing Pax6. Furthermore, EMSA demonstrated that the BRG1 promoter contains Pax6 binding sites, further supporting the proposition that it is directly regulated by Pax6. Conclusions These results provide a list of genes with possible roles in lens biology and cataracts that are directly or indirectly regulated by Pax6. PMID:12485166

  15. Microarray profiling of L1-overexpressing endothelial cells reveals STAT3 activation via IL-6/IL-6Rα axis

    PubMed Central

    Magrini, Elena; Cavallaro, Ugo; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a novel role for the L1 transmembrane glycoprotein (also known as L1CAM or CD171) in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and vessels stabilization. L1 overexpression in cultured endothelial cells of the lung (luECs) exerted a pleiotropic effect in that it regulated proliferation, migration, tubulogenesis, vascular permeability, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). In addition, we provided strong evidence that antibody-mediated targeting of L1 may be an effective strategy for vessel normalization with the potential to increase efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. High-throughput microarray expression profile revealed that L1 modulates the expression of hundreds of genes mainly involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, cellular assembly, migration, development and organization. By using a ‘pathway-oriented’ analysis strategy we were able to identify a network of 105 genes modulated by L1 through the predicted activation of five transcription factors: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, IRF7, and ATF4. Indeed, L1 overexpression resulted in the strong induction of STAT3 phosphorylation which was abolished by antibody-mediated neutralization of IL-6Rα. These results indicated that L1 promoted STAT3 activation via the IL-6/IL-6Rα axis. PMID:26484199

  16. Chromosome Microarray.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half century, knowledge about genetics, genetic testing, and its complexity has flourished. Completion of the Human Genome Project provided a foundation upon which the accuracy of genetics, genomics, and integration of bioinformatics knowledge and testing has grown exponentially. What is lagging, however, are efforts to reach and engage nurses about this rapidly changing field. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with several frequently ordered genetic tests including chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by a comprehensive review of chromosome microarray. It shares the complexity of microarray including how testing is performed and results analyzed. A case report demonstrates how this technology is applied in clinical practice and reveals benefits and limitations of this scientific and bioinformatics genetic technology. Clinical implications for maternal-child nurses across practice levels are discussed. PMID:27276104

  17. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Phan, Nam Nhut; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org), a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I) are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment. PMID:26147197

  18. Meta-Analysis of Public Microarray Datasets Reveals Voltage-Gated Calcium Gene Signatures in Clinical Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Phan, Nam Nhut; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org), a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I) are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment. PMID:26147197

  19. DNA microarray-based analysis of voluntary resistance wheel running reveals novel transcriptome leading robust hippocampal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Chul; Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Inoue, Koshiro; Chang, Hyukki; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-11-01

    In two separate experiments, voluntary resistance wheel running with 30% of body weight (RWR), rather than wheel running (WR), led to greater enhancements, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions, in conjunction with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling (Lee et al., J Appl Physiol, 2012; Neurosci Lett., 2013). Here we aimed to unravel novel molecular factors and gain insight into underlying molecular mechanisms for RWR-enhanced hippocampal functions; a high-throughput whole-genome DNA microarray approach was applied to rats performing voluntary running for 4 weeks. RWR rats showed a significant decrease in average running distances although average work levels increased immensely, by about 11-fold compared to WR, resulting in muscular adaptation for the fast-twitch plantaris muscle. Global transcriptome profiling analysis identified 128 (sedentary × WR) and 169 (sedentary × RWR) up-regulated (>1.5-fold change), and 97 (sedentary × WR) and 468 (sedentary × RWR) down-regulated (<0.75-fold change) genes. Functional categorization using both pathway- or specific-disease-state-focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed expression pattern changes in the major categories of disease and disorders, molecular functions, and physiological system development and function. Genes specifically regulated with RWR include the newly identified factors of NFATc1, AVPR1A, and FGFR4, as well as previously known factors, BDNF and CREB mRNA. Interestingly, RWR down-regulated multiple inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, IL2RA, and TNF) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL10, CCL2, and CCR4) with the SYCP3, PRL genes, which are potentially involved in regulating hippocampal neuroplastic changes. These results provide understanding of the voluntary-RWR-related hippocampal transcriptome, which will open a window to the underlying mechanisms of the positive effects of exercise, with therapeutic value for enhancing

  20. Microarray analysis of nemorosone-induced cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cancer cells reveals activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR)

    PubMed Central

    Holtrup, Frank; Bauer, Andrea; Fellenberg, Kurt; Hilger, Ralf A; Wink, Michael; Hoheisel, Jörg D

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death due to high chemo-resistance and fast metastasation. Nemorosone, a polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol, has recently been identified as a promising anticancer agent. Here, we examine its growth-inhibitory effects on pancreatic cancer cells. Based on transcription profiling, a molecular mode of action is proposed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Nemorosone cytotoxicity was assessed by the resazurin proliferation assay on pancreatic cancer cells and fibroblasts. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining as well as cytochrome c and caspase activation assays. Staining with the voltage-dependent dye JC-1 and fluorescence microscopy were used to detect effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. Total RNA was isolated from treated cell lines and subjected to microarray analysis, subsequent pathway identification and modelling. Gene expression data were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and siRNA-mediated gene knock-down. KEY RESULTS Nemorosone significantly inhibited cancer cell growth, induced cytochrome c release and subsequent caspase-dependent apoptosis, rapidly abolished mitochondrial membrane potential and elevated cytosolic calcium levels, while fibroblasts were largely unaffected. Expression profiling revealed 336 genes to be affected by nemorosone. A total of 75 genes were altered in all three cell lines, many of which were within the unfolded protein response (UPR) network. DNA damage inducible transcript 3 was identified as a key regulator in UPR-mediated cell death. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Nemorosone could be a lead compound for the development of novel anticancer drugs amplifying the already elevated UPR level in solid tumours, thus driving them into apoptosis. This study forms the basis for further investigations identifying nemorosone's direct molecular target(s). PMID:21091652

  1. Role for E2F in Control of Both DNA Replication and Mitotic Functions as Revealed from DNA Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Seiichi; Huang, Erich; Zuzan, Harry; Spang, Rainer; Leone, Gustavo; West, Mike; Nevins, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    We have used high-density DNA microarrays to provide an analysis of gene regulation during the mammalian cell cycle and the role of E2F in this process. Cell cycle analysis was facilitated by a combined examination of gene control in serum-stimulated fibroblasts and cells synchronized at G1/S by hydroxyurea block that were then released to proceed through the cell cycle. The latter approach (G1/S synchronization) is critical for rigorously maintaining cell synchrony for unambiguous analysis of gene regulation in later stages of the cell cycle. Analysis of these samples identified seven distinct clusters of genes that exhibit unique patterns of expression. Genes tend to cluster within these groups based on common function and the time during the cell cycle that the activity is required. Placed in this context, the analysis of genes induced by E2F proteins identified genes or expressed sequence tags not previously described as regulated by E2F proteins; surprisingly, many of these encode proteins known to function during mitosis. A comparison of the E2F-induced genes with the patterns of cell growth-regulated gene expression revealed that virtually all of the E2F-induced genes are found in only two of the cell cycle clusters; one group was regulated at G1/S, and the second group, which included the mitotic activities, was regulated at G2. The activation of the G2 genes suggests a broader role for E2F in the control of both DNA replication and mitotic activities. PMID:11416145

  2. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals oral Lactobacillus promotion of increases in brain GABA, N-acetyl aspartate and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Janik, Rafal; Thomason, Lynsie A M; Stanisz, Andrew M; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John; Stanisz, Greg J

    2016-01-15

    The gut microbiome has been shown to regulate the development and functions of the enteric and central nervous systems. Its involvement in the regulation of behavior has attracted particular attention because of its potential translational importance in clinical disorders, however little is known about the pathways involved. We previously have demonstrated that administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) to healthy male BALB/c mice, promotes consistent changes in GABA-A and -B receptor sub-types in specific brain regions, accompanied by reductions in anxiety and depression-related behaviors. In the present study, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), we quantitatively assessed two clinically validated biomarkers of brain activity and function, glutamate+glutamine (Glx) and total N-acetyl aspartate+N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid (tNAA), as well as GABA, the chief brain inhibitory neurotransmitter. Mice received 1×10(9) cfu of JB-1 per day for 4weeks and were subjected to MRS weekly and again 4weeks after cessation of treatment to ascertain temporal changes in these neurometabolites. Baseline concentrations for Glx, tNAA and GABA were equal to 10.4±0.3mM, 8.7±0.1mM, and 1.2±0.1mM, respectively. Delayed increases were first seen for Glx (~10%) and NAA (~37%) at 2weeks which persisted only to the end of treatment. However, Glx was still elevated 4weeks after treatment had ceased. Significantly elevated GABA (~25%) was only seen at 4weeks. These results suggest specific metabolic pathways in our pursuit of mechanisms of action of psychoactive bacteria. They also offer through application of standard clinical neurodiagnostic techniques, translational opportunities to assess biomarkers accompanying behavioral changes induced by alterations in the gut microbiome. PMID:26577887

  3. Crystal Structure of the Golgi-Associated Human Nα-Acetyltransferase 60 Reveals the Molecular Determinants for Substrate-Specific Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Støve, Svein Isungset; Magin, Robert S; Foyn, Håvard; Haug, Bengt Erik; Marmorstein, Ronen; Arnesen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    N-Terminal acetylation is a common and important protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Six human NATs (NatA-NatF) contain one catalytic subunit each, Naa10 to Naa60, respectively. In contrast to the ribosome-associated NatA to NatE, NatF/Naa60 specifically associates with Golgi membranes and acetylates transmembrane proteins. To gain insight into the molecular basis for the function of Naa60, we developed an Naa60 bisubstrate CoA-peptide conjugate inhibitor, determined its X-ray structure when bound to CoA and inhibitor, and carried out biochemical experiments. We show that Naa60 adapts an overall fold similar to that of the catalytic subunits of ribosome-associated NATs, but with the addition of two novel elongated loops that play important roles in substrate-specific binding. One of these loops mediates a dimer to monomer transition upon substrate-specific binding. Naa60 employs a catalytic mechanism most similar to Naa50. Collectively, these data reveal the molecular basis for Naa60-specific acetyltransferase activity with implications for its Golgi-specific functions. PMID:27320834

  4. MRS reveals additional hexose N-acetyl resonances in the brain of a mouse model for Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Lowe, J P; Stuckey, D J; Awan, F R; Jeyakumar, M; Neville, D C A; Platt, F M; Griffin, J L; Styles, P; Blamire, A M; Sibson, N R

    2005-12-01

    Sandhoff disease, one of several related lysosomal storage disorders, results from the build up of N-acetyl-containing glycosphingolipids in the brain and is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the hexosaminidase beta-subunit. Affected individuals undergo progressive neurodegeneration in response to the glycosphingolipid storage. (1)H magnetic resonance spectra of perchloric acid extracts of Sandhoff mouse brain exhibited several resonances ca 2.07 ppm that were not present in the corresponding spectra from extracts of wild-type mouse brain. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the Sandhoff extracts post-MRS identified the presence of N-acetylhexosamine-containing oligosaccharides, which are the likely cause of the additional MRS resonances. MRS of intact brain tissue with magic angle spinning also showed additional resonances at ca 2.07 ppm in the Sandhoff case. These resonances appeared to increase with disease progression and probably arise, for the most part, from the stored glycosphingolipids, which are absent in the aqueous extracts. Hence in vivo MRS may be a useful tool for detecting early-stage Sandhoff disease and response to treatment. PMID:16206131

  5. Heterologous hybridization of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)microarrays with Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) reveals physiological responses due to corn competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarray analysis was used to identify changes in gene expression in velvetleaf that result from competition with corn. The plants were grown in field plots under adequate N (addition of 220 kg N ha-1) to minimize stress and sampled at the V6 growth stage of corn (late June). Leaf area, dry weight...

  6. Adaptation of Mycobacteria to Growth Conditions: A Theoretical Analysis of Changes in Gene Expression Revealed by Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert Ashley; Garcia, Maria Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Background Microarray analysis is a powerful technique for investigating changes in gene expression. Currently, results (r-values) are interpreted empirically as either unchanged or up- or down-regulated. We now present a mathematical framework, which relates r-values to the macromolecular properties of population-average cells. The theory is illustrated by the analysis of published data for two species; namely, Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur and Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155. Each species was grown in a chemostat at two different growth rates. Application of the theory reveals the growth rate dependent changes in the mycobacterial proteomes. Principal Findings The r-value r(i) of any ORF (ORF(i)) encoding protein p(i) was shown to be equal to the ratio of the concentrations of p(i) and so directly proportional to the ratio of the numbers of copies of p(i) per population-average cells of the two cultures. The proportionality constant can be obtained from the ratios DNA: RNA: protein. Several subgroups of ORFs were identified because they shared a particular r-value. Histograms of the number of ORFs versus the expression ratio were simulated by combining the particular r-values of several subgroups of ORFs. The largest subgroup was ORF(j) (r(j)  = 1.00± SD) which was estimated to comprise respectively 59% and 49% of ORFs of M. bovis BCG Pasteur and M. smegmatis mc2 155. The standard deviations reflect the properties of the cDNA preparations investigated. Significance The analysis provided a quantitative view of growth rate dependent changes in the proteomes of the mycobacteria studied. The majority of the ORFs were found to be constitutively expressed. In contrast, the protein compositions of the outer permeability barriers and cytoplasmic membranes were found to be dependent on growth rate; thus illustrating the response of bacteria to their environment. The theoretical approach applies to any cultivatable bacterium under a wide range of growth conditions

  7. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Integrative RNA-seq and microarray data analysis reveals GC content and gene length biases in the psoriasis transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xianying; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.; Johnston, Andrew; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of psoriasis has driven research advances and may soon provide the basis for clinical applications. For expression profiling studies, RNA-seq is now a competitive technology, but RNA-seq results may differ from those obtained by microarray. We therefore compared findings obtained by RNA-seq with those from eight microarray studies of psoriasis. RNA-seq and microarray datasets identified similar numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with certain genes uniquely identified by each technology. Correspondence between platforms and the balance of increased to decreased DEGs was influenced by mRNA abundance, GC content, and gene length. Weakly expressed genes, genes with low GC content, and long genes were all biased toward decreased expression in psoriasis lesions. The strength of these trends differed among array datasets, most likely due to variations in RNA quality. Gene length bias was by far the strongest trend and was evident in all datasets regardless of the expression profiling technology. The effect was due to differences between lesional and uninvolved skin with respect to the genome-wide correlation between gene length and gene expression, which was consistently more negative in psoriasis lesions. These findings demonstrate the complementary nature of RNA-seq and microarray technology and show that integrative analysis of both data types can provide a richer view of the transcriptome than strict reliance on a single method alone. Our results also highlight factors affecting correspondence between technologies, and we have established that gene length is a major determinant of differential expression in psoriasis lesions. PMID:24844236

  9. A comprehensive study design reveals treatment- and transcript abundance–dependent concordance between RNA-seq and microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Charles; Gong, Binsheng; Bushel, Pierre R.; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Xu, Joshua; Fang, Hong; Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Su, Zhenqiang; Meehan, Joe; Li, Xiaojin; Yang, Lu; Li, Haiqing; Łabaj, Paweł P.; Kreil, David P.; Megherbi, Dalila; Florian, Caiment; Gaj, Stan; van Delft, Joost; Kleinjans, Jos; Scherer, Andreas; Viswanath, Devanarayan; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Qian, Hui-Rong; Lancashire, Lee J.; Bessarabova, Marina; Nikolsky, Yuri; Furlanello, Cesare; Chierici, Marco; Albanese, Davide; Jurman, Giuseppe; Riccadonna, Samantha; Filosi, Michele; Visintainer, Roberto; Zhang, Ke K.; Li, Jianying; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Svoboda, Daniel L.; Fuscoe, James C.; Deng, Youping; Shi, Leming; Paules, Richard S.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Tong, Weida

    2014-01-01

    RNA-seq facilitates unbiased genome-wide gene-expression profiling. However, its concordance with the well-established microarray platform must be rigorously assessed for confident uses in clinical and regulatory application. Here we use a comprehensive study design to generate Illumina RNA-seq and Affymetrix microarray data from the same set of liver samples of rats under varying degrees of perturbation by 27 chemicals representing multiple modes of action (MOA). The cross-platform concordance in terms of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) or enriched pathways is highly correlated with treatment effect size, gene-expression abundance and the biological complexity of the MOA. RNA-seq outperforms microarray (90% versus 76%) in DEG verification by quantitative PCR and the main gain is its improved accuracy for low expressed genes. Nonetheless, predictive classifiers derived from both platforms performed similarly. Therefore, the endpoint studied and its biological complexity, transcript abundance, and intended application are important factors in transcriptomic research and for decision-making. PMID:25150839

  10. The glossyhead1 Allele of ACC1 Reveals a Principal Role for Multidomain Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in the Biosynthesis of Cuticular Waxes by Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.; Xu, C.; Zhao, H.; Parsons, E. P.; Kosma, D. K.; Xu, X.; Chao, D.; Lohrey, G.; Bangarusamy, D. K.; Wang, G.; Bressan, R. A.; Jenks, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C{sub 20:0} or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling.

  11. Lectin microarray reveals binding profiles of Lactobacillus casei strains in a comprehensive analysis of bacterial cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Emi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Hirabarashi, Jun; Iino, Tohru; Sako, Tomoyuki

    2011-07-01

    We previously showed a pivotal role of the polysaccharide (PS) moiety in the cell wall of the Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (YIT 9029) as a possible immune modulator (E. Yasuda M. Serata, and T. Sako, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:4746-4755, 2008). To distinguish PS structures on the bacterial cell surface of individual strains in relation to their activities, it would be useful to have a rapid and high-throughput methodology. Recently, a new technique called lectin microarray was developed for rapid profiling of glycosylation in eukaryotic polymers and cell surfaces. Here, we report on the development of a simple and sensitive method based on this technology for direct analysis of intact bacterial cell surface glycomes. The method involves labeling bacterial cells with SYTOX Orange before incubation with the lectin microarray. After washing, bound cells are directly detected using an evanescent-field fluorescence scanner in a liquid phase. Using this method, we compared the cell surface glycomes from 16 different strains of L. casei. The patterns of lectin-binding affinity of most strains were found to be unique. There appears to be two types of lectin-binding profiles: the first is characterized by a few lectins, and the other is characterized by multiple lectins with different specificities. We also showed a dramatic change in the lectin-binding profile of a YIT 9029 derivative with a mutation in the cps1C gene, encoding a putative glycosyltransferase. In conclusion, the developed technique provided a novel strategy for rapid profiling and, more importantly, differentiating numerous bacterial strains with relevance to the biological functions of PS. PMID:21602390

  12. Lectin Microarray Reveals Binding Profiles of Lactobacillus casei Strains in a Comprehensive Analysis of Bacterial Cell Wall Polysaccharides▿†

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Emi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabarashi, Jun; Iino, Tohru; Sako, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed a pivotal role of the polysaccharide (PS) moiety in the cell wall of the Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (YIT 9029) as a possible immune modulator (E. Yasuda M. Serata, and T. Sako, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:4746-4755, 2008). To distinguish PS structures on the bacterial cell surface of individual strains in relation to their activities, it would be useful to have a rapid and high-throughput methodology. Recently, a new technique called lectin microarray was developed for rapid profiling of glycosylation in eukaryotic polymers and cell surfaces. Here, we report on the development of a simple and sensitive method based on this technology for direct analysis of intact bacterial cell surface glycomes. The method involves labeling bacterial cells with SYTOX Orange before incubation with the lectin microarray. After washing, bound cells are directly detected using an evanescent-field fluorescence scanner in a liquid phase. Using this method, we compared the cell surface glycomes from 16 different strains of L. casei. The patterns of lectin-binding affinity of most strains were found to be unique. There appears to be two types of lectin-binding profiles: the first is characterized by a few lectins, and the other is characterized by multiple lectins with different specificities. We also showed a dramatic change in the lectin-binding profile of a YIT 9029 derivative with a mutation in the cps1C gene, encoding a putative glycosyltransferase. In conclusion, the developed technique provided a novel strategy for rapid profiling and, more importantly, differentiating numerous bacterial strains with relevance to the biological functions of PS. PMID:21602390

  13. Tissue microarray analysis reveals a tight correlation between protein expression pattern and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li-yan; Hu, Nan; Song, Yong-mei; Zou, Shuang-mei; Shou, Jian-zhong; Qian, Lu-xia; Ren, Li-qun; Lin, Dong-mei; Tong, Tong; He, Zu-gen; Zhan, Qi-min; Taylor, Philip R; Lu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    Background The development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progresses a multistage process, collectively known as precursor lesions, also called dysplasia (DYS) and carcinoma in situ (CIS), subsequent invasive lesions and final metastasis. In this study, we are interested in investigating the expression of a variety of functional classes of proteins in ESCC and its precursor lesions and characterizing the correlation of these proteins with ESCC malignant progression. Methods Fas, FADD, caspase 8, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, CK4, annexin I, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC were analyzed using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing 205 ESCC and 173 adjacent precursor lesions as well as corresponding normal mucosa. To confirm the immunohistochemical results, three proteins, fascin, CK14 and laminin-5γ2, which were overexpressed in ESCC on tissue microarray, were detected in 12 ESCC cell lines by Western blot assay. Results In ESCC and its precursor lesions, FADD, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC were overexpressed, while Fas, caspase 8, CK4 and annexin I were underexpressed. The abnormalities of these proteins could be classified into different groups in relation to the stages of ESCC development. They were "early" corresponding to mild and moderate DYS with overexpression of fascin, FADD and CDC25B and underexpression of Fas, caspase 8, CK4 and annexin I, "intermediate" to severe DYS and CIS with overexpression of FADD and CK14, and "late" to invasive lesions (ESCC) and to advanced pTNM stage ESCC lesions with overexpression of CK14, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC. Conclusion Analyzing the protein expression patterns of Fas, FADD, caspase 8, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, CK4, annexin I, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC would be valuable to develop rational strategies for early detection of lesions at risk in advance as well as for prevention and treatment of ESCC. PMID:17187659

  14. cDNA microarray reveals the alterations of cytoskeleton-related genes in osteoblast under high magneto-gravitational environment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Airong; Di, Shengmeng; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Zongcheng; Li, Jingbao; Hu, Lifang; Yang, Pengfei; Yin, Dachuan; Shang, Peng

    2009-07-01

    The diamagnetic levitation as a novel ground-based model for simulating a reduced gravity environment has been widely applied in many fields. In this study, a special designed superconducting magnet, which can produce three apparent gravity levels (0, 1, and 2 g), namely high magneto-gravitational environment (HMGE), was used to simulate space gravity environment. The effects of HMGE on osteoblast gene expression profile were investigated by microarray. Genes sensitive to diamagnetic levitation environment (0 g), gravity changes, and high magnetic field changes were sorted on the basis of typical cell functions. Cytoskeleton, as an intracellular load-bearing structure, plays an important role in gravity perception. Therefore, 13 cytoskeleton-related genes were chosen according to the results of microarray analysis, and the expressions of these genes were found to be altered under HMGE by real-time PCR. Based on the PCR results, the expressions of WASF2 (WAS protein family, member 2), WIPF1 (WAS/WASL interacting protein family, member 1), paxillin, and talin 1 were further identified by western blot assay. Results indicated that WASF2 and WIPF1 were more sensitive to altered gravity levels, and talin 1 and paxillin were sensitive to both magnetic field and gravity changes. Our findings demonstrated that HMGE can affect osteoblast gene expression profile and cytoskeleton-related genes expression. The identification of mechanosensitive genes may enhance our understandings to the mechanism of bone loss induced by microgravity and may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone loss or osteoporosis. PMID:19578720

  15. Structure of NDP-forming Acetyl-CoA synthetase ACD1 reveals a large rearrangement for phosphoryl transfer.

    PubMed

    Weiße, Renato H-J; Faust, Annette; Schmidt, Marcel; Schönheit, Peter; Scheidig, Axel J

    2016-02-01

    The NDP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases (ACDs) catalyze the conversion of various CoA thioesters to the corresponding acids, conserving their chemical energy in form of ATP. The ACDs are the major energy-conserving enzymes in sugar and peptide fermentation of hyperthermophilic archaea. They are considered to be primordial enzymes of ATP synthesis in the early evolution of life. We present the first crystal structures, to our knowledge, of an ACD from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Candidatus Korachaeum cryptofilum. These structures reveal a unique arrangement of the ACD subunits alpha and beta within an α2β2-heterotetrameric complex. This arrangement significantly differs from other members of the superfamily. To transmit an activated phosphoryl moiety from the Ac-CoA binding site (within the alpha subunit) to the NDP-binding site (within the beta subunit), a distance of 51 Å has to be bridged. This transmission requires a larger rearrangement within the protein complex involving a 21-aa-long phosphohistidine-containing segment of the alpha subunit. Spatial restraints of the interaction of this segment with the beta subunit explain the necessity for a second highly conserved His residue within the beta subunit. The data support the proposed four-step reaction mechanism of ACDs, coupling acyl-CoA thioesters with ATP synthesis. Furthermore, the determined crystal structure of the complex with bound Ac-CoA allows first insight, to our knowledge, into the determinants for acyl-CoA substrate specificity. The composition and size of loops protruding into the binding pocket of acyl-CoA are determined by the individual arrangement of the characteristic subdomains. PMID:26787904

  16. DNA microarray analyses reveal a post-irradiation differential time-dependent gene expression profile in yeast cells exposed to X-rays and {gamma}-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shinzo; Ishidou, Emi; Kurita, Sakiko; Suzuki, Yoshiteru; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep . E-mail: rakwal-68@aist.go.jp; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2006-07-21

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is the most enigmatic of genotoxic stress inducers in our environment that has been around from the eons of time. IR is generally considered harmful, and has been the subject of numerous studies, mostly looking at the DNA damaging effects in cells and the repair mechanisms therein. Moreover, few studies have focused on large-scale identification of cellular responses to IR, and to this end, we describe here an initial study on the transcriptional responses of the unicellular genome model, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C), by cDNA microarray. The effect of two different IR, X-rays, and gamma ({gamma})-rays, was investigated by irradiating the yeast cells cultured in YPD medium with 50 Gy doses of X- and {gamma}-rays, followed by resuspension of the cells in YPD for time-course experiments. The samples were collected for microarray analysis at 20, 40, and 80 min after irradiation. Microarray analysis revealed a time-course transcriptional profile of changed gene expressions. Up-regulated genes belonged to the functional categories mainly related to cell cycle and DNA processing, cell rescue defense and virulence, protein and cell fate, and metabolism (X- and {gamma}-rays). Similarly, for X- and {gamma}-rays, the down-regulated genes belonged to mostly transcription and protein synthesis, cell cycle and DNA processing, control of cellular organization, cell fate, and C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism categories, respectively. This study provides for the first time a snapshot of the genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in X- and {gamma}-ray post-irradiated yeast cells and comparatively interprets/discusses the changed gene functional categories as effects of these two radiations vis-a-vis their energy levels.

  17. Large-scale atlas of microarray data reveals the distinct expression landscape of different tissues in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Fei; Maslov, Sergei; Yoo, Shinjae; Wang, Daifeng; Kumari, Sunita; Gerstein, Mark; Ware, Doreen

    2016-03-25

    Here, transcriptome datasets from thousands of samples of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been collectively generated by multiple individual labs. Although integration and meta-analysis of these samples has become routine in the plant research community, it is often hampered by the lack of metadata or differences in annotation styles by different labs. In this study, we carefully selected and integrated 6,057 Arabidopsis microarray expression samples from 304 experiments deposited to NCBI GEO. Metadata such as tissue type, growth condition, and developmental stage were manually curated for each sample. We then studied global expression landscape of the integrated dataset andmore » found that samples of the same tissue tend to be more similar to each other than to samples of other tissues, even in different growth conditions or developmental stages. Root has the most distinct transcriptome compared to aerial tissues, but the transcriptome of cultured root is more similar to those of aerial tissues as the former samples lost their cellular identity. Using a simple computational classification method, we showed that the tissue type of a sample can be successfully predicted based on its expression profile, opening the door for automatic metadata extraction and facilitating re-use of plant transcriptome data. As a proof of principle we applied our automated annotation pipeline to 708 RNA-seq samples from public repositories and verified accuracy of our predictions with samples’ metadata provided by authors.« less

  18. Laser microdissection and microarray analysis of Tuber melanosporum ectomycorrhizas reveal functional heterogeneity between mantle and Hartig net compartments.

    PubMed

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Tisserant, Emilie; Brun, Annick; Legué, Valérie; Martin, Francis; Kohler, Annegret

    2013-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis, a mutualistic plant-fungus association, plays a fundamental role in forest ecosystems by enhancing plant growth and by providing host protection from root diseases. The cellular complexity of the symbiotic organ, characterized by the differentiation of structurally specialized tissues (i.e. the fungal mantle and the Hartig net), is the major limitation to study fungal gene expression in such specific compartments. We investigated the transcriptional landscape of the ECM fungus Tuber melanosporum during the major stages of its life cycle and we particularly focused on the complex symbiotic stage by combining the use of laser capture microdissection and microarray gene expression analysis. We isolated the fungal/soil (i.e. the mantle) and the fungal/plant (i.e. the Hartig net) interfaces from transverse sections of T. melanosporum/Corylus avellana ectomycorrhizas and identified the distinct genetic programmes associated with each compartment. Particularly, nitrogen and water acquisition from soil, synthesis of secondary metabolites and detoxification mechanisms appear to be important processes in the fungal mantle. In contrast, transport activity is enhanced in the Hartig net and we identified carbohydrate and nitrogen-derived transporters that might play a key role in the reciprocal resources' transfer between the host and the symbiont. PMID:23379715

  19. Large-scale atlas of microarray data reveals the distinct expression landscape of different tissues in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Yoo, Shinjae; Wang, Daifeng; Kumari, Sunita; Gerstein, Mark; Ware, Doreen; Maslov, Sergei

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptome data sets from thousands of samples of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been collectively generated by multiple individual labs. Although integration and meta-analysis of these samples has become routine in the plant research community, it is often hampered by a lack of metadata or differences in annotation styles of different labs. In this study, we carefully selected and integrated 6057 Arabidopsis microarray expression samples from 304 experiments deposited to the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Metadata such as tissue type, growth conditions and developmental stage were manually curated for each sample. We then studied the global expression landscape of the integrated data set and found that samples of the same tissue tend to be more similar to each other than to samples of other tissues, even in different growth conditions or developmental stages. Root has the most distinct transcriptome, compared with aerial tissues, but the transcriptome of cultured root is more similar to the transcriptome of aerial tissues, as the cultured root samples lost their cellular identity. Using a simple computational classification method, we showed that the tissue type of a sample can be successfully predicted based on its expression profile, opening the door for automatic metadata extraction and facilitating the re-use of plant transcriptome data. As a proof of principle, we applied our automated annotation pipeline to 708 RNA-seq samples from public repositories and verified the accuracy of our predictions with sample metadata provided by the authors. PMID:27015116

  20. Distinct Signal Transduction Pathways Downstream of the (P)RR Revealed by Microarray and ChIP-chip Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zaade, Daniela; Schmitz, Jennifer; Benke, Eileen; Klare, Sabrina; Seidel, Kerstin; Kirsch, Sebastian; Goldin-Lang, Petra; Zollmann, Frank S.; Unger, Thomas; Funke-Kaiser, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) signaling is involved in different pathophysiologies ranging from cardiorenal end-organ damage via diabetic retinopathy to tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that the transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is an adaptor protein of the (P)RR. Furthermore, recent publications suggest that major functions of the (P)RR are mediated ligand-independently by its transmembrane and intracellular part, which acts as an accessory protein of V-ATPases. The transcriptome and recruitmentome downstream of the V-ATPase function and PLZF in the context of the (P)RR are currently unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of microarray and chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip experiments using siRNA against the (P)RR, stable overexpression of PLZF, the PLZF translocation inhibitor genistein and the specific V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin to dissect transcriptional pathways downstream of the (P)RR. We were able to identify distinct and overlapping genetic signatures as well as novel real-time PCR-validated target genes of the different molecular functions of the (P)RR. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses of our data confirm the role of (P)RŔs signal transduction pathways in cardiovascular disease and tumorigenesis. PMID:23469216

  1. DNA microarray reveals different pathways responding to paclitaxel and docetaxel in non-small cell lung cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Che, Chun-Li; Zhang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Sang, Yu-Lan; Lu, Ben; Dong, Fu-Shi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Lv, Fu-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The wide use of paclitaxel and docetaxel in NSCLC clinical treatment makes it necessary to find biomarkers for identifying patients who can benefit from paclitaxel or docetaxel. In present study, NCI-H460, a NSCLC cell line with different sensitivity to paclitaxel and docetaxel, was applied to DNA microarray expression profiling analysis at different time points of lower dose treatment with paclitaxel or docetaxel. And the complex signaling pathways regulating the drug response were identified, and several novel sensitivity-realted markers were biocomputated.The dynamic changes of responding genes showed that paclitaxel effect is acute but that of docetaxel is durable at least for 48 hours in NCI-H460 cells. Functional annotation of the genes with altered expression showed that genes/pathways responding to these two drugs were dramatically different. Gene expression changes induced by paclitaxel treatment were mainly enriched in actin cytoskeleton (ACTC1, MYL2 and MYH2), tyrosine-protein kinases (ERRB4, KIT and TIE1) and focal adhesion pathway (MYL2, IGF1 and FLT1), while the expression alterations responding to docetaxel were highly co-related to cell surface receptor linked signal transduction (SHH, DRD5 and ADM2), cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (IL1A and IL6) and cell cycleregulation (CCNB1, CCNE2 and PCNA). Moreover, we also confirmed some different expression patterns with real time PCR. Our study will provide the potential biomarkers for paclitaxel and docetaxel-selection therapy in clinical application. PMID:23923072

  2. Global Proteome Analyses of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation Reveal the Widespread Involvement of both Modification in Metabolism in the Embryo of Germinating Rice Seed.

    PubMed

    He, Dongli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Ming; Damaris, Rebecca Njeri; Yi, Xingling; Cheng, Zhongyi; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-03-01

    Regulation of rice seed germination has been shown to mainly occur at post-transcriptional levels, of which the changes on proteome status is a major one. Lysine acetylation and succinylation are two prevalent protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in multiple biological processes, especially for metabolism regulation. To investigate the potential mechanism controlling metabolism regulation in rice seed germination, we performed the lysine acetylation and succinylation analyses simultaneously. Using high-accuracy nano-LC-MS/MS in combination with the enrichment of lysine acetylated or succinylated peptides from digested embryonic proteins of 24 h after imbibition (HAI) rice seed, a total of 699 acetylated sites from 389 proteins and 665 succinylated sites from 261 proteins were identified. Among these modified lysine sites, 133 sites on 78 proteins were commonly modified by two PTMs. The overlapped PTM sites were more likely to be in polar acidic/basic amino acid regions and exposed on the protein surface. Both of the acetylated and succinylated proteins cover nearly all aspects of cellular functions. Ribosome complex and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related proteins were significantly enriched in both acetylated and succinylated protein profiles through KEGG enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analyses. The acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA metabolism-related enzymes were found to be extensively modified by both modifications, implying the functional interaction between the two PTMs. This study provides a rich resource to examine the modulation of the two PTMs on the metabolism pathway and other biological processes in germinating rice seed. PMID:26767346

  3. Reverse-Phase Microarray Analysis Reveals Novel Targets in Lymph Nodes of Bacillus anthracis Spore-Challenged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Taissia G.; Espina, Virginia; Liotta, Lance A.; Popov, Serguei G.

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is a frequently fatal infection of many animal species and men. The causative agent Bacillus anthracis propagates through the lymphatic system of the infected host; however, the specific interactions of the host and microbe within the lymphatics are incompletely understood. We report the first description of the phosphoprotein signaling in the lymph nodes of DBA/2 mice using a novel technique combining the reverse-phase microarray with the laser capture microdissesction. Mice were challenged into foot pads with spores of toxinogenic, unencapsulated Sterne strain. The spores quickly migrated to the regional popliteal lymph nodes and spread to the bloodstream as early as 3 h post challenge. All mice died before 72 h post challenge from the systemic disease accompanied by a widespread LN tissue damage by bacteria, including the hemorrhagic necrotizing lymphadenitis, infiltration of CD11b+ and CD3+ cells, and massive proliferation of bacteria in lymph nodes. A macrophage scavenger receptor CD68/macrosialin was upregulated and found in association with vegetative bacteria likely as a marker of their prior interaction with macrophages. The major signaling findings among the 65 tested proteins included the reduced MAPK signaling, upregulation of STAT transcriptional factors, and altered abundance of a number of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins with signaling properties opposing each other. Downregulation of ERK1/2 was associated with the response of CD11b+ macrophages/dendritic cells, while upregulation of the pro-apoptotic Puma indicated a targeting of CD3+ T-cells. A robust upregulation of the anti-apoptotic survivin was unexpected because generally it is not observed in adult tissues. Taken together with the activation of STATs it may reflect a new pathogenic mechanism aimed to delay the onset of apoptosis. Our data emphasize a notion that the net biological outcome of disease is determined by a cumulative impact of factors representing the microbial insult and

  4. Microarray analysis of gene expression in vestibular schwannomas reveals SPP1/MET signaling pathway and androgen receptor deregulation

    PubMed Central

    TORRES-MARTIN, MIGUEL; LASSALETTA, LUIS; SAN-ROMAN-MONTERO, JESUS; DE CAMPOS, JOSE M.; ISLA, ALBERTO; GAVILAN, JAVIER; MELENDEZ, BARBARA; PINTO, GIOVANNY R.; BURBANO, ROMMEL R.; CASTRESANA, JAVIER S.; REY, JUAN A.

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are benign neoplasms that arise from the vestibular nerve. The hallmark of these tumors is the biallelic inactivation of neurofibromin 2 (NF2). Transcriptomic alterations, such as the neuregulin 1 (NRG1)/ErbB2 pathway, have been described in schwannomas. In this study, we performed a whole transcriptome analysis in 31 vestibular schwannomas and 9 control nerves in the Affymetrix Gene 1.0 ST platform, validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using TaqMan Low Density arrays. We performed a mutational analysis of NF2 by PCR/denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), as well as a microsatellite marker analysis of the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 22q. The microarray analysis demonstrated that 1,516 genes were deregulated and 48 of the genes were validated by qRT-PCR. At least 2 genetic hits (allelic loss and/or gene mutation) in NF2 were found in 16 tumors, seven cases showed 1 hit and 8 tumors showed no NF2 alteration. MET and associated genes, such as integrin, alpha 4 (ITGA4)/B6, PLEXNB3/SEMA5 and caveolin-1 (CAV1) showed a clear deregulation in vestibular schwannomas. In addition, androgen receptor (AR) downregulation may denote a hormonal effect or cause in this tumor. Furthermore, the osteopontin gene (SPP1), which is involved in merlin protein degradation, was upregulated, which suggests that this mechanism may also exert a pivotal role in schwannoma merlin depletion. Finally, no major differences were observed among tumors of different size, histological type or NF2 status, which suggests that, at the mRNA level, all schwannomas, regardless of their molecular and clinical characteristics, may share common features that can be used in their treatment. PMID:23354516

  5. Microarray Analysis of Tomato’s Early and Late Wound Response Reveals New Regulatory Targets for Leucine Aminopeptidase A

    PubMed Central

    Scranton, Melissa A.; Fowler, Jonathan H.; Girke, Thomas; Walling, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Wounding due to mechanical injury or insect feeding causes a wide array of damage to plant cells including cell disruption, desiccation, metabolite oxidation, and disruption of primary metabolism. In response, plants regulate a variety of genes and metabolic pathways to cope with injury. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model for wound signaling but few studies have examined the comprehensive gene expression profiles in response to injury. A cross-species microarray approach using the TIGR potato 10-K cDNA array was analyzed for large-scale temporal (early and late) and spatial (locally and systemically) responses to mechanical wounding in tomato leaves. These analyses demonstrated that tomato regulates many primary and secondary metabolic pathways and this regulation is dependent on both timing and location. To determine if LAP-A, a known modulator of wound signaling, influences gene expression beyond the core of late wound-response genes, changes in RNAs from healthy and wounded Leucine aminopeptidase A-silenced (LapA-SI) and wild-type (WT) leaves were examined. While most of the changes in gene expression after wounding in LapA-SI leaves were similar to WT, overall responses were delayed in the LapA-SI leaves. Moreover, two pathogenesis-related 1 (PR-1c and PR-1a2) and two dehydrin (TAS14 and Dhn3) genes were negatively regulated by LAP-A. Collectively, this study has shown that tomato wound responses are complex and that LAP-A’s role in modulation of wound responses extends beyond the well described late-wound gene core. PMID:24205013

  6. Microarray analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected monocytes reveals IL26 as a new candidate gene for tuberculosis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Laso, José M; Raposo-García, Sara; García-García, Silvia; Diez-Tascón, Cristina; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the activity of monocytes/macrophages, important target cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, might influence tuberculosis progression. With the purpose of identifying candidate genes for tuberculosis susceptibility we infected monocytes from both healthy elderly individuals (a tuberculosis susceptibility group) and elderly tuberculosis patients with M. tuberculosis, and performed a microarray experiment. We detected 78 differentially expressed transcripts and confirmed these results by quantitative PCR of selected genes. We found that monocytes from tuberculosis patients showed similar expression patterns for these genes, regardless of whether they were obtained from younger or older patients. Only one of the detected genes corresponded to a cytokine: IL26, a member of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine family which we found to be down-regulated in infected monocytes from tuberculosis patients. Non-infected monocytes secreted IL-26 constitutively but they reacted strongly to M. tuberculosis infection by decreasing IL-26 production. Furthermore, IL-26 serum concentrations appeared to be lower in the tuberculosis patients. When whole blood was infected, IL-26 inhibited the observed pathogen-killing capability. Although lymphocytes expressed IL26R, the receptor mRNA was not detected in either monocytes or neutrophils, suggesting that the inhibition of anti-mycobacterial activity may be mediated by lymphocytes. Additionally, IL-2 concentrations in infected blood were lower in the presence of IL-26. The negative influence of IL-26 on the anti-mycobacterial activity and its constitutive presence in both serum and monocyte supernatants prompt us to propose IL26 as a candidate gene for tuberculosis susceptibility. PMID:25157980

  7. NUCLEOPHOSMIN/B23 NEGATIVELY REGULATES GCN5-DEPENDENT HISTONE ACETYLATION AND TRANSACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yonglong; Wu, Jun; Giannone, Richard J; Boucher, Lorrie; Du, Hansen; Huang, Ying; Johnson, Dabney K; Liu, Yie; Wang, Yisong

    2007-01-01

    Nucleophosmin/B23 is a multifunctional phosphoprotein that is overexpressed in cancer cells and has been shown to be involved in both positive and negative regulation of transcription. In this study, we first identified GCN5 acetyltransferase as a B23-interacting protein by mass spectrometry, which was then confirmed by in vivo co-immunoprecipitation. In vitro assay demonstrated that B23 bound the PCAF-N domain of GCN5 and inhibited GCN5-mediated acetylation of both free and mononucleosomal histones, probably through interfering with GCN5 and masking histones from being acetylated. Mitotic B23 exhibited higher inhibitory activity on GCN5-mediated histone acetylation than interphase B23. Immunodepletion experiments of mitotic extracts revealed that phosphorylation of B23 at Thr199 enhanced the inhibition of GCN5-mediated histone acetylation. Moreover, luciferase reporter and microarray analyses suggested that B23 attenuated GCN5-mediated transactivation in vivo. Taken together, our studies suggest a molecular mechanism of B23 in the mitotic inhibition of GCN5-mediated histone acetylation and transactivation.

  8. N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) from oxygenic phototrophs: P(II) signal transduction across domains of life reveals novel insights in NAGK control.

    PubMed

    Beez, Sabine; Fokina, Oleksandra; Herrmann, Christina; Forchhammer, Karl

    2009-06-19

    N-Acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the first committed step in arginine biosynthesis in organisms that perform the cyclic pathway of ornithine synthesis. In eukaryotic and bacterial oxygenic phototrophs, the activity of NAGK is controlled by the P(II) signal transduction protein. Recent X-ray analysis of NAGK-P(II) complexes from a higher plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a cyanobacterium (Synechococcus elongatus) revealed that despite several differences, the overall structure of the complex is highly similar. The present study analyzes the functional conservation of P(II)-mediated NAGK regulation in plants and cyanobacteria to distinguish between universal properties and those that are specific for the different phylogenetic lineages. This study shows that plant and cyanobacterial P(II) proteins can mutually regulate the NAGK enzymes across the domains of life, implying a high selective pressure to conserve P(II)-NAGK interaction over more than 1.2 billion years of separate evolution. The non-conserved C-terminus of S. elongatus NAGK was identified as an element, which strongly enhances arginine inhibition and is responsible for most of the differences between S. elongatus and A. thaliana NAGK with respect to arginine sensitivity. Both P(II) proteins relieve arginine inhibition of NAGK, and in both lineages, P(II)-mediated relief from arginine inhibition is antagonized by 2-oxoglutarate. Together, these properties highlight the conserved role of P(II) as a signal integrator of the C/N balance sensed as 2-oxoglutarate to regulate arginine synthesis in oxygenic phototrophs. PMID:19409905

  9. Microarray analysis of gene expression in eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reveals a novel combination of antimicrobial and oxidative stress host responses after dermo (Perkinsus marinus) challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Bushek, David; Ford, Susan E; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Quilang, Jonas; Li, Ping; Wallace, Richard; Wang, Yongping; Guo, Ximing; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-12-01

    Dermo disease, caused by Perkinsus marinus, is one of the most severe diseases of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. It causes serious mortalities in both wild and aquacultured oysters. Using existing expressed sequence tag (EST) resources, we developed a 12K in situ oligonucleotide microarray and used it for the analysis of gene expression profiles of oysters during the interactions between P. marinus and its oyster host. Significant gene expression regulation was found at day 30 post-challenge in the eastern oyster. Putative identities of the differentially expressed genes revealed a set of genes involved in several processes including putative antimicrobial defenses, pathogen recognition and uptake, anti-oxidation and apoptosis. Consistent with results obtained from previous, smaller-scale experiments, expression profiles revealed a large set of genes likely involved in an active mitigating response to oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by P. marinus. Additionally, a unique galectin from C. virginica, CvGal, which serves as a preferential receptor for P. marinus trophozoites, was found to be significantly down-regulated in gill tissue of oysters with both light and heavy infection, suggesting an attempt to control parasite uptake and proliferation in the later stages of infection. Potential histone-derived antimicrobial responses to P. marinus were also revealed in the gene expression profiles. PMID:20708691

  10. Microarray gene expression analysis reveals major differences between Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati neurotoxocarosis and involvement of T. canis in lipid biosynthetic processes.

    PubMed

    Janecek, Elisabeth; Wilk, Esther; Schughart, Klaus; Geffers, Robert; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are globally occurring intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats with a high zoonotic potential. Migrating larvae in the CNS of paratenic hosts, including humans, may cause neurotoxocarosis resulting in a variety of neurological symptoms. Toxocara canis exhibits a stronger affinity to the CNS than T. cati, causing more severe neurological symptoms in the mouse model. Pathomechanisms of neurotoxocarosis as well as host responses towards the respective parasite are mostly unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the pathogenesis at a transcriptional level using whole genome microarray expression analysis and identify differences and similarities between T. canis- and T. cati-infected brains. Microarray analysis was conducted in cerebra and cerebella of infected C57Bl/6J mice 42daysp.i. revealing more differentially transcribed genes for T. canis- than T. cati-infected brains. In cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice, a total of 2304 and 1954 differentially transcribed genes, respectively, were identified whereas 113 and 760 differentially transcribed genes were determined in cerebra and cerebella of T. cati-infected mice. Functional annotation analysis revealed major differences in host responses in terms of significantly enriched biological modules. Up-regulated genes were mainly associated with the terms "immune and defence response", "sensory perception" as well as "behaviour/taxis" retrieved from the Gene Ontology database. These observations indicate a strong immune response in both infection groups with T. cati-infected brains revealing less severe reactions. Down-regulated genes in T. canis-infected cerebra and cerebella revealed a significant enrichment for the Gene Ontology term "lipid/cholesterol biosynthetic process". Cholesterol is a highly abundant and important component in the brain, representing several functions. Disturbances of synthesis as well as concentration changes may lead to

  11. The microarray gene profiling analysis of glioblastoma cancer cells reveals genes affected by FAK inhibitor Y15 and combination of Y15 and temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Grace; Ho, Baotran; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Qiang, Hu; Golubovskaya, Vita

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion is known to be highly expressed and activated in glioma cells. Recently, we demonstrated that FAK autophosphorylation inhibitor, Y15 significantly decreased tumor growth of DBTRG and U87 cells, especially in combination with temozolomide. In the present report, we performed gene expression analysis in these cells to reveal genes affected by Y15, temozolomide and combination of Y15 and temozolomide. We tested the effect of Y15 on gene expression by Illumina Human HT12v4 microarray assay and detected 8087 and 6555 genes, which were significantly either up- or down-regulated by Y15-treatment in DBTRG and U87 cells, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, DBTRG and U87 cells treated with Y15 changed expression of 1332 and 462 genes more than 1.5 fold, p<0.05, respectively and had 237 common genes affected by Y15. The common genes up-regulated by Y15 included GADD45A, HSPA6 (heat-shock 70); DUSP1, DUSP 5 (dual-phosphatase 5); CDKN1A (p21) and common down-regulated genes included kinesins, such as KIF11, 14, 20A, 20B; topoisomerase II, TOP2A; cyclin F; cell cycle protein: BUB1; PARP1, POLA1. In addition, we detected genes affected by temozolomide and by combination of Y15 and temozolomide treatment in U87 cells. Among genes up-regulated by Y15 and temozolomide more significantly than by each agent alone were: COX7B; interferon, gamma-inducible transcript: IFI16; DDIT4; GADD45G and down-regulated: KIF3A, AKT1; ABL; JAK1, GLI3 and ALDH1A3. Thus, microarray gene expression analysis can be effective in establishing genes affected in response to FAK inhibitor alone and in response to combination of Y15 with temozolomide that is important for glioblastoma therapy. PMID:23387973

  12. Mining and visualization of microarray and metabolomic data reveal extensive cell wall remodeling during winter hardening in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    PubMed

    Grene, Ruth; Klumas, Curtis; Suren, Haktan; Yang, Kuan; Collakova, Eva; Myers, Elijah; Heath, Lenwood S; Holliday, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    Microarray gene expression profiling is a powerful technique to understand complex developmental processes, but making biologically meaningful inferences from such studies has always been challenging. We previously reported a microarray study of the freezing acclimation period in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) in which a large number of candidate genes for climatic adaptation were identified. In the current paper, we apply additional systems biology tools to these data to further probe changes in the levels of genes and metabolites and activities of associated pathways that regulate this complex developmental transition. One aspect of this adaptive process that is not well understood is the role of the cell wall. Our data suggest coordinated metabolic and signaling responses leading to cell wall remodeling. Co-expression of genes encoding proteins associated with biosynthesis of structural and non-structural cell wall carbohydrates was observed, which may be regulated by ethylene signaling components. At the same time, numerous genes, whose products are putatively localized to the endomembrane system and involved in both the synthesis and trafficking of cell wall carbohydrates, were up-regulated. Taken together, these results suggest a link between ethylene signaling and biosynthesis, and targeting of cell wall related gene products during the period of winter hardening. Automated Layout Pipeline for Inferred NEtworks (ALPINE), an in-house plugin for the Cytoscape visualization environment that utilizes the existing GeneMANIA and Mosaic plugins, together with the use of visualization tools, provided images of proposed signaling processes that became active over the time course of winter hardening, particularly at later time points in the process. The resulting visualizations have the potential to reveal novel, hypothesis-generating, gene association patterns in the context of targeted subcellular location. PMID:23112803

  13. Treating Colon Cancer Cells with FK228 Reveals a Link between Histone Lysine Acetylation and Extensive Changes in the Cellular Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian-yun; Jia, Yan-long; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Qiu-li; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Jun-he; Zhao, Chun-peng; Wang, Xiao-yin; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic value of FK228 as a cancer treatment option is well known, and various types of cancer have been shown to respond to this drug. However, the complete mechanism of FK228 and the affect it has on histone lysine acetylation and the colon cancer cell proteome are largely unknown. In the present study, we used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and affinity enrichment followed by high-resolution liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS)/MS analysis to quantitate the changes in the lysine acetylome in HCT-8 cells after FK228 treatment. A total of 1,194 lysine acetylation sites in 751 proteins were quantified, with 115 of the sites in 85 proteins being significantly upregulated and 38 of the sites in 32 proteins being significantly downregulated in response to FK228 treatment. Interestingly, 47 histone lysine acetylation sites were identified in the core histone proteins. We also found a novel lysine acetylation site on H2BK121. These significantly altered proteins are involved in multiple biological functions as well as a myriad of metabolic and enzyme-regulated pathways. Taken together, the link between FK228 function and the downstream changes in the HCT-8 cell proteome observed in response to FK228 treatment is established. PMID:26675280

  14. Structural Investigation of a Novel N-Acetyl Glucosamine Binding Chi-Lectin Which Reveals Evolutionary Relationship with Class III Chitinases

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Dipak N.; Datta, Manali; Dev, Aditya; Dhindwal, Sonali; Singh, Nirpendra; Dasauni, Pushpanjali; Kundu, Suman; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2013-01-01

    The glycosyl hydrolase 18 (GH18) family consists of active chitinases as well as chitinase like lectins/proteins (CLPs). The CLPs share significant sequence and structural similarities with active chitinases, however, do not display chitinase activity. Some of these proteins are reported to have specific functions and carbohydrate binding property. In the present study, we report a novel chitinase like lectin (TCLL) from Tamarindus indica. The crystal structures of native TCLL and its complex with N-acetyl glucosamine were determined. Similar to the other CLPs of the GH18 members, TCLL lacks chitinase activity due to mutations of key active site residues. Comparison of TCLL with chitinases and other chitin binding CLPs shows that TCLL has substitution of some chitin binding site residues and more open binding cleft due to major differences in the loop region. Interestingly, the biochemical studies suggest that TCLL is an N-acetyl glucosamine specific chi-lectin, which is further confirmed by the complex structure of TCLL with N-acetyl glucosamine complex. TCLL has two distinct N-acetyl glucosamine binding sites S1 and S2 that contain similar polar residues, although interaction pattern with N-acetyl glucosamine varies extensively among them. Moreover, TCLL structure depicts that how plants utilize existing structural scaffolds ingenuously to attain new functions. To date, this is the first structural investigation of a chi-lectin from plants that explore novel carbohydrate binding sites other than chitin binding groove observed in GH18 family members. Consequently, TCLL structure confers evidence for evolutionary link of lectins with chitinases. PMID:23717482

  15. Protein Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard-Blum, S.

    Proteins are key actors in the life of the cell, involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Since variations in the expression of messenger RNA are not systematically correlated with variations in the protein levels, the latter better reflect the way a cell functions. Protein microarrays thus supply complementary information to DNA chips. They are used in particular to analyse protein expression profiles, to detect proteins within complex biological media, and to study protein-protein interactions, which give information about the functions of those proteins [3-9]. They have the same advantages as DNA microarrays for high-throughput analysis, miniaturisation, and the possibility of automation. Section 18.1 gives a brief overview of proteins. Following this, Sect. 18.2 describes how protein microarrays can be made on flat supports, explaining how proteins can be produced and immobilised on a solid support, and discussing the different kinds of substrate and detection method. Section 18.3 discusses the particular format of protein microarrays in suspension. The diversity of protein microarrays and their applications are then reported in Sect. 18.4, with applications to therapeutics (protein-drug interactions) and diagnostics. The prospects for future developments of protein microarrays are then outlined in the conclusion. The bibliography provides an extensive list of reviews and detailed references for those readers who wish to go further in this area. Indeed, the aim of the present chapter is not to give an exhaustive or detailed analysis of the state of the art, but rather to provide the reader with the basic elements needed to understand how proteins are designed and used.

  16. Differential fruit gene expression in two strawberry cultivars in response to elevated CO2 during storage revealed by a heterologous fruit microarray approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of a heterologous fruit microarray system to identify differentially expressed genes between strawberry cultivars with different responses to 20kPa CO2 (balance air) during storage has been evaluated. Specifically, a tomato cDNA microarray was hybridized with strawberry cDNA populations to c...

  17. Proteomic analysis of acetylation in thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dooil; Lee, Yong-Jik; Kim, Jung-Ae; Choi, Ji Young; Kang, Sunghyun; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2013-08-01

    Recent analysis of prokaryotic N(ε)-lysine-acetylated proteins highlights the posttranslational regulation of a broad spectrum of cellular proteins. However, the exact role of acetylation remains unclear due to a lack of acetylated proteome data in prokaryotes. Here, we present the N(ε)-lysine-acetylated proteome of gram-positive thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus. Affinity enrichment using acetyl-lysine-specific antibodies followed by LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 253 acetylated peptides representing 114 proteins. These acetylated proteins include not only common orthologs from mesophilic Bacillus counterparts, but also unique G. kaustophilus proteins, indicating that lysine acetylation is pronounced in thermophilic bacteria. These data complement current knowledge of the bacterial acetylproteome and provide an expanded platform for better understanding of the function of acetylation in cellular metabolism. PMID:23696451

  18. Combinatorial readout of unmodified H3R2 and acetylated H3K14 by the tandem PHD finger of MOZ reveals a regulatory mechanism for HOXA9 transcription.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Chen; Han, Chuanchun; Li, Fudong; Zhang, Jiahai; Wang, Yan; Li, Guohong; Mei, Yide; Wu, Mian; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2012-06-15

    Histone acetylation is a hallmark for gene transcription. As a histone acetyltransferase, MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein) is important for HOX gene expression as well as embryo and postnatal development. In vivo, MOZ forms a tetrameric complex with other subunits, including several chromatin-binding modules with regulatory functions. Here we report the solution structure of the tandem PHD (plant homeodomain) finger (PHD12) of human MOZ in a free state and the 1.47 Å crystal structure in complex with H3K14ac peptide, which reveals the structural basis for the recognition of unmodified R2 and acetylated K14 on histone H3. Moreover, the results of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RT-PCR assays indicate that PHD12 facilitates the localization of MOZ onto the promoter locus of the HOXA9 gene, thereby promoting the H3 acetylation around the promoter region and further up-regulating the HOXA9 mRNA level. Taken together, our findings suggest that the combinatorial readout of the H3R2/K14ac by PHD12 might represent an important epigenetic regulatory mechanism that governs transcription and also provide a clue of cross-talk between the MOZ complex and histone H3 modifications. PMID:22713874

  19. Microarray Analysis Reveals Higher Gestational Folic Acid Alters Expression of Genes in the Cerebellum of Mice Offspring—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Brown, W. Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development. PMID:25629700

  20. Case of 7p22.1 Microduplication Detected by Whole Genome Microarray (REVEAL) in Workup of Child Diagnosed with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Goitia, Veronica; Oquendo, Marcial; Stratton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. More than 60 cases of 7p22 duplications and deletions have been reported with over 16 of them occurring without concomitant chromosomal abnormalities. Patient and Methods. We report a 29-month-old male diagnosed with autism. Whole genome chromosome SNP microarray (REVEAL) demonstrated a 1.3 Mb interstitial duplication of 7p22.1 ->p22.1 arr 7p22.1 (5,436,367–6,762,394), the second smallest interstitial 7p duplication reported to date. This interval included 14 OMIM annotated genes (FBXL18, ACTB, FSCN1, RNF216, OCM, EIF2AK1, AIMP2, PMS2, CYTH3, RAC1, DAGLB, KDELR2, GRID2IP, and ZNF12). Results. Our patient presented features similar to previously reported cases with 7p22 duplication, including brachycephaly, prominent ears, cryptorchidism, speech delay, poor eye contact, and outburst of aggressive behavior with autism-like features. Among the genes located in the duplicated segment, ACTB gene has been proposed as a candidate gene for the alteration of craniofacial development. Overexpression of RNF216L has been linked to autism. FSCN1 may play a role in neurodevelopmental disease. Conclusion. Characterization of a possible 7p22.1 Duplication Syndrome has yet to be made. Recognition of the clinical spectrum in patients with a smaller duplication of 7p should prove valuable for determining the minimal critical region, helping delineate a better prediction of outcome and genetic counseling PMID:25893121

  1. DNA Microarray and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis Reveals That a Mutation in opsX Affects Virulence and Chemotaxis in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Il; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the effect of a mutation in opsX (XOO1056), which encodes a saccharide biosynthesis regulatory protein, on the virulence and bacterial chemotaxis of Xoo. We performed DNA microarray analysis, which showed that 63 of 2,678 genes, including genes related to bacterial motility (flagellar and chemotaxis proteins) were significantly downregulated (<−2 log2 fold changes) by the mutation in opsX. Indeed, motility assays showed that the mutant strain was nonmotile on semisolid agar swarm plates. In addition, a mutant strain (opsX::Tn5) showed decreased virulence against the susceptible rice cultivar, IR24. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR reaction was performed to confirm the expression levels of these genes, including those related to flagella and chemotaxis, in the opsX mutant. Our findings revealed that mutation of opsX affects both virulence and bacterial motility. These results will help to improve our understanding of Xoo and provide insight into Xoo-rice interactions. PMID:27298594

  2. Profiling of circadian genes expressed in the uterus endometrial stromal cells of pregnant rats as revealed by DNA microarray coupled with RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Hirotaka; Zhao, Lijia; Isayama, Keishiro; Chen, Huatao; Nobuhiko Yamauchi; Yasufumi Shigeyoshi; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Hattori, Masa-Aki

    2013-01-01

    The peripheral circadian oscillator plays an essential role in synchronizing local physiology to operate in a circadian manner via regulation of the expression of clock-controlled genes. The present study aimed to evaluate the circadian rhythms of clock genes and clock-controlled genes expressed in the rat uterus endometrial stromal cells (UESCs) during the stage of implantation by a DNA microarray. Of 12,252 genes showing significantly expression, 7,235 genes displayed significant alterations. As revealed by the biological pathway analysis using the database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery online annotation software, genes were involved in cell cycle, glutathione metabolism, MAPK signaling pathway, fatty acid metabolism, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, focal adhesion, and PPAR signaling pathway. The clustering of clock genes were mainly divided into four groups: the first group was Rorα, Timeless, Npas2, Bmal1, Id2, and Cry2; the second group Per1, Per2, Per3, Dec1, Tef, and Dbp; the third group Bmal2, Cry1, E4bp4, Rorβ, and Clock; the fourth group Rev-erbα. Eleven implantation-related genes and 24 placenta formation-related genes displayed significant alterations, suggesting that these genes involved in implantation and placenta formation are controlled under circadian clock. Some candidates as clock-controlled genes were evaluated by using RNA interference to Bmal1 mRNA. Down-regulation of Igf1 gene expression was observed by Bmal1 silencing, whereas the expression of Inhβa was significantly increased. During active oscillation of circadian clock, the apoptosis-related genes Fas and Caspase3 remained no significant changes, but they were significantly increased by knockdown of Bmal1 mRNA. These results indicate that clock-controlled genes are up- or down-regulated in rat UESCs during the stage of decidualization. DNA microarray analysis coupled with RNA interference will be helpful to understand the physiological roles of some

  3. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  4. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea Resistance of Arabidopsis Plants Grown in Compost May Be Explained by Increased Expression of Defense-Related Genes, as Revealed by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses. PMID:23405252

  5. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses. PMID:23405252

  6. A MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION IN THE EMBRYONIC FORELIMB OF THE C57BL/6J MOUSE REVEALS SIGNIFICANT ALTERATIONS METABOLIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATION FOLLOWING ETHANOL EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The observation of transcriptional changes following embryonic ethanol exposure may provide significant insights into the biological response to ethanol exposure. In this study, we used microarray analysis to examine the transcriptional response of the developing limb to a dose ...

  7. Crystal structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase bound to acetyl-coenzyme A reveals a novel active site architecture.

    PubMed

    Sulzenbacher, G; Gal, L; Peneff, C; Fassy, F; Bourne, Y

    2001-04-13

    The bifunctional bacterial enzyme N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU) catalyzes the two-step formation of UDP-GlcNAc, a fundamental precursor in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. With the emergence of new resistance mechanisms against beta-lactam and glycopeptide antibiotics, the biosynthetic pathway of UDP-GlcNAc represents an attractive target for drug design of new antibacterial agents. The crystal structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae GlmU in unbound form, in complex with acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) and in complex with both AcCoA and the end product UDP-GlcNAc, have been determined and refined to 2.3, 2.5, and 1.75 A, respectively. The S. pneumoniae GlmU molecule is organized in two separate domains connected via a long alpha-helical linker and associates as a trimer, with the 50-A-long left-handed beta-helix (LbetaH) C-terminal domains packed against each other in a parallel fashion and the C-terminal region extended far away from the LbetaH core and exchanged with the beta-helix from a neighboring subunit in the trimer. AcCoA binding induces the formation of a long and narrow tunnel, enclosed between two adjacent LbetaH domains and the interchanged C-terminal region of the third subunit, giving rise to an original active site architecture at the junction of three subunits. PMID:11118459

  8. Small RNA sequencing-microarray analyses in Parkinson leukocytes reveal deep brain stimulation-induced splicing changes that classify brain region transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, Lilach; Salomonis, Nathan; Bronstein, Michal; Greenberg, David S.; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai; Soreq, Hermona

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key post transcriptional regulators of their multiple target genes. However, the detailed profile of miRNA expression in Parkinson's disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide and the first motor disorder has not been charted yet. Here, we report comprehensive miRNA profiling by next-generation small-RNA sequencing, combined with targets inspection by splice-junction and exon arrays interrogating leukocyte RNA in Parkinson's disease patients before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment and of matched healthy control volunteers (HC). RNA-Seq analysis identified 254 miRNAs and 79 passenger strand forms as expressed in blood leukocytes, 16 of which were modified in patients pre-treatment as compared to HC. 11 miRNAs were modified following brain stimulation 5 of which were changed inversely to the disease induced changes. Stimulation cessation further induced changes in 11 miRNAs. Transcript isoform abundance analysis yielded 332 changed isoforms in patients compared to HC, which classified brain transcriptomes of 47 PD and control independent microarrays. Functional enrichment analysis highlighted mitochondrion organization. DBS induced 155 splice changes, enriched in ubiquitin homeostasis. Cellular composition analysis revealed immune cell activity pre and post treatment. Overall, 217 disease and 74 treatment alternative isoforms were predictably targeted by modified miRNAs within both 3′ and 5′ untranslated ends and coding sequence sites. The stimulation-induced network sustained 4 miRNAs and 7 transcripts of the disease network. We believe that the presented dynamic networks provide a novel avenue for identifying disease and treatment-related therapeutic targets. Furthermore, the identification of these networks is a major step forward in the road for understanding the molecular basis for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases and assessment of the impact of brain stimulation on human diseases

  9. Association analyses of large-scale glycan microarray data reveal novel host-specific substructures in influenza A virus binding glycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan; Martin, Brigitte E.; Yang, Chun-Kai; Luo, Feng; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-10-01

    Influenza A viruses can infect a wide variety of animal species and, occasionally, humans. Infection occurs through the binding formed by viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and certain types of glycan receptors on host cell membranes. Studies have shown that the α2,3-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,3Gal) in avian, equine, and canine species; the α2,6-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,6Gal) in humans; and SA2,3Gal and SA2,6Gal in swine are responsible for the corresponding host tropisms. However, more detailed and refined substructures that determine host tropisms are still not clear. Thus, in this study, we applied association mining on a set of glycan microarray data for 211 influenza viruses from five host groups: humans, swine, canine, migratory waterfowl, and terrestrial birds. The results suggest that besides Neu5Acα2-6Galβ, human-origin viruses could bind glycans with Neu5Acα2-8Neu5Acα2-8Neu5Ac and Neu5Gcα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc substructures; Galβ and GlcNAcβ terminal substructures, without sialic acid branches, were associated with the binding of human-, swine-, and avian-origin viruses; sulfated Neu5Acα2-3 substructures were associated with the binding of human- and swine-origin viruses. Finally, through three-dimensional structure characterization, we revealed that the role of glycan chain shapes is more important than that of torsion angles or of overall structural similarities in virus host tropisms.

  10. Microarray Analysis Reveals Increased Transcriptional Repression and Reduced Metabolic Activity but Not Major Changes in the Core Apoptotic Machinery during Maturation of Sympathetic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Raba, Mikk; Palgi, Jaan; Lehtivaara, Maria; Arumäe, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Postnatal maturation of the neurons whose main phenotype and basic synaptic contacts are already established includes neuronal growth, refinement of synaptic contacts, final steps of differentiation, programmed cell death period (PCD) etc. In the sympathetic neurons, postnatal maturation includes permanent end of the PCD that occurs with the same time schedule in vivo and in vitro suggesting that the process could be genetically determined. Also many other changes in the neuronal maturation could be permanent and thus based on stable changes in the genome expression. However, postnatal maturation of the neurons is poorly studied. Here we compared the gene expression profiles of immature and mature sympathetic neurons using Affymetrix microarray assay. We found 1310 significantly up-regulated and 1151 significantly down-regulated genes in the mature neurons. Gene ontology analysis reveals up-regulation of genes related to neuronal differentiation, chromatin and epigenetic changes, extracellular factors and their receptors, and cell adhesion, whereas many down-regulated genes were related to metabolic and biosynthetic processes. We show that termination of PCD is not related to major changes in the expression of classical genes for apoptosis or cell survival. Our dataset is deposited to the ArrayExpress database and is a valuable source to select candidate genes in the studies of neuronal maturation. As an example, we studied the changes in the expression of selected genes Igf2bp3, Coro1A, Zfp57, Dcx, and Apaf1 in the young and mature sympathetic ganglia by quantitative PCR and show that these were strongly downregulated in the mature ganglia. PMID:27013977

  11. Association analyses of large-scale glycan microarray data reveal novel host-specific substructures in influenza A virus binding glycans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Martin, Brigitte E; Yang, Chun-Kai; Luo, Feng; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses can infect a wide variety of animal species and, occasionally, humans. Infection occurs through the binding formed by viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and certain types of glycan receptors on host cell membranes. Studies have shown that the α2,3-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,3Gal) in avian, equine, and canine species; the α2,6-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,6Gal) in humans; and SA2,3Gal and SA2,6Gal in swine are responsible for the corresponding host tropisms. However, more detailed and refined substructures that determine host tropisms are still not clear. Thus, in this study, we applied association mining on a set of glycan microarray data for 211 influenza viruses from five host groups: humans, swine, canine, migratory waterfowl, and terrestrial birds. The results suggest that besides Neu5Acα2-6Galβ, human-origin viruses could bind glycans with Neu5Acα2-8Neu5Acα2-8Neu5Ac and Neu5Gcα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc substructures; Galβ and GlcNAcβ terminal substructures, without sialic acid branches, were associated with the binding of human-, swine-, and avian-origin viruses; sulfated Neu5Acα2-3 substructures were associated with the binding of human- and swine-origin viruses. Finally, through three-dimensional structure characterization, we revealed that the role of glycan chain shapes is more important than that of torsion angles or of overall structural similarities in virus host tropisms. PMID:26508590

  12. Association analyses of large-scale glycan microarray data reveal novel host-specific substructures in influenza A virus binding glycans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Martin, Brigitte E.; Yang, Chun-Kai; Luo, Feng; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses can infect a wide variety of animal species and, occasionally, humans. Infection occurs through the binding formed by viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and certain types of glycan receptors on host cell membranes. Studies have shown that the α2,3-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,3Gal) in avian, equine, and canine species; the α2,6-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,6Gal) in humans; and SA2,3Gal and SA2,6Gal in swine are responsible for the corresponding host tropisms. However, more detailed and refined substructures that determine host tropisms are still not clear. Thus, in this study, we applied association mining on a set of glycan microarray data for 211 influenza viruses from five host groups: humans, swine, canine, migratory waterfowl, and terrestrial birds. The results suggest that besides Neu5Acα2–6Galβ, human-origin viruses could bind glycans with Neu5Acα2–8Neu5Acα2–8Neu5Ac and Neu5Gcα2–6Galβ1–4GlcNAc substructures; Galβ and GlcNAcβ terminal substructures, without sialic acid branches, were associated with the binding of human-, swine-, and avian-origin viruses; sulfated Neu5Acα2–3 substructures were associated with the binding of human- and swine-origin viruses. Finally, through three-dimensional structure characterization, we revealed that the role of glycan chain shapes is more important than that of torsion angles or of overall structural similarities in virus host tropisms. PMID:26508590

  13. Non-enzymatic protein acetylation detected by NAPPA protein arrays*

    PubMed Central

    Olia, Adam S.; Barker, Kristi; McCullough, Cheryl E.; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Speicher, David W.; Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation is a post-translational modification that occurs on thousands of proteins located in many cellular organelles. This process mediates many protein functions and modulates diverse biological processes. In mammalian cells, where acetyl-CoA is the primary acetyl donor, acetylation in the mitochondria is thought to occur by chemical means due to the relatively high concentration of acetyl-CoA located in this organelle. In contrast, acetylation outside of the mitochondria is thought to be mediated predominantly by acetyltransferase enzymes. Here we address the possibility that non-enzymatic chemical acetylation outside of the mitochondria may be more common than previously appreciated. We employed the Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array platform to perform an unbiased screen for human proteins that undergo chemical acetylation, which resulted in the identification of a multitude of proteins with diverse functions and cellular localization. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that basic residues typically precede the acetylated lysine in the −7 to −3 position, and we show by mutagenesis that these basic residues contribute to chemical acetylation capacity. We propose that these basic residues lower the pKa of the substrate lysine for efficient chemical acetylation. Many of the identified proteins reside outside of the mitochondria, and have been previously demonstrated to be acetylated in vivo. As such, our studies demonstrate that chemical acetylation occurs more broadly throughout the eukaryotic cell than previously appreciated, and suggests that this post-translational protein modification may have more diverse roles in protein function and pathway regulation. PMID:26083674

  14. Detailed Investigation of the Immunodominant Role of O-Antigen Stoichiometric O-Acetylation as Revealed by Chemical Synthesis, Immunochemistry, Solution Conformation and STD-NMR Spectroscopy for Shigella flexneri 3a.

    PubMed

    Boutet, Julien; Blasco, Pilar; Guerreiro, Catherine; Thouron, Françoise; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Nato, Farida; Cañada, F Javier; Ardá, Ana; Phalipon, Armelle; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Mulard, Laurence A

    2016-07-25

    Shigella flexneri 3a causes bacillary dysentery. Its O-antigen has the {2)-[α-d-Glcp-(1→3)]-α-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-[Ac→2]-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-[Ac→6]≈40 % -β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→} ([(E)ABAc CAc D]) repeating unit, and the non-O-acetylated equivalent defines S. flexneri X. Propyl hepta-, octa-, and decasaccharides sharing the (E')A'BAc CD(E)A sequence, and their non-O-acetylated analogues were synthesized from a fully protected BAc CD(E)A allyl glycoside. The stepwise introduction of orthogonally protected mono- and disaccharide imidate donors was followed by a two-step deprotection process. Monoclonal antibody binding to twenty-six S. flexneri types 3a and X di- to decasaccharides was studied by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and STD-NMR spectroscopy. Epitope mapping revealed that the 2C -acetate dominated the recognition by monoclonal IgG and IgM antibodies and that the BAc CD segment was essential for binding. The glucosyl side chain contributed to a lesser extent, albeit increasingly with the chain length. Moreover, tr-NOESY analysis also showed interaction but did not reveal any meaningful conformational change upon antibody binding. PMID:27376496

  15. Acetyl-L-carnitine increases mitochondrial protein acetylation in the aged rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Janos; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Lee, Kwangwon; Virmani, Ashraf; Koverech, Aleardo; Cavazza, Claudio; Chance, Mark R; Hoppel, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that in vivo treatment of elderly Fisher 344 rats with acetylcarnitine abolished the age-associated defect in respiratory chain complex III in interfibrillar mitochondria and improved the functional recovery of the ischemic/reperfused heart. Herein, we explored mitochondrial protein acetylation as a possible mechanism for acetylcarnitine's effect. In vivo treatment of elderly rats with acetylcarnitine restored cardiac acetylcarnitine content and increased mitochondrial protein lysine acetylation and increased the number of lysine-acetylated proteins in cardiac subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria. Enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial β-oxidation, and ATP synthase of the respiratory chain showed the greatest acetylation. Acetylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, complex V, and aspartate aminotransferase was accompanied by decreased catalytic activity. Several proteins were found to be acetylated only after treatment with acetylcarnitine, suggesting that exogenous acetylcarnitine served as the acetyl-donor. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that acetylcarnitine treatment also induced changes in mitochondrial protein amount; a two-fold or greater increase/decrease in abundance was observed for thirty one proteins. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the first time that in the aged rat heart in vivo administration of acetylcarnitine provides acetyl groups for protein acetylation and affects the amount of mitochondrial proteins. PMID:25660059

  16. DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.

    Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass [3] and silicon [4] supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.

  17. Aptamer Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Angel-Syrett, Heather; Collett, Jim; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2009-01-02

    In vitro selection can yield specific, high-affinity aptamers. We and others have devised methods for the automated selection of aptamers, and have begun to use these reagents for the construction of arrays. Arrayed aptamers have proven to be almost as sensitive as their solution phase counterparts, and when ganged together can provide both specific and general diagnostic signals for proteins and other analytes. We describe here technical details regarding the production and processing of aptamer microarrays, including blocking, washing, drying, and scanning. We will also discuss the challenges involved in developing standardized and reproducible methods for binding and quantitating protein targets. While signals from fluorescent analytes or sandwiches are typically captured, it has proven possible for immobilized aptamers to be uniquely coupled to amplification methods not available to protein reagents, thus allowing for protein-binding signals to be greatly amplified. Into the future, many of the biosensor methods described in this book can potentially be adapted to array formats, thus further expanding the utility of and applications for aptamer arrays.

  18. Structural analysis of a type 1 ribosome inactivating protein reveals multiple L-asparagine-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine monosaccharide modifications: Implications for cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    HOGG, TANIS; MENDEL, JAMESON T.; LAVEZO, JONATHAN L.

    2015-01-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) belongs to the family of type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs): Ribotoxins, which function by depurinating the sarcin-ricin loop of ribosomal RNA. In addition to its antibacterial and antifungal properties, PAP has shown promise in antiviral and targeted tumor therapy owing to its ability to depurinate viral RNA and eukaryotic rRNA. Several PAP genes are differentially expressed across pokeweed tissues, with natively isolated seed forms of PAP exhibiting the greatest cytotoxicity. To help elucidate the molecular basis of increased cytotoxicity of PAP isoenzymes from seeds, the present study used protein sequencing, mass spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography to determine the complete covalent structure and 1.7 Å X-ray crystal structure of PAP-S1aci isolated from seeds of Asian pokeweed (Phytolacca acinosa). PAP-S1aci shares ~95% sequence identity with PAP-S1 from P. americana and contains the signature catalytic residues of the RIP superfamily, corresponding to Tyr72, Tyr122, Glu175 and Arg178 in PAP-S1aci. A rare proline substitution (Pro174) was identified in the active site of PAP-S1aci, which has no effect on catalytic Glu175 positioning or overall active-site topology, yet appears to come at the expense of strained main-chain geometry at the pre-proline residue Val173. Notably, a rare type of N-glycosylation was detected consisting of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine monosaccharide residues linked to Asn10, Asn44 and Asn255 of PAP-S1aci. Of note, our modeling studies suggested that the ribosome depurination activity of seed PAPs would be adversely affected by the N-glycosylation of Asn44 and Asn255 with larger and more typical oligosaccharide chains, as they would shield the rRNA-binding sites on the protein. These results, coupled with evidence gathered from the literature, suggest that this type of minimal N-glycosylation in seed PAPs and other type I seed RIPs may serve to enhance cytotoxicity by exploiting receptor

  19. Impact of acetylation on tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Li, Fu-Long; Cheng, Zhou-Li; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of protein lysine residues is a reversible and dynamic process that is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs and SIRTs). Recent studies have revealed that acetylation modulates not only nuclear proteins but also cytoplasmic or mitochondrial proteins, including many metabolic enzymes. In tumors, cellular metabolism is reprogrammed to provide intermediates for biosynthesis such as nucleotides, fatty acids, and amino acids, and thereby favor the rapid proliferation of cancer cells and tumor development. An increasing number of investigations have indicated that acetylation plays an important role in tumor metabolism. Here, we summarize the substrates that are modified by acetylation, especially oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and enzymes that are implicated in tumor metabolism. PMID:27308346

  20. Microarray and ChIP-seq data analysis revealed changes in p53-mediated transcriptional regulation in Nutlin-3-treated U2OS cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, SONG; NIU, FENG; XU, CHANG-YAN; YE, LONG; BI, GUI-BIN; CHEN, LIN; GONG, PING; TIAN, GANG; NIE, TIAN-HONG

    2015-01-01

    Integrative analysis of chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data and microarray data was performed to illustrate the effect of Nutlin-3 on promoter selectivity and transcriptional regulation by the tumor suppressor p53 in U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. Raw data (accession number, GSE46642) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differential analyses were performed using package limma of R software. Gene ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed for the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery. Integrative analysis of ChIP-seq data and microarray data were confirmed with ChIP-Array. A total of 565 DEGs were identified, including 373 upregulated genes and 192 downregulated genes. Genes involved in the p53 signaling pathway, cell cycle, DNA replication, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and melanoma were markedly over-represented in the DEGs. A total of 39 DEGs were directly regulated by p53 and two were the transcription factors (TFs), E2F2 and HOXA1. E2F2 regulated 25 DEGs, while HOXA1 regulated one DEG. The cell cycle, p53 signaling pathway, melanoma and pathways involved in cancer were enriched in the direct and indirect target genes. Changes in the p53-binding pattern induced by Nutlin-3 were described in the present study, which may advance the understanding of the regulatory network of p53 in osteosarcoma and aid in the development of novel therapies. PMID:26080812

  1. The glossyhead1 Allele of ACC1 Reveals a Principal Role for Multidomain Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in the Biosynthesis of Cuticular Waxes by Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Shiyou; Zhao, Huayan; Parsons, Eugene P.; Xu, Changcheng; Kosma, Dylan K.; Xu, Xiaojing; Chao, Daiyin; Lohrey, Gregory; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth K.; Wang, Guangchao; Bressan, Ray A.; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. PMID:21949210

  2. Microarray Analysis Reveals Characteristic Changes of Host Cell Gene Expression in Response to Attenuated Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Infection of Human HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Susana; López-Fernández, Luis A.; Conde, Raquel; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Harshman, Keith; Esteban, Mariano

    2004-01-01

    The potential use of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) strain as a live recombinant vector to deliver antigens and elicit protective immune responses against infectious diseases demands a comprehensive understanding of the effect of MVA infection on human host gene expression. We used microarrays containing more than 15,000 human cDNAs to identify gene expression changes in human HeLa cell cultures at 2, 6, and 16 h postinfection. Clustering of the 410 differentially regulated genes identified 11 discrete gene clusters with altered expression patterns after MVA infection. Clusters 1 and 2 (accounting for 16.59% [68 of 410] of the genes) contained 68 transcripts showing a robust induction pattern that was maintained during the course of infection. Changes in cellular gene transcription detected by microarrays after MVA infection were confirmed for selected genes by Northern blot analysis and by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Upregulated transcripts in clusters 1 and 2 included 20 genes implicated in immune responses, including interleukin 1A (IL-1A), IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, and IL-15 genes. MVA infection also stimulated the expression of NF-κB and components of the NF-κB signal transduction pathway, including p50 and TRAF-interacting protein. A marked increase in the expression of histone family members was also induced during MVA infection. Expression of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family members WAS, WASF1, and the small GTP-binding protein RAC-1, which are involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization, was enhanced after MVA infection. This study demonstrates that MVA infection triggered the induction of groups of genes, some of which may be involved in host resistance and immune modulation during virus infection. PMID:15140980

  3. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Reveals that Cyclo-oxygenase-2 Gene Therapy Up-regulates Hematopoiesis and Down-regulates Inflammation During Endochondral Bone Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lau, K.-H. William; Popa, Nicoleta L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is an inflammatory mediator that is necessary for the tissue repair, including bone fracture healing. Although the application of Cox-2 gene therapy to a murine closed femoral fracture has accelerated bony union, but the beneficial effect was not observed until the endochondral stage of bone repair that is well after the inflammatory stage normally subsides. Methods To identify the molecular pathways through which Cox-2 regulates fracture healing, we examined gene expression profile in fracture tissues in response to Cox-2 gene therapy during the endochondral bone repair phase. Cox-2 gene therapy was applied to the closed murine femur fracture model. Microarray analysis was performed at 10 days post-fracture to examine global gene expression profile in the fracture tissues during the endochondral bone repair phase. The entire repertoire of significantly expressed genes was examined by gene set enrichment analysis, and the most up-regulated individual genes were evaluated further. Results The genes that normally promote inflammation were under-represented in the microarray analysis, and the expression of several inflammatory chemokines was significantly down-regulated. There was an up-regulation of two key transcription factor genes that regulate hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis. More surprisingly, there was no significant up-regulation in the genes that are normally involved in angiogenesis or bone formation. However, the expression of two tissue remodeling genes was up-regulated. Conclusions The down-regulation of the inflammatory genes in response to Cox-2 gene therapy was unexpected, given the pro-inflammatory role of prostaglandins. Cox-2 gene therapy could promote bony union through hematopoietic precursor proliferation during endochondral bone repair and thereby enhances subsequently fracture callus remodeling that leads to bony union of the fracture gap. PMID:25247155

  4. Microarrays, Integrated Analytical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combinatorial chemistry is used to find materials that form sensor microarrays. This book discusses the fundamentals, and then proceeds to the many applications of microarrays, from measuring gene expression (DNA microarrays) to protein-protein interactions, peptide chemistry, carbodhydrate chemistry, electrochemical detection, and microfluidics.

  5. Two distinct groups of porcine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O45 are revealed by comparative genomic hybridization and virulence gene microarray

    PubMed Central

    Bruant, Guillaume; Zhang, Yongxiang; Garneau, Philippe; Wong, Justin; Laing, Chad; Fairbrother, John M; Gannon, Victor PJ; Harel, Josée

    2009-01-01

    Background Porcine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (PEPEC) strains of serogroup O45 cause post-weaning diarrhea and produce characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Most O45 PEPEC strains possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), encoding the virulence factors required for production of A/E lesions, and often possess the paa gene, which is thought to contribute to the early stages of PEPEC pathogenicity. In this study, nine O45 PEPEC strains and a rabbit enteropathogenic (REPEC) strain, known to produce A/E lesions in vivo, were characterized using an E. coli O157-E. coli K12 whole genome microarray and a virulence gene-specific microarray, and by PCR experiments. Results Based on their virulence gene profiles, the 10 strains were considered to be atypical EPEC. The differences in their genomes pointed to the identification of two distinct evolutionary groups of O45 PEPEC, Groups I and II, and provided evidence for a contribution of these genetic differences to their virulence in pigs. Group I included the REPEC strain and four O45 PEPEC strains known to induce severe A/E lesions in challenged pigs whereas Group II was composed of the five other O45 PEPEC strains, which induced less severe or no A/E lesions in challenged pigs. Significant differences between Groups I and II were found with respect to the presence or absence of 50 O-Islands (OIs) or S-loops and 13 K-islands (KIs) or K-loops, including the virulence-associated islands OI#1 (S-loop#1), OI#47 (S-loop#71), OI#57 (S-loop#85), OI#71 (S-loop#108), OI#115, OI#122, and OI#154 (S-loop#253). Conclusion We have genetically characterized a collection of O45 PEPEC strains and classified them into two distinct groups. The differences in their virulence gene and genomic island content may influence the pathogenicity of O45 PEPEC strains, and explain why Group I O45 PEPEC strains induced more severe A/E lesions in explants and challenged pigs than Group II strains. PMID:19709428

  6. RNA-Seq and Microarrays Analyses Reveal Global Differential Transcriptomes of Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R between Bacteroids and Free-Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jieli; Hao, Baohai; Liu, Liu; Wang, Shanming; Ma, Binguang; Yang, Yi; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R occurs either in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with its host plant, Astragalus sinicus, or free-living in the soil. The M. huakuii 7653R genome has recently been sequenced. To better understand the complex biochemical and developmental changes that occur in 7653R during bacteroid development, RNA-Seq and Microarrays were used to investigate the differential transcriptomes of 7653R bacteroids and free-living cells. The two approaches identified several thousand differentially expressed genes. The most prominent up-regulation occurred in the symbiosis plasmids, meanwhile gene expression is concentrated to a set of genes (clusters) in bacteroids to fulfill corresponding functional requirements. The results suggested that the main energy metabolism is active while fatty acid metabolism is inactive in bacteroid and that most of genes relevant to cell cycle are down-regulated accordingly. For a global analysis, we reconstructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for 7653R and integrated gene expression data into the network using Cytoscape. A highly inter-connected subnetwork, with function enrichment for nitrogen fixation, was found, and a set of hubs and previously uncharacterized genes participating in nitrogen fixation were identified. The results described here provide a broader biological landscape and novel insights that elucidate rhizobial bacteroid differentiation, nitrogen fixation and related novel gene functions. PMID:24695521

  7. Multi-stringency wash of partially hybridized 60-mer probes reveals that the stringency along the probe decreases with distance from the microarray surface

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Lena; Søe, Martin Jensen; Snakenborg, Detlef; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Dufva, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Here, we describe a multi-parametric study of DNA hybridization to probes with 20–70% G + C content. Probes were designed towards 71 different sites/mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Seven probe lengths, three spacer lengths and six stringencies were systematically varied. The three spacer lengths were obtained by placing the gene-specific sequence in discrete steps along the 60-mer probes. The study was performed using Agilent 8 × 15 000 probes custom-made arrays and a home-built array washer providing different stringencies to each of the eight sub-arrays on the slides. Investigation of hybridization signals, specificity and dissociation curves indicated that probes close to the surface were influenced by an additional stringency provided by the microarray surface. Consistent with this, probes close to the surface required 4 × SSC, while probes placed away from the surface required 0.35 × SSC wash buffers in order to give accurate genotyping results. Multiple step dissociation was frequently observed for probes placed furthest away from surface, but not for probes placed proximal to the surface, which is consistent with the hypothesis that there is different stringency along the 60-mer. The results have impact on design of probes for genotyping, gene expression and comparative genome hybridization analysis. PMID:18805905

  8. Microarray analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate and 17α ethinyl-oestradiol responses in three-spined stickleback testes reveals novel candidate genes for endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Prokkola, Jenni M; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Sebire, Marion; Elphinstone-Davis, Jessica; Pausio, Sanna; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Leder, Erica H

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate esters are plasticizers frequently found in wastewater effluents. Previous studies on phthalates have reported anti-androgenic activity in mammals, causing concerns of their potential effects on the reproduction of aquatic organisms. Another group of environmental endocrine disrupters, steroidal estrogens, are known to inhibit steroid biosynthesis in the gonads, but the effects related to spermatogenesis are not well understood in fish. In this study, three-spined sticklebacks were exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and 17α ethinyl-oestradiol (EE2) at nominal concentrations 35μg/L and 40ng/L, respectively, for four days. The aim of the study was to obtain insight into the acute transcriptional responses putatively associated with endocrine disruption. RNA samples from eight individual male fish per treatment (including controls) were used in microarray analysis, covering the expression of approximately 21,000 genes. In the EE2 treatment the results show transcriptional downregulation of genes associated with steroid biosynthesis pathway and up-regulation of genes involved in pathways related to epidermal growth factor signaling and xenobiotic metabolism. The transcriptional response to DBP was in general weaker than to EE2, but based on enrichment analysis, we suggest adverse effects on retinoid metabolism, creatine kinase activity and cell adhesion. Among the genes showing highest fold changes after DBP treatment compared to control was the teleost fish -specific cytochrome P450 17A2. Overall, this study promotes our understanding on molecular responses to anti-androgens and estrogens in fish testes. PMID:26476330

  9. CYR61 is a novel gene associated with temperature-dependent changes in fish metabolism as revealed by cDNA microarray analysis on a medaka Oryzias latipes cell line.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Makoto; Ahsan, Md Nazmul; Mitani, Hiroshi; Watabe, Shugo

    2008-07-01

    A microarray comprising 3,514 cDNAs was constructed from a medaka EST library to elucidate the transcriptional responses associated with temperature shift from 25 to 15 degrees C in a medaka cell line. Microarray analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of 313 clones were significantly different in at least one combination of different incubation periods up to 7 days at a given incubation temperature or between 25 and 15 degrees C at a given incubation period (P < 0.05). These genes are known to be associated with various biological processes including morphogenesis, cell proliferation and response to stress. A number of genes encoding proteins which localize in extracellular areas were apparently up-regulated at 15 degrees C, whereas those localizing in intracellular areas were down-regulated at this temperature. In addition, while a number of genes represented long-term expression changes, only a few responded to short-term inductions. A typical example was CYR61, a multifunctional matricellular signaling modulator, the mRNA levels of which increased after temperature shift from 25 to 15 degrees C in 3 h, and then decreased rapidly to near the original level within 12 h. Another series of analyses by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that the mRNA levels of CYR61 at 5 degrees C were significantly higher even at 24 h after temperature shift compared to those of the cells successively maintained at 25 degrees C. These analyses suggest that remodeling and reorganizing of extracellular structure of cells are important to offset the low temperature effect and CYR61 is considered to be a novel gene associated with temperature response in poikilotherms. PMID:18286541

  10. Microarray Analysis of Rat Pancreas Reveals Altered Expression of Alox15 and Regenerating Islet-Derived Genes in Response to Iron Deficiency and Overload

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Richard; Nam, Hyeyoung; Knutson, Mitchell D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iron overload can result in pancreatic iron deposition, beta-cell destruction, and diabetes in humans. Recent studies in animals have extended the link between iron status and pancreatic function by showing that iron depletion confers protection against beta-cell dysfunction and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify genes in the pancreas that are differentially expressed in response to iron deficiency or overload. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were fed iron-deficient, iron-adequate, or iron-overloaded diets for 3 weeks to alter their iron status. Total RNA was isolated from the pancreases and pooled within each group for microarray analyses in which gene expression levels were compared to those in iron-adequate controls. In iron-deficient pancreas, a total of 66 genes were found to be differentially regulated (10 up, 56 down), whereas in iron-overloaded pancreas, 164 genes were affected (82 up, 82 down). The most up-regulated transcript in iron-deficient pancreas was arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15), which has been implicated in the development of diabetes. In iron-overloaded pancreas, the most upregulated transcripts were Reg1a, Reg3a, and Reg3b belonging to the regenerating islet-derived gene (Reg) family. Reg expression has been observed in response to pancreatic stress and is thought to facilitate pancreatic regeneration. Subsequent qRT-PCR validation indicated that Alox15 mRNA levels were 4 times higher in iron-deficient than in iron-adequate pancreas and that Reg1a, Reg3a, and Reg3b mRNA levels were 17–36 times higher in iron-overloaded pancreas. The elevated Alox15 mRNA levels in iron-deficient pancreas were associated with 8-fold higher levels of Alox15 protein as indicated by Western blotting. Overall, these data raise the possibility that Reg expression may serve as a biomarker for iron-related pancreatic stress, and that iron deficiency may adversely affect the risk of developing

  11. Global analysis of lysine acetylation in strawberry leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Zhao, Yun; Ruan, Songlin; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Jin, Liang; Cao, Lingling; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Huasheng; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification. It plays an important role in regulating diverse cellular processes including chromatin dynamic, metabolic pathways, and transcription in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although studies of lysine acetylome in plants have been reported, the throughput was not high enough, hindering the deep understanding of lysine acetylation in plant physiology and pathology. In this study, taking advantages of anti-acetyllysine-based enrichment and high-sensitive-mass spectrometer, we applied an integrated proteomic approach to comprehensively investigate lysine acetylome in strawberry. In total, we identified 1392 acetylation sites in 684 proteins, representing the largest dataset of acetylome in plants to date. To reveal the functional impacts of lysine acetylation in strawberry, intensive bioinformatic analysis was performed. The results significantly expanded our current understanding of plant acetylome and demonstrated that lysine acetylation is involved in multiple cellular metabolism and cellular processes. More interestingly, nearly 50% of all acetylated proteins identified in this work were localized in chloroplast and the vital role of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis was also revealed. Taken together, this study not only established the most extensive lysine acetylome in plants to date, but also systematically suggests the significant and unique roles of lysine acetylation in plants. PMID:26442052

  12. Microarrays in hematology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Josef; Flower, Darren; Rigley, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Microarrays are fast becoming routine tools for the high-throughput analysis of gene expression in a wide range of biologic systems, including hematology. Although a number of approaches can be taken when implementing microarray-based studies, all are capable of providing important insights into biologic function. Although some technical issues have not been resolved, microarrays will continue to make a significant impact on hematologically important research. PMID:11753074

  13. Impact of protein supplementation and exercise in preventing changes in gene expression profiling in woman muscles after long-term bedrest as revealed by microarray analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopard, Angele; Lecunff, Martine; Danger, Richard; Teusan, Raluca; Jasmin, Bernard J.; Marini, Jean-Francois; Leger, Jean

    Long duration space flights have a dramatic impact on human physiology and under such a condition, skeletal muscles are known to be one of the most affected systems. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to muscle impairment under microgravity, which causes significant loss of muscle mass as well as structural disorders, is necessary for the development of efficient space flight countermeasures. This study was conducted under the aegis of the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the USA (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the French "Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales" (CNES). It gave us the opportunity to investigate for the first time the effects of prolonged disuse (long-term bedrest, LTBR) on the transcriptome of different muscle types in healthy women (control, n=8), as well as the potential beneficial impact of protein supplementation (nutrition, n=8) and a combined resistance and aerobic exercise training program (exercise, n=8). Pre- (LTBR -8) and post- (LTBR +59) biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from each subject. Skeletal muscle gene expression profiles were obtained using a custom made microarray containing 6681 muscle-relevant genes. 555 differentiallyexpressed and statistically-significant genes were identified in control group following 60 days of LTBR, including 348 specific for SOL, 83 specific for VL, and 124 common for the two types of muscle (p<0.05). After LTBR, both muscle types exhibited a consistent decrease in pathways involved in fatty acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation (p<0.05). However, the postural SOL muscle exhibited a higher level of changes with mRNA encoding proteins involved in protein synthesis and activation of protein degradation (mainly ubiquitinproteasome components) (p<0.05). Major changes in muscle function, such as those involved in calcium signaling and muscle structure including

  14. Effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine acetylation in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, I M; Iqbal, T; Saleem, S; Mehboob, H; Akhter, N; Riaz, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on sulfamethazine N-acetylation by human N-acetyltrasferase-2 (NAT2) was studied in 19 (n=19) healthy male volunteers in two different phases. In the first phase of the study the volunteers were given an oral dose of sulfamethazine 500 mg alone and blood and urine samples were collected. After the 10-day washout period the same selected volunteers were again administered sulfamethazine 500 mg along with 1000 mg acetaminophen. The acetylation of sulfamethazine by human NAT2 in both phases with and without acetaminophen was determined by HPLC to establish their respective phenotypes. In conclusion obtained statistics of present study revealed that acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) decreased sulfamethazine acetylation in plasma of both slow and fast acetylator male volunteers. A highly significant (P<0.0001) decrease in plasma-free and total sulfamethazine concentration was also observed when acetaminophen was co-administered. Urine acetylation status in both phases of the study was found not to be in complete concordance with that of plasma. Acetaminophen significantly (P<0.0001) increased the acetyl, free and total sulfamethazine concentration in urine of both slow and fast acetylators. Urine acetylation analysis has not been found to be a suitable approach for phenotypic studies. PMID:26519524

  15. Microarrays: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lee, Norman H; Saeed, Alexander I

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression microarrays are being used widely to address a myriad of complex biological questions. To gather meaningful expression data, it is crucial to have a firm understanding of the steps involved in the application of microarrays. The available microarray platforms are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages. Additional considerations include study design, quality control and systematic assessment of microarray performance, RNA-labeling strategies, sample allocation, signal amplification schemes, defining the number of appropriate biological replicates, data normalization, statistical approaches to identify differentially regulated genes, and clustering algorithms for data visualization. In this chapter, the underlying principles regarding microarrays are reviewed, to serve as a guide when navigating through this powerful technology. PMID:17332646

  16. Protein Acetylation and Acetyl Coenzyme A Metabolism in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Galdieri, Luciano; Zhang, Tiantian; Rogerson, Daniella; Lleshi, Rron

    2014-01-01

    Cells sense and appropriately respond to the physical conditions and availability of nutrients in their environment. This sensing of the environment and consequent cellular responses are orchestrated by a multitude of signaling pathways and typically involve changes in transcription and metabolism. Recent discoveries suggest that the signaling and transcription machineries are regulated by signals which are derived from metabolism and reflect the metabolic state of the cell. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a key metabolite that links metabolism with signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Acetyl-CoA is produced by glycolysis as well as other catabolic pathways and used as a substrate for the citric acid cycle and as a precursor in synthesis of fatty acids and steroids and in other anabolic pathways. This central position in metabolism endows acetyl-CoA with an important regulatory role. Acetyl-CoA serves as a substrate for lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), which catalyze the transfer of acetyl groups to the epsilon-amino groups of lysines in histones and many other proteins. Fluctuations in the concentration of acetyl-CoA, reflecting the metabolic state of the cell, are translated into dynamic protein acetylations that regulate a variety of cell functions, including transcription, replication, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and aging. This review highlights the synthesis and homeostasis of acetyl-CoA and the regulation of transcriptional and signaling machineries in yeast by acetylation. PMID:25326522

  17. SIAH-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of acetyl-transferases regulate the p53 response and protein acetylation.

    PubMed

    Grishina, Inna; Debus, Katherina; García-Limones, Carmen; Schneider, Constanze; Shresta, Amit; García, Carlos; Calzado, Marco A; Schmitz, M Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by lysine acetylation regulates many biological processes ranging from signal transduction to chromatin compaction. Here we identify the acetyl-transferases CBP/p300, Tip60 and PCAF as new substrates for the ubiquitin E3 ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2. While CBP/p300 can undergo ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation by SIAH1 and SIAH2, the two other acetyl-transferases are exclusively degraded by SIAH2. Accordingly, SIAH-deficient cells show enhanced protein acetylation, thus revealing SIAH proteins as indirect regulators of the cellular acetylation status. Functional experiments show that Tip60/PCAF-mediated acetylation of the tumor suppressor p53 is antagonized by the p53 target gene SIAH2 which mediates ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation of both acetyl-transferases and consequently diminishes p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. The p53 kinase HIPK2 mediates hierarchical phosphorylation of SIAH2 at 5 sites, which further boosts its activity as a ubiquitin E3 ligase for several substrates and therefore dampens the late p53 response. PMID:23044042

  18. Microarrays--status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2004-12-01

    Microarrays have become an extremely important research tool for life science researchers and are also beginning to be used in diagnostic, treatment and monitoring applications. This article provides a detailed description of microarrays prepared by in situ synthesis, deposition using microspotting methods, nonplanar bead arrays, flow-through microarrays, optical fiber bundle arrays and nanobarcodes. The problems and challenges in the development of microarrays, development of standards and diagnostic microarrays are described. Tables summarizing the vendor list of various derivatized microarray surfaces, commercially sold premade microarrays, bead arrays and unique microarray products in development are also included. PMID:15542153

  19. Distinct Gene Expression Profiles in Egg and Synergid Cells of Rice as Revealed by Cell Type-Specific Microarrays1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Takayuki; Takanashi, Hideki; Mogi, Mirai; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kikuchi, Shunsuke; Yano, Kentaro; Okamoto, Takashi; Fujita, Masahiro; Kurata, Nori; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Double fertilization in flowering plants refers to a process in which two sperm cells, carried by the pollen tube, fertilize both the egg and the central cell after their release into a synergid cell of the female gametophyte. The molecular processes by which the female gametophytic cells express their unique functions during fertilization are not well understood. Genes expressed in egg and synergid cells might be important for multiple stages of the plant reproductive process. Here, we profiled genome-wide gene expression in egg and synergid cells in rice (Oryza sativa), a model monocot, using a nonenzymatic cell isolation technique. We found that the expression profiles of the egg and synergid cells were already specified at the micropylar end of the female gametophyte during the short developmental period that comprises the three consecutive mitotic nuclear divisions after megaspore generation. In addition, we identified a large number of genes expressed in the rice egg and synergid cells and characterized these genes using Gene Ontology analysis. The analysis suggested that epigenetic and posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms are involved in the specification and/or maintenance of these cells. Comparisons between the rice profiles and reported Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) profiles revealed that genes enriched in the egg/synergid cell of rice were distinct from those in Arabidopsis. PMID:21106719

  20. Microarray Analysis in Glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Bhawe, Kaumudi M; Aghi, Manish K

    2016-01-01

    Microarray analysis in glioblastomas is done using either cell lines or patient samples as starting material. A survey of the current literature points to transcript-based microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based tissue microarrays as being the preferred methods of choice in cancers of neurological origin. Microarray analysis may be carried out for various purposes including the following: i. To correlate gene expression signatures of glioblastoma cell lines or tumors with response to chemotherapy (DeLay et al., Clin Cancer Res 18(10):2930-2942, 2012). ii. To correlate gene expression patterns with biological features like proliferation or invasiveness of the glioblastoma cells (Jiang et al., PLoS One 8(6):e66008, 2013). iii. To discover new tumor classificatory systems based on gene expression signature, and to correlate therapeutic response and prognosis with these signatures (Huse et al., Annu Rev Med 64(1):59-70, 2013; Verhaak et al., Cancer Cell 17(1):98-110, 2010). While investigators can sometimes use archived tumor gene expression data available from repositories such as the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus to answer their questions, new arrays must often be run to adequately answer specific questions. Here, we provide a detailed description of microarray methodologies, how to select the appropriate methodology for a given question, and analytical strategies that can be used. Experimental methodology for protein microarrays is outside the scope of this chapter, but basic sample preparation techniques for transcript-based microarrays are included here. PMID:26113463

  1. Nucleosome Dancing at the Tempo of Histone Tail Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Angélique; Thiriet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The impact of histone acetylation on transcription was revealed over 50 years ago by Allfrey and colleagues. However, it took decades for an understanding of the fine mechanism by which this posttranslational modification affects chromatin structure and promotes transcription. Here, we review breakthroughs linking histone tail acetylation, histone dynamics, and transcription. We also discuss the histone exchange during transcription and highlight the important function of a pool of non-chromatinized histones in chromatin dynamics. PMID:26184324

  2. The world of protein acetylation.

    PubMed

    Drazic, Adrian; Myklebust, Line M; Ree, Rasmus; Arnesen, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Acetylation is one of the major post-translational protein modifications in the cell, with manifold effects on the protein level as well as on the metabolome level. The acetyl group, donated by the metabolite acetyl-coenzyme A, can be co- or post-translationally attached to either the α-amino group of the N-terminus of proteins or to the ε-amino group of lysine residues. These reactions are catalyzed by various N-terminal and lysine acetyltransferases. In case of lysine acetylation, the reaction is enzymatically reversible via tightly regulated and metabolism-dependent mechanisms. The interplay between acetylation and deacetylation is crucial for many important cellular processes. In recent years, our understanding of protein acetylation has increased significantly by global proteomics analyses and in depth functional studies. This review gives a general overview of protein acetylation and the respective acetyltransferases, and focuses on the regulation of metabolic processes and physiological consequences that come along with protein acetylation. PMID:27296530

  3. Microarray Analysis of Rice d1 (RGA1) Mutant Reveals the Potential Role of G-Protein Alpha Subunit in Regulating Multiple Abiotic Stresses Such as Drought, Salinity, Heat, and Cold

    PubMed Central

    Jangam, Annie P.; Pathak, Ravi R.; Raghuram, Nandula

    2016-01-01

    The genome-wide role of heterotrimeric G-proteins in abiotic stress response in rice has not been examined from a functional genomics perspective, despite the availability of mutants and evidences involving individual genes/processes/stresses. Our rice whole transcriptome microarray analysis (GSE 20925 at NCBI GEO) using the G-alpha subunit (RGA1) null mutant (Daikoku 1 or d1) and its corresponding wild type (Oryza sativa Japonica Nipponbare) identified 2270 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of them, we mined for all the potentially abiotic stress-responsive genes using Gene Ontology terms, STIFDB2.0 and Rice DB. The first two approaches produced smaller subsets of the 1886 genes found at Rice DB. The GO approach revealed similar regulation of several families of stress-responsive genes in RGA1 mutant. The Genevestigator analysis of the stress-responsive subset of the RGA1-regulated genes from STIFDB revealed cold and drought-responsive clusters. Meta data analysis at Rice DB revealed large stress-response categories such as cold (878 up/810 down), drought (882 up/837 down), heat (913 up/777 down), and salt stress (889 up/841 down). One thousand four hundred ninety-eight of them are common to all the four abiotic stresses, followed by fewer genes common to smaller groups of stresses. The RGA1-regulated genes that uniquely respond to individual stresses include 111 in heat stress, eight each in cold only and drought only stresses, and two genes in salt stress only. The common DEGs (1498) belong to pathways such as the synthesis of polyamine, glycine-betaine, proline, and trehalose. Some of the common DEGs belong to abiotic stress signaling pathways such as calcium-dependent pathway, ABA independent and dependent pathway, and MAP kinase pathway in the RGA1 mutant. Gene ontology of the common stress responsive DEGs revealed 62 unique molecular functions such as transporters, enzyme regulators, transferases, hydrolases, carbon and protein metabolism

  4. Microarray Analysis of Rice d1 (RGA1) Mutant Reveals the Potential Role of G-Protein Alpha Subunit in Regulating Multiple Abiotic Stresses Such as Drought, Salinity, Heat, and Cold.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Annie P; Pathak, Ravi R; Raghuram, Nandula

    2016-01-01

    The genome-wide role of heterotrimeric G-proteins in abiotic stress response in rice has not been examined from a functional genomics perspective, despite the availability of mutants and evidences involving individual genes/processes/stresses. Our rice whole transcriptome microarray analysis (GSE 20925 at NCBI GEO) using the G-alpha subunit (RGA1) null mutant (Daikoku 1 or d1) and its corresponding wild type (Oryza sativa Japonica Nipponbare) identified 2270 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of them, we mined for all the potentially abiotic stress-responsive genes using Gene Ontology terms, STIFDB2.0 and Rice DB. The first two approaches produced smaller subsets of the 1886 genes found at Rice DB. The GO approach revealed similar regulation of several families of stress-responsive genes in RGA1 mutant. The Genevestigator analysis of the stress-responsive subset of the RGA1-regulated genes from STIFDB revealed cold and drought-responsive clusters. Meta data analysis at Rice DB revealed large stress-response categories such as cold (878 up/810 down), drought (882 up/837 down), heat (913 up/777 down), and salt stress (889 up/841 down). One thousand four hundred ninety-eight of them are common to all the four abiotic stresses, followed by fewer genes common to smaller groups of stresses. The RGA1-regulated genes that uniquely respond to individual stresses include 111 in heat stress, eight each in cold only and drought only stresses, and two genes in salt stress only. The common DEGs (1498) belong to pathways such as the synthesis of polyamine, glycine-betaine, proline, and trehalose. Some of the common DEGs belong to abiotic stress signaling pathways such as calcium-dependent pathway, ABA independent and dependent pathway, and MAP kinase pathway in the RGA1 mutant. Gene ontology of the common stress responsive DEGs revealed 62 unique molecular functions such as transporters, enzyme regulators, transferases, hydrolases, carbon and protein metabolism

  5. Altered acetylation and succinylation profiles in Corynebacterium glutamicum in response to conditions inducing glutamate overproduction.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuta; Nagano-Shoji, Megumi; Kubo, Shosei; Kawamura, Yumi; Yoshida, Ayako; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Nishiyama, Makoto; Yoshida, Minoru; Kosono, Saori

    2016-02-01

    The bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is utilized during industrial fermentation to produce amino acids such as L-glutamate. During L-glutamate fermentation, C. glutamicum changes the flux of central carbon metabolism to favor L-glutamate production, but the molecular mechanisms that explain these flux changes remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the profiles of two major lysine acyl modifications were significantly altered upon glutamate overproduction in C. glutamicum; acetylation decreased, whereas succinylation increased. A label-free semi-quantitative proteomic analysis identified 604 acetylated proteins with 1328 unique acetylation sites and 288 succinylated proteins with 651 unique succinylation sites. Acetylation and succinylation targeted enzymes in central carbon metabolic pathways that are directly related to glutamate production, including the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC), a key enzyme regulating glutamate overproduction. Structural mapping revealed that several critical lysine residues in the ODHC components were susceptible to acetylation and succinylation. Furthermore, induction of glutamate production was associated with changes in the extent of acetylation and succinylation of lysine, suggesting that these modifications may affect the activity of enzymes involved in glutamate production. Deletion of phosphotransacetylase decreased the extent of protein acetylation in nonproducing condition, suggesting that acetyl phosphate-dependent acetylation is active in C. glutamicum. However, no effect was observed on the profiles of acetylation and succinylation in glutamate-producing condition upon disruption of acetyl phosphate metabolism or deacetylase homologs. It was considered likely that the reduced acetylation in glutamate-producing condition may reflect metabolic states where the flux through acid-producing pathways is very low, and substrates for acetylation do not accumulate in the cell. Succinylation would occur more

  6. Protein kinase C coordinates histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Darieva, Zoulfia; Webber, Aaron; Warwood, Stacey; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The re-assembly of chromatin following DNA replication is a critical event in the maintenance of genome integrity. Histone H3 acetylation at K56 and phosphorylation at T45 are two important chromatin modifications that accompany chromatin assembly. Here we have identified the protein kinase Pkc1 as a key regulator that coordinates the deposition of these modifications in S. cerevisiae under conditions of replicative stress. Pkc1 phosphorylates the histone acetyl transferase Rtt109 and promotes its ability to acetylate H3K56. Our data also reveal novel cross-talk between two different histone modifications as Pkc1 also enhances H3T45 phosphorylation and this modification is required for H3K56 acetylation. Our data therefore uncover an important role for Pkc1 in coordinating the deposition of two different histone modifications that are important for chromatin assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09886.001 PMID:26468616

  7. Multiple Mass Isotopomer Tracing of Acetyl-CoA Metabolism in Langendorff-perfused Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingling; Deng, Shuang; Ibarra, Rafael A.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Brunengraber, Henri; Zhang, Guo-Fang

    2015-01-01

    We developed an isotopic technique to assess mitochondrial acetyl-CoA turnover (≈citric acid flux) in perfused rat hearts. Hearts are perfused with buffer containing tracer [13C2,2H3]acetate, which forms M5 + M4 + M3 acetyl-CoA. The buffer may also contain one or two labeled substrates, which generate M2 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [13C6]glucose or [1,2-13C2]palmitate) or/and M1 acetyl-CoA (e.g. [1-13C]octanoate). The total acetyl-CoA turnover and the contributions of fuels to acetyl-CoA are calculated from the uptake of the acetate tracer and the mass isotopomer distribution of acetyl-CoA. The method was applied to measurements of acetyl-CoA turnover under different conditions (glucose ± palmitate ± insulin ± dichloroacetate). The data revealed (i) substrate cycling between glycogen and glucose-6-P and between glucose-6-P and triose phosphates, (ii) the release of small excess acetyl groups as acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies, and (iii) the channeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA from pyruvate dehydrogenase to carnitine acetyltransferase. Because of this channeling, the labeling of acetylcarnitine and ketone bodies released by the heart are not proxies of the labeling of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA. PMID:25645937

  8. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures. PMID:26039143

  9. Chromosomal Microarray versus Karyotyping for Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wapner, Ronald J.; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C.; Eng, Christine M.; Zachary, Julia M.; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D.; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A.; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N.; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Ledbetter, David H.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Jackson, Laird

    2013-01-01

    Background Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Methods Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. Results We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down’s syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. Conclusions In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.) PMID:23215555

  10. Selective recognition of acetylated histones by bromodomains in transcriptional co-activators

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ahmed H.; Awad, Salma; Al-Natour, Zeina; Othman, Samah; Mustafa, Farah; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2006-01-01

    Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated proteins such as the SWI/SNF and RSC chromatin remodelling and the SAGA HAT (histone acetyltransferase) complexes, and can bind to acetylated lysine residues in the N-terminal tails of the histones. Lysine acetylation is a histone modification that forms a stable epigenetic mark on chromatin for bromodomain-containing proteins to dock and in turn regulate gene expression. In order to better understand how bromodomains read the ‘histone code’ and interact with acetylated histones, we have tested the interactions of several bromodomains within transcriptional co-activators with differentially acetylated histone tail peptides and HAT-acetylated histones. Using GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down assays, we show specificity of binding of some bromodomains to differentially acetylated H3 and H4 peptides as well as HAT-acetylated histones. Our results reveal that the Swi2/Snf2 bromodomain interacts with various acetylated H3 and H4 peptides, whereas the Gcn5 bromodomain interacts only with acetylated H3 peptides and tetra-acetylated H4 peptides. Additionally we show that the Spt7 bromodomain interacts with acetylated H3 peptides weakly, but not with acetylated H4 peptides. Some bromodomains such as the Bdf1-2 do not interact with most of the acetylated peptides tested. Results of the peptide experiments are confirmed with tests of interactions between these bromodomains and HAT-acetylated histones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Swi2/Snf2 bromodomain is important for the binding and the remodelling activity of the SWI/SNF complex on hyperacetylated nucleosomes. The selective recognition of the bromodomains observed in the present study accounts for the broad effects of bromodomain-containing proteins observed on binding to histones. PMID:17049045

  11. Leucine-684: A conserved residue of an AMP-acetyl CoA synthetase (AceCS) from Leishmania donovani is involved in substrate recognition, catalysis and acetylation.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Neelagiri; Tandan, Hitendra; Damre, Mangesh V; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T; Singh, Sushma

    2016-04-15

    AMP-acetyl CoA synthetase (AMP-AceCS) is a key enzyme which catalyzes the activation of acetate to acetyl CoA, an important intermediate at the cross roads of various anabolic and catabolic pathways. Multiple sequence alignment of Leishmania donovani AceCS with other organisms revealed the presence of a highly conserved leucine residue at 684 position which is known to be crucial for acetylation by protein acetyl transferases in other organisms. In an attempt to understand the role of leucine residue at 684 position in L. donovani acetyl CoA synthetase (LdAceCS), it was mutated to proline (P) by site directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis of the L684P-LdAceCS mutant revealed approximately two fold increased binding affinity with acetate, whereas fivefold decreased affinity was observed with ATP. There was insignificant change in secondary structure as revealed by CD however, two fold decreased fluorescence intensity was observed at an emission maxima of 340nm. Interestingly, L684P mutation abolished the acetylation of the mutant enzyme indicating the importance of L684 in acetylation of the enzyme. Changes in biochemical parameters of the mutant protein were validated by homology modeling of the wild type and mutant LdAceCS enzyme using Salmonella enterica AceCS crystal structure as template. Our data provides evidence for the role of leucine 684 residue in substrate recognition, catalysis and acetylation of the AceCS enzyme. PMID:26794803

  12. Microarrays for Undergraduate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Nguyen, Lisa L.; Denyer, Gareth S.; Johnston, Jill M.

    2006-01-01

    A microarray experiment is presented that, in six laboratory sessions, takes undergraduate students from the tissue sample right through to data analysis. The model chosen, the murine erythroleukemia cell line, can be easily cultured in sufficient quantities for class use. Large changes in gene expression can be induced in these cells by…

  13. Characterization of two members among the five ADP-forming acyl coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) synthetases reveals the presence of a 2-(Imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase in Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    PubMed

    Awano, Tomotsugu; Wilming, Anja; Tomita, Hiroya; Yokooji, Yuusuke; Fukui, Toshiaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Thermococcus kodakarensis, along with those of most Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species, harbors five paralogous genes encoding putative α subunits of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP)-forming acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases. The substrate specificities of the protein products for three of these paralogs have been clarified through studies on the individual enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus and T. kodakarensis. Here we have examined the biochemical properties of the remaining two acyl-CoA synthetase proteins from T. kodakarensis. The TK0944 and TK2127 genes encoding the two α subunits were each coexpressed with the β subunit-encoding TK0943 gene. In both cases, soluble proteins with an α2β2 structure were obtained and their activities toward various acids in the ADP-forming reaction were examined. The purified TK0944/TK0943 protein (ACS IIITk) accommodated a broad range of acids that corresponded to those generated in the oxidative metabolism of Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe, and Cys. In contrast, the TK2127/TK0943 protein exhibited relevant levels of activity only toward 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate, a metabolite of His degradation, and was thus designated 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase (ICSTk), a novel enzyme. Kinetic analyses were performed on both proteins with their respective substrates. In T. kodakarensis, we found that the addition of histidine to the medium led to increases in intracellular ADP-forming 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetyl-CoA synthetase activity, and 2-(imidazol-4-yl)acetate was detected in the culture medium, suggesting that ICSTk participates in histidine catabolism. The results presented here, together with those of previous studies, have clarified the substrate specificities of all five known NDP-forming acyl-CoA synthetase proteins in the Thermococcales. PMID:24163338

  14. Interfacing protein lysine acetylation and protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Hue T.; Uhrig, R. Glen; Nimick, Mhairi; Moorhead, Greg B.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition that different protein covalent modifications can operate in concert to regulate a single protein has forced us to re-think the relationship between amino acid side chain modifications and protein function. Results presented by Tran et al. 2012 demonstrate the association of a protein phosphatase (PP2A) with a histone/lysine deacetylase (HDA14) on plant microtubules along with a histone/lysine acetyltransferase (ELP3). This finding reveals a regulatory interface between two prevalent covalent protein modifications, protein phosphorylation and acetylation, emphasizing the integrated complexity of post-translational protein regulation found in nature. PMID:22827947

  15. Acetyl transfer in arylamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J.

    1966-01-01

    1. N-Hydroxyacetamidoaryl compounds (hydroxamic acids) are metabolites of arylamides, and an enzyme that transfers the acetyl group from these derivatives to arylamines has been found in rat tissues. The reaction products were identified by thin-layer chromatography and a spectrophotometric method, with 4-amino-azobenzene as acetyl acceptor, was used to measure enzyme activity. 2. The acetyltransferase was in the soluble fraction of rat liver, required a thiol for maximum activity and had a pH optimum between 6·0 and 7·5. 3. The soluble fractions of various rat tissues showed decreasing activity in the following order: liver, adrenal, kidney, lung, spleen, testis, heart; brain was inactive. 4. With the exception of aniline and aniline derivatives all the arylamines tested were effective as acetyl acceptors but aromatic compounds with side-chain amino groups were inactive. 5. The N-hydroxyacetamido derivatives of 2-naphthylamine, 4-amino-biphenyl and 2-aminofluorene were active acetyl donors but N-hydroxyacetanilide showed only slight activity. Acetyl-CoA was not a donor. 6. Some properties of the enzyme are compared with those of other acetyltransferases. PMID:5969287

  16. Microarrays under the microscope.

    PubMed

    Wildsmith, S E; Elcock, F J

    2001-02-01

    Microarray technology is a rapidly advancing area, which is gaining popularity in many biological disciplines from drug target identification to predictive toxicology. Over the past few years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of methods and techniques available for carrying out this form of gene expression analysis. The techniques and associated peripherals, such as slide types, deposition methods, robotics, and scanning equipment, are undergoing constant improvement, helping to drive the technology forward in terms of robustness and ease of use. These rapid developments, combined with the number of options available and the associated hyperbole, can prove daunting for the new user. This review aims to guide the researcher through the various steps of conducting microarray experiments, from initial strategy to analysing the data, with critical examination of the benefits and disadvantages along the way. PMID:11212888

  17. Navigating Public Microarray Databases

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  18. Navigating public microarray databases.

    PubMed

    Penkett, Christopher J; Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  19. Extensive lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways and parasite-specific functions during Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jun; Lawrence, Matthew; Jeffers, Victoria; Zhao, Fangqing; Parker, Daniel; Ge, Ying; Sullivan, William J.; Cui, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Lysine acetylation has emerged as a major posttranslational modification involved in diverse cellular functions. Using a combination of immunoisolation and liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry, we determined the first acetylome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during its active proliferation in erythrocytes with 421 acetylation sites identified in 230 proteins. Lysine-acetylated proteins are distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, and apicoplast. Whereas occurrence of lysine acetylation in a similarly wide range of cellular functions suggests conservation of lysine acetylation through evolution, the Plasmodium acetylome also revealed significant divergence from those of other eukaryotes and even the closely-related parasite Toxoplasma. This divergence is reflected in the acetylation of a large number of Plasmodium-specific proteins and different acetylation sites in evolutionarily conserved acetylated proteins. A prominent example is the abundant acetylation of proteins in the glycolysis pathway but relatively deficient acetylation of enzymes in the citrate cycle. Using specific transgenic lines and inhibitors, we determined that the acetyltransferase PfMYST and lysine deacetylases play important roles in regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic protein acetylation. The Plasmodium acetylome provides an exciting start point for further exploration of functions of acetylation in the biology of malaria parasites. PMID:23796209

  20. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  1. Comparative examination of probe labeling methods for microarray hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, David I.; Woodward, Karen; Setterquist, Robert A.; Kawasaki, Ernest S.

    2001-06-01

    For detection of differential gene expression, confocal laser based scanners are now capable of analyzing microarrays using one to five wavelengths. This allows investigators to choose among several labeling methods. Here we compare direct incorporation and indirect methods (amino-allyl and dendrimers) for labeling cDNA probes. We assessed reproducible sensitivity of each probe preparation method in two ways. First, by comparing hybridization intensities for limit of signal detection and second by measuring the lowest detectable concentration of a known ratio of mixed DNA (spikes). Limit of detection assay was done using arrays of mixed targets consisting of a serially diluted human specific gene fragment (HU1) and an undiluted DNA of chloramphenicol acetyl tranferase (CAT) gene. Then, individual single target arrays of CAT and HU1 DNA were used to determine the lowest detectable spike ratio of each labeling method. The results of this study will be presented and their significance for the analysis of microarrays will be discussed.

  2. A SUMO-acetyl switch in PXR biology.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wenqi; Sun, Mengxi; Zhang, Shupei; Shen, Xunan; Galeva, Nadezhda; Williams, Todd D; Staudinger, Jeff L

    2016-09-01

    Post-translational modification (PTM) of nuclear receptor superfamily members regulates various aspects of their biology to include sub-cellular localization, the repertoire of protein-binding partners, as well as their stability and mode of degradation. The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is a master-regulator of the drug-inducible gene expression in liver and intestine. The PXR-mediated gene activation program is primarily recognized to increase drug metabolism, drug transport, and drug efflux pathways in these tissues. The activation of PXR also has important implications in significant human diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. Our recent investigations reveal that PXR is modified by multiple PTMs to include phosphorylation, SUMOylation, and ubiquitination. Using both primary cultures of hepatocytes and cell-based assays, we show here that PXR is modified through acetylation on lysine residues. Further, we show that increased acetylation of PXR stimulates its increased SUMO-modification to support active transcriptional suppression. Pharmacologic inhibition of lysine de-acetylation using trichostatin A (TSA) alters the sub-cellular localization of PXR in cultured hepatocytes, and also has a profound impact upon PXR transactivation capacity. Both the acetylation and SUMOylation status of the PXR protein is affected by its ability to associate with the lysine de-acetylating enzyme histone de-acetylase (HDAC)3 in a complex with silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT). Taken together, our data support a model in which a SUMO-acetyl 'switch' occurs such that acetylation of PXR likely stimulates SUMO-modification of PXR to promote the active repression of PXR-target gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:26883953

  3. The use of microarrays in microbial ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, G.L.; He, Z.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Zhou, J.

    2009-09-15

    Microarrays have proven to be a useful and high-throughput method to provide targeted DNA sequence information for up to many thousands of specific genetic regions in a single test. A microarray consists of multiple DNA oligonucleotide probes that, under high stringency conditions, hybridize only to specific complementary nucleic acid sequences (targets). A fluorescent signal indicates the presence and, in many cases, the abundance of genetic regions of interest. In this chapter we will look at how microarrays are used in microbial ecology, especially with the recent increase in microbial community DNA sequence data. Of particular interest to microbial ecologists, phylogenetic microarrays are used for the analysis of phylotypes in a community and functional gene arrays are used for the analysis of functional genes, and, by inference, phylotypes in environmental samples. A phylogenetic microarray that has been developed by the Andersen laboratory, the PhyloChip, will be discussed as an example of a microarray that targets the known diversity within the 16S rRNA gene to determine microbial community composition. Using multiple, confirmatory probes to increase the confidence of detection and a mismatch probe for every perfect match probe to minimize the effect of cross-hybridization by non-target regions, the PhyloChip is able to simultaneously identify any of thousands of taxa present in an environmental sample. The PhyloChip is shown to reveal greater diversity within a community than rRNA gene sequencing due to the placement of the entire gene product on the microarray compared with the analysis of up to thousands of individual molecules by traditional sequencing methods. A functional gene array that has been developed by the Zhou laboratory, the GeoChip, will be discussed as an example of a microarray that dynamically identifies functional activities of multiple members within a community. The recent version of GeoChip contains more than 24,000 50mer

  4. Aspirin inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in HCT 116 cells through acetylation: Identification of aspirin-acetylated sites

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Alfonso, Lloyd F.; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, and generates ribose sugars, which are required for nucleic acid synthesis, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for neutralization of oxidative stress. The expression of G6PD is elevated in several types of tumor, including colon, breast and lung cancer, and has been implicated in cancer cell growth. Our previous study demonstrated that exposure of HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells to aspirin caused acetylation of G6PD, and this was associated with a decrease in its enzyme activity. In the present study, this observation was expanded to HT-29 colorectal cancer cells, in order to compare aspirin-mediated acetylation of G6PD and its activity between HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. In addition, the present study aimed to determine the acetylation targets of aspirin on recombinant G6PD to provide an insight into the mechanisms of inhibition. The results demonstrated that the extent of G6PD acetylation was significantly higher in HCT 116 cells compared with in HT-29 cells; accordingly, a greater reduction in G6PD enzyme activity was observed in the HCT 116 cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of aspirin-acetylated G6PD (isoform a) revealed that aspirin acetylated a total of 14 lysine residues, which were dispersed throughout the length of the G6PD protein. One of the important amino acid targets of aspirin included lysine 235 (K235, in isoform a) and this corresponds to K205 in isoform b, which has previously been identified as being important for catalysis. Acetylation of G6PD at several sites, including K235 (K205 in isoform b), may mediate inhibition of G6PD activity, which may contribute to the ability of aspirin to exert anticancer effects through decreased synthesis of ribose sugars and NADPH. PMID:27356773

  5. Acetylation Targets the M2 Isoform of Pyruvate Kinase for Degradation through Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy and Promotes Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Lei; Li, Dong; Zhao, Di; Lin, Ruiting; Chu, Yajing; Zhang, Heng; Zha, Zhengyu; Liu, Ying; Li, Zi; Xu, Yanping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yiran; Xiong, Yue; Guan, Kun-Liang; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most tumor cells take up more glucose than normal cells but metabolize glucose via glycolysis even in the presence of normal levels of oxygen, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Tumor cells commonly express the embryonic M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) that may contribute to the metabolism shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis and tumorigenesis. Here we show that PKM2 is acetylated on lysine 305 and that this acetylation is stimulated by high glucose concentration. PKM2 K305 acetylation decreases PKM2 enzyme activity and promotes its lysosomal-dependent degradation via chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Acetylation increases PKM2 interaction with HSC70, a chaperone for CMA, and association with lysosomes. Ectopic expression of an acetylation mimetic K305Q mutant accumulates glycolytic intermediates and promotes cell proliferation and tumor growth. These results reveal an acetylation regulation of pyruvate kinase and the link between lysine acetylation and CMA. PMID:21700219

  6. Autoimmune regulator is acetylated by transcription coactivator CBP/p300

    SciTech Connect

    Saare, Mario; Rebane, Ana; Rajashekar, Balaji; Vilo, Jaak; Peterson, Paert

    2012-08-15

    The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) is a regulator of transcription in the thymic medulla, where it controls the expression of a large set of peripheral-tissue specific genes. AIRE interacts with the transcriptional coactivator and acetyltransferase CBP and synergistically cooperates with it in transcriptional activation. Here, we aimed to study a possible role of AIRE acetylation in the modulation of its activity. We found that AIRE is acetylated in tissue culture cells and this acetylation is enhanced by overexpression of CBP and the CBP paralog p300. The acetylated lysines were located within nuclear localization signal and SAND domain. AIRE with mutations that mimicked acetylated K243 and K253 in the SAND domain had reduced transactivation activity and accumulated into fewer and larger nuclear bodies, whereas mutations that mimicked the unacetylated lysines were functionally similar to wild-type AIRE. Analogously to CBP, p300 localized to AIRE-containing nuclear bodies, however, the overexpression of p300 did not enhance the transcriptional activation of AIRE-regulated genes. Further studies showed that overexpression of p300 stabilized the AIRE protein. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that AIRE, with mutations mimicking K243/K253 acetylation in SAND, was able to activate gene expression, although the affected genes were different and the activation level was lower from those regulated by wild-type AIRE. Our results suggest that the AIRE acetylation can influence the selection of AIRE activated genes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE is acetylated by the acetyltransferases p300 and CBP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation occurs between CARD and SAND domains and within the SAND domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases the size of AIRE nuclear dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation increases AIRE protein stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE acetylation mimic regulates a different set of AIRE

  7. Bacterial protein acetylation: new discoveries unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alan J

    2016-05-01

    Nε-acetylation is emerging as an abundant post-translational modification of bacterial proteins. Two mechanisms have been identified: one is enzymatic, dependent on an acetyltransferase and acetyl-coenzyme A; the other is non-enzymatic and depends on the reactivity of acetyl phosphate. Some, but not most, of those acetylations are reversed by deacetylases. This review will briefly describe the current status of the field and raise questions that need answering. PMID:26660885

  8. The Perils of SNP Microarray Testing: Uncovering Unexpected Consanguinity

    PubMed Central

    Tarini, Beth A.; Konczal, Laura; Goldenberg, Aaron J.; Goldman, Edward B.; McCandless, Shawn E.

    2013-01-01

    Background While single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chromosomal microarrays identify areas of small genetic deletions/duplications, they can also reveal regions of homozygosity indicative of consanguinity. As more non-geneticists order SNP microarrays, they must prepare for the potential ethical, legal and social issues that result from revelation of unanticipated consanguinity. Patient An infant with multiple congenital anomalies underwent SNP microarray testing. Results The results of the SNP microarray revealed several large regions of homozygosity that indicated identity by descent most consistent with a second or third degree relative mating (e.g., uncle/ niece, half brother/sister, first cousins). Mother was not aware of the test's potential to reveal consanguinity. When informed of the test results, she reluctantly admitted to being raped by her half-brother around the time of conception. Conclusions During the pre-testing consent process, providers should inform parents that SNP microarray testing could reveal consanguinity. Providers must also understand the psychological implications, as well as the legal and moral obligations, that accompany SNP microarray results that indicate consanguinity. PMID:23827427

  9. Tiling Microarray Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, Davis Austin

    2005-05-04

    TiMAT is a package of 23 command line Java applications for use in the analysis of Affymetrix tiled genomic microarray data. TiMAT enables: 1) Rebuilding the genome annotation for entire tiled arrays (repeat filtering, chromosomal coordinate assignment). 2) Post processing of oligo intensity values (quantile normalization, median scaling, PMMM transformation), 3) Significance testing (Wilcoxon rank sum and signed rank tests, intensity difference and ratio tests) and Interval refinement (filtering based on multiple statistics, overlap comparisons), 4) Data visualization (detailed thumbnail/zoomed view with Interval Plots and data export to Affymetrix's Integrated Genome Browser) and Data reports (spreadsheet summaries and detailed profiles)

  10. Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Compressive sensing microarrays (CSMs) are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing (CS) principles. In contrast to conventional DNA microarrays, in which each genetic sensor is designed to respond to a single target, in a CSM, each sensor responds to a set of targets. We study the problem of designing CSMs that simultaneously account for both the constraints from CS theory and the biochemistry of probe-target DNA hybridization. An appropriate cross-hybridization model is proposed for CSMs, and several methods are developed for probe design and CS signal recovery based on the new model. Lab experiments suggest that in order to achieve accurate hybridization profiling, consensus probe sequences are required to have sequence homology of at least 80% with all targets to be detected. Furthermore, out-of-equilibrium datasets are usually as accurate as those obtained from equilibrium conditions. Consequently, one can use CSMs in applications in which only short hybridization times are allowed. PMID:19158952

  11. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM) tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and will be updated on regular

  12. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  13. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications. PMID:26614075

  14. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 Affect Xylan Acetylation and Secondary Wall Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Haghighat, Marziyeh; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be mono- and di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reduction in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-O-monoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. These results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls. PMID:26745802

  15. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 affect xylan acetylation and secondary wall deposition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Haghighat, Marziyeh; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng -Hua; Zhang, Jin -Song

    2016-01-08

    Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be monoand di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reductionmore » in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-Omonoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls.« less

  16. Acetylation of Gly1 and Lys2 Promotes Aggregation of Human γD-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human lens contains three major protein families: α-, β-, and γ-crystallin. Among the several variants of γ-crystallin in the human lens, γD-crystallin is a major form. γD-Crystallin is primarily present in the nuclear region of the lens and contains a single lysine residue at the second position (K2). In this study, we investigated the acetylation of K2 in γD-crystallin in aging and cataractous human lenses. Our results indicated that K2 is acetylated at an early age and that the amount of K2-acetylated γD-crystallin increased with age. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that in addition to K2, glycine 1 (G1) was acetylated in γD-crystallin from human lenses and in γD-crystallin acetylated in vitro. The chaperone ability of α-crystallin for acetylated γD-crystallin was lower than that for the nonacetylated protein. The tertiary structure and the microenvironment of the cysteine residues were significantly altered by acetylation. The acetylated protein exhibited higher surface hydrophobicity, was unstable against thermal and chemical denaturation, and exhibited a higher propensity to aggregate at 80 °C in comparison to the nonacetylated protein. Acetylation enhanced the GdnHCl-induced unfolding and slowed the subsequent refolding of γD-crystallin. Theoretical analysis indicated that the acetylation of K2 and G1 reduced the structural stability of the protein and brought the distal cysteine residues (C18 and C78) into close proximity. Collectively, these results indicate that the acetylation of G1 and K2 residues in γD-crystallin likely induced a molten globule-like structure, predisposing it to aggregation, which may account for the high content of aggregated proteins in the nucleus of aged and cataractous human lenses. PMID:25393041

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of native and acetylated wheat starches.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangli; Zhou, Xin; Sui, Zhongquan; Bao, Jinsong

    2016-10-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical and crystalline properties of the native and acetylated wheat starches were investigated. Peak, hot paste, cool paste and setback viscosities of both native and acetylated wheat starches decreased continuously and significantly with the increase of the irradiation dose, whereas breakdown viscosity increased after irradiation. However, gamma irradiation only exerted slight effects on thermal and retrogradation properties of both native and acetylated wheat starches. X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that acetylation modification had considerable effects on the molecular structure of wheat starch, and the crystallinity of both untreated and acetylated starches increased slightly with the increase of irradiation dose. However, the V-type crystallinity of amylose-lipid complex was not affected by gamma irradiation treatments with doses up to 9kGy. PMID:27344953

  18. HATs and HDACs in neurodegeneration: a tale of disconcerted acetylation homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, RN; Pahan, K

    2007-01-01

    Gradual disclosure of the molecular basis of selective neuronal apoptosis during neurodegenerative diseases reveals active participation of acetylating and deacetylating agents during the process. Several studies have now successfully manipulated neuronal vulnerability by influencing the dose and enzymatic activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes regulating acetylation homeostasis within the nucleus, thus focusing on the importance of balanced acetylation status in neuronal vitality. It is now increasingly becoming clear that acetylation balance is greatly impaired during neurodegenerative conditions. Herein, we attempt to illuminate molecular means by which such impairment is manifested and how the compromised acetylation homeostasis is intimately coupled to neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of reinstating the HAT–HDAC balance to ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:16167067

  19. Living-Cell Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Yarmush, Martin L.; King, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment. PMID:19413510

  20. Tiling Microarray Analysis Tools

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-04

    TiMAT is a package of 23 command line Java applications for use in the analysis of Affymetrix tiled genomic microarray data. TiMAT enables: 1) Rebuilding the genome annotation for entire tiled arrays (repeat filtering, chromosomal coordinate assignment). 2) Post processing of oligo intensity values (quantile normalization, median scaling, PMMM transformation), 3) Significance testing (Wilcoxon rank sum and signed rank tests, intensity difference and ratio tests) and Interval refinement (filtering based on multiple statistics, overlap comparisons),more » 4) Data visualization (detailed thumbnail/zoomed view with Interval Plots and data export to Affymetrix's Integrated Genome Browser) and Data reports (spreadsheet summaries and detailed profiles)« less

  1. Plasmonically amplified fluorescence bioassay with microarray format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogalic, S.; Hageneder, S.; Ctortecka, C.; Bauch, M.; Khan, I.; Preininger, Claudia; Sauer, U.; Dostalek, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal in bioassays with microarray detection format is reported. A crossed relief diffraction grating was designed to couple an excitation laser beam to surface plasmons at the wavelength overlapping with the absorption and emission bands of fluorophore Dy647 that was used as a label. The surface of periodically corrugated sensor chip was coated with surface plasmon-supporting gold layer and a thin SU8 polymer film carrying epoxy groups. These groups were employed for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies at arrays of spots. The plasmonic amplification of fluorescence signal on the developed microarray chip was tested by using interleukin 8 sandwich immunoassay. The readout was performed ex situ after drying the chip by using a commercial scanner with high numerical aperture collecting lens. Obtained results reveal the enhancement of fluorescence signal by a factor of 5 when compared to a regular glass chip.

  2. Alterations of the degree of xylan acetylation in Arabidopsis xylan mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanhui; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide in secondary walls of dicot plants and one of its structural features is the high degree of acetylation of xylosyl residues. In Arabidopsis, about 60% of xylosyl residues in xylan are acetylated and the biochemical mechanisms controlling xylan acetylation are largely unknown. A recent report by Yuan et al. (2013) revealed the essential role of a DUF231 domain-containing protein, ESKIMO1 (ESK1), in xylan acetylation in Arabidopsis as the esk1 mutation caused specific reductions in the degree of xylan 2-O or 3-O-monoacetylation and in the activity of xylan acetyltransferase. Interestingly, the esk1 mutation also resulted in an elevation of glucuronic acid (GlcA) substitutions in xylan. Since GlcA substitutions in xylan occur at the O-2 position of xylosyl residues, it is plausible that the increase in GlcA substitutions in the esk1 mutant is attributed to the reduction in acetylation at O-2 of xylosyl residues, which renders more O-2 positions available for GlcA substitutions. Here, we investigated the effect of removal of GlcA substitutions on the degree of xylan acetylation. We found that a complete loss of GlcA substitutions in the xylan of the gux1/2/3 triple mutant led to a significant increase in the degree of xylan acetylation, indicating that xylan acetyltransferases and glucuronyltransferases compete with each other for xylosyl residues for their acetylation or GlcA substitutions in planta. In addition, detailed structure analysis of xylan from the rwa1/2/3/4 quadruple mutant revealed that it had a uniform reduction of acetyl substitutions at different positions of the xylosyl residues, which is consistent with the proposed role of RWAs as acetyl coenzyme A transporters. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:24518588

  3. Reduced Wall Acetylation Proteins Play Vital and Distinct Roles in Cell Wall O-Acetylation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Gille, Sascha; Harholt, Jesper; Chong, Sun-Li; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Tenkanen, Maija; Cheng, Kun; Pauly, Markus; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2013-01-01

    The Reduced Wall Acetylation (RWA) proteins are involved in cell wall acetylation in plants. Previously, we described a single mutant, rwa2, which has about 20% lower level of O-acetylation in leaf cell walls and no obvious growth or developmental phenotype. In this study, we generated double, triple, and quadruple loss-of-function mutants of all four members of the RWA family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In contrast to rwa2, the triple and quadruple rwa mutants display severe growth phenotypes revealing the importance of wall acetylation for plant growth and development. The quadruple rwa mutant can be completely complemented with the RWA2 protein expressed under 35S promoter, indicating the functional redundancy of the RWA proteins. Nevertheless, the degree of acetylation of xylan, (gluco)mannan, and xyloglucan as well as overall cell wall acetylation is affected differently in different combinations of triple mutants, suggesting their diversity in substrate preference. The overall degree of wall acetylation in the rwa quadruple mutant was reduced by 63% compared with the wild type, and histochemical analysis of the rwa quadruple mutant stem indicates defects in cell differentiation of cell types with secondary cell walls. PMID:24019426

  4. Roles of Arabidopsis TBL34 and TBL35 in xylan acetylation and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Xylan is one of the major polymers in lignocellulosic biomass and about 60% of its xylosyl residues are acetylated at O-2 and/or O-3. Because acetylation of cell wall polymers contributes to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production, it is important to investigate the biochemical mechanism underlying xylan acetylation, the knowledge of which could be applied to custom-design biomass composition tailored for biofuel production. In this report, we investigated the functions of Arabidopsis TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE 34 (TBL34) and TBL35, two DUF231-containing proteins, in xylan acetylation. The TBL34 gene was found to be specifically expressed in xylem cells in stems and root-hypocotyls, and both TBL34 and TBL35 were shown to be localized in the Golgi, where xylan biosynthesis occurs. Chemical analysis revealed that simultaneous mutations of TBL34 and TBL35 caused a mild decrease in xylan acetyl content and a specific reduction in xylan 3-O-monoacetylation and 2,3-di-O-acetylation. Furthermore, simultaneous mutations of TBL34, TBL35 and ESKIMO1 (ESK1) resulted in severely collapsed xylem vessels with altered secondary wall structure, and an extremely retarded plant growth. These findings indicate that TBL34 and TBL35 are putative acetyltransferases required for xylan 3-O-monoacetylation and 2,3-di-O-acetylation and that xylan acetylation is essential for normal secondary wall deposition and plant growth. PMID:26795157

  5. Functional Analyses of Two Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthetases in the Ascomycete Gibberella zeae ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghoon; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Jungkwan; Min, Kyunghun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2011-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a crucial metabolite for energy metabolism and biosynthetic pathways and is produced in various cellular compartments with spatial and temporal precision. Our previous study on ATP citrate lyase (ACL) in Gibberella zeae revealed that ACL-dependent acetyl-CoA production is important for histone acetylation, especially in sexual development, but is not involved in lipid synthesis. In this study, we deleted additional acetyl-CoA synthetic genes, the acetyl-CoA synthetases (ACS genes ACS1 and ACS2), to identify alternative acetyl-CoA production mechanisms for ACL. The ACS1 deletion resulted in a defect in sexual development that was mainly due to a reduction in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol production, which is required for perithecium development and maturation. Another ACS coding gene, ACS2, has accessorial functions for ACS1 and has compensatory functions for ACL as a nuclear acetyl-CoA producer. This study showed that acetate is readily generated during the entire life cycle of G. zeae and has a pivotal role in fungal metabolism. Because ACSs are components of the pyruvate-acetaldehyde-acetate pathway, this fermentation process might have crucial roles in various physiological processes for filamentous fungi. PMID:21666077

  6. A dysregulated acetyl/SUMO switch of FXR promotes hepatic inflammation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Xiao, Zhen; Kwon, Sanghoon; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Ryerson, Daniel; Tkac, David; Ma, Ping; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Zhou, Edward; Xu, H Eric; Palvimo, Jorma J; Chen, Lin-Feng; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2015-01-13

    Acetylation of transcriptional regulators is normally dynamically regulated by nutrient status but is often persistently elevated in nutrient-excessive obesity conditions. We investigated the functional consequences of such aberrantly elevated acetylation of the nuclear receptor FXR as a model. Proteomic studies identified K217 as the FXR acetylation site in diet-induced obese mice. In vivo studies utilizing acetylation-mimic and acetylation-defective K217 mutants and gene expression profiling revealed that FXR acetylation increased proinflammatory gene expression, macrophage infiltration, and liver cytokine and triglyceride levels, impaired insulin signaling, and increased glucose intolerance. Mechanistically, acetylation of FXR blocked its interaction with the SUMO ligase PIASy and inhibited SUMO2 modification at K277, resulting in activation of inflammatory genes. SUMOylation of agonist-activated FXR increased its interaction with NF-κB but blocked that with RXRα, so that SUMO2-modified FXR was selectively recruited to and trans-repressed inflammatory genes without affecting FXR/RXRα target genes. A dysregulated acetyl/SUMO switch of FXR in obesity may serve as a general mechanism for diminished anti-inflammatory response of other transcriptional regulators and provide potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets for obesity-related metabolic disorders. PMID:25425577

  7. Requirements for Carnitine Shuttle-Mediated Translocation of Mitochondrial Acetyl Moieties to the Yeast Cytosol

    PubMed Central

    van Rossum, Harmen M.; Kozak, Barbara U.; Niemeijer, Matthijs S.; Dykstra, James C.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acid-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous studies indicate that carnitine shuttle-mediated export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the yeast cytosol does not occur in vivo. This apparent unidirectionality was investigated by constitutively expressing genes encoding carnitine shuttle-related proteins in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain, in which cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthesis could be switched off by omitting lipoic acid from growth media. Laboratory evolution of this strain yielded mutants whose growth on glucose, in the absence of lipoic acid, was l-carnitine dependent, indicating that in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units to the cytosol occurred via the carnitine shuttle. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was identified as the predominant source of acetyl-CoA in the evolved strains. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (MCT1), nuclear-mitochondrial communication (RTG2), and encoding a carnitine acetyltransferase (YAT2). Introduction of these mutations into the nonevolved parental strain enabled l-carnitine-dependent growth on glucose. This study indicates intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA concentration and constitutive expression of carnitine shuttle genes as key factors in enabling in vivo export of mitochondrial acetyl units via the carnitine shuttle. PMID:27143389

  8. Investigating Histone Acetylation Stoichiometry and Turnover Rate.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Baeza, J; Denu, J M

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a dynamic epigenetic modification that functions in the regulation of DNA-templated reactions, such as transcription. This lysine modification is reversibly controlled by histone (lysine) acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we present methods employing isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry (MS) to comprehensively investigate histone acetylation dynamics. Turnover rates of histone acetylation are determined by measuring the kinetics of labeling from (13)C-labeled precursors of acetyl-CoA, which incorporates (13)C-carbon onto histones via the acetyltransferase reaction. Overall histone acetylation states are assessed from complete protease digestion to single amino acids, which is followed by MS analysis. Determination of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry is achieved by chemically acetylating endogenous histones with isotopic acetic anhydride, followed by trypsin digestion and LC-MS analysis. Combining metabolic labeling with stoichiometric analysis permits determination of both acetylation level and acetylation dynamics. When comparing genetic, diet, or environmental perturbations, these methods permit both a global and site-specific evaluation of how histone acetylation is dynamically regulated. PMID:27423860

  9. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (lepidoptera, sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. VI. Microarray analysis reveals that most herbivore-specific transcriptional changes are mediated by fatty acid-amino acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Halitschke, Rayko; Gase, Klaus; Hui, Dequan; Schmidt, Dominik D; Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that insect-specific plant responses are mediated by constituents in the oral secretions and regurgitants (R) of herbivores, however the relative importance of the different potentially active constituents remains unclear. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) are found in the R of many insect herbivores and have been shown to be necessary and sufficient to elicit a set of herbivore-specific responses when the native tobacco plant Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Attack by this specialist herbivore results in a large transcriptional reorganization in N. attenuata, and 161 genes have been cloned from previous cDNA differential display-polymerase chain reaction and subtractive hybridization with magnetic beads analysis. cDNAs of these genes, in addition to those of 73 new R-responsive genes identified by cDNA-amplified fragment-length polymorphism display of R-elicited plants, were spotted on polyepoxide coated glass slides to create microarrays highly enriched in Manduca spp.- and R-induced genes. With these microarrays, we compare transcriptional responses in N. attenuata treated with R from the two most damaging lepidopteran herbivores of this plant in nature, M. sexta and Manduca quinquemaculata, which have very similar FAC compositions in their R, and with the two most abundant FACs in Manduca spp. R. More than 68% of the genes up- and down-regulated by M. sexta R were similarly regulated by M. quinquemaculata R. A majority of genes up-regulated (64%) and down-regulated (49%) by M. sexta R were similarly regulated by treatment with the two FACs. In contrast, few genes showed similar transcriptional changes after H(2)O(2)- and R-treatment. These results demonstrate that the two most abundant FACs in Manduca spp. R can account for the majority of Manduca spp.-induced alterations of the wound response of N. attenuata. PMID:12692348

  10. Microarray platform for omics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Michael; Xie, Bin

    2001-09-01

    Microarray technology has revolutionized genetic analysis. However, limitations in genome analysis has lead to renewed interest in establishing 'omic' strategies. As we enter the post-genomic era, new microarray technologies are needed to address these new classes of 'omic' targets, such as proteins, as well as lipids and carbohydrates. We have developed a microarray platform that combines self- assembling monolayers with the biotin-streptavidin system to provide a robust, versatile immobilization scheme. A hydrophobic film is patterned on the surface creating an array of tension wells that eliminates evaporation effects thereby reducing the shear stress to which biomolecules are exposed to during immobilization. The streptavidin linker layer makes it possible to adapt and/or develop microarray based assays using virtually any class of biomolecules including: carbohydrates, peptides, antibodies, receptors, as well as them ore traditional DNA based arrays. Our microarray technology is designed to furnish seamless compatibility across the various 'omic' platforms by providing a common blueprint for fabricating and analyzing arrays. The prototype microarray uses a microscope slide footprint patterned with 2 by 96 flat wells. Data on the microarray platform will be presented.

  11. Integrating Microarray Data and GRNs.

    PubMed

    Koumakis, L; Potamias, G; Tsiknakis, M; Zervakis, M; Moustakis, V

    2016-01-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the emergence of high-throughput technologies, a vast amount of molecular and biological data are being produced. Two of the most important and significant data sources come from microarray gene-expression experiments and respective databanks (e,g., Gene Expression Omnibus-GEO (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo)), and from molecular pathways and Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) stored and curated in public (e.g., Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes-KEGG (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway.html), Reactome (http://www.reactome.org/ReactomeGWT/entrypoint.html)) as well as in commercial repositories (e.g., Ingenuity IPA (http://www.ingenuity.com/products/ipa)). The association of these two sources aims to give new insight in disease understanding and reveal new molecular targets in the treatment of specific phenotypes.Three major research lines and respective efforts that try to utilize and combine data from both of these sources could be identified, namely: (1) de novo reconstruction of GRNs, (2) identification of Gene-signatures, and (3) identification of differentially expressed GRN functional paths (i.e., sub-GRN paths that distinguish between different phenotypes). In this chapter, we give an overview of the existing methods that support the different types of gene-expression and GRN integration with a focus on methodologies that aim to identify phenotype-discriminant GRNs or subnetworks, and we also present our methodology. PMID:26134183

  12. Mitochondrial Acetylation and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gregory R.; Payne, R. Mark

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a prominent and conserved regulatory posttranslational modification that is abundant on numerous enzymes involved in the processes of intermediary metabolism. Well-characterized mitochondrial processes of carbon utilization are enriched in acetyl-lysine modifications. Although seminal discoveries have been made in the basic biology of mitochondrial acetylation, an understanding of how acetylation states influence enzyme function and metabolic reprogramming during pathological states remains largely unknown. This paper will examine our current understanding of eukaryotic acetate metabolism and present recent findings in the field of mitochondrial acetylation biology. The implications of mitochondrial acetylation for the aging process will be discussed, as well as its potential implications for the unique and localized metabolic states that occur during the aging-associated conditions of heart failure and cancer growth. PMID:21437190

  13. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  14. The "Gatekeeper" Residue Influences the Mode of Binding of Acetyl Indoles to Bromodomains.

    PubMed

    Unzue, Andrea; Zhao, Hongtao; Lolli, Graziano; Dong, Jing; Zhu, Jian; Zechner, Melanie; Dolbois, Aymeric; Caflisch, Amedeo; Nevado, Cristina

    2016-04-14

    Small-molecule hits for the bromodomains of CREBBP and BAZ2B have been identified by scaffold hopping followed by docking of a set of ∼200 compounds containing the acetyl indole scaffold. Chemical synthesis of nearly 30 derivatives has resulted in ligands of representatives of three subfamilies of human bromodomains with favorable ligand efficiency. The X-ray crystal structures of three different bromodomains (CREBBP, BAZ2B, and BRPF1b) in complex with acetyl indole derivatives reveal the influence of the gatekeeper residue on the orientation of small-molecule ligands in the acetyl lysine binding site. PMID:26982797

  15. Chemistry of Natural Glycan Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Glycan microarrays have become indispensable tools for studying protein-glycan interactions. Along with chemo-enzymatic synthesis, glycans isolated from natural sources have played important roles in array development and will continue to be a major source of glycans. N- and O-glycans from glycoproteins, and glycans from glycosphingolipids can be released from corresponding glycoconjugates with relatively mature methods, although isolation of large numbers and quantities of glycans are still very challenging. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchors and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are less represented on current glycan microarrays. Glycan microarray development has been greatly facilitated by bifunctional fluorescent linkers, which can be applied in a “Shotgun Glycomics” approach to incorporate isolated natural glycans. Glycan presentation on microarrays may affect glycan binding by GBPs, often through multivalent recognition by the GBP. PMID:24487062

  16. Microarray Analysis of Microbial Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson-Francis, K.; van Houdt, R.; Leys, N.; Mergeay, M.; Cockell, C. S.

    2010-04-01

    Microarray analysis of the heavy metal resistant bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 was used to investigate the genes involved in the weathering. The results demonstrated that large porin and membrane transporter genes were unregulated.

  17. The Acetyl Group Buffering Action of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Offsets Macronutrient-induced Lysine Acetylation of Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael N.; Kjalarsdottir, Lilja; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Brosnan, M. Julia; Rolph, Timothy P.; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation (AcK), a posttranslational modification wherein a two-carbon acetyl group binds covalently to a lysine residue, occurs prominently on mitochondrial proteins and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction. An emergent theory suggests mitochondrial AcK occurs via mass action rather than targeted catalysis. To test this hypothesis we performed mass spectrometry-based acetylproteomic analyses of quadriceps muscles from mice with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), an enzyme that buffers the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA pool by converting short-chain acyl-CoAs to their membrane permeant acylcarnitine counterparts. CrAT deficiency increased tissue acetyl-CoA levels and susceptibility to diet-induced AcK of broad-ranging mitochondrial proteins, coincident with diminished whole body glucose control. Sub-compartment acetylproteome analyses of muscles from obese mice and humans showed remarkable overrepresentation of mitochondrial matrix proteins. These findings reveal roles for CrAT and L-carnitine in modulating the muscle acetylproteome and provide strong experimental evidence favoring the nonenzymatic carbon pressure model of mitochondrial AcK. PMID:26748706

  18. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of γ-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco; Afonine, Pavel; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2010-12-01

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of γ-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e Å{sup −3}.

  19. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong-Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  20. Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis by Acetylation of PKM and PEPCK

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Y.; Lei, Q-Y.; Zhao, S.; Guan, K-L.

    2016-01-01

    Glycolysis is a catabolic process of glucose hydrolysis needed for energy and biosynthetic intermediates, whereas gluconeogenesis is a glucose production process important for maintaining blood glucose levels during starvation. Although they share many enzymes, these two processes are not simply the reverse of each other and are instead reciprocally regulated. Two key enzymes that regulate irreversible steps in these two processes are pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK), which catalyze the last and first step of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, respectively, and are both regulated by lysine acetylation. Acetylation at Lys305 of the PKM (muscle form of PK) decreases its activity and also targets it for chaperone-mediated autophagy and subsequent lysosome degradation. Acetylation of PEPCK, on the other hand, targets it for ubiquitylation by the HECT E3 ligase, UBR5/EDD1, and subsequent proteasomal degradation. These studies established a model in which acetylation regulates metabolic enzymes via different mechanisms and also revealed cross talk between acetylation and ubiquitination. Given that most metabolic enzymes are acetylated, we propose that acetylation is a major posttranslational modifier that regulates cellular metabolism. PMID:22096030

  1. Molecular characterization of a new acetyl xylan esterase (AXEII) from edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea with both de-O-acetylation and de-N-acetylation activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiufeng; Ding, Shaojun

    2009-06-01

    A new Volvariella volvacea gene encoding a carbohydrate esterase (CE) family 4 acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) (designated as VvaxeII) was cloned and characterized. The coded polypeptide had 253 amino acid residues, with the first 19 serving as a secretion signal peptide. The VvaxeII transcript levels were high when the fungus was grown on oat spelt xylan, cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, lactose, galactose, and chitin from crab as carbon sources. The recombinant VvAXEII produced by expression of VvaxeII in Pichia pastoris exhibited activity toward acetylated oat spelt xylan and various chitinous substrates, but was totally inactive against artificial aromatic acetates such as beta-nitrophenyl, 4-methylumbelliferyl, and alpha-naphthyl acetates. Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis was maximal at pH 7.0 and 60 degrees C, and reciprocal plots revealed an apparent K(m) value of 1.42 mg mL(-1) and a V(max) value of 833 IU micromol(-1) protein using glycol chitin as a substrate. The recombinant VvAXEII requires activation by bivalent cations such as Co2+ and Mg2+. Interestingly, the recombinant VvAXEII showed no deacetylation activity to fully acetylated monosaccharides such as xylose tetraacetate. PMID:19473250

  2. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation.

  3. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

  4. Production of biomolecule microarrays through laser induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Pradas, Juan Marcos; Serra, Pere; Colina, Monica; Morenza, Jose-Luis

    2004-10-01

    Biomolecule microarrays are a kind of biosensors that consist in patterns of different biological molecules immobilized on a solid substrate and capable to bind specifically to their complementary targets. In particular, DNA and protein microarrays have been revealed to be very efficient devices for genen and protein identification, what has converted them in powerful tools for many applications, like clinical diagnose, drug discovery analysis, genomics and proteomics. The production of these devices requires the manipulation of tiny amounts of a liquid solution containing biomolecules without damaging them. In this work laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) has been used for spotting a biomolecule in order to check the viability of this technique for the production of microarrays. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam (355 nm wavelength) has been used to transfer droplets of a biomolecule containing solution onto a solid slide. Optical microscopy of the transferred material has been carried out to investigate the morphological characteristics of the droplets obtained under different irradiation conditions. Afterwards, a DNA microarray has been spotted. The viability of the transference has been tested by checking the biological activity of the biomolecule in front of its specific complementary target. This has revealed that, indeed, the LIFT technique is adequate for the production of DNA microarrays.

  5. Acetyl Coenzyme A Stimulates RNA Polymerase II Transcription and Promoter Binding by Transcription Factor IID in the Absence of Histones

    PubMed Central

    Galasinski, Shelly K.; Lively, Tricia N.; Grebe de Barron, Alexandra; Goodrich, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Protein acetylation has emerged as a means of controlling levels of mRNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) stimulates RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro in the absence of histones. The effect of acetyl-CoA on basal and activated transcription was studied in a human RNA polymerase II transcription system reconstituted from recombinant and highly purified transcription factors. Both basal and activated transcription were stimulated by the addition of acetyl-CoA to transcription reaction mixtures. By varying the concentrations of general transcription factors in the reaction mixtures, we found that acetyl-CoA decreased the concentration of TFIID required to observe transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting revealed that acetyl-CoA increased the affinity of the general transcription factor TFIID for promoter DNA in a TBP-associated factor (TAF)-dependent manner. Interestingly, acetyl-CoA also caused a conformational change in the TFIID-TFIIA-promoter complex as assessed by DNase I footprinting. These results show that acetyl-CoA alters the DNA binding activity of TFIID and indicate that this biologically important cofactor functions at multiple levels to control gene expression. PMID:10688640

  6. The Stanford Tissue Microarray Database.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Robert J; Montgomery, Kelli; Liu, Chih Long; Shah, Nigam H; Prapong, Wijan; Nitzberg, Michael; Zachariah, Zachariah K; Sherlock, Gavin J; Natkunam, Yasodha; West, Robert B; van de Rijn, Matt; Brown, Patrick O; Ball, Catherine A

    2008-01-01

    The Stanford Tissue Microarray Database (TMAD; http://tma.stanford.edu) is a public resource for disseminating annotated tissue images and associated expression data. Stanford University pathologists, researchers and their collaborators worldwide use TMAD for designing, viewing, scoring and analyzing their tissue microarrays. The use of tissue microarrays allows hundreds of human tissue cores to be simultaneously probed by antibodies to detect protein abundance (Immunohistochemistry; IHC), or by labeled nucleic acids (in situ hybridization; ISH) to detect transcript abundance. TMAD archives multi-wavelength fluorescence and bright-field images of tissue microarrays for scoring and analysis. As of July 2007, TMAD contained 205 161 images archiving 349 distinct probes on 1488 tissue microarray slides. Of these, 31 306 images for 68 probes on 125 slides have been released to the public. To date, 12 publications have been based on these raw public data. TMAD incorporates the NCI Thesaurus ontology for searching tissues in the cancer domain. Image processing researchers can extract images and scores for training and testing classification algorithms. The production server uses the Apache HTTP Server, Oracle Database and Perl application code. Source code is available to interested researchers under a no-cost license. PMID:17989087

  7. Comparing Bacterial DNA Microarray Fingerprints

    SciTech Connect

    Willse, Alan R.; Chandler, Darrell P.; White, Amanda M.; Protic, Miroslava; Daly, Don S.; Wunschel, Sharon C.

    2005-08-15

    Detecting subtle genetic differences between microorganisms is an important problem in molecular epidemiology and microbial forensics. In a typical investigation, gel electrophoresis is used to compare randomly amplified DNA fragments between microbial strains, where the patterns of DNA fragment sizes are proxies for a microbe's genotype. The limited genomic sample captured on a gel is often insufficient to discriminate nearly identical strains. This paper examines the application of microarray technology to DNA fingerprinting as a high-resolution alternative to gel-based methods. The so-called universal microarray, which uses short oligonucleotide probes that do not target specific genes or species, is intended to be applicable to all microorganisms because it does not require prior knowledge of genomic sequence. In principle, closely related strains can be distinguished if the number of probes on the microarray is sufficiently large, i.e., if the genome is sufficiently sampled. In practice, we confront noisy data, imperfectly matched hybridizations, and a high-dimensional inference problem. We describe the statistical problems of microarray fingerprinting, outline similarities with and differences from more conventional microarray applications, and illustrate the statistical fingerprinting problem for 10 closely related strains from three Bacillus species, and 3 strains from non-Bacillus species.

  8. Microarray analysis of E9.5 reduced folate carrier (RFC1; Slc19a1) knockout embryos reveals altered expression of genes in the cubilin-megalin multiligand endocytic receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R; Smith, Lynette M; van Waes, Michael; Wilberding, Justin; Eudy, James D; Bauer, Linda K; Finnell, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    Background The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) is an integral membrane protein and facilitative anion exchanger that mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate into mammalian cells. Adequate maternal-fetal transport of folate is necessary for normal embryogenesis. Targeted inactivation of the murine RFC1 gene results in post-implantation embryolethality, but daily folic acid supplementation of pregnant dams prolongs survival of homozygous embryos until mid-gestation. At E10.5 RFC1-/- embryos are developmentally delayed relative to wildtype littermates, have multiple malformations, including neural tube defects, and die due to failure of chorioallantoic fusion. The mesoderm is sparse and disorganized, and there is a marked absence of erythrocytes in yolk sac blood islands. The identification of alterations in gene expression and signaling pathways involved in the observed dysmorphology following inactivation of RFC1-mediated folate transport are the focus of this investigation. Results Affymetrix microarray analysis of the relative gene expression profiles in whole E9.5 RFC1-/- vs. RFC1+/+ embryos identified 200 known genes that were differentially expressed. Major ontology groups included transcription factors (13.04%), and genes involved in transport functions (ion, lipid, carbohydrate) (11.37%). Genes that code for receptors, ligands and interacting proteins in the cubilin-megalin multiligand endocytic receptor complex accounted for 9.36% of the total, followed closely by several genes involved in hematopoiesis (8.03%). The most highly significant gene network identified by Ingenuity™ Pathway analysis included 12 genes in the cubilin-megalin multiligand endocytic receptor complex. Altered expression of these genes was validated by quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that megalin protein expression disappeared from the visceral yolk sac of RFC1-/- embryos, while cubilin protein was widely misexpressed. Conclusion Inactivation of

  9. Identification of Lysine Acetylation in Mycobacterium abscessus Using LC-MS/MS after Immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jintao; Wang, Changwei; Han, Yi; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Tian; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yang; Tan, Yaoju; Cai, Xinshan; Cao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Bangxing; Zhang, Buchang; Liu, Chunping; Tan, Shouyong; Zhang, Tianyu

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB), which manifests in the pulmonary system, is one of the neglected causes of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. Treatment against MAB is difficult, characterized by its intrinsic antibiotic drug resistance. Lysine acetylation can alter the physiochemical property of proteins in living organisms. This study aimed to determine if this protein post-translational modification (PTM) exists in a clinical isolate M. abscessus GZ002. We used the antiacetyl-lysine immunoprecipitation to enrich the low-abundant PTM proteins, followed by the LC-MS/MS analysis. The lysine acetylome of M. abscessus GZ002 was determined. There were 459 lysine acetylation sites found in 289 acetylated proteins. Lysine acetylation occurred in 5.87% of the M. abscessus GZ002 proteome, and at least 25% of them were growth essential. Aerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolic pathways of M. abscessus GZ002 were enriched with lysine acetylation. Through bioinformatics analysis, we identified four major acetyl motif logos (K(ac)Y, K(ac)F, K(ac)H, and DK(ac)). Further comparison of the reported M. tuberculosis (MTB) acetylomes and that of MAB GZ002 revealed several common features between these two species. The lysine residues of several antibiotic-resistance, virulence, and persistence-related proteins were acetylated in both MAB GZ002 and MTB. There were 51 identical acetylation sites in 37 proteins found in common between MAB GZ002 and MTB. Overall, we demonstrate a profile of lysine acetylation in MAB GZ002 proteome that shares similarities with MTB. Interventions that target at these conserved sections may be valuable as anti-NTM or anti-TB therapies. PMID:27323652

  10. Characteristic attributes in cancer microarrays.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, I N; Planet, P J; Bael, T E; Stanley, S E; Siddall, M; DeSalle, R; Figurski, D H

    2002-04-01

    Rapid advances in genome sequencing and gene expression microarray technologies are providing unprecedented opportunities to identify specific genes involved in complex biological processes, such as development, signal transduction, and disease. The vast amount of data generated by these technologies has presented new challenges in bioinformatics. To help organize and interpret microarray data, new and efficient computational methods are needed to: (1) distinguish accurately between different biological or clinical categories (e.g., malignant vs. benign), and (2) identify specific genes that play a role in determining those categories. Here we present a novel and simple method that exhaustively scans microarray data for unambiguous gene expression patterns. Such patterns of data can be used as the basis for classification into biological or clinical categories. The method, termed the Characteristic Attribute Organization System (CAOS), is derived from fundamental precepts in systematic biology. In CAOS we define two types of characteristic attributes ('pure' and 'private') that may exist in gene expression microarray data. We also consider additional attributes ('compound') that are composed of expression states of more than one gene that are not characteristic on their own. CAOS was tested on three well-known cancer DNA microarray data sets for its ability to classify new microarray samples. We found CAOS to be a highly accurate and robust class prediction technique. In addition, CAOS identified specific genes, not emphasized in other analyses, that may be crucial to the biology of certain types of cancer. The success of CAOS in this study has significant implications for basic research and the future development of reliable methods for clinical diagnostic tools. PMID:12474425

  11. Acetylation in vitro of constituent polypeptides by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and Golgi membrane fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Sambasivam, H.; Murray, R.K.

    1986-05-01

    Many polypeptides of the membranes of the ER are phosphorylated. To determine if any such polypeptides are acetylated, microsomal and other classical subcellular fractions were incubated with (/sup 3/H) acetyl-CoA; the specific activity of the microsomal fraction (MF) was the greatest. SDS-PAGE revealed that some 20 polypeptides of the MF were acetylated; 2-D electrophoretograms extended this number to approximately 60. Separation of the MF into smooth (S) and rough (R) fractions showed that the great majority of the labelled polypeptides belonged to the former. Isolation of a Golgi fraction revealed that its acetylation activity was approximately 3-fold greater than the SER fraction. Extensive proteolytic digestion of the MF followed by radiochromatography disclosed some 9 components whose precise nature (acetylated amino acids and/or sialic acids, etc.) is under study. Assuming that the majority of the radioactivity is in the former components and that a similar process occurs in vivo, the authors suggest that the Golgi apparatus may be a major site of acetylation of membrane and possibly other proteins.

  12. Microarrayed Materials for Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in disease modeling, cancer therapy and regenerative medicine. Despite the significant progress made during the last decade, designing materials to control stem cell fate remains challenging. As an alternative, materials microarray technology has received great attention because it allows for high throughput materials synthesis and screening at a reasonable cost. Here, we discuss recent developments in materials microarray technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Future opportunities in the field will also be reviewed. PMID:24311967

  13. Immunoprofiling Using NAPPA Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sibani, Sahar; LaBaer, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Protein microarrays provide an efficient method to immunoprofile patients in an effort to rapidly identify disease immunosignatures. The validity of using autoantibodies in diagnosis has been demonstrated in type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus, and is now being strongly considered in cancer. Several types of protein microarrays exist including antibody and antigen arrays. In this chapter, we describe the immunoprofiling application for one type of antigen array called NAPPA (nucleic acids programmable protein array). We provide a guideline for setting up the screening study and designing protein arrays to maximize the likelihood of obtaining quality data. PMID:21370064

  14. Acetylation phenotypes in patients with bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bicho, M P; Breitenfeld, L; Carvalho, A A; Manso, C F

    1988-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the possible association of bladder carcinoma with the slow acetylator phenotype in a portuguese population. 49 patients with bladder carcinoma were compared to a normal control group of 84 individuals. No statistically significant association was detected. But when subdividing the group of slow acetylators it is found that in the subgroup with 12-36% acetylation there is a higher percentage of patients, which is statistically significant. These results are in agreement with two other studies, using populations of similar ethnic origin. PMID:3265609

  15. Microfluidic microarray systems and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    West, Jay A. A.; Hukari, Kyle W.; Hux, Gary A.

    2009-04-28

    Disclosed are systems that include a manifold in fluid communication with a microfluidic chip having a microarray, an illuminator, and a detector in optical communication with the microarray. Methods for using these systems for biological detection are also disclosed.

  16. Microarray analysis: Uses and Limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of microarray technology has exploded in resent years. All areas of biological research have found application for this powerful platform. From human disease studies to microbial detection systems, a plethora of uses for this technology are currently in place with new uses being developed ...

  17. Microarray Developed on Plastic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Bañuls, María-José; Morais, Sergi B; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A; Maquieira, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    There is a huge potential interest to use synthetic polymers as versatile solid supports for analytical microarraying. Chemical modification of polycarbonate (PC) for covalent immobilization of probes, micro-printing of protein or nucleic acid probes, development of indirect immunoassay, and development of hybridization protocols are described and discussed. PMID:26614067

  18. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  19. Acetylation modification regulates GRP78 secretion in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongwei; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Lichao; Zheng, Xingnan; Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-01-01

    High glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression contributes to the acquisition of a wide range of phenotypic cancer hallmarks, and the pleiotropic oncogenic functions of GRP78 may result from its diverse subcellular distribution. Interestingly, GRP78 has been reported to be secreted from solid tumour cells, participating in cell-cell communication in the tumour microenvironment. However, the mechanism underlying this secretion remains elusive. Here, we report that GRP78 is secreted from colon cancer cells via exosomes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors blocked GRP78 release by inducing its aggregation in the ER. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibitor treatment suppressed HDAC6 activity and led to increased GRP78 acetylation; acetylated GRP78 then bound to VPS34, a class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase, consequently preventing the sorting of GRP78 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Of note, we found that mimicking GRP78 acetylation by substituting the lysine at residue 633, one of the deacetylated sites of HDAC6, with a glutamine resulted in decreased GRP78 secretion and impaired tumour cell growth in vitro. Our study thus reveals a hitherto-unknown mechanism of GRP78 secretion and may also provide implications for the therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27460191

  20. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Affects Histone Acetylation and Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Verdone, Loredana; La Fortezza, Marco; Ciccarone, Fabio; Caiafa, Paola; Zampieri, Michele; Caserta, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a posttranslational protein modification catalyzed by members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme family. PARylation regulates a wide variety of biological processes in most eukaryotic cells including energy metabolism and cell death, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure and transcription. Inside the nucleus, cross-talk between PARylation and other epigenetic modifications, such as DNA and histone methylation, was already described. In the present work, using PJ34 or ABT888 to inhibit PARP activity or over-expressing poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), we show decrease of global histone H3 and H4 acetylation. This effect is accompanied by a reduction of the steady state mRNA level of p300, Pcaf, and Tnfα, but not of Dnmt1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses, performed at the level of the Transcription Start Site (TSS) of these four genes, reveal that changes in histone acetylation are specific for each promoter. Finally, we demonstrate an increase of global deacetylase activity in nuclear extracts from cells treated with PJ34, whereas global acetyltransferase activity is not affected, suggesting a role for PARP in the inhibition of histone deacetylases. Taken together, these results show an important link between PARylation and histone acetylation regulated transcription. PMID:26636673

  1. Selective cleavage enhanced by acetylating the side chain of lysine.

    PubMed

    Fu, Leixiaomeng; Chen, Tingting; Xue, Gaiqing; Zu, Lily; Fang, Weihai

    2013-01-01

    Selective cleavage is of great interest in mass spectrometry studies as it can help sequence identification by promoting simple fragmentation pattern of peptides and proteins. In this work, the collision-induced dissociation of peptides containing internal lysine and acetylated lysine residues were studied. The experimental and computational results revealed that multiple fragmentation pathways coexisted when the lysine residue was two amino acid residues away from N-terminal of the peptide. After acetylation of the lysine side-chain, b(n)+ ions were the most abundant primary fragment products and the Lys(Ac)-Gly amide bond became the dominant cleavage site via an oxazolone pathway. Acetylating the side-chain of lysine promoted the selective cleavage of Lys-Xxx amide bond and generated much more information of the peptide backbone sequence. The results re-evaluate the selective cleavage due to the lysine basic side-chain and provide information for studying the post-translational modification of proteins and other bio-molecules containing Lys residues. PMID:23303756

  2. Acetylator phenotypes in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Penketh, R J A; Gibney, S F A; Nurse, G T; Hopkinson, D A

    1983-01-01

    Acetylator phenotypes have been determined in 139 unrelated subjects from the hitherto untested populations of Papua New Guinea, and their relevance to current antituberculous isoniazid chemotherapy is discussed. PMID:6842533

  3. Characterization of Semisynthetic and Naturally Nα-Acetylated α-Synuclein in Vitro and in Intact Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fauvet, Bruno; Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Samuel, Filsy; Dikiy, Igor; Tandon, Anurag; Eliezer, David; Lashuel, Hilal A.

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a very common post-translational modification, although its role in regulating protein physical properties and function remains poorly understood. α-Synuclein (α-syn), a protein that has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, is constitutively Nα-acetylated in vivo. Nevertheless, most of the biochemical and biophysical studies on the structure, aggregation, and function of α-syn in vitro utilize recombinant α-syn from Escherichia coli, which is not N-terminally acetylated. To elucidate the effect of Nα-acetylation on the biophysical and biological properties of α-syn, we produced Nα-acetylated α-syn first using a semisynthetic methodology based on expressed protein ligation (Berrade, L., and Camarero, J. A. (2009) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 66, 3909–3922) and then a recombinant expression strategy, to compare its properties to unacetylated α-syn. We demonstrate that both WT and Nα-acetylated α-syn share a similar secondary structure and oligomeric state using both purified protein preparations and in-cell NMR on E. coli overexpressing Nα-acetylated α-syn. The two proteins have very close aggregation propensities as shown by thioflavin T binding and sedimentation assays. Furthermore, both Nα-acetylated and WT α-syn exhibited similar ability to bind synaptosomal membranes in vitro and in HeLa cells, where both internalized proteins exhibited prominent cytosolic subcellular distribution. We then determined the effect of attenuating Nα-acetylation in living cells, first by using a nonacetylable mutant and then by silencing the enzyme responsible for α-syn Nα-acetylation. Both approaches revealed similar subcellular distribution and membrane binding for both the nonacetylable mutant and WT α-syn, suggesting that N-terminal acetylation does not significantly affect its structure in vitro and in intact cells. PMID:22718772

  4. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  5. Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Is Acetylated in Vivo in Human Muscle: Modeling Predicts a Decreased ADP Affinity and Altered Control of Oxidative Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics techniques have revealed that lysine acetylation is abundant in mitochondrial proteins. This study was undertaken (1) to determine the relationship between mitochondrial protein acetylation and insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle, identifying key acetylated proteins, and (2) to use molecular modeling techniques to understand the functional consequences of acetylation of adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1), which we found to be abundantly acetylated. Eight lean and eight obese nondiabetic subjects had euglycemic clamps and muscle biopsies for isolation of mitochondrial proteins and proteomics analysis. A number of acetylated mitochondrial proteins were identified in muscle biopsies. Overall, acetylation of mitochondrial proteins was correlated with insulin action (r = 0.60; P < 0.05). Of the acetylated proteins, ANT1, which catalyzes ADP–ATP exchange across the inner mitochondrial membrane, was acetylated at lysines 10, 23, and 92. The extent of acetylation of lysine 23 decreased following exercise, depending on insulin sensitivity. Molecular dynamics modeling and ensemble docking simulations predicted the ADP binding site of ANT1 to be a pocket of positively charged residues, including lysine 23. Calculated ADP–ANT1 binding affinities were physiologically relevant and predicted substantial reductions in affinity upon acetylation of lysine 23. Insertion of these derived binding affinities as parameters into a complete mathematical description of ANT1 kinetics predicted marked reductions in adenine nucleotide flux resulting from acetylation of lysine 23. Therefore, acetylation of ANT1 could have dramatic physiological effects on ADP–ATP exchange. Dysregulation of acetylation of mitochondrial proteins such as ANT1 therefore could be related to changes in mitochondrial function that are associated with insulin resistance. PMID:24884163

  6. Protein acetylation in metabolism - metabolites and cofactors.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Keir J; Zhang, Hongbo; Katsyuba, Elena; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Reversible acetylation was initially described as an epigenetic mechanism regulating DNA accessibility. Since then, this process has emerged as a controller of histone and nonhistone acetylation that integrates key physiological processes such as metabolism, circadian rhythm and cell cycle, along with gene regulation in various organisms. The widespread and reversible nature of acetylation also revitalized interest in the mechanisms that regulate lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and deacetylases (KDACs) in health and disease. Changes in protein or histone acetylation are especially relevant for many common diseases including obesity, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, as well as for some rare diseases such as mitochondrial diseases and lipodystrophies. In this Review, we examine the role of reversible acetylation in metabolic control and how changes in levels of metabolites or cofactors, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide, coenzyme A, acetyl coenzyme A, zinc and butyrate and/or β-hydroxybutyrate, directly alter KAT or KDAC activity to link energy status to adaptive cellular and organismal homeostasis. PMID:26503676

  7. The Microarray Revolution: Perspectives from Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…

  8. Aspirin inhibits glucose‑6‑phosphate dehydrogenase activity in HCT 116 cells through acetylation: Identification of aspirin-acetylated sites.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, and generates ribose sugars, which are required for nucleic acid synthesis, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for neutralization of oxidative stress. The expression of G6PD is elevated in several types of tumor, including colon, breast and lung cancer, and has been implicated in cancer cell growth. Our previous study demonstrated that exposure of HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells to aspirin caused acetylation of G6PD, and this was associated with a decrease in its enzyme activity. In the present study, this observation was expanded to HT‑29 colorectal cancer cells, in order to compare aspirin‑mediated acetylation of G6PD and its activity between HCT 116 and HT‑29 cells. In addition, the present study aimed to determine the acetylation targets of aspirin on recombinant G6PD to provide an insight into the mechanisms of inhibition. The results demonstrated that the extent of G6PD acetylation was significantly higher in HCT 116 cells compared with in HT‑29 cells; accordingly, a greater reduction in G6PD enzyme activity was observed in the HCT 116 cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of aspirin‑acetylated G6PD (isoform a) revealed that aspirin acetylated a total of 14 lysine residues, which were dispersed throughout the length of the G6PD protein. One of the important amino acid targets of aspirin included lysine 235 (K235, in isoform a) and this corresponds to K205 in isoform b, which has previously been identified as being important for catalysis. Acetylation of G6PD at several sites, including K235 (K205 in isoform b), may mediate inhibition of G6PD activity, which may contribute to the ability of aspirin to exert anticancer effects through decreased synthesis of ribose sugars and NADPH. PMID:27356773

  9. Autoregulation of the Rsc4 Tandem Bromodomain by Gcn5 Acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    VanDemark,A.; Kasten, M.; Ferris, E.; Heroux, A.; Hill, C.; Cairns, B.

    2007-01-01

    An important issue for chromatin remodeling complexes is how their bromodomains recognize particular acetylated lysine residues in histones. The Rsc4 subunit of the yeast remodeler RSC contains an essential tandem bromodomain (TBD) that binds acetylated K14 of histone H3 (H3K14ac). We report a series of crystal structures that reveal a compact TBD that binds H3K14ac in the second bromodomain and, remarkably, binds acetylated K25 of Rsc4 itself in the first bromodomain. Endogenous Rsc4 is acetylated only at K25, and Gcn5 is identified as necessary and sufficient for Rsc4 K25 acetylation in vivo and in vitro. Rsc4 K25 acetylation inhibits binding to H3K14ac, and mutation of Rsc4 K25 results in altered growth rates. These data suggest an autoregulatory mechanism in which Gcn5 performs both the activating (H3K14ac) and inhibitory (Rsc4 K25ac) modifications, perhaps to provide temporal regulation. Additional regulatory mechanisms are indicated as H3S10 phosphorylation inhibits Rsc4 binding to H3K14ac peptides.

  10. PPARα Activation Induces Nε-Lys-Acetylation of Rat Liver Peroxisomal Multifunctional Enzyme Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Miguel A.; Alzate, Oscar; Singh, Avtar K.

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous subcellular organelles that participate in metabolic and disease processes, with few of its proteins undergoing posttranslational modifications. As the role of lysine-acetylation has expanded into the cellular intermediary metabolism, we used a combination of differential centrifugation, organelle isolation by linear density gradient centrifugation, western blot analysis, and peptide fingerprinting and amino acid sequencing by mass spectrometry to investigate protein acetylation in control and ciprofibrate-treated rat liver peroxisomes. Organelle protein samples isolated by density gradient centrifugation from PPARα-agonist treated rat liver screened with an anti-Nε-acetyl lysine antibody revealed a single protein band of 75 kDa. Immunoprecipitation with this antibody resulted in the precipitation of a protein from the protein pool of ciprofibrate-induced peroxisomes, but not from the protein pool of non-induced peroxisomes. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis identified the protein as the peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 1. In addition, mass spectrometry-based amino acid sequencing resulted in the identification of unique peptides containing 4 acetylated-Lys residues (K155, K173, K190, and K583). This is the first report that demonstrates posttranslational acetylation of a peroxisomal enzyme in PPARα-dependent proliferation of peroxisomes in rat liver. PMID:24092543

  11. Acetylation of glucokinase regulatory protein decreases glucose metabolism by suppressing glucokinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-Man; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Jo, Seong-Ho; Kim, Mi-Young; Ahn, Yong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK), mainly expressed in the liver and pancreatic β-cells, is critical for maintaining glucose homeostasis. GK expression and kinase activity, respectively, are both modulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Post-translationally, GK is regulated by binding the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), resulting in GK retention in the nucleus and its inability to participate in cytosolic glycolysis. Although hepatic GKRP is known to be regulated by allosteric mechanisms, the precise details of modulation of GKRP activity, by post-translational modification, are not well known. Here, we demonstrate that GKRP is acetylated at Lys5 by the acetyltransferase p300. Acetylated GKRP is resistant to degradation by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway, suggesting that acetylation increases GKRP stability and binding to GK, further inhibiting GK nuclear export. Deacetylation of GKRP is effected by the NAD+-dependent, class III histone deacetylase SIRT2, which is inhibited by nicotinamide. Moreover, the livers of db/db obese, diabetic mice also show elevated GKRP acetylation, suggesting a broader, critical role in regulating blood glucose. Given that acetylated GKRP may affiliate with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), understanding the mechanism of GKRP acetylation in the liver could reveal novel targets within the GK-GKRP pathway, for treating T2DM and other metabolic pathologies. PMID:26620281

  12. Molecular Signatures in the Prevention of Radiation Damage by the Synergistic Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Qingre Liyan Decoction, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Using a 3-Dimensional Cell Culture Model of Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, Maria P.; Kondapalli, Lavanya; Parsa, Cyrus; Mulamalla, Hari Chandana; Orlando, Robert; Pon, Doreen; Huang, Ying; Chow, Moses S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD), a Traditional Chinese medicine, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) have been used to prevent radiation induced mucositis. This work evaluates the protective mechanisms of QYD, NAC, and their combination (NAC-QYD) at the cellular and transcriptional level. A validated organotypic model of oral mucosal consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) cell tissue-culture of primary human keratinocytes exposed to X-ray irradiation was used. Six hours after the irradiation, the tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and a TUNEL assay to assess histopathology and apoptosis, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray gene expression profiling. The tissue-cultures treated with NAC-QYD preserved their integrity and showed no apoptosis. Microarray results revealed that the NAC-QYD caused the upregulation of genes encoding metallothioneins, HMOX1, and other components of the Nrf2 pathway, which protects against oxidative stress. DNA repair genes (XCP, GADD45G, RAD9, and XRCC1), protective genes (EGFR and PPARD), and genes of the NFκB pathway were upregulated. Finally, tissue-cultures treated prophylactically with NAC-QYD showed significant downregulation of apoptosis, cytokines and chemokines genes, and constrained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). NAC-QYD treatment involves the protective effect of Nrf2, NFκB, and DNA repair factors. PMID:25705238

  13. “On silico” peptide microarrays for high-resolution mapping of antibody epitopes and diverse protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jordan V; Tangsombatvisit, Stephanie; Xu, Guangyu; Levy, Dan; Baechler, Emily C.; Gozani, Or; Varma, Madoo; Liu, Chih Long

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel, silicon-based peptide array for broad biological applications, including potential for development as a real-time point-of-care platform. We employed photolithography on silicon wafers to synthesize microarrays (Intel arrays), containing every possible overlapping peptide within a linear protein sequence covering the N-terminal tail of human histone H2B. Arrays also included peptides with acetylated and methylated lysine residues reflecting post-translational modifications of H2B. We defined minimum binding epitopes for commercial antibodies recognizing modified and unmodified H2B peptides. We further demonstrated that this platform is suitable for highly sensitive methyltransferase and kinase substrate characterization. Intel arrays also revealed specific H2B epitopes recognized by autoantibodies in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that have increased disease severity. By combining emerging nonfluorescence-based detection methods with an underlying integrated circuit, we are now poised to create a truly transformative proteomics platform with applications in bioscience, drug development, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:22902875

  14. Biclustering of time series microarray data.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Huang, Yufei

    2012-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data exploration technique widely used in microarray data analysis. In this chapter, we review ideas and algorithms of bicluster and its applications in time series microarray analysis. We introduce first the concept and importance of biclustering and its different variations. We then focus our discussion on the popular iterative signature algorithm (ISA) for searching biclusters in microarray dataset. Next, we discuss in detail the enrichment constraint time-dependent ISA (ECTDISA) for identifying biologically meaningful temporal transcription modules from time series microarray dataset. In the end, we provide an example of ECTDISA application to time series microarray data of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. PMID:22130875

  15. Assessing Agreement between miRNA Microarray Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Niccolò P.; Ambrogi, Federico; Biganzoli, Elia M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, miRNA microarray platforms have provided great insights into the biological mechanisms underlying the onset and development of several diseases. However, only a few studies have evaluated the concordance between different microarray platforms using methods that took into account measurement error in the data. In this work, we propose the use of a modified version of the Bland–Altman plot to assess agreement between microarray platforms. To this aim, two samples, one renal tumor cell line and a pool of 20 different human normal tissues, were profiled using three different miRNA platforms (Affymetrix, Agilent, Illumina) on triplicate arrays. Intra-platform reliability was assessed by calculating pair-wise concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) between technical replicates and overall concordance correlation coefficient (OCCC) with bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which revealed moderate-to-good repeatability of all platforms for both samples. Modified Bland–Altman analysis revealed good patterns of concordance for Agilent and Illumina, whereas Affymetrix showed poor-to-moderate agreement for both samples considered. The proposed method is useful to assess agreement between array platforms by modifying the original Bland–Altman plot to let it account for measurement error and bias correction and can be used to assess patterns of concordance between other kinds of arrays other than miRNA microarrays.

  16. The Current Status of DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Leming; Perkins, Roger G.; Tong, Weida

    DNA microarray technology that allows simultaneous assay of thousands of genes in a single experiment has steadily advanced to become a mainstream method used in research, and has reached a stage that envisions its use in medical applications and personalized medicine. Many different strategies have been developed for manufacturing DNA microarrays. In this chapter, we discuss the manufacturing characteristics of seven microarray platforms that were used in a recently completed large study by the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium, which evaluated the concordance of results across these platforms. The platforms can be grouped into three categories: (1) in situ synthesis of oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays based on photolithography synthesis and Agilent's arrays based on inkjet synthesis); (2) spotting of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (GE Healthcare's CodeLink system, Applied Biosystems' Genome Survey Microarrays, and the custom microarrays printed with Operon's oligonucleotide set); and (3) deposition of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on bead-based microarrays (Illumina's BeadChip microarrays). We conclude this chapter with our views on the challenges and opportunities toward acceptance of DNA microarray data in clinical and regulatory settings.

  17. The Current Status of DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Leming; Perkins, Roger G.; Tong, Weida

    DNA microarray technology that allows simultaneous assay of thousands of genes in a single experiment has steadily advanced to become a mainstream method used in research, and has reached a stage that envisions its use in medical applications and personalized medicine. Many different strategies have been developed for manufacturing DNA microarrays. In this chapter, we discuss the manu facturing characteristics of seven microarray platforms that were used in a recently completed large study by the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium, which evaluated the concordance of results across these platforms. The platforms can be grouped into three categories: (1) in situ synthesis of oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays based on photolithography synthesis and Agilent's arrays based on inkjet synthesis); (2) spotting of presynthe-sized oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (GE Healthcare's CodeLink system, Applied Biosystems' Genome Survey Microarrays, and the custom microarrays printed with Operon's oligonucleotide set); and (3) deposition of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on bead-based microarrays (Illumina's BeadChip microar-rays). We conclude this chapter with our views on the challenges and opportunities toward acceptance of DNA microarray data in clinical and regulatory settings.

  18. Tissue microarrays: applications in genomic research.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Aprill; Cornelison, Robert; Hostetter, Galen

    2005-03-01

    The widespread application of tissue microarrays in cancer research and the clinical pathology laboratory demonstrates a versatile and portable technology. The rapid integration of tissue microarrays into biomarker discovery and validation processes reflects the forward thinking of researchers who have pioneered the high-density tissue microarray. The precise arrangement of hundreds of archival clinical tissue samples into a composite tissue microarray block is now a proven method for the efficient and standardized analysis of molecular markers. With applications in cancer research, tissue microarrays are a valuable tool in validating candidate markers discovered in highly sensitive genome-wide microarray experiments. With applications in clinical pathology, tissue microarrays are used widely in immunohistochemistry quality control and quality assurance. The timeline of a biomarker implicated in prostate neoplasia, which was identified by complementary DNA expression profiling, validated by tissue microarrays and is now used as a prognostic immunohistochemistry marker, is reviewed. The tissue microarray format provides opportunities for digital imaging acquisition, image processing and database integration. Advances in digital imaging help to alleviate previous bottlenecks in the research pipeline, permit computer image scoring and convey telepathology opportunities for remote image analysis. The tissue microarray industry now includes public and private sectors with varying degrees of research utility and offers a range of potential tissue microarray applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery. PMID:15833047

  19. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  20. Phenotypic MicroRNA Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Jun; Heo, Jin Yeong; Kim, Hi Chul; Kim, Jin Yeop; Liuzzi, Michel; Soloveva, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Microarray technology has become a very popular approach in cases where multiple experiments need to be conducted repeatedly or done with a variety of samples. In our lab, we are applying our high density spots microarray approach to microscopy visualization of the effects of transiently introduced siRNA or cDNA on cellular morphology or phenotype. In this publication, we are discussing the possibility of using this micro-scale high throughput process to study the role of microRNAs in the biology of selected cellular models. After reverse-transfection of microRNAs and siRNA, the cellular phenotype generated by microRNAs regulated NF-κB expression comparably to the siRNA. The ability to print microRNA molecules for reverse transfection into cells is opening up the wide horizon for the phenotypic high content screening of microRNA libraries using cellular disease models.

  1. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna

    2016-07-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  2. Self-Assembling Protein Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Niroshan; Hainsworth, Eugenie; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Eisenstein, Samuel; Rosen, Benjamin; Lau, Albert Y.; C. Walter, Johannes; LaBaer, Joshua

    2004-07-01

    Protein microarrays provide a powerful tool for the study of protein function. However, they are not widely used, in part because of the challenges in producing proteins to spot on the arrays. We generated protein microarrays by printing complementary DNAs onto glass slides and then translating target proteins with mammalian reticulocyte lysate. Epitope tags fused to the proteins allowed them to be immobilized in situ. This obviated the need to purify proteins, avoided protein stability problems during storage, and captured sufficient protein for functional studies. We used the technology to map pairwise interactions among 29 human DNA replication initiation proteins, recapitulate the regulation of Cdt1 binding to select replication proteins, and map its geminin-binding domain.

  3. Optimisation algorithms for microarray biclustering.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Dimitri; Duhamel, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    In providing simultaneous information on expression profiles for thousands of genes, microarray technologies have, in recent years, been largely used to investigate mechanisms of gene expression. Clustering and classification of such data can, indeed, highlight patterns and provide insight on biological processes. A common approach is to consider genes and samples of microarray datasets as nodes in a bipartite graphs, where edges are weighted e.g. based on the expression levels. In this paper, using a previously-evaluated weighting scheme, we focus on search algorithms and evaluate, in the context of biclustering, several variations of Genetic Algorithms. We also introduce a new heuristic "Propagate", which consists in recursively evaluating neighbour solutions with one more or one less active conditions. The results obtained on three well-known datasets show that, for a given weighting scheme, optimal or near-optimal solutions can be identified. PMID:24109756

  4. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and β-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone

  5. Histone Acetylation Regulates Intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    McBrian, Matthew A.; Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Ferrari, Roberto; Su, Trent; Huang, Ta-Wei; Li, Kunwu; Hong, Candice S.; Christofk, Heather R.; Vogelauer, Maria; Seligson, David B.; Kurdistani, Siavash K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Differences in global levels of histone acetylation occur in normal and cancer cells, although the reason why cells regulate these levels has been unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for histone acetylation in regulating intracellular pH (pHi). As pHi decreases, histones are globally deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and the released acetate anions are coexported with protons out of the cell by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), preventing further reductions in pHi. Conversely, global histone acetylation increases as pHi rises, such as when resting cells are induced to proliferate. Inhibition of HDACs or MCTs decreases acetate export and lowers pHi, particularly compromising pHi maintenance in acidic environments. Global deacetylation at low pH is reflected at a genomic level by decreased abundance and extensive redistribution of acetylation throughout the genome. Thus, acetylation of chromatin functions as a rheostat to regulate pHi with important implications for mechanism of action and therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23201122

  6. Histone H4 lysine 20 acetylation is associated with gene repression in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Harada, Akihito; Fukuda, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Satoko; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Matsuda, Ryo; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Nagao, Koji; Obuse, Chikashi; Nozaki, Naohito; Takahara, Shiro; Takao, Toshifumi; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Hiroshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is generally associated with gene activation and chromatin decondensation. Recent mass spectrometry analysis has revealed that histone H4 lysine 20, a major methylation site, can also be acetylated. To understand the function of H4 lysine 20 acetylation (H4K20ac), we have developed a specific monoclonal antibody and performed ChIP-seq analysis using HeLa-S3 cells. H4K20ac was enriched around the transcription start sites (TSSs) of minimally expressed genes and in the gene body of expressed genes, in contrast to most histone acetylation being enriched around the TSSs of expressed genes. The distribution of H4K20ac showed little correlation with known histone modifications, including histone H3 methylations. A motif search in H4K20ac-enriched sequences, together with transcription factor binding profiles based on ENCODE ChIP-seq data, revealed that most transcription activators are excluded from H4K20ac-enriched genes and a transcription repressor NRSF/REST co-localized with H4K20ac. These results suggest that H4K20ac is a unique acetylation mark associated with gene repression. PMID:27064113

  7. Microinjection of sigma-D-glucose standards and Amplex Red reagent on micro-arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerman, R.; van den Doel, L. Richard; Picioreanu, S.; Frank, J.; Marijnissen, Johannes P. A.; van Dedem, G. W. K.; Hjelt, Kari H.; Vellekoop, Michael J.; Sarro, Pasqualina M.; Young, Ian T.

    1999-06-01

    Intelligent Molecular Diagnostic Systems (IMDS)- The objective of this multidisciplinary research program is to design and develop an analytical system that is able to measure and interpret concentrations of various analytes which are dispensed on a micro-array. The analytes are detected by means of fluorescence or (chemi)luminescence measurement. Furthermore, the collected data are combined and interpreted using modern reasoning techniques. Micro-injection- Dispensing picoliters (pl) of reagents (enzymes, antibodies, etc.) and liquid samples on a micro-array requires special techniques. At the moment we are working on a technique which will allow for accurately dispensing liquid volumes less than 100 pl on a micro-array. Detection of (beta) -D-glucose- (beta) -D-glucose standards are dispensed on a micro-array, after which a solution of Amplex Red reagent, horse radish peroxidase (HARP), and glucose oxidase in a mixture of ethylene glycol and water is added. Ethylene glycol is added to prevent evaporation. The (beta) -D-glucose reacts with glucose oxidase to D-gluconolactone and H2O2. The H2O2 reacts with 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine (Amplex Red) with a 1:1 stoichiometry to produce highly fluorescent resorufin. The formation of resorufin with time is followed with a Zeiss Axioskop microscope equipped with a KAF Photometrics CCD camera, in order to determine the sensitivity, concentrations, and volumes associated with the dispensed fluids.

  8. Acetylation of bleached Kraft pulp: effect of xylan content on properties of acetylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Karol; Reyes, Herna; Escobar, Danilo; Vega-Lara, Johana; Berg, Alex; Pereira, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Bleached Kraft pulp (BKP) from Eucalyptus globulus and cotton xylan blends (CXB) was acetylated. The effects of xylan content on cellulose acetylation and the properties of the acetylated material were studied. An increase in xylan content caused a slight decrease in the degree of substitution (2.98 to 2.68 for CXB; 2.93 to 2.84 for BKP). Thermal analysis showed that the melting temperature also decreases from 268.0 to 188.8 °C for CXB and from 221.4 to 212.8 °C for BKP. Moreover, the solubility decreased due to the partial dissolution of acetylated xylans. The presence of xylans during Kraft pulp acetylation does not have a significant negative effect on the physical properties of the acetylated material, but the decrease in melting temperature was beneficial for the application of acetylated polymer as a natural internal plasticizer. This is considered to be an important argument for BKP utilization in the cellulose acetate manufacturing process. PMID:25498729

  9. Integrated Amplification Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Bryant, Lexi; Griesemer, Sara B.; Gu, Rui; Knickerbocker, Christopher; Kukhtin, Alexander; Parker, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Cynthia; George, Kirsten St.; Cooney, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This overview describes microarray-based tests that combine solution-phase amplification chemistry and microarray hybridization within a single microfluidic chamber. The integrated biochemical approach improves microarray workflow for diagnostic applications by reducing the number of steps and minimizing the potential for sample or amplicon cross-contamination. Examples described herein illustrate a basic, integrated approach for DNA and RNA genomes, and a simple consumable architecture for incorporating wash steps while retaining an entirely closed system. It is anticipated that integrated microarray biochemistry will provide an opportunity to significantly reduce the complexity and cost of microarray consumables, equipment, and workflow, which in turn will enable a broader spectrum of users to exploit the intrinsic multiplexing power of microarrays for infectious disease diagnostics.

  10. Nucleosome structure incorporated histone acetylation site prediction in arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Acetylation is a crucial post-translational modification for histones, and plays a key role in gene expression regulation. Due to limited data and lack of a clear acetylation consensus sequence, a few researches have focused on prediction of lysine acetylation sites. Several systematic prediction studies have been conducted for human and yeast, but less for Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Concerning the insufficient observation on acetylation site, we analyzed contributions of the peptide-alignment-based distance definition and 3D structure factors in acetylation prediction. We found that traditional structure contributes little to acetylation site prediction. Identified acetylation sites of histones in Arabidopsis thaliana are conserved and cross predictable with that of human by peptide based methods. However, the predicted specificity is overestimated, because of the existence of non-observed acetylable site. Here, by performing a complete exploration on the factors that affect the acetylability of lysines in histones, we focused on the relative position of lysine at nucleosome level, and defined a new structure feature to promote the performance in predicting the acetylability of all the histone lysines in A. thaliana. Conclusion We found a new spacial correlated acetylation factor, and defined a ε-N spacial location based feature, which contains five core spacial ellipsoid wired areas. By incorporating the new feature, the performance of predicting the acetylability of all the histone lysines in A. Thaliana was promoted, in which the previous mispredicted acetylable lysines were corrected by comparing to the peptide-based prediction. PMID:21047388

  11. Epigenetic Readers of Lysine Acetylation Regulate Cocaine-Induced Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Gregory C.; Powell, Samuel K.; Brothers, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic “reader” proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity. The role of BET proteins in cocaine-induced plasticity, however, remains elusive. Here, we used behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular techniques to examine the involvement of BET bromodomains in cocaine reward. Of the BET proteins, BRD4, but not BRD2 or BRD3, was significantly elevated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice and rats following repeated cocaine injections and self-administration. Systemic and intra-accumbal inhibition of BRD4 with the BET inhibitor, JQ1, attenuated the rewarding effects of cocaine in a conditioned place preference procedure but did not affect conditioned place aversion, nor did JQ1 alone induce conditioned aversion or preference. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we found that repeated cocaine injections enhanced the binding of BRD4, but not BRD3, to the promoter region of Bdnf in the NAc, whereas systemic injection of JQ1 attenuated cocaine-induced expression of Bdnf in the NAc. JQ1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRD4 in vitro also reduced expression of Bdnf. These findings indicate that disrupting the interaction between BET proteins and their acetylated lysine substrates may provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of drug addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Proteins involved in the “readout” of lysine acetylation marks, referred to as BET bromodomain proteins (including BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT), have been shown to be key regulators of chromatin dynamics and disease, and

  12. Oxygen-dependent acetylation and dimerization of the corepressor CtBP2 in neural stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Karaca, Esra; Lewicki, Jakub; Hermanson, Ola

    2015-03-01

    The transcriptional corepressor CtBP2 is essential for proper development of the nervous system. The factor exerts its repression by interacting in complexes with chromatin-modifying factors such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1/2 and the histone demethylase LSD1/KDM1. Notably, the histone acetyl transferase p300 acetylates CtBP2 and this is an important regulatory event of the activity and subcellular localization of the protein. We recently demonstrated an essential role for CtBPs as sensors of microenvironmental oxygen levels influencing the differentiation potential of neural stem cells (NSCs), but it is not known whether oxygen levels influence the acetylation levels of CtBP factors. Here we show by using proximity ligation assay (PLA) that CtBP2 acetylation levels increased significantly in undifferentiated, proliferating NSCs under hypoxic conditions. CtBP2 interacted with the class III HDAC Sirt1 but this interaction was unaltered in hypoxic conditions, and treatment with the Sirt1 inhibitor Ex527 did not result in any significant change in total CtBP2 acetylation levels. Instead, we revealed a significant decrease in PLA signal representing CtBP2 dimerization in NSCs under hypoxic conditions, negatively correlating with the acetylation levels. Our results suggest that microenvironmental oxygen levels influence the dimerization and acetylation levels, and thereby the activity, of CtBP2 in proliferating NSCs.

  13. Mutants of Phycomyces blakesleeanus Defective in Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

    PubMed

    Garre; Torres-Martinez

    1996-03-01

    Nine mutants of the filamentous fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus have been isolated on the basis of their resistance to fluoroacetate. None of the isolates uses acetate as the sole carbon source. Genetic complementation experiments revealed that all the mutants belong to the same complementation group. Biochemical analysis indicated that the acetate-induced acetyl-CoA synthetase activity is abolished in all nine mutants, thus suggesting that they are affected in the gene coding for acetyl-CoA synthetase (facA). PMID:8812287

  14. Lipid Microarray Biosensor for Biotoxin Detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anup K.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Moran-Mirabal, Jose C.; Edel, Joshua B.; Meyer, Grant D.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2006-05-01

    We present the use of micron-sized lipid domains, patterned onto planar substrates and within microfluidic channels, to assay the binding of bacterial toxins via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). The lipid domains were patterned using a polymer lift-off technique and consisted of ganglioside-populated DSPC:cholesterol supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). Lipid patterns were formed on the substrates by vesicle fusion followed by polymer lift-off, which revealed micron-sized SLBs containing either ganglioside GT1b or GM1. The ganglioside-populated SLB arrays were then exposed to either Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) or Tetanus toxin fragment C (TTC). Binding was assayed on planar substrates by TIRFM down to 1 nM concentration for CTB and 100 nM for TTC. Apparent binding constants extracted from three different models applied to the binding curves suggest that binding of a protein to a lipid-based receptor is strongly affected by the lipid composition of the SLB and by the substrate on which the bilayer is formed. Patterning of SLBs inside microfluidic channels also allowed the preparation of lipid domains with different compositions on a single device. Arrays within microfluidic channels were used to achieve segregation and selective binding from a binary mixture of the toxin fragments in one device. The binding and segregation within the microfluidic channels was assayed with epifluorescence as proof of concept. We propose that the method used for patterning the lipid microarrays on planar substrates and within microfluidic channels can be easily adapted to proteins or nucleic acids and can be used for biosensor applications and cell stimulation assays under different flow conditions. KEYWORDS. Microarray, ganglioside, polymer lift-off, cholera toxin, tetanus toxin, TIRFM, binding constant.4

  15. THE ABRF MARG MICROARRAY SURVEY 2005: TAKING THE PULSE ON THE MICROARRAY FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years microarray technology has evolved into a critical component of any discovery based program. Since 1999, the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Microarray Research Group (MARG) has conducted biennial surveys designed to generate a pr...

  16. Living Cell Microarrays: An Overview of Concepts.

    PubMed

    Jonczyk, Rebecca; Kurth, Tracy; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Scheper, Thomas; Stahl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Living cell microarrays are a highly efficient cellular screening system. Due to the low number of cells required per spot, cell microarrays enable the use of primary and stem cells and provide resolution close to the single-cell level. Apart from a variety of conventional static designs, microfluidic microarray systems have also been established. An alternative format is a microarray consisting of three-dimensional cell constructs ranging from cell spheroids to cells encapsulated in hydrogel. These systems provide an in vivo-like microenvironment and are preferably used for the investigation of cellular physiology, cytotoxicity, and drug screening. Thus, many different high-tech microarray platforms are currently available. Disadvantages of many systems include their high cost, the requirement of specialized equipment for their manufacture, and the poor comparability of results between different platforms. In this article, we provide an overview of static, microfluidic, and 3D cell microarrays. In addition, we describe a simple method for the printing of living cell microarrays on modified microscope glass slides using standard DNA microarray equipment available in most laboratories. Applications in research and diagnostics are discussed, e.g., the selective and sensitive detection of biomarkers. Finally, we highlight current limitations and the future prospects of living cell microarrays. PMID:27600077

  17. Living Cell Microarrays: An Overview of Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Jonczyk, Rebecca; Kurth, Tracy; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Scheper, Thomas; Stahl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Living cell microarrays are a highly efficient cellular screening system. Due to the low number of cells required per spot, cell microarrays enable the use of primary and stem cells and provide resolution close to the single-cell level. Apart from a variety of conventional static designs, microfluidic microarray systems have also been established. An alternative format is a microarray consisting of three-dimensional cell constructs ranging from cell spheroids to cells encapsulated in hydrogel. These systems provide an in vivo-like microenvironment and are preferably used for the investigation of cellular physiology, cytotoxicity, and drug screening. Thus, many different high-tech microarray platforms are currently available. Disadvantages of many systems include their high cost, the requirement of specialized equipment for their manufacture, and the poor comparability of results between different platforms. In this article, we provide an overview of static, microfluidic, and 3D cell microarrays. In addition, we describe a simple method for the printing of living cell microarrays on modified microscope glass slides using standard DNA microarray equipment available in most laboratories. Applications in research and diagnostics are discussed, e.g., the selective and sensitive detection of biomarkers. Finally, we highlight current limitations and the future prospects of living cell microarrays. PMID:27600077

  18. Clustering Short Time-Series Microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Loh Wei; Hasan, Yahya Abu

    2008-01-01

    Most microarray analyses are carried out on static gene expressions. However, the dynamical study of microarrays has lately gained more attention. Most researches on time-series microarray emphasize on the bioscience and medical aspects but few from the numerical aspect. This study attempts to analyze short time-series microarray mathematically using STEM clustering tool which formally preprocess data followed by clustering. We next introduce the Circular Mould Distance (CMD) algorithm with combinations of both preprocessing and clustering analysis. Both methods are subsequently compared in terms of efficiencies.

  19. Protein microarrays as tools for functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    LaBaer, Joshua; Ramachandran, Niroshan

    2005-02-01

    Protein microarrays present an innovative and versatile approach to study protein abundance and function at an unprecedented scale. Given the chemical and structural complexity of the proteome, the development of protein microarrays has been challenging. Despite these challenges there has been a marked increase in the use of protein microarrays to map interactions of proteins with various other molecules, and to identify potential disease biomarkers, especially in the area of cancer biology. In this review, we discuss some of the promising advances made in the development and use of protein microarrays. PMID:15701447

  20. Beyond microarrays: Finding key transcription factors controlling signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kel, Alexdander; Voss, Nico; Jauregui, Ruy; Kel-Margoulis, Olga; Wingender, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Background Massive gene expression changes in different cellular states measured by microarrays, in fact, reflect just an "echo" of real molecular processes in the cells. Transcription factors constitute a class of the regulatory molecules that typically require posttranscriptional modifications or ligand binding in order to exert their function. Therefore, such important functional changes of transcription factors are not directly visible in the microarray experiments. Results We developed a novel approach to find key transcription factors that may explain concerted expression changes of specific components of the signal transduction network. The approach aims at revealing evidence of positive feedback loops in the signal transduction circuits through activation of pathway-specific transcription factors. We demonstrate that promoters of genes encoding components of many known signal transduction pathways are enriched by binding sites of those transcription factors that are endpoints of the considered pathways. Application of the approach to the microarray gene expression data on TNF-alpha stimulated primary human endothelial cells helped to reveal novel key transcription factors potentially involved in the regulation of the signal transduction pathways of the cells. Conclusion We developed a novel computational approach for revealing key transcription factors by knowledge-based analysis of gene expression data with the help of databases on gene regulatory networks (TRANSFAC® and TRANSPATH®). The corresponding software and databases are available at . PMID:17118134

  1. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, P.G.; Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1996-09-24

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives are disclosed which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides. 5 figs.

  2. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  3. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  4. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  5. 21 CFR 172.828 - Acetylated monoglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... molecular distillation or by steam stripping; or (2) The direct acetylation of edible monoglycerides with acetic anhydride without the use of catalyst or molecular distillation, and with the removal by vacuum distillation, if necessary, of the acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and triacetin. (b) The food additive has...

  6. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, Paul G.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    1996-01-01

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.

  7. Atomic resolution structure of human α-tubulin acetyltransferase bound to acetyl-CoA

    PubMed Central

    Taschner, Michael; Vetter, Melanie; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues is an important posttranslational modification found in all domains of life. α-tubulin is specifically acetylated on lysine 40, a modification that serves to stabilize microtubules of axons and cilia. Whereas histone acetyltransferases have been extensively studied, there is no structural and mechanistic information available on α-tubulin acetyltransferases. Here, we present the structure of the human α-tubulin acetyltransferase catalytic domain bound to its cosubstrate acetyl-CoA at 1.05 Å resolution. Compared with other lysine acetyltransferases of known structure, α-tubulin acetyltransferase displays a relatively well-conserved cosubstrate binding pocket but is unique in its active site and putative α-tubulin binding site. Using acetylation assays with structure-guided mutants, we map residues important for acetyl-CoA binding, substrate binding, and catalysis. This analysis reveals a basic patch implicated in substrate binding and a conserved glutamine residue required for catalysis, demonstrating that the family of α-tubulin acetyltransferases uses a reaction mechanism different from other lysine acetyltransferases characterized to date. PMID:23071318

  8. The extracellular release of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 nuclear protein is mediated by acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Coutinho Carneiro, Vitor; Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Caetano de Abreu da Silva, Isabel; Furtado Madeira da Costa, Rodrigo; Neto Paiva, Claudia; Torres Bozza, Marcelo; Rosado Fantappie, Marcelo

    2009-12-25

    Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) was revealed to be a substrate for the parasite histone acetyltransferases SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. We found that full-length SmHMGB1, as well as its HMG-box B (but not HMG-box A) were acetylated in vitro by SmGCN5 and SmCBP1. However, SmCBP1 was able to acetylate both substrates more efficiently than SmGCN5. Interestingly, the removal of the C-terminal acidic tail of SmHMGB1 (SmHMGB1{Delta}C) resulted in increased acetylation of the protein. We showed by mammalian cell transfection assays that SmHMGB1 and SmHMGB1{Delta}C were transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment. Importantly, after NaB treatment, SmHMGB1 was also present outside the cell. Together, our data suggest that acetylation of SmHMGB1 plays a role in cellular trafficking, culminating with its secretion to the extracellular milieu. The possible role of SmHMGB1 acetylation in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is discussed.

  9. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang; and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  10. Cellulose acetate from oil palm empty fruit bunch via a one step heterogeneous acetylation.

    PubMed

    Wan Daud, Wan Rosli; Djuned, Fauzi Muhammad

    2015-11-01

    Acetone soluble oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose acetate (OPEFB-CA) of DS 2.52 has been successfully synthesized in a one-step heterogeneous acetylation of OPEFB cellulose without necessitating the hydrolysis stage. This has only been made possible by the mathematical modeling of the acetylation process by manipulating the variables of reaction time and acetic anhydride/cellulose ratio (RR). The obtained model was verified by experimental data with an error of less than 2.5%. NMR analysis showed that the distribution of the acetyl moiety among the three OH groups of cellulose indicates a preference at the C6 position, followed by C3 and C2. XRD revealed that OPEFB-CA is highly amorphous with a degree of crystallinity estimated to be ca. 6.41% as determined from DSC. The OPEFB-CA films exhibited good mechanical properties being their tensile strength and Young's modulus higher than those of the commercial CA. PMID:26256348

  11. Glutamine Triggers Acetylation-Dependent Degradation of Glutamine Synthetase via the Thalidomide Receptor Cereblon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T Van; Lee, J Eugene; Sweredoski, Michael J; Yang, Seung-Joo; Jeon, Seung-Je; Harrison, Joseph S; Yim, Jung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang Ghil; Handa, Hiroshi; Kuhlman, Brian; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Reitsma, Justin M; Park, Chul-Seung; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-03-17

    Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor for the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase 4 (CRL4) complex, is a direct protein target for thalidomide teratogenicity and antitumor activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). Here we report that glutamine synthetase (GS) is an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Upon exposing cells to high glutamine concentration, GS is acetylated at lysines 11 and 14, yielding a degron that is necessary and sufficient for binding and ubiquitylation by CRL4(CRBN) and degradation by the proteasome. Binding of acetylated degron peptides to CRBN depends on an intact thalidomide-binding pocket but is not competitive with IMiDs. These findings reveal a feedback loop involving CRL4(CRBN) that adjusts GS protein levels in response to glutamine and uncover a new function for lysine acetylation. PMID:26990986

  12. Molecular mechanism for USP7-mediated DNMT1 stabilization by acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingdong; Yang, Huirong; Fang, Jian; Ma, Lixiang; Gong, Rui; Wang, Ping; Li, Ze; Xu, Yanhui

    2015-05-01

    DNMT1 is an important epigenetic regulator that plays a key role in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Here we determined the crystal structure of DNMT1 in complex with USP7 at 2.9 Å resolution. The interaction between the two proteins is primarily mediated by an acidic pocket in USP7 and Lysine residues within DNMT1's KG linker. This intermolecular interaction is required for USP7-mediated stabilization of DNMT1. Acetylation of the KG linker Lysine residues impair DNMT1-USP7 interaction and promote the degradation of DNMT1. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors results in an increase in acetylated DNMT1 and decreased total DNMT1 protein. This negative correlation is observed in differentiated neuronal cells and pancreatic cancer cells. Our studies reveal that USP7-mediated stabilization of DNMT1 is regulated by acetylation and provide a structural basis for the design of inhibitors, targeting the DNMT1-USP7 interaction surface for therapeutic applications.

  13. Photoelectrochemical synthesis of DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian Y.; Emig, Christopher J.; Jacobson, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Optical addressing of semiconductor electrodes represents a powerful technology that enables the independent and parallel control of a very large number of electrical phenomena at the solid-electrolyte interface. To date, it has been used in a wide range of applications including electrophoretic manipulation, biomolecule sensing, and stimulating networks of neurons. Here, we have adapted this approach for the parallel addressing of redox reactions, and report the construction of a DNA microarray synthesis platform based on semiconductor photoelectrochemistry (PEC). An amorphous silicon photoconductor is activated by an optical projection system to create virtual electrodes capable of electrochemically generating protons; these PEC-generated protons then cleave the acid-labile dimethoxytrityl protecting groups of DNA phosphoramidite synthesis reagents with the requisite spatial selectivity to generate DNA microarrays. Furthermore, a thin-film porous glass dramatically increases the amount of DNA synthesized per chip by over an order of magnitude versus uncoated glass. This platform demonstrates that PEC can be used toward combinatorial bio-polymer and small molecule synthesis. PMID:19706433

  14. THE ABRF-MARG MICROARRAY SURVEY 2004: TAKING THE PULSE OF THE MICROARRAY FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years, the field of microarrays has grown and evolved drastically. In its continued efforts to track this evolution, the ABRF-MARG has once again conducted a survey of international microarray facilities and individual microarray users. The goal of the surve...

  15. 2008 Microarray Research Group (MARG Survey): Sensing the State of Microarray Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years, the field of microarrays has grown and evolved drastically. In its continued efforts to track this evolution and transformation, the ABRF-MARG has once again conducted a survey of international microarray facilities and individual microarray users. Th...

  16. Examination of Oral Cancer Biomarkers by Tissue Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Peter; Jordan, C. Diana; Mendez, Eduardo; Houck, John; Yueh, Bevan; Farwell, D. Gregory; Futran, Neal; Chen, Chu

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major healthcare problem worldwide. Efforts in our laboratory and others focusing on the molecular characterization of OSCC tumors with the use of DNA microarrays have yielded heterogeneous results. To validate the DNA microarray results on a subset of genes from these studies that could potentially serve as biomarkers of OSCC, we elected to examine their expression by an alternate quantitative method and by assessing their protein levels. Design Based on DNA microarray data from our lab and data reported in the literature, we identified six potential biomarkers of OSCC to investigate further. We employed quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to examine expression changes of CDH11, MMP3, SPARC, POSTN, TNC, TGM3 in OSCC and normal control tissues. We further examined validated markers on the protein level by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of OSCC tissue microarray (TMA) sections. Results qRT-PCR analysis revealed up-regulation of CDH11, SPARC, POSTN, and TNC gene expression, and decreased TGM3 expression in OSCC compared to normal controls. MMP3 was not found to be differentially expressed. In TMA IHC analyses, SPARC, periostin, and tenascin C exhibited increased protein expression in cancer compared to normal tissues, and their expression was primarily localized within tumor-associated stroma rather than tumor epithelium. Conversely, transglutaminase-3 protein expression was found only within keratinocytes in normal controls, and was significantly down-regulated in cancer cells. Conclusions Of six potential gene markers of OSCC, initially identified by DNA microarray analyses, differential expression of CDH11, SPARC, POSTN, TNC, and TGM3 were validated by qRT-PCR. Differential expression and localization of proteins encoded by SPARC, POSTN, TNC, and TGM3 were clearly shown by TMA IHC. PMID:18490578

  17. DNA Microarray-Based PCR Ribotyping of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Baier, Vico; Neubauer, Heinrich; Zimmermann, Stefan; Rabold, Denise; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Seyboldt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a DNA microarray-based assay for fast and simple PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile strains. Hybridization probes were designed to query the modularly structured intergenic spacer region (ISR), which is also the template for conventional and PCR ribotyping with subsequent capillary gel electrophoresis (seq-PCR) ribotyping. The probes were derived from sequences available in GenBank as well as from theoretical ISR module combinations. A database of reference hybridization patterns was set up from a collection of 142 well-characterized C. difficile isolates representing 48 seq-PCR ribotypes. The reference hybridization patterns calculated by the arithmetic mean were compared using a similarity matrix analysis. The 48 investigated seq-PCR ribotypes revealed 27 array profiles that were clearly distinguishable. The most frequent human-pathogenic ribotypes 001, 014/020, 027, and 078/126 were discriminated by the microarray. C. difficile strains related to 078/126 (033, 045/FLI01, 078, 126, 126/FLI01, 413, 413/FLI01, 598, 620, 652, and 660) and 014/020 (014, 020, and 449) showed similar hybridization patterns, confirming their genetic relatedness, which was previously reported. A panel of 50 C. difficile field isolates was tested by seq-PCR ribotyping and the DNA microarray-based assay in parallel. Taking into account that the current version of the microarray does not discriminate some closely related seq-PCR ribotypes, all isolates were typed correctly. Moreover, seq-PCR ribotypes without reference profiles available in the database (ribotype 009 and 5 new types) were correctly recognized as new ribotypes, confirming the performance and expansion potential of the microarray. PMID:25411174

  18. Acetylation of Lysine92 Improves the Chaperone and Anti-apoptotic Activities of Human αB-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Huang, Rong; Nandi, Sandip K.; Wang, Benlian; Padmanabha, Smitha; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Filipek, Slawomir; Biswas, Ashis; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2013-01-01

    αB-Crystallin is a chaperone and an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in many tissues, including the lens, retina, heart and kidney. In the human lens, several lysine residues in αB-crystallin are acetylated. We have previously shown that such acetylation is predominant at lysine92 (K92) and K166. We have investigated the effect of lysine acetylation on the structure and functions of αB-crystallin by the specific introduction of an Nε-acetyllysine (AcK) mimic at K92. The introduction of AcK slightly altered the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. AcK introduction also resulted in an increase in the molar mass and hydrodynamic radius of the protein, and the protein became structurally more open and more stable than the native protein. The acetyl protein acquired higher surface hydrophobicity and exhibited 25-55% higher chaperone activity than the native protein. The acetyl protein had higher client protein binding per subunit of the protein and higher binding affinity relative to the native protein. The acetyl protein was at least 20% more effective in inhibiting chemically induced apoptosis than the native protein. Molecular modeling suggests that acetylation of K92 makes the ‘α-crystallin domain’ more hydrophobic. Together, our results reveal that the acetylation of a single lysine residue in αB-crystallin makes the protein structurally more stable and improves its chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Our findings suggest that lysine acetylation of αB-crystallin is an important chemical modification to enhance αB-crystallin’s protective functions in the eye. PMID:24128140

  19. Improved detection of differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments through multiple scanning and image integration

    PubMed Central

    Romualdi, Chiara; Trevisan, Silvia; Celegato, Barbara; Costa, Germano; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2003-01-01

    The variability of results in microarray technology is in part due to the fact that independent scans of a single hybridised microarray give spot images that are not quite the same. To solve this problem and turn it to our advantage, we introduced the approach of multiple scanning and of image integration of microarrays. To this end, we have developed specific software that creates a virtual image that statistically summarises a series of consecutive scans of a microarray. We provide evidence that the use of multiple imaging (i) enhances the detection of differentially expressed genes; (ii) increases the image homogeneity; and (iii) reveals false-positive results such as differentially expressed genes that are detected by a single scan but not confirmed by successive scanning replicates. The increase in the final number of differentially expressed genes detected in a microarray experiment with this approach is remarkable; 50% more for microarrays hybridised with targets labelled by reverse transcriptase, and 200% more for microarrays developed with the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) technique. The results have been confirmed by semi-quantitative RT–PCR tests. PMID:14627839

  20. Microarrays Made Simple: "DNA Chips" Paper Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    DNA microarray technology is revolutionizing biological science. DNA microarrays (also called DNA chips) allow simultaneous screening of many genes for changes in expression between different cells. Now researchers can obtain information about genes in days or weeks that used to take months or years. The paper activity described in this article…

  1. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control. PMID:27073141

  2. Protein acetylation sites mediated by Schistosoma mansoni GCN5

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Furtado Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Meirelles Bastosde Oliveira, Francisco; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado

    2008-05-23

    The transcriptional co-activator GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcription activation. As in other eukaryotes, the DNA from the parasite Schistosome mansoni is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Using a series of synthetic peptides we determined that Lys-14 of histone H3 was acetylated by the recombinant SmGCN5-HAT domain. SmGCN5 was also able to acetylate schistosome non-histone proteins, such as the nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1, and the co-activator SmNCoA-62. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of SmGCN5 protein in the nuclei of vitelline cells. Within the nucleus, SmGCN5 was found to be located in interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs), which are transcriptionally active structures. The data suggest that SmGCN5 is involved in transcription activation.

  3. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control. PMID:27073141

  4. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control.

  5. Immunocytochemical and immunogold analyses of histone H4 acetylation during Chara vulgaris spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Histone acetylation is one of the epigenetic modifications which play a significant role in chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis. Acetylation of the histone H4 makes the exchange of nucleoproteins easy. Research on mouse spermatogenesis showed that H4 histone acetylated at Lys 12 (H4K12ac) was specific only to spermatids. Immunocytochemical studies of Chara vulgaris spermatids with the use of antibodies against the histone H4K12ac revealed positive reactions in spermatid nuclei at stages I-VII. This reaction, connected with nuclear condensation, was much stronger at the early stages of spermiogenesis than later on. Moreover, it showed that at the stages V-VII in spermatid nuclei the presence of the histone H4K12ac corresponded with DNA double-strand breaks. Electron microscopy studies with the use of immunogold technique revealed an almost twofold difference between the mean total numbers of gold grains in the examined chromatin in both stages. This study showed nearly equal distribution of gold grains on condensed and non-condensed chromatin of spermatids at the stage III/IV (48.11% and 51.89%, respectively). In the later stage-VI, when chromatin condensation proceeded, labeling of condensed chromatin reached 57.27%, while in the case of non-condensed chromatin it dropped to 42.73%. The percentage analysis also revealed an increase (above 9%) in condensed chromatin labeling in relation to the stage III/IV. Intensive acetylation of histone H4 at the early stages is correlated with DNA DSBs and transcriptional activity. It facilitates chromatin loosening, which enables the correct course of chromatin remodeling at a later stage. Histone γH2AX also influences chromatin structure in many biological processes in different cell types. Current studies reveal other similarities regarding histone H4 acetylation, not only between Chara and mammals but between invertebrates (molluscs) and vertebrates (bony fishes) as well. PMID:26774747

  6. Protein-Based Microarray for the Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarrays have been used for gene expression and protein interaction studies, but recently, multianalyte diagnostic assays have employed the microarray platform. We developed a microarray immunoassay for bacteria, with biotinylated capture antibodies on streptavidin slides. To complete the fluor...

  7. Tissue Microarrays in Clinical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Voduc, David; Kenney, Challayne; Nielsen, Torsten O.

    2008-01-01

    The tissue microarray is a recently-implemented, high-throughput technology for the analysis of molecular markers in oncology. This research tool permits the rapid assessment of a biomarker in thousands of tumor samples, using commonly available laboratory assays such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Although introduced less than a decade ago, the TMA has proven to be invaluable in the study of tumor biology, the development of diagnostic tests, and the investigation of oncological biomarkers. This review describes the impact of TMA-based research in clinical oncology and its potential future applications. Technical aspects of TMA construction, and the advantages and disadvantages inherent to this technology are also discussed. PMID:18314063

  8. DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nölte, M.; Weber, H.; Silkenbeumer, N.; Hjörleifsdottir, S.; Hreggvidsson, G. O.; Marteinsson, V.; Kappel, K.; Planes, S.; Tinti, F.; Magoulas, A.; Garcia Vazquez, E.; Turan, C.; Hervet, C.; Campo Falgueras, D.; Antoniou, A.; Landi, M.; Blohm, D.

    2008-01-01

    In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a “Fish Chip” for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products. PMID:18270778

  9. Coexpression analysis of human genes across many microarray data sets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Homin K; Hsu, Amy K; Sajdak, Jon; Qin, Jie; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-06-01

    We present a large-scale analysis of mRNA coexpression based on 60 large human data sets containing a total of 3924 microarrays. We sought pairs of genes that were reliably coexpressed (based on the correlation of their expression profiles) in multiple data sets, establishing a high-confidence network of 8805 genes connected by 220,649 "coexpression links" that are observed in at least three data sets. Confirmed positive correlations between genes were much more common than confirmed negative correlations. We show that confirmation of coexpression in multiple data sets is correlated with functional relatedness, and show how cluster analysis of the network can reveal functionally coherent groups of genes. Our findings demonstrate how the large body of accumulated microarray data can be exploited to increase the reliability of inferences about gene function. PMID:15173114

  10. N-acetyl-L-leucine accelerates vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy by action in the cerebellum and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Günther, Lisa; Beck, Roswitha; Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by

  11. N-Acetyl-L-Leucine Accelerates Vestibular Compensation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy by Action in the Cerebellum and Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by

  12. Crystallographic and Glycan Microarray Analysis of Human Polyomavirus 9 VP1 Identifies N-Glycolyl Neuraminic Acid as a Receptor Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zaigham Mahmood; Liu, Yan; Neu, Ursula; Gilbert, Michel; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) is a closely related homologue of simian B-lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPyV). In order to define the architecture and receptor binding properties of HPyV9, we solved high-resolution crystal structures of its major capsid protein, VP1, in complex with three putative oligosaccharide receptors identified by glycan microarray screening. Comparison of the properties of HPyV9 VP1 with the known structure and glycan-binding properties of LPyV VP1 revealed that both viruses engage short sialylated oligosaccharides, but small yet important differences in specificity were detected. Surprisingly, HPyV9 VP1 preferentially binds sialyllactosamine compounds terminating in 5-N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) over those terminating in 5-N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), whereas LPyV does not exhibit such a preference. The structural analysis demonstrated that HPyV9 makes specific contacts, via hydrogen bonds, with the extra hydroxyl group present in Neu5Gc. An equivalent hydrogen bond cannot be formed by LPyV VP1. IMPORTANCE The most common sialic acid in humans is 5-N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), but various modifications give rise to more than 50 different sialic acid variants that decorate the cell surface. Unlike most mammals, humans cannot synthesize the sialic acid variant 5-N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to a gene defect. Humans can, however, still acquire this compound from dietary sources. The role of Neu5Gc in receptor engagement and in defining viral tropism is only beginning to emerge, and structural analyses defining the differences in specificity for Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc are still rare. Using glycan microarray screening and high-resolution protein crystallography, we have examined the receptor specificity of a recently discovered human polyomavirus, HPyV9, and compared it to that of the closely related simian polyomavirus LPyV. Our study highlights critical differences in the specificities of both viruses

  13. Integrative genomic analysis in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells reveals that proximal NCOR1 binding positively regulates genes that govern erythroid differentiation and Imatinib sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Long, Mark D.; van den Berg, Patrick R.; Russell, James L.; Singh, Prashant K.; Battaglia, Sebastiano; Campbell, Moray J.

    2015-01-01

    To define the functions of NCOR1 we developed an integrative analysis that combined ENCODE and NCI-60 data, followed by in vitro validation. NCOR1 and H3K9me3 ChIP-Seq, FAIRE-seq and DNA CpG methylation interactions were related to gene expression using bootstrapping approaches. Most NCOR1 combinations (24/44) were associated with significantly elevated level expression of protein coding genes and only very few combinations related to gene repression. DAVID's biological process annotation revealed that elevated gene expression was uniquely associated with acetylation and ETS binding. A matrix of gene and drug interactions built on NCI-60 data identified that Imatinib significantly targeted the NCOR1 governed transcriptome. Stable knockdown of NCOR1 in K562 cells slowed growth and significantly repressed genes associated with NCOR1 cistrome, again, with the GO terms acetylation and ETS binding, and significantly dampened sensitivity to Imatinib-induced erythroid differentiation. Mining public microarray data revealed that NCOR1-targeted genes were significantly enriched in Imatinib response gene signatures in cell lines and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. These approaches integrated cistrome, transcriptome and drug sensitivity relationships to reveal that NCOR1 function is surprisingly most associated with elevated gene expression, and that these targets, both in CML cell lines and patients, associate with sensitivity to Imatinib. PMID:26117541

  14. Dynamic Protein Acetylation in Plant–Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gaoyuan; Walley, Justin W.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen infection triggers complex molecular perturbations within host cells that results in either resistance or susceptibility. Protein acetylation is an emerging biochemical modification that appears to play central roles during host–pathogen interactions. To date, research in this area has focused on two main themes linking protein acetylation to plant immune signaling. Firstly, it has been established that proper gene expression during defense responses requires modulation of histone acetylation within target gene promoter regions. Second, some pathogens can deliver effector molecules that encode acetyltransferases directly within the host cell to modify acetylation of specific host proteins. Collectively these findings suggest that the acetylation level for a range of host proteins may be modulated to alter the outcome of pathogen infection. This review will focus on summarizing our current understanding of the roles of protein acetylation in plant defense and highlight the utility of proteomics approaches to uncover the complete repertoire of acetylation changes triggered by pathogen infection. PMID:27066055

  15. Global identification of CobB interactors by an Escherichia coli proteome microarray.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-xi; Wu, Fan-lin; Jiang, He-wei; He, Xiang; Guo, Shu-juan; Tao, Sheng-ce

    2014-07-01

    Protein acetylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications and plays critical roles in many important biological processes. Based on the recent advances in mass spectrometry technology, in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, tremendous acetylated proteins and acetylation sites have been identified. However, only one protein deacetylase, i.e. CobB, has been identified in E. coli so far. How CobB is regulated is still elusive. One right strategy to study the regulation of CobB is to globally identify its interacting proteins. In this study, we used a proteome microarray containing ∼4000 affinity-purified E. coli proteins to globally identify CobB interactors, and finally identified 183 binding proteins of high stringency. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these interacting proteins play a variety of roles in a wide range of cellular functions and are highly enriched in carboxylic acid metabolic process and hexose catabolic process, and also enriched in transferase and hydrolase. We further used bio-layer interferometry to analyze the interaction and quantify the kinetic parameters of putative CobB interactors, and clearly showed that CobB could strongly interact with TopA and AccC. The novel CobB interactors that we identified could serve as a start point for further functional analysis. PMID:24907045

  16. A Liposome-Based Approach to the Integrated Multi-Component Antigen Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Denong

    2015-01-01

    This report describes an experimental procedure for constructing integrated lipid, carbohydrate, and protein microarrays. In essence, it prints liposomes on nitrocellulose-coated micro-glass slides, a biochip substrate for spotting protein and carbohydrate microarrays, and the substances that can form liposomes (homo-liposomes) or can be incorporated into liposomes (hetero-liposomes) are suitable for microarray construction using existing microarray spotting devices. Importantly, this technology allows simultaneous detection of serum antibody activities among the three major classes of antigens, i.e., lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. The potential of this technology is illustrated by its use in revealing a broad-spectrum of pre-existing anti-lipid antibodies in blood circulation and monitoring the epitope spreading of autoantibody reactivities among protein, carbohydrate, and lipid antigens in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

  17. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Traina, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    A large body of evidence points to the positive effects of dietary supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). Its use has shown health benefits in neuroinflammation, which is a common denominator in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. ALC is the principal acetyl ester of L-Carnitine (LC), and it plays an essential role in intermediary metabolism, acting as a donor of acetyl groups and facilitating the transfer of fatty acids from cytosol to mitochondria during beta-oxidation. Dietary supplementation of ALC exerts neuroprotective, neurotrophic, antidepressive and analgesic effects in painful neuropathies. ALC also has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity. Moreover, ALC exhibits positive effects on mitochondrial metabolism, and shows promise in the treatment of aging and neurodegenerative pathologies by slowing the progression of mental deterioration. In addition, ALC plays neuromodulatory effects on both synaptic morphology and synaptic transmission. These effects are likely due to affects of ALC through modulation of gene expression on several targets in the central nervous system. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on effects of ALC in the nervous system. PMID:27100509

  18. Enhancement of lysine acetylation accelerates wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Spallotta, Francesco; Cencioni, Chiara; Straino, Stefania; Sbardella, Gianluca; Castellano, Sabrina; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Martelli, Fabio; Gaetano, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    In physiopathological conditions, such as diabetes, wound healing is significantly compromised and chronic complications, including ulcers, may occur. In a mouse model of skin repair, we recently reported that wound treatment with Sirtuin activators and class I HDAC inhibitors induced keratinocyte proliferation and enhanced healing via a nitric oxide (NO) dependent mechanism. We observed an increase in total protein acetylation in the wound area, as determined by acetylation of α-tubulin and histone H3 Lysine 9. We reasoned that this process activated cell function as well as regulated gene expression to foster tissue repair. We report here that the direct activation of P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) by the histone acetylase activator pentadecylidenemalonate 1b (SPV-106) induced Lysine acetylation in the wound area. This intervention was sufficient to enhance repair process by a NO-independent mechanism. Hence, an impairment of PCAF and/or other GCN5 family acetylases may delay skin repair in physiopathological conditions. PMID:24265859

  19. Fragrance material review on acetyl cedrene.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of acetyl cedrene when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Acetyl cedrene is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. The generic formula for this group can be represented as (R1)(R2)CO. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for acetyl cedrene were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. PMID:23907023

  20. Mucolipidosis III β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A. Purification and properties

    PubMed Central

    Kress, Barry C.; Hirani, Shirish; Freeze, Hudson H.; Little, Laureen; Miller, Arnold L.

    1982-01-01

    Mucolipidosis III acid hydrolases possess an altered carbohydrate recognition marker needed for their lysosomal localization. As a result of this alteration, a portion of these enzymes is secreted from the cell to the extracellular spaces. The structural changes that may have occurred to one of these secreted enzymes, β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A (EC 3.2.1.52) were investigated. Normal and mucolipidosis III urinary β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A were purified to apparent homogeneity by using affinity [Sepharose-2-acetamido-N-(ε-aminocaproyl)-2-deoxy-β- d-glucopyranosylamine] and ion-exchange (DEAE- and CM-cellulose) chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-slab-gel electrophoresis showed that both enzymes had similar subunit patterns consisting of apparent mol.wts. of 68000, 60000–58000, 55000 and 29000. Differences, however, were noted in the relative proportions of the protein bands where the normal urinary β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A contained predominantly the smaller subunits, whereas the mucolipidosis III enzyme had a predominance of the larger subunits. The binding of mucolipidosis III β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A to Ricinus communis lectin and concanavalin A with and without endo-β-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase H treatment indicated that the mutation leads to a modification of a portion of the normally occurring high-mannose-type oligosaccharide units to the complex-type. This was further supported by carbohydrate compositional analysis, which revealed a mannose/galactose ratio of 2.1 for the mucolipidosis III β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase A compared with a ratio of 3.5 for the normal enzyme. Our results indicate that as a result of their inability to be properly localized to the lysosome the majority of the mucolipidosis III lysosomal hydrolase high-mannose oligosaccharide units are further processed to the complex-type before secretion of predominantly higher-molecular-weight subunits from the cell. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:6219664

  1. MARS: Microarray analysis, retrieval, and storage system

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Michael; Molidor, Robert; Sturn, Alexander; Hartler, Juergen; Hackl, Hubert; Stocker, Gernot; Prokesch, Andreas; Scheideler, Marcel; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2005-01-01

    Background Microarray analysis has become a widely used technique for the study of gene-expression patterns on a genomic scale. As more and more laboratories are adopting microarray technology, there is a need for powerful and easy to use microarray databases facilitating array fabrication, labeling, hybridization, and data analysis. The wealth of data generated by this high throughput approach renders adequate database and analysis tools crucial for the pursuit of insights into the transcriptomic behavior of cells. Results MARS (Microarray Analysis and Retrieval System) provides a comprehensive MIAME supportive suite for storing, retrieving, and analyzing multi color microarray data. The system comprises a laboratory information management system (LIMS), a quality control management, as well as a sophisticated user management system. MARS is fully integrated into an analytical pipeline of microarray image analysis, normalization, gene expression clustering, and mapping of gene expression data onto biological pathways. The incorporation of ontologies and the use of MAGE-ML enables an export of studies stored in MARS to public repositories and other databases accepting these documents. Conclusion We have developed an integrated system tailored to serve the specific needs of microarray based research projects using a unique fusion of Web based and standalone applications connected to the latest J2EE application server technology. The presented system is freely available for academic and non-profit institutions. More information can be found at . PMID:15836795

  2. Microarray-integrated optoelectrofluidic immunoassay system.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongsik; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-05-01

    A microarray-based analytical platform has been utilized as a powerful tool in biological assay fields. However, an analyte depletion problem due to the slow mass transport based on molecular diffusion causes low reaction efficiency, resulting in a limitation for practical applications. This paper presents a novel method to improve the efficiency of microarray-based immunoassay via an optically induced electrokinetic phenomenon by integrating an optoelectrofluidic device with a conventional glass slide-based microarray format. A sample droplet was loaded between the microarray slide and the optoelectrofluidic device on which a photoconductive layer was deposited. Under the application of an AC voltage, optically induced AC electroosmotic flows caused by a microarray-patterned light actively enhanced the mass transport of target molecules at the multiple assay spots of the microarray simultaneously, which reduced tedious reaction time from more than 30 min to 10 min. Based on this enhancing effect, a heterogeneous immunoassay with a tiny volume of sample (5 μl) was successfully performed in the microarray-integrated optoelectrofluidic system using immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-IgG, resulting in improved efficiency compared to the static environment. Furthermore, the application of multiplex assays was also demonstrated by multiple protein detection. PMID:27190571

  3. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  4. Progress in the application of DNA microarrays.

    PubMed Central

    Lobenhofer, E K; Bushel, P R; Afshari, C A; Hamadeh, H K

    2001-01-01

    Microarray technology has been applied to a variety of different fields to address fundamental research questions. The use of microarrays, or DNA chips, to study the gene expression profiles of biologic samples began in 1995. Since that time, the fundamental concepts behind the chip, the technology required for making and using these chips, and the multitude of statistical tools for analyzing the data have been extensively reviewed. For this reason, the focus of this review will be not on the technology itself but on the application of microarrays as a research tool and the future challenges of the field. PMID:11673116

  5. Identification of a capsular variant and characterization of capsular acetylation in Klebsiella pneumoniae PLA-associated type K57

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Ru; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Yang, Han-Ru; Yang, Feng-Ling; Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wang, Jin-Town

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is important for its virulence. Among 79 capsular (K) types discovered thus far, K57 is often associated with PLA. Here, we report the identification of a K57 variant. Cps gene locus sequencing revealed differences between the K57 reference strain 4425/51 (Ref-K57) and a variant, the PLA isolate A1142. While Ref-K57 cps contained orf13 encoding a putative acetyltransferase, the insertion of a putative transposase-encoding gene at this position was detected in A1142. This variation was detected in other K57 clinical strains. Biochemical analyses indicated that A1142 was deficient in CPS acetylation. Genetic replacement and complementation verified that orf13 was responsible for CPS acetylation. Acetylation increased CPS immunoreactivity to antiserum and enhanced K. pneumoniae induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines through JNK and MAPK signaling. While acetylation diminished the serum resistance of bacteria, it promoted adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells possibly via increasing production of type I fimbriae. In conclusion, acetylation-mediated capsular variation in K57 was observed. Capsular acetylation contributed to the variety and antigenic diversity of CPS, influenced its biological activities, and was involved in K. pneumoniae-host interactions. These findings have implications for vaccine design and pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae. PMID:27550826

  6. Structural Basis for Phosphorylation and Lysine Acetylation Cross-talk in a Kinase Motif Associated with Myocardial Ischemia and Cardioprotection*

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Benjamin L.; Shepherd, Nicholas E.; Trefely, Sophie; Hoffman, Nolan J.; White, Melanie Y.; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Hambly, Brett D.; Larsen, Martin R.; James, David E.; Cordwell, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia and cardioprotection by ischemic pre-conditioning induce signal networks aimed at survival or cell death if the ischemic period is prolonged. These pathways are mediated by protein post-translational modifications that are hypothesized to cross-talk with and regulate each other. Phosphopeptides and lysine-acetylated peptides were quantified in isolated rat hearts subjected to ischemia or ischemic pre-conditioning, with and without splitomicin inhibition of lysine deacetylation. We show lysine acetylation (acetyl-Lys)-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, AKT, and PKA kinases during ischemia. Phosphorylation and acetyl-Lys sites mapped onto tertiary structures were proximal in >50% of proteins investigated, yet they were mutually exclusive in 50 ischemic pre-conditioning- and/or ischemia-associated peptides containing the KXXS basophilic protein kinase consensus motif. Modifications in this motif were modeled in the C terminus of muscle-type creatine kinase. Acetyl-Lys increased proximal dephosphorylation by 10-fold. Structural analysis of modified muscle-type creatine kinase peptide variants by two-dimensional NMR revealed stabilization via a lysine-phosphate salt bridge, which was disrupted by acetyl-Lys resulting in backbone flexibility and increased phosphatase accessibility. PMID:25008320

  7. Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation in HeLa Cells and their Essential Roles in Response to UV-induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Chen, Xuanyi; Xu, Xiaoli; Shi, Rongyi; Suo, Shasha; Cheng, Kaiying; Zheng, Zhiguo; Wang, Meixia; Wang, Liangyan; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation and succinylation are major types of protein acylation that are important in many cellular processes including gene transcription, cellular metabolism, DNA damage response. Malfunctions in these post-translational modifications are associated with genome instability and disease in higher organisms. In this study, we used high-resolution nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with affinity purification to quantify the dynamic changes of protein acetylation and succinylation in response to ultraviolet (UV)-induced cell stress. A total of 3345 acetylation sites in 1440 proteins and 567 succinylation sites in 246 proteins were identified, many of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins are involved in many important biological processes, including cell signalling transduction, protein localization and cell metabolism. Crosstalk analysis between these two modifications indicated that modification switches might regulate protein function in response to UV-induced DNA damage. We further illustrated that FEN1 acetylation at different sites could lead to different cellular phenotypes, suggesting the multiple function involvement of FEN1 acetylation under DNA damage stress. These systematic analyses provided valuable resources and new insight into the potential role of lysine acetylation and succinylation under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27452117

  8. Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation in HeLa Cells and their Essential Roles in Response to UV-induced Stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Chen, Xuanyi; Xu, Xiaoli; Shi, Rongyi; Suo, Shasha; Cheng, Kaiying; Zheng, Zhiguo; Wang, Meixia; Wang, Liangyan; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation and succinylation are major types of protein acylation that are important in many cellular processes including gene transcription, cellular metabolism, DNA damage response. Malfunctions in these post-translational modifications are associated with genome instability and disease in higher organisms. In this study, we used high-resolution nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with affinity purification to quantify the dynamic changes of protein acetylation and succinylation in response to ultraviolet (UV)-induced cell stress. A total of 3345 acetylation sites in 1440 proteins and 567 succinylation sites in 246 proteins were identified, many of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these proteins are involved in many important biological processes, including cell signalling transduction, protein localization and cell metabolism. Crosstalk analysis between these two modifications indicated that modification switches might regulate protein function in response to UV-induced DNA damage. We further illustrated that FEN1 acetylation at different sites could lead to different cellular phenotypes, suggesting the multiple function involvement of FEN1 acetylation under DNA damage stress. These systematic analyses provided valuable resources and new insight into the potential role of lysine acetylation and succinylation under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27452117

  9. Identification of a capsular variant and characterization of capsular acetylation in Klebsiella pneumoniae PLA-associated type K57.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Ru; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Yang, Han-Ru; Yang, Feng-Ling; Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Wang, Jin-Town

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is important for its virulence. Among 79 capsular (K) types discovered thus far, K57 is often associated with PLA. Here, we report the identification of a K57 variant. Cps gene locus sequencing revealed differences between the K57 reference strain 4425/51 (Ref-K57) and a variant, the PLA isolate A1142. While Ref-K57 cps contained orf13 encoding a putative acetyltransferase, the insertion of a putative transposase-encoding gene at this position was detected in A1142. This variation was detected in other K57 clinical strains. Biochemical analyses indicated that A1142 was deficient in CPS acetylation. Genetic replacement and complementation verified that orf13 was responsible for CPS acetylation. Acetylation increased CPS immunoreactivity to antiserum and enhanced K. pneumoniae induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines through JNK and MAPK signaling. While acetylation diminished the serum resistance of bacteria, it promoted adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells possibly via increasing production of type I fimbriae. In conclusion, acetylation-mediated capsular variation in K57 was observed. Capsular acetylation contributed to the variety and antigenic diversity of CPS, influenced its biological activities, and was involved in K. pneumoniae-host interactions. These findings have implications for vaccine design and pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae. PMID:27550826

  10. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  11. Rapid bacterial identification using evanescent-waveguide oligonucleotide microarray classification.

    PubMed

    Francois, Patrice; Charbonnier, Yvan; Jacquet, Jean; Utinger, Dominic; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Kresbach, Gerhard M; Ehrat, Markus; Schlegel, Werner; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-06-01

    Bacterial identification relies primarily on culture-based methodologies and requires 48-72 h to deliver results. We developed and used i) a bioinformatics strategy to select oligonucleotide signature probes, ii) a rapid procedure for RNA labelling and hybridization, iii) an evanescent-waveguide oligoarray with exquisite signal/noise performance, and iv) informatics methods for microarray data analysis. Unique 19-mer signature oligonucleotides were selected in the 5'-end of 16s rDNA genes of human pathogenic bacteria. Oligonucleotides spotted onto a Ta(2)O(5)-coated microarray surface were incubated with chemically labelled total bacterial RNA. Rapid hybridization and stringent washings were performed before scanning and analyzing the slide. In the present paper, the eight most abundant bacterial pathogens representing >54% of positive blood cultures were selected. Hierarchical clustering analysis of hybridization data revealed characteristic patterns, even for closely related species. We then evaluated artificial intelligence-based approaches that outperformed conventional threshold-based identification schemes on cognate probes. At this stage, the complete procedure applied to spiked blood cultures was completed in less than 6 h. In conclusion, when coupled to optimal signal detection strategy, microarrays provide bacterial identification within a few hours post-sampling, allowing targeted antimicrobial prescription. PMID:16216356

  12. Genopal™: A Novel Hollow Fibre Array for Focused Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Okuzaki, Daisuke; Fukushima, Tatsunobu; Tougan, Takahiro; Ishii, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Shigeto; Yoshizaki, Kazuyuki; Akita, Takashi; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Expression profiling of target genes in patient blood is a powerful tool for RNA diagnosis. Here, we describe Genopal™, a novel platform ideal for efficient focused microarray analysis. Genopal™, which consists of gel-filled fibres, is advantageous for high-quality mass production via large-scale slicing of the Genopal™ block. We prepared two arrays, infectant and autoimmunity, that provided highly reliable data in terms of repetitive scanning of the same and/or distinct microarrays. Moreover, we demonstrated that Genopal™ had sensitivity sufficient to yield signals in short hybridization times (0.5 h). Application of the autoimmunity array to blood samples allowed us to identify an expression pattern specific to Takayasu arteritis based on the Spearman rank correlation by comparing the reference profile with those of several autoimmune diseases and healthy volunteers (HVs). The comparison of these data with those obtained by other methods revealed that they exhibited similar expression profiles of many target genes. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Genopal™ is an advantageous platform for focused microarrays with regard to its low cost, rapid results and reliable quality. PMID:21059707

  13. AMIC@: All MIcroarray Clusterings @ once

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, Filippo; Pellegrini, Marco; Renda, M. Elena

    2008-01-01

    The AMIC@ Web Server offers a light-weight multi-method clustering engine for microarray gene-expression data. AMIC@ is a highly interactive tool that stresses user-friendliness and robustness by adopting AJAX technology, thus allowing an effective interleaved execution of different clustering algorithms and inspection of results. Among the salient features AMIC@ offers, there are: (i) automatic file format detection, (ii) suggestions on the number of clusters using a variant of the stability-based method of Tibshirani et al. (iii) intuitive visual inspection of the data via heatmaps and (iv) measurements of the clustering quality using cluster homogeneity. Large data sets can be processed efficiently by selecting algorithms (such as FPF-SB and k-Boost), specifically designed for this purpose. In case of very large data sets, the user can opt for a batch-mode use of the system by means of the Clustering wizard that runs all algorithms at once and delivers the results via email. AMIC@ is freely available and open to all users with no login requirement at the following URL http://bioalgo.iit.cnr.it/amica. PMID:18477631

  14. AMIC@: All MIcroarray Clusterings @ once.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Filippo; Pellegrini, Marco; Renda, M Elena

    2008-07-01

    The AMIC@ Web Server offers a light-weight multi-method clustering engine for microarray gene-expression data. AMIC@ is a highly interactive tool that stresses user-friendliness and robustness by adopting AJAX technology, thus allowing an effective interleaved execution of different clustering algorithms and inspection of results. Among the salient features AMIC@ offers, there are: (i) automatic file format detection, (ii) suggestions on the number of clusters using a variant of the stability-based method of Tibshirani et al. (iii) intuitive visual inspection of the data via heatmaps and (iv) measurements of the clustering quality using cluster homogeneity. Large data sets can be processed efficiently by selecting algorithms (such as FPF-SB and k-Boost), specifically designed for this purpose. In case of very large data sets, the user can opt for a batch-mode use of the system by means of the Clustering wizard that runs all algorithms at once and delivers the results via email. AMIC@ is freely available and open to all users with no login requirement at the following URL http://bioalgo.iit.cnr.it/amica. PMID:18477631

  15. DNA microarrays in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Lau, Kin-Mang

    2002-02-01

    DNA microarray technology provides a means to examine large numbers of molecular changes related to a biological process in a high throughput manner. This review discusses plausible utilities of this technology in prostate cancer research, including definition of prostate cancer predisposition, global profiling of gene expression patterns associated with cancer initiation and progression, identification of new diagnostic and prognostic markers, and discovery of novel patient classification schemes. The technology, at present, has only been explored in a limited fashion in prostate cancer research. Some hurdles to be overcome are the high cost of the technology, insufficient sample size and repeated experiments, and the inadequate use of bioinformatics. With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advance of several highly complementary technologies, such as laser capture microdissection, unbiased RNA amplification, customized functional arrays (eg, single-nucleotide polymorphism chips), and amenable bioinformatics software, this technology will become widely used by investigators in the field. The large amount of novel, unbiased hypotheses and insights generated by this technology is expected to have a significant impact on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of prostate cancer. Finally, this review emphasizes existing, but currently underutilized, data-mining tools, such as multivariate statistical analyses, neural networking, and machine learning techniques, to stimulate wider usage. PMID:12084220

  16. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the

  17. Quality Visualization of Microarray Datasets Using Circos

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Martin; Wiese, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Quality control and normalization is considered the most important step in the analysis of microarray data. At present there are various methods available for quality assessments of microarray datasets. However there seems to be no standard visualization routine, which also depicts individual microarray quality. Here we present a convenient method for visualizing the results of standard quality control tests using Circos plots. In these plots various quality measurements are drawn in a circular fashion, thus allowing for visualization of the quality and all outliers of each distinct array within a microarray dataset. The proposed method is intended for use with the Affymetrix Human Genome platform (i.e., GPL 96, GPL570 and GPL571). Circos quality measurement plots are a convenient way for the initial quality estimate of Affymetrix datasets that are stored in publicly available databases.

  18. Microarray: an approach for current drug targets.

    PubMed

    Gomase, Virendra S; Tagore, Somnath; Kale, Karbhari V

    2008-03-01

    Microarrays are a powerful tool has multiple applications both in clinical and cellular and molecular biology arenas. Early assessment of the probable biological importance of drug targets, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A list of new drug candidates along with proposed targets for intervention is described. Recent advances in the knowledge of microarrays analysis of organisms and the availability of the genomics sequences provide a wide range of novel targets for drug design. This review gives different process of microarray technologies; methods for comparative gene expression study, applications of microarrays in medicine and pharmacogenomics and current drug targets in research, which are relevant to common diseases as they relate to clinical and future perspectives. PMID:18336225

  19. Acetylation and characterization of spruce (Picea abies) galactoglucomannans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunlin; Leppänen, Ann-Sofie; Eklund, Patrik; Holmlund, Peter; Sjöholm, Rainer; Sundberg, Kenneth; Willför, Stefan

    2010-04-19

    Acetylated galactoglucomannans (GGMs) are the main hemicellulose type in most softwood species and can be utilized as, for example, bioactive polymers, hydrocolloids, papermaking chemicals, or coating polymers. Acetylation of spruce GGM using acetic anhydride with pyridine as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale, whereas, as a classic method, it can be potentially transferred to the industrial scale. The effects of the amount of catalyst and acetic anhydride, reaction time, temperature and pretreatment by acetic acid were investigated. A fully acetylated product was obtained by refluxing GGM for two hours. The structures of the acetylated GGMs were determined by SEC-MALLS/RI, (1)H and (13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. NMR studies also indicated migration of acetyl groups from O-2 or O-3 to O-6 after a heating treatment in a water bath. The thermal stability of the products was investigated by DSC-TGA. PMID:20144827

  20. Contributions to Statistical Problems Related to Microarray Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Microarray is a high throughput technology to measure the gene expression. Analysis of microarray data brings many interesting and challenging problems. This thesis consists three studies related to microarray data. First, we propose a Bayesian model for microarray data and use Bayes Factors to identify differentially expressed genes. Second, we…

  1. Evaluation of Surface Chemistries for Antibody Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; White, Amanda M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Rodland, Karin D.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2007-12-01

    Antibody microarrays are an emerging technology that promises to be a powerful tool for the detection of disease biomarkers. The current technology for protein microarrays has been primarily derived from DNA microarrays and is not fully characterized for use with proteins. For example, there are a myriad of surface chemistries that are commercially available for antibody microarrays, but no rigorous studies that compare these different surfaces. Therefore, we have used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray platform to analyze 16 different commercially available slide types. Full standard curves were generated for 24 different assays. We found that this approach provides a rigorous and quantitative system for comparing the different slide types based on spot size and morphology, slide noise, spot background, lower limit of detection, and reproducibility. These studies demonstrate that the properties of the slide surface affect the activity of immobilized antibodies and the quality of data produced. Although many slide types can produce useful data, glass slides coated with poly-L-lysine or aminosilane, with or without activation with a crosslinker, consistently produce superior results in the ELISA microarray analyses we performed.

  2. The Impact of Photobleaching on Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    von der Haar, Marcel; Preuß, John-Alexander; von der Haar, Kathrin; Lindner, Patrick; Scheper, Thomas; Stahl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    DNA-Microarrays have become a potent technology for high-throughput analysis of genetic regulation. However, the wide dynamic range of signal intensities of fluorophore-based microarrays exceeds the dynamic range of a single array scan by far, thus limiting the key benefit of microarray technology: parallelization. The implementation of multi-scan techniques represents a promising approach to overcome these limitations. These techniques are, in turn, limited by the fluorophores’ susceptibility to photobleaching when exposed to the scanner’s laser light. In this paper the photobleaching characteristics of cyanine-3 and cyanine-5 as part of solid state DNA microarrays are studied. The effects of initial fluorophore intensity as well as laser scanner dependent variables such as the photomultiplier tube’s voltage on bleaching and imaging are investigated. The resulting data is used to develop a model capable of simulating the expected degree of signal intensity reduction caused by photobleaching for each fluorophore individually, allowing for the removal of photobleaching-induced, systematic bias in multi-scan procedures. Single-scan applications also benefit as they rely on pre-scans to determine the optimal scanner settings. These findings constitute a step towards standardization of microarray experiments and analysis and may help to increase the lab-to-lab comparability of microarray experiment results. PMID:26378589

  3. Development and validation of a 2,000-gene microarray for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, Patrick; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Knoebl, Iris; Miracle, Ann L.; Carter, Barbara J.; Liu, Li; Denslow, Nancy D.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-07-01

    Gene microarrays provide the field of ecotoxicology new tools to identify mechanisms of action of chemicals and chemical mixtures. Herein we describe the development and application of a 2,000-gene oligonucleotide microarray for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, a species commonly used in ecological risk assessments in North America. The microarrays were developed from various cDNA and subtraction libraries that we constructed. Consistency and reproducibility of the microarrays were documented by examining multiple technical replicates. To test application of the fathead minnow microarrays, gene expression profiles of fish exposed to 17-estradiol, a well-characterized estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, were examined. For these experiments, adult male fathead minnows were exposed for 24 h to waterborne 17-estradiol (40 or 100 ng/L) in a flow-through system, and gene expression in liver samples was characterized. Seventy-one genes were identified as differentially regulated by estradiol exposure. Examination of the gene ontology designations of these genes revealed patterns consistent with estradiol’s expected mechanisms of action and also provided novel insights as to molecular effects of the estrogen. Our studies indicate the feasibility and utility of microarrays as a basis for understanding biological responses to chemical exposure in a model ecotoxicology test species.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lysine acetylation and methylation in yeast histone H3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kangling

    2008-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications play important roles in cell functions and the modification patterns vary significantly among different organisms. It is important that histone modification patterns be identified. Flowing our previous work-identification of acetylation and methylation sites of histone H3 in a typical transcription most inactive chromatin isolated from chicken erythrocytes, here, we report using mass spectrometry to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze histone modification pattern of H3 in a typical transcription most active chromatin isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compared the modification patterns of histone H3 between these two functionally opposite chromatins and observed that acetylation level at K9, K14, K27, K56 and methylation level at K4 and K79 are significantly higher in S. cerevisiae than in chicken erythrocytes, methylation at K9 is higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae and methylation level at K36 is unchanged in these two chromatins. Contrary to other sites, acetylation levels at K18 and K23 are higher in chicken erythrocytes than in S. cerevisiae. Our data revealed the difference of acetylation and methylation pattern of individual H3 lysine between two distinct chromatins, one with more inactive form versus the other with more active form.

  5. Effect of pulsed electric fields assisted acetylation on morphological, structural and functional characteristics of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing; Chen, Rujiao; Zeng, Xin-An; Han, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF)-assisted acetylation of potato starch with different degree of substitution (DS) was prepared and effects of PEF strength, reaction time, starch concentration on DS were studied by response surface methodology. Results showed DS was increased from 0.054 (reaction time of 15 min) to 0.130 (reaction time of 60 min) as PEF strength increased from 3 to 5 kV/cm. External morphology revealed that acetylated starch with higher DS was aggravated more bulges and asperities. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the introduction of acetyl group through a band at 1730 cm(-1). The optimum sample (DS =0 .13) had lower retrogradation (39.1%), breakdown (155 BU) and setback value (149BU), while pasting temperature (62.2 °C) was slightly higher than non-PEF-assisted samples. These results demonstrated PEF treatment can be a potential and beneficial method for acetylation and achieve higher DS with shorter reaction time. PMID:26304315

  6. Tissue Distribution of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Stumpf, Paul K.

    1984-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase [acetyl-CoA—carbon dioxide ligase (ADP forming), EC 6.4.1.2] is a biotin-containing enzyme catalyzing the formation of malonyl-CoA. The tissue distribution of this enzyme was determined for leaves of C3- and C4-plants. The mesophyll tissues of the C3-plants Pisum sativum and Allium porrum contained 90% of the leaf acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, with the epidermal tissues containing the remainder. Western blotting of proteins fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using 125I-streptavidin as a probe, revealed biotinyl proteins of molecular weights 62,000, 51,000, and 32,000 in P. sativum and 62,000, 34,000, and 32,000 in A. porrum. In the C4-plant sorghum, epidermal protoplasts, mesophyll protoplasts and strands of bundle sheath cells contained 35, 47, and 17%, respectively, of the total leaf acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. In Zea mays leaves the respective figures were 10% for epidermal protoplasts, 56% for mesophyll protoplasts, and 32% for bundle sheath strands. Biotinyl proteins of molecular weights 62,000 and 51,000 were identified in leaves of sorghum and Z. mays. The results are discussed with respect to each tissue's requirements for malonyl-CoA for various metabolic pathways. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663756

  7. Determination of amphetamine by HPLC after acetylation.

    PubMed

    Veress, T

    2000-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the HPLC determination of amphetamine by off-line pre-column derivatization. The proposed procedure consists of sample preparation by acetylation of amphetamine with acetic anhydride and a subsequent reversed-phase HPLC separation on an octadecyl silica stationary phase with salt-free mobile phase (tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, 0.1% triethylamine in water, 15:15:70 v/v) applying UV-detection. The applicability of the elaborated procedure is demonstrated with results obtained by analysis of real samples seized in the Hungarian black market. PMID:10641931

  8. Using Pre-existing Microarray Datasets to Increase Experimental Power: Application to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Bernie J.; Deng, Alicia; McLaughlin, Tracey; Cushman, Samuel W.; Cam, Margaret C.; Reaven, Gerald; Tsao, Philip S.; Altman, Russ B.

    2010-01-01

    Although they have become a widely used experimental technique for identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes, DNA microarrays are notorious for generating noisy data. A common strategy for mitigating the effects of noise is to perform many experimental replicates. This approach is often costly and sometimes impossible given limited resources; thus, analytical methods are needed which increase accuracy at no additional cost. One inexpensive source of microarray replicates comes from prior work: to date, data from hundreds of thousands of microarray experiments are in the public domain. Although these data assay a wide range of conditions, they cannot be used directly to inform any particular experiment and are thus ignored by most DE gene methods. We present the SVD Augmented Gene expression Analysis Tool (SAGAT), a mathematically principled, data-driven approach for identifying DE genes. SAGAT increases the power of a microarray experiment by using observed coexpression relationships from publicly available microarray datasets to reduce uncertainty in individual genes' expression measurements. We tested the method on three well-replicated human microarray datasets and demonstrate that use of SAGAT increased effective sample sizes by as many as 2.72 arrays. We applied SAGAT to unpublished data from a microarray study investigating transcriptional responses to insulin resistance, resulting in a 50% increase in the number of significant genes detected. We evaluated 11 (58%) of these genes experimentally using qPCR, confirming the directions of expression change for all 11 and statistical significance for three. Use of SAGAT revealed coherent biological changes in three pathways: inflammation, differentiation, and fatty acid synthesis, furthering our molecular understanding of a type 2 diabetes risk factor. We envision SAGAT as a means to maximize the potential for biological discovery from subtle transcriptional responses, and we provide it as a freely available

  9. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of acetylated EGCG and antioxidant properties of the acetylated derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) acetylated derivatives were prepared by lipase catalyzed acylation of EGCG with vinyl acetate to improve its lipophilicity and expand its application in lipophilic media. The immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, was found to be the optimum catalyst. The optimiz...

  10. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

  11. Protein lysine acetylation in bacteria: Current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Tassadit; Kentache, Takfarinas; Hardouin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins are key events in cellular metabolism and physiology regulation. Lysine acetylation is one of the best studied protein modifications in eukaryotes, but, until recently, ignored in bacteria. However, proteomic advances have highlighted the diversity of bacterial lysine-acetylated proteins. The current data support the implication of lysine acetylation in various metabolic pathways, adaptation and virulence. In this review, we present a broad overview of the current knowledge of lysine acetylation in bacteria. We emphasize particularly the significant contribution of proteomics in this field. PMID:26390373

  12. Determination of Acetylation of the Gli Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Coni, Sonia; Di Magno, Laura; Canettieri, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) are the final effectors of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and play a key role in development and cancer. The activity of the Gli proteins is finely regulated by covalent modifications, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation. Both Gli1 and Gli2 are acetylated at a conserved lysine, and this modification causes the inhibition of their transcriptional activity. Thus, the acetylation status of these proteins represents a useful marker to monitor Hh activation in pathophysiological conditions. Herein we describe the techniques utilized to detect in vitro and intracellular acetylation of the Gli transcription factors. PMID:26179046

  13. Probing the acetylation code of histone H4.

    PubMed

    Lang, Diana; Schümann, Michael; Gelato, Kathy; Fischle, Wolfgang; Schwarzer, Dirk; Krause, Eberhard

    2013-10-01

    Histone modifications play crucial roles in genome regulation with lysine acetylation being implicated in transcriptional control. Here we report a proteome-wide investigation of the acetylation-dependent protein-protein interactions of the N-terminal tail of histone H4. Quantitative peptide-based affinity MS experiments using the SILAC approach determined the interactomes of H4 tails monoacetylated at the four known acetylation sites K5, K8, K12, and K16, bis-acetylated at K5/K12, triple-acetylated at K8/12/16 and fully tetra-acetylated. A set of 29 proteins was found enriched on the fully acetylated H4 tail while specific binders of the mono and bis-acetylated tails were barely detectable. These observations are in good agreement with earlier reports indicating that the H4 acetylation state establishes its regulatory effects in a cumulative manner rather than via site-specific recruitment of regulatory proteins. PMID:23970329

  14. Generation of acetyllysine antibodies and affinity enrichment of acetylated peptides

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Kun-Liang; Yu, Wei; Lin, Yan; Xiong, Yue; Zhao, Shimin

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has emerged as one of the major post-translational modifications, as indicated by its roles in chromatin remodeling, activation of transcription factors and, most recently, regulation of metabolic enzymes. Identification of acetylation sites in a protein is the first essential step for functional characterization of acetylation in physiological regulation. However, the study of the acetylome is hindered by the lack of suitable physical and biochemical properties of the acetyl group and existence of high-abundance acetylated histones in the cell, and needs a robust method to overcome these problems. Here we present protocols for (i) using chemically acetylated ovalbumin and synthetic acetylated peptide to generate a pan-acetyllysine antibody and a site-specific antibody to Lys288-acetylated argininosuccinate lyase, respectively; (ii) using subcellular fractionation to reduce highly abundant acetylated histones; and (iii) using acetyllysine antibody affinity purification and mass spectrometry to characterize acetylome of human liver tissue. The entire characterization procedure takes ~2–3 d to complete. PMID:21085124

  15. P. aeruginosa SGNH Hydrolase-Like Proteins AlgJ and AlgX Have Similar Topology but Separate and Distinct Roles in Alginate Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Patrick J.; Kitova, Elena N.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Little, Dustin J.; Whitney, John C.; Dawson, Karen; Weadge, Joel T.; Robinson, Howard; Ohman, Dennis E.; Codée, Jeroen D. C.; Klassen, John S.; Clarke, Anthony J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The O-acetylation of polysaccharides is a common modification used by pathogenic organisms to protect against external forces. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the anionic, O-acetylated exopolysaccharide alginate during chronic infection in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients to form the major constituent of a protective biofilm matrix. Four proteins have been implicated in the O-acetylation of alginate, AlgIJF and AlgX. To probe the biological function of AlgJ, we determined its structure to 1.83 Å resolution. AlgJ is a SGNH hydrolase-like protein, which while structurally similar to the N-terminal domain of AlgX exhibits a distinctly different electrostatic surface potential. Consistent with other SGNH hydrolases, we identified a conserved catalytic triad composed of D190, H192 and S288 and demonstrated that AlgJ exhibits acetylesterase activity in vitro. Residues in the AlgJ signature motifs were found to form an extensive network of interactions that are critical for O-acetylation of alginate in vivo. Using two different electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) assays we compared the abilities of AlgJ and AlgX to bind and acetylate alginate. Binding studies using defined length polymannuronic acid revealed that AlgJ exhibits either weak or no detectable polymer binding while AlgX binds polymannuronic acid specifically in a length-dependent manner. Additionally, AlgX was capable of utilizing the surrogate acetyl-donor 4-nitrophenyl acetate to catalyze the O-acetylation of polymannuronic acid. Our results, combined with previously published in vivo data, suggest that the annotated O-acetyltransferases AlgJ and AlgX have separate and distinct roles in O-acetylation. Our refined model for alginate acetylation places AlgX as the terminal acetlytransferase and provides a rationale for the variability in the number of proteins required for polysaccharide O-acetylation. PMID:25165982

  16. The Fasted/Fed Mouse Metabolic Acetylome: N6-Acetylation Differences Suggest Acetylation Coordinates Organ-Specific Fuel Switching

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Hartil, Kirsten; Robinson, Alan J.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Kurland, Irwin J.; Bruce, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The elucidation of extra-nuclear lysine acetylation has been of growing interest, as the co-substrate for acetylation, acetyl CoA, is at a key metabolic intersection. Our hypothesis was that mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein acetylation may be part of a fasted/re-fed feedback control system for the regulation of the metabolic network in fuel switching, where acetyl CoA would be provided by fatty acid oxidation, or glycolysis, respectively. To test this we characterized the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylome in various organs that have a high metabolic rate relative to their mass, and/or switch fuels, under fasted and re-fed conditions (brain, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, white and brown adipose tissues). Using immunoprecipitation, coupled with LC-MSMS label free quantification, we show there is a dramatic variation in global quantitative profiles of acetylated proteins from different organs. In total, 733 acetylated peptides from 337 proteins were identified and quantified, out of which 31 acetylated peptides from the metabolic proteins that may play organ-specific roles were analyzed in detail. Results suggest that fasted/re-fed acetylation changes coordinated by organ-specific (de-)acetylases in insulin-sensitive versus insensitive organs may underlie fuel use and switching. Characterization of the tissue-specific acetylome should increase understanding of metabolic conditions wherein normal fuel switching is disrupted, such as in Type II diabetes. PMID:21728379

  17. N-acetylaspartate catabolism determines cytosolic acetyl-CoA levels and histone acetylation in brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Prokesch, A.; Pelzmann, H. J.; Pessentheiner, A. R.; Huber, K.; Madreiter-Sokolowski, C. T.; Drougard, A.; Schittmayer, M.; Kolb, D.; Magnes, C.; Trausinger, G.; Graier, W. F.; Birner-Gruenberger, R.; Pospisilik, J. A.; Bogner-Strauss, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation depends on the abundance of nucleo-cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA. Here, we present a novel route for cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA production in brown adipocytes. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is a highly abundant brain metabolite catabolized by aspartoacylase yielding aspartate and acetate. The latter can be further used for acetyl-CoA production. Prior to this work, the presence of NAA has not been described in adipocytes. Here, we show that accumulation of NAA decreases the brown adipocyte phenotype. We increased intracellular NAA concentrations in brown adipocytes via media supplementation or knock-down of aspartoacylase and measured reduced lipolysis, thermogenic gene expression, and oxygen consumption. Combinations of approaches to increase intracellular NAA levels showed additive effects on lipolysis and gene repression, nearly abolishing the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppara. Transcriptome analyses of aspartoacylase knock-down cells indicate deficiencies in acetyl-CoA and lipid metabolism. Concordantly, cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA levels and global histone H3 acetylation were decreased. Further, activating histone marks (H3K27ac and H3K9ac) in promoters/enhancers of brown marker genes showed reduced acetylation status. Taken together, we present a novel route for cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA production in brown adipocytes. Thereby, we mechanistically connect the NAA pathway to the epigenomic regulation of gene expression, modulating the phenotype of brown adipocytes. PMID:27045997

  18. Infrared spectroscopy of the acetyl cation and its protonated ketene isomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosley, J. D.; Young, J. W.; Duncan, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    [C2,H3,O]+ ions are generated with a pulsed discharge in a supersonic expansion containing methyl acetate or acetone. These ions are mass selected and their infrared spectra are recorded via laser photodissociation and the method of argon tagging. Computational chemistry is employed to investigate structural isomers and their spectra. The acetyl cation (CH3CO+) is the global minimum and protonated ketene (CH2COH+) is the next lowest energy isomer (+176.2 kJ/mol). When methyl acetate is employed as the precursor, the infrared spectrum reveals that only the acetyl cation is formed. Partially resolved rotational structure reveals rotation about the C3 axis. When acetone is used as the precursor, acetyl is still the most abundant cation, but there is also a minor component of protonated ketene. Computations reveal a significant barrier to interconversion between the two isomers (+221 kJ/mol), indicating that protonated ketene must be obtained via kinetic trapping. Both isomers may be present in interstellar environments, and their implications for astrochemistry are discussed.

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of the acetyl cation and its protonated ketene isomer

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, J. D.; Young, J. W.; Duncan, M. A.

    2014-07-14

    [C{sub 2},H{sub 3},O]{sup +} ions are generated with a pulsed discharge in a supersonic expansion containing methyl acetate or acetone. These ions are mass selected and their infrared spectra are recorded via laser photodissociation and the method of argon tagging. Computational chemistry is employed to investigate structural isomers and their spectra. The acetyl cation (CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}) is the global minimum and protonated ketene (CH{sub 2}COH{sup +}) is the next lowest energy isomer (+176.2 kJ/mol). When methyl acetate is employed as the precursor, the infrared spectrum reveals that only the acetyl cation is formed. Partially resolved rotational structure reveals rotation about the C{sub 3} axis. When acetone is used as the precursor, acetyl is still the most abundant cation, but there is also a minor component of protonated ketene. Computations reveal a significant barrier to interconversion between the two isomers (+221 kJ/mol), indicating that protonated ketene must be obtained via kinetic trapping. Both isomers may be present in interstellar environments, and their implications for astrochemistry are discussed.

  20. Quantifying the Antibody Binding on Protein Microarrays using Microarray Nonlinear Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaobo; Wallstrom, Garrick; Magee, Dewey Mitchell; Qiu, Ji; Mendoza, D. Eliseo A.; Wang, Jie; Bian, Xiaofang; Graves, Morgan; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    To address the issue of quantification for antibody assays with protein microarrays, we firstly developed a Microarray Nonlinear Calibration (MiNC) method that applies in the quantification of antibody binding to the surface of microarray spots. We found that MiNC significantly increased the linear dynamic range and reduced assay variations. A serological analysis of guinea pig Mycobacterium tuberculosis models showed that a larger number of putative antigen targets were identified with MiNC, which is consistent with the improved assay performance of protein microarrays. We expect that our cumulative results will provide scientists with a new appreciation of antibody assays with protein microarrays. Our MiNC method has the potential to be employed in biomedical research with multiplex antibody assays which need quantitation, including the discovery of antibody biomarkers, clinical diagnostics with multi-antibody signatures and construction of immune mathematical models. PMID:23662896

  1. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF 65-MER OLIGONUCLEOTIDE MICROARRAYS

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoyong; Xiang, Charlie C.; Trent, Jeffrey M.; Bittner, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Microarray fabrication using pre-synthesized long oligonucleotide is becoming increasingly important, but a study of large-scale array productions is not published yet. We addressed the issue of fabricating oligonucleotide microarrays by spotting commercial, pre-synthesized 65-mers with 5′ amines representing 7500 murine genes. Amine-modified oligonucleotides were immobilized on glass slides having aldehyde groups via transient Schiff base formation followed by reduction to produce a covalent conjugate. When RNA derived from the same source was used for Cy3 and Cy5 labeling and hybridized to the same array, signal intensities spanning three orders of magnitude were observed, and the coefficient of variation between the two channels for all spots was 8–10%. To ascertain the reproducibility of ratio determination of these arrays, two triplicate hybridizations (with fluorochrome reversal) comparing RNAs from a fibroblast (NIH3T3) and a breast cancer (JC) cell line were carried out. The 95% confidence interval for all spots in the six hybridizations was 0.60 – 1.66. This level of reproducibility allows use of the full range of pattern finding and discriminant analysis typically applied to cDNA microarrays. Further comparative testing was carried out with oligonucleotide microarrays, cDNA microarrays and RT-PCR assays to examine the comparability of results across these different methodologies. PMID:17617369

  2. Advancing microarray assembly with acoustic dispensing technology.

    PubMed

    Wong, E Y; Diamond, S L

    2009-01-01

    In the assembly of microarrays and microarray-based chemical assays and enzymatic bioassays, most approaches use pins for contact spotting. Acoustic dispensing is a technology capable of nanoliter transfers by using acoustic energy to eject liquid sample from an open source well. Although typically used for well plate transfers, when applied to microarraying, it avoids the drawbacks of undesired physical contact with the sample; difficulty in assembling multicomponent reactions on a chip by readdressing, a rigid mode of printing that lacks patterning capabilities; and time-consuming wash steps. We demonstrated the utility of acoustic dispensing by delivering human cathepsin L in a drop-on-drop fashion into individual 50-nanoliter, prespotted reaction volumes to activate enzyme reactions at targeted positions on a microarray. We generated variable-sized spots ranging from 200 to 750 microm (and higher) and handled the transfer of fluorescent bead suspensions with increasing source well concentrations of 0.1 to 10 x 10(8) beads/mL in a linear fashion. There are no tips that can clog, and liquid dispensing CVs are generally below 5%. This platform expands the toolbox for generating analytical arrays and meets needs associated with spatially addressed assembly of multicomponent microarrays on the nanoliter scale. PMID:19035650

  3. A Synthetic Kinome Microarray Data Generator

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Farhad; Kusalik, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cellular pathways involve the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins. Peptide microarrays called kinome arrays facilitate the measurement of the phosphorylation activity of hundreds of proteins in a single experiment. Analyzing the data from kinome microarrays is a multi-step process. Typically, various techniques are possible for a particular step, and it is necessary to compare and evaluate them. Such evaluations require data for which correct analysis results are known. Unfortunately, such kinome data is not readily available in the community. Further, there are no established techniques for creating artificial kinome datasets with known results and with the same characteristics as real kinome datasets. In this paper, a methodology for generating synthetic kinome array data is proposed. The methodology relies on actual intensity measurements from kinome microarray experiments and preserves their subtle characteristics. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated by evaluating methods for eliminating heterogeneous variance in kinome microarray data. Phosphorylation intensities from kinome microarrays often exhibit such heterogeneous variance and its presence can negatively impact downstream statistical techniques that rely on homogeneity of variance. It is shown that using the output from the proposed synthetic data generator, it is possible to critically compare two variance stabilization methods.

  4. Structural Basis for the De-N-acetylation of Poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in Gram-positive Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Little, Dustin J.; Bamford, Natalie C.; Pokrovskaya, Varvara; Robinson, Howard; Nitz, Mark; Howell, P. Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides are required for the development and integrity of biofilms produced by a wide variety of bacteria. In staphylococci, partial de-N-acetylation of the exopolysaccharide poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) by the extracellular protein IcaB is required for biofilm formation. To understand the molecular basis for PNAG de-N-acetylation, the structure of IcaB from Ammonifex degensii (IcaBAd) has been determined to 1.7 Å resolution. The structure of IcaBAd reveals a (β/α)7 barrel common to the family four carbohydrate esterases (CE4s) with the canonical motifs circularly permuted. The metal dependence of IcaBAd is similar to most CE4s showing the maximum rates of de-N-acetylation with Ni2+, Co2+, and Zn2+. From docking studies with β-1,6-GlcNAc oligomers and structural comparison to PgaB from Escherichia coli, the Gram-negative homologue of IcaB, we identify Arg-45, Tyr-67, and Trp-180 as key residues for PNAG binding during catalysis. The absence of these residues in PgaB provides a rationale for the requirement of a C-terminal domain for efficient deacetylation of PNAG in Gram-negative species. Mutational analysis of conserved active site residues suggests that IcaB uses an altered catalytic mechanism in comparison to other characterized CE4 members. Furthermore, we identified a conserved surface-exposed hydrophobic loop found only in Gram-positive homologues of IcaB. Our data suggest that this loop is required for membrane association and likely anchors IcaB to the membrane during polysaccharide biosynthesis. The work presented herein will help guide the design of IcaB inhibitors to combat biofilm formation by staphylococci. PMID:25359777

  5. Thermochemical characteristics of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, V. N.; Ur'yash, V. F.; Kushch, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation are determined. It is established that there is a proportional dependence of these thermochemical characteristics vs. the degree of acetylation, weight fraction of bonded acetic acid, and molar mass of the repeating unit of cellulose acetates.

  6. Emerging Functions for N-Terminal Protein Acetylation in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    N-terminal (Nt-) acetylation is a widespread but poorly understood co-translational protein modification. Two reports now shed light onto the proteome-wide dynamics and protein-specific consequences of Nt-acetylation in relation to plant development, stress-response, and protein stability, identifying this modification as a key regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and behaviour. PMID:26319188

  7. An Alternative Strategy for Pan-acetyl-lysine Antibody Generation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yee; Sim, Choon Kiat; Zhang, Qiongyi; Tang, Hui; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Pan, Hong; Karnani, Neerja; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Kangling; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies. PMID:27606599

  8. Medial temporal N-acetyl aspartate in pediatric major depression

    PubMed Central

    MacMaster, Frank P.; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S. Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD-case control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  9. Medial temporal N-acetyl-aspartate in pediatric major depression.

    PubMed

    MacMaster, Frank P; Moore, Gregory J; Russell, Aileen; Mirza, Yousha; Taormina, S Preeya; Buhagiar, Christian; Rosenberg, David R

    2008-10-30

    The medial temporal cortex (MTC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric major depressive disorder (MDD). Eleven MDD case-control pairs underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. N-acetyl-aspartate was lower in the left MTC (27%) in MDD patients versus controls. Lower N-acetyl-aspartate concentrations in MDD patients may reflect reduced neuronal viability. PMID:18703320

  10. Uptake and Trafficking of Mildly Oxidized LDL and Acetylated LDL in THP-1 Cells Does Not Explain the Differences in Lysosomal Metabolism of These Two Lipoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yancey, Patricia G.; Miles, Stacia; Schwegel, Jennifer; Gray Jerome, W.

    2002-04-01

    Foam cells in the atherosclerotic lesion have substantial cholesterol stores within large, swollen lysosomes. This feature is mimicked by incubating THP-1 macrophages with mildly oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL). Incubation of THP-1 cells with acetylated LDL produces cytoplasmic cholesteryl ester accumulation rather than lysosomal storage. The differences could be due to differences in uptake and delivery of lipoprotein to lysosomes or to lysosomal and post-lysosomal processing events. We compared uptake and lysosomal trafficking of acetylated and oxidized LDL using colloidal gold-labeled lipoproteins. Labeling did not alter cellular cholesterol accumulation. We found that uptake and delivery to lysosomes are not different for acetylated and oxidized LDL. In fact, both oxidized and acetylated LDL can be delivered to the same lysosomes. Sequential incubation with oxidized LDL followed by acetylated LDL showed that the lipid-engorged lysosomes are long-lived structures, continuously accepting newly ingested lipoprotein. Comparison of acetylated and oxidized LDL in mouse peritoneal macrophages, a cell which does not accumulate substantial lysosomal lipid, also revealed no differences in uptake. This indicates that in THP-1 cells, the differences in metabolism of oxidized and acetylated LDL are due to cell-specific lysosomal or post-lysosomal events not present in B6C3F1 mouse macrophages.

  11. Antemortem stress regulates protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-07-01

    Although exhaustive research has established that preslaughter stress is a major factor contributing to pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat, questions remain regarding the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis. In this study, the influence of preslaughter stress on protein acetylation in relationship to glycolysis was studied. The data show that antemortem swimming significantly enhanced glycolysis and the total acetylated proteins in postmortem longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of mice. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors eliminated stress induced increase in glycolysis. Inversely, antemortem injection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and nicotinamide (NAM), further increased protein acetylation early postmortem and the glycolysis. These data provide new insight into the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis by showing that protein acetylation regulates glycolysis, which may participate in the regulation of preslaughter stress on glycolysis in postmortem muscle. PMID:26920270

  12. Long synthetic oligonucleotides for microarray expression measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiong; Wang, Hong; Liu, Heping; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Chunxiu; Lu, Zu-Hong; Gao, Xiang; Kong, Dong

    2001-09-01

    There are generally two kinds of DNA microarray used for genomic-scale gene expression profiling of mRNA: cDNA and DNA chip, but both of them suffer from some drawbacks. To meet more requirements, another oligonucleotide microarray with long was produced. This type of microarray had the advantages of low cost, minimal Cross-hybridization, flexible and easy to make, which is most fit for small laboratories with special purposes. In this paper, we devised different probes with different probe lengths, GC contents and gene positions to optimization the probe design. Experiments showed 70 mer probes are suitable for both sufficient sensitivity and reasonable costs. Higher G-C content produces stronger signal intensity thus better sensitivity and probes designed at 3 untranslated region of gene within the range of 300 pb should be best for both sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Protein microarrays for parasite antigen discovery.

    PubMed

    Driguez, Patrick; Doolan, Denise L; Molina, Douglas M; Loukas, Alex; Trieu, Angela; Felgner, Phil L; McManus, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    The host serological profile to a parasitic infection, such as schistosomiasis, can be used to define potential vaccine and diagnostic targets. Determining the host antibody response using traditional approaches is hindered by the large number of putative antigens in any parasite proteome. Parasite protein microarrays offer the potential for a high-throughput host antibody screen to simplify this task. In order to construct the array, parasite proteins are selected from available genomic sequence and protein databases using bioinformatic tools. Selected open reading frames are PCR amplified, incorporated into a vector for cell-free protein expression, and printed robotically onto glass slides. The protein microarrays can be probed with antisera from infected/immune animals or humans and the antibody reactivity measured with fluorophore labeled antibodies on a confocal laser microarray scanner to identify potential targets for diagnosis or therapeutic or prophylactic intervention. PMID:25388117

  14. Applications of protein microarrays for biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Niroshan; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; LaBaer, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The search for new biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic monitoring of diseases continues in earnest despite dwindling success at finding novel reliable markers. Some of the current markers in clinical use do not provide optimal sensitivity and specificity, with the prostate cancer antigen (PSA) being one of many such examples. The emergence of proteomic techniques and systems approaches to study disease pathophysiology has rekindled the quest for new biomarkers. In particular the use of protein microarrays has surged as a powerful tool for large scale testing of biological samples. Approximately half the reports on protein microarrays have been published in the last two years especially in the area of biomarker discovery. In this review, we will discuss the application of protein microarray technologies that offer unique opportunities to find novel biomarkers. PMID:21136793

  15. Detection of protein microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Juan; Lu, Heng; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Kun; Lü, Huibin; Zhou, Yueliang; Yin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Li, Wei; Ruan, Kangcheng

    2010-02-01

    Biological microarrays with different proteins and different protein concentrations are detected without external labeling by an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique. The initial experiment results reveal that the intensities of OIRD signals can distinguish the different proteins and concentrations of protein. The OIRD technique promises feasible applications to life sciences for label-free and high-throughput detection.

  16. 3D-DIP-Chip: a microarray-based method to measure genomic DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Powell, James Rees; Bennett, Mark Richard; Evans, Katie Ellen; Yu, Shirong; Webster, Richard Michael; Waters, Raymond; Skinner, Nigel; Reed, Simon Huw

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxins cause DNA damage, which can result in genomic instability. The genetic changes induced have far-reaching consequences, often leading to diseases such as cancer. A wide range of genotoxins exists, including radiations and chemicals found naturally in the environment, and in man-made forms created by human activity across a variety of industries. Genomic technologies offer the possibility of unravelling the mechanisms of genotoxicity, including the repair of genetic damage, enhancing our ability to develop, test and safely use existing and novel materials. We have developed 3D-DIP-Chip, a microarray-based method to measure the prevalence of genomic genotoxin-induced DNA damage. We demonstrate the measurement of both physical and chemical induced DNA damage spectra, integrating the analysis of these with the associated changes in histone acetylation induced in the epigenome. We discuss the application of the method in the context of basic and translational sciences. PMID:25609656

  17. Acetylated histone H3 increases nucleosome dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Marek; Manohar, Mridula; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Chromatin's basic unit structure is the nucleosome, i.e. genomic DNA wrapped around a particular class of proteins -- histones -- which due to their physical hindrance, block vital biological processes, such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. Histone post-translational modifications, which are known to exist in vivo, are hypothesized to regulate these biological processes by directly altering DNA-histone interactions and thus nucleosome structure and stability. Using magnetic tweezers technique we studied the acetylation of histone H3 in the dyad region, i.e. at K115 and K122, on reconstituted arrays of nucleosomes under constant external force. Based on the measured increase in the probability of dissociation of modified nucleosomes, we infer that this double modification could facilitate histone chaperone mediated nucleosome disassembly in vivo.

  18. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K

    2011-11-29

    DNA microarrays contain sequence specific probes arrayed in distinct spots numbering from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, depending on the platform. This tremendous degree of multiplexing gives microarrays great potential for environmental background sampling, broad-spectrum clinical monitoring, and continuous biological threat detection. In practice, their use in these applications is not common due to limited information content, long processing times, and high cost. The work focused on characterizing the phenomena of microarray hybridization and selective release that will allow these limitations to be addressed. This will revolutionize the ways that microarrays can be used for LLNL's Global Security missions. The goals of this project were two-fold: automated faster hybridizations and selective release of hybridized features. The first study area involves hybridization kinetics and mass-transfer effects. the standard hybridization protocol uses an overnight incubation to achieve the best possible signal for any sample type, as well as for convenience in manual processing. There is potential to significantly shorten this time based on better understanding and control of the rate-limiting processes and knowledge of the progress of the hybridization. In the hybridization work, a custom microarray flow cell was used to manipulate the chemical and thermal environment of the array and autonomously image the changes over time during hybridization. The second study area is selective release. Microarrays easily generate hybridization patterns and signatures, but there is still an unmet need for methodologies enabling rapid and selective analysis of these patterns and signatures. Detailed analysis of individual spots by subsequent sequencing could potentially yield significant information for rapidly mutating and emerging (or deliberately engineered) pathogens. In the selective release work, optical energy deposition with coherent light quickly provides the thermal energy to

  19. Analysis of High-Throughput ELISA Microarray Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-02-23

    Our research group develops analytical methods and software for the high-throughput analysis of quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarrays. ELISA microarrays differ from DNA microarrays in several fundamental aspects and most algorithms for analysis of DNA microarray data are not applicable to ELISA microarrays. In this review, we provide an overview of the steps involved in ELISA microarray data analysis and how the statistically sound algorithms we have developed provide an integrated software suite to address the needs of each data-processing step. The algorithms discussed are available in a set of open-source software tools (http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT).

  20. Overview of DNA microarrays: types, applications, and their future.

    PubMed

    Bumgarner, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This unit provides an overview of DNA microarrays. Microarrays are a technology in which thousands of nucleic acids are bound to a surface and are used to measure the relative concentration of nucleic acid sequences in a mixture via hybridization and subsequent detection of the hybridization events. This overview first discusses the history of microarrays and the antecedent technologies that led to their development. This is followed by discussion of the methods of manufacture of microarrays and the most common biological applications. The unit ends with a brief description of the limitations of microarrays and discusses how microarrays are being rapidly replaced by DNA sequencing technologies. PMID:23288464

  1. Differential analysis for high density tiling microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Srinka; Hirsch, Heather A; Sekinger, Edward A; Kapranov, Philipp; Struhl, Kevin; Gingeras, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Background High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. These arrays are being increasingly used to study the associated processes of transcription, transcription factor binding, chromatin structure and their association. Studies of differential expression and/or regulation provide critical insight into the mechanics of transcription and regulation that occurs during the developmental program of a cell. The time-course experiment, which comprises an in-vivo system and the proposed analyses, is used to determine if annotated and un-annotated portions of genome manifest coordinated differential response to the induced developmental program. Results We have proposed a novel approach, based on a piece-wise function – to analyze genome-wide differential response. This enables segmentation of the response based on protein-coding and non-coding regions; for genes the methodology also partitions differential response with a 5' versus 3' versus intra-genic bias. Conclusion The algorithm built upon the framework of Significance Analysis of Microarrays, uses a generalized logic to define regions/patterns of coordinated differential change. By not adhering to the gene-centric paradigm, discordant differential expression patterns between exons and introns have been identified at a FDR of less than 12 percent. A co-localization of differential binding between RNA Polymerase II and tetra-acetylated histone has been quantified at a p-value < 0.003; it is most significant at the 5' end of genes, at a p-value < 10-13. The prototype R code has been made available as supplementary material [see Additional file 1]. PMID:17892592

  2. Molecular cloning, and characterization of a modular acetyl xylan esterase from the edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shaojun; Cao, Jie; Zhou, Rui; Zheng, Fei

    2007-09-01

    A new Volvariella volvacea gene encoding an acetyl xylan esterase (designated as Vvaxe1) was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The cDNA contained an ORF of 1047 bp encoding 349 amino acids with a calculated mass of 39 990 Da. VvAXE1 is a modular enzyme consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide, a catalytic domain, and a cellulose-binding domain. The amino acid sequence of the enzyme exhibited a high degree of similarity to cinnamoyl esterase B from Penicillium funiculosum, and acetyl xylan esterases from Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium purpurogenum, and Aspergillus ficuum. Recombinant acetyl xylan esterase released acetate from several acetylated substrates including beta-d-xylose tetraacetate and acetylated xylan. No activity was detectable on p-nitrophenyl acetate. Enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate was maximal at pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, and reciprocal plots revealed an apparent K(m) value of 307.7 microM and a V(max) value of 24 733 IU micromol(-1) protein. ReAXE1 also exhibited a capacity to bind to Avicel and H(3)PO(4) acid-swollen cellulose. PMID:17623028

  3. Pineal function: impact of microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, David C; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony K; Chik, Constance L; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G; Munson, Peter J; Weller, Joan L; Coon, Steven L

    2010-01-27

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal function. PMID:19622385

  4. MicroRNA expression profiling using microarrays.

    PubMed

    Love, Cassandra; Dave, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which are able to regulate gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. There is a growing recognition of the role of microRNAs in nearly every tissue type and cellular process. Thus there is an increasing need for accurate quantitation of microRNA expression in a variety of tissues. Microarrays provide a robust method for the examination of microRNA expression. In this chapter, we describe detailed methods for the use of microarrays to measure microRNA expression and discuss methods for the analysis of microRNA expression data. PMID:23666707

  5. Protein Microarrays for the Detection of Biothreats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Amy E.

    Although protein microarrays have proven to be an important tool in proteomics research, the technology is emerging as useful for public health and defense applications. Recent progress in the measurement and characterization of biothreat agents is reviewed in this chapter. Details concerning validation of various protein microarray formats, from contact-printed sandwich assays to supported lipid bilayers, are presented. The reviewed technologies have important implications for in vitro characterization of toxin-ligand interactions, serotyping of bacteria, screening of potential biothreat inhibitors, and as core components of biosensors, among others, research and engineering applications.

  6. Identifying Cancer Biomarkers From Microarray Data Using Feature Selection and Semisupervised Learning

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, Ujjwal

    2014-01-01

    Microarrays have now gone from obscurity to being almost ubiquitous in biological research. At the same time, the statistical methodology for microarray analysis has progressed from simple visual assessments of results to novel algorithms for analyzing changes in expression profiles. In a micro-RNA (miRNA) or gene-expression profiling experiment, the expression levels of thousands of genes/miRNAs are simultaneously monitored to study the effects of certain treatments, diseases, and developmental stages on their expressions. Microarray-based gene expression profiling can be used to identify genes, whose expressions are changed in response to pathogens or other organisms by comparing gene expression in infected to that in uninfected cells or tissues. Recent studies have revealed that patterns of altered microarray expression profiles in cancer can serve as molecular biomarkers for tumor diagnosis, prognosis of disease-specific outcomes, and prediction of therapeutic responses. Microarray data sets containing expression profiles of a number of miRNAs or genes are used to identify biomarkers, which have dysregulation in normal and malignant tissues. However, small sample size remains a bottleneck to design successful classification methods. On the other hand, adequate number of microarray data that do not have clinical knowledge can be employed as additional source of information. In this paper, a combination of kernelized fuzzy rough set (KFRS) and semisupervised support vector machine (S3VM) is proposed for predicting cancer biomarkers from one miRNA and three gene expression data sets. Biomarkers are discovered employing three feature selection methods, including KFRS. The effectiveness of the proposed KFRS and S3VM combination on the microarray data sets is demonstrated, and the cancer biomarkers identified from miRNA data are reported. Furthermore, biological significance tests are conducted for miRNA cancer biomarkers. PMID:27170887

  7. Genome-scale cluster analysis of replicated microarrays using shrinkage correlation coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianchao; Chang, Chunqi; Salmi, Mari L; Hung, Yeung Sam; Loraine, Ann; Roux, Stanley J

    2008-01-01

    Background Currently, clustering with some form of correlation coefficient as the gene similarity metric has become a popular method for profiling genomic data. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the standard deviation (SD)-weighted correlation coefficient are the two most widely-used correlations as the similarity metrics in clustering microarray data. However, these two correlations are not optimal for analyzing replicated microarray data generated by most laboratories. An effective correlation coefficient is needed to provide statistically sufficient analysis of replicated microarray data. Results In this study, we describe a novel correlation coefficient, shrinkage correlation coefficient (SCC), that fully exploits the similarity between the replicated microarray experimental samples. The methodology considers both the number of replicates and the variance within each experimental group in clustering expression data, and provides a robust statistical estimation of the error of replicated microarray data. The value of SCC is revealed by its comparison with two other correlation coefficients that are currently the most widely-used (Pearson correlation coefficient and SD-weighted correlation coefficient) using statistical measures on both synthetic expression data as well as real gene expression data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two leading clustering methods, hierarchical and k-means clustering were applied for the comparison. The comparison indicated that using SCC achieves better clustering performance. Applying SCC-based hierarchical clustering to the replicated microarray data obtained from germinating spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, we discovered two clusters of genes with shared expression patterns during spore germination. Functional analysis suggested that some of the genetic mechanisms that control germination in such diverse plant lineages as mosses and angiosperms are also conserved among ferns. Conclusion This study shows that SCC is

  8. Inhibition of phagocytic activity by the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, G; Gorocica, P; Agundis, C; Pérez, A; Molina, J; Zenteno, E

    1998-06-01

    Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin (ALL), specific for N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, induces inhibition of the erythrophagocytic activity of resident murine peritoneal macrophages and of the macrophage-like cell line J-774. This effect was observed only in macrophages that were Mac-2 (CD11c/CD18 or CR4) negative, indicating that macrophage activation induces important modification to the glycosylation (mainly O-glycosylation) of the membrane. Receptors for IgM and C3b remain unaltered after lectin treatment. Ultrastructural analysis revealed (a) that ALL induced the formation of pinocytic vacuoles, and (b) a regular distribution over the macrophage membrane as well as endosomal vesicles of the gold labeled ALL. Our results suggest that macrophage membrane glycoproteins with constitutive N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues participate in the regulation of pinocytic-phagocytic vacuole formation. PMID:9881768

  9. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications. PMID:25756355

  10. Quantitative dose-response curves from subcellular lipid multilayer microarrays.

    PubMed

    Kusi-Appiah, A E; Lowry, T W; Darrow, E M; Wilson, K A; Chadwick, B P; Davidson, M W; Lenhert, S

    2015-08-21

    The dose-dependent bioactivity of small molecules on cells is a crucial factor in drug discovery and personalized medicine. Although small-molecule microarrays are a promising platform for miniaturized screening, it has been a challenge to use them to obtain quantitative dose-response curves in vitro, especially for lipophilic compounds. Here we establish a small-molecule microarray assay capable of controlling the dosage of small lipophilic molecules delivered to cells by varying the sub-cellular volumes of surface supported lipid micro- and nanostructure arrays fabricated with nanointaglio. Features with sub-cellular lateral dimensions were found necessary to obtain normal cell adhesion with HeLa cells. The volumes of the lipophilic drug-containing nanostructures were determined using a fluorescence microscope calibrated by atomic-force microscopy. We used the surface supported lipid volume information to obtain EC-50 values for the response of HeLa cells to three FDA-approved lipophilic anticancer drugs, docetaxel, imiquimod and triethylenemelamine, which were found to be significantly different from neat lipid controls. No significant toxicity was observed on the control cells surrounding the drug/lipid patterns, indicating lack of interference or leakage from the arrays. Comparison of the microarray data to dose-response curves for the same drugs delivered liposomally from solution revealed quantitative differences in the efficacy values, which we explain in terms of cell-adhesion playing a more important role in the surface-based assay. The assay should be scalable to a density of at least 10,000 dose response curves on the area of a standard microtiter plate. PMID:26167949

  11. Quantitative Dose-Response Curves from Subcellular Lipid Multilayer Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kusi-Appiah, A. E.; Lowry, T. W.; Darrow, E. M.; Wilson, K.; Chadwick, B. P.; Davidson, M. W.; Lenhert, S.

    2015-01-01

    The dose-dependent bioactivity of small molecules on cells is a crucial factor in drug discovery and personalized medicine. Although small-molecule microarrays are a promising platform for miniaturized screening, it has been a challenge to use them to obtain quantitative dose-response curves in vitro, especially for lipophilic compounds. Here we establish a small-molecule microarray assay capable of controlling the dosage of small lipophilic molecules delivered to cells by varying the sub-cellular volumes of surface supported lipid micro- and nanostructure arrays fabricated with nanointaglio. Features with sub-cellular lateral dimensions were found necessary to obtain normal cell adhesion with HeLa cells. The volumes of the lipophilic drug-containing nanostructures were determined using a fluorescence microscope calibrated by atomic-force microscopy. We used the surface supported lipid volume information to obtain EC-50 values for the response of HeLa cells to three FDA-approved lipophilic anticancer drugs, docetaxel, imiquimod and triethylenemelamine, which were found to be significantly different from neat lipid controls. No significant toxicity was observed on the control cells surrounding the drug/lipid patterns, indicating lack of interference or leakage from the arrays. Comparison of the microarray data to dose-response curves for the same drugs delivered liposomally from solution revealed quantitative differences in the efficacy values, which we explain in terms of cell-adhesion playing a more important role in the surface-based assay. The assay should be scalable to a density of at least 10,000 dose response curves on the area of a standard microtiter plate. PMID:26167949

  12. Construction and Evaluation of a Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 Whole-Genome Oligonucleotide Microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Steven D.; Raman, Babu; McKeown, Catherine K.; Kale, Shubha P.; He, Zhili; Mielenz, Jonathan R.

    Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium that can directly convert cellulosic substrates into ethanol. Microarray technology is a powerful tool to gain insights into cellular processes by examining gene expression under various physiological states. Oligonucleotide microarray probes were designed for 96.7% of the 3163 C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 candidate protein-encoding genes and then a partial-genome microarray containing 70 C. thermocellum specific probes was constructed and evaluated. We detected a signal-to-noise ratio of three with as little as 1.0 ng of genomic DNA and only low signals from negative control probes (nonclostridial DNA), indicating the probes were sensitive and specific. In order to further test the specificity of the array we amplified and hybridized 10 C. thermocellum polymerase chain reaction products that represented different genes and found gene specific hybridization in each case. We also constructed a whole-genome microarray and prepared total cellular RNA from the same point in early-logarithmic growth phase from two technical replicates during cellobiose fermentation. The reliability of the microarray data was assessed by cohybridization of labeled complementary DNA from the cellobiose fermentation samples and the pattern of hybridization revealed a linear correlation. These results taken together suggest that our oligonucleotide probe set can be used for sensitive and specific C. thermocellum transcriptomic studies in the future.

  13. Construction and evaluation of a Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven David; Raman, Babu; McKeown, Catherine K; Kale, Shubhangi P; He, Zhili; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2007-04-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium that can directly convert cellulosic substrates into ethanol. Microarray technology is a powerful tool to gain insights into cellular processes by examining gene expression under various physiological states. Oligonucleotide microarray probes were designed for 96.7% of the 3163 C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 candidate protein-encoding genes and then a partial-genome microarray containing 70 C. thermocellum specific probes was constructed and evaluated. We detected a signal-to-noise ratio of three with as little as 1.0 ng of genomic DNA and only low signals from negative control probes (nonclostridial DNA), indicating the probes were sensitive and specific. In order to further test the specificity of the array we amplified and hybridized 10 C. thermocellum polymerase chain reaction products that represented different genes and found gene specific hybridization in each case. We also constructed a whole-genome microarray and prepared total cellular RNA from the same point in early-logarithmic growth phase from two technical replicates during cellobiose fermentation. The reliability of the microarray data was assessed by cohybridization of labeled complementary DNA from the cellobiose fermentation samples and the pattern of hybridization revealed a linear correlation. These results taken together suggest that our oligonucleotide probe set can be used for sensitive and specific C. thermocellum transcriptomic studies in the future.

  14. Characterization of O-Acetylation of N-Acetylglucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Elvis; Rolain, Thomas; Courtin, Pascal; Guillot, Alain; Langella, Philippe; Hols, Pascal; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) N-acetyl muramic acid (MurNAc) O-acetylation is widely spread in Gram-positive bacteria and is generally associated with resistance against lysozyme and endogenous autolysins. We report here the presence of O-acetylation on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in Lactobacillus plantarum PG. This modification of glycan strands was never described in bacteria. Fine structural characterization of acetylated muropeptides released from L. plantarum PG demonstrated that both MurNAc and GlcNAc are O-acetylated in this species. These two PG post-modifications rely on two dedicated O-acetyltransferase encoding genes, named oatA and oatB, respectively. By analyzing the resistance to cell wall hydrolysis of mutant strains, we showed that GlcNAc O-acetylation inhibits N-acetylglucosaminidase Acm2, the major L. plantarum autolysin. In this bacterial species, inactivation of oatA, encoding MurNAc O-acetyltransferase, resulted in marked sensitivity to lysozyme. Moreover, MurNAc over-O-acetylation was shown to activate autolysis through the putative N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase LytH enzyme. Our data indicate that in L. plantarum, two different O-acetyltransferases play original and antagonistic roles in the modulation of the activity of endogenous autolysins. PMID:21586574

  15. Chitosan Molecular Structure as a Function of N-Acetylation

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Eduardo F.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2011-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to characterize the structure and solubility of chitosan nanoparticle-like structures as a function of the deacetylation level (0, 40, 60, and 100%) and the spatial distribution of the N-acetyl groups in the particles. The polysaccharide chains of highly N-deacetylated particles where the N-acetyl groups are uniformly distributed present a high flexibility and preference for the relaxed two-fold helix and five-fold helix motifs. When these groups are confined to a given region of the particle, the chains adopt preferentially a two-fold helix with f and w values close to crystalline chitin. Nanoparticles with up to 40% acetylation are moderately soluble, forming stable aggregates when the N-acetyl groups are unevenly distributed. Systems with 60% or higher N-acetylation levels are insoluble and present similar degrees of swelling regardless the distribution of their N-acetyl groups. Overall particle solvation is highly affected by electrostatic forces resulting from the degree of acetylation. The water mobility and orientation around the polysaccharide chains affects the stability of the intramolecular O3- HO3(n) ... O5(n+ 1) hydrogen bond, which in turn controls particle aggregation.

  16. Role of Histone Acetylation in Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Koprinarova, Miglena; Schnekenburger, Michael; Diederich, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Core histone acetylation is a key prerequisite for chromatin decondensation and plays a pivotal role in regulation of chromatin structure, function and dynamics. The addition of acetyl groups disturbs histone/DNA interactions in the nucleosome and alters histone/histone interactions in the same or adjacent nucleosomes. Acetyl groups can also provide binding sites for recruitment of bromodomain (BRD)-containing non-histone readers and regulatory complexes to chromatin allowing them to perform distinct downstream functions. The presence of a particular acetylation pattern influences appearance of other histone modifications in the immediate vicinity forming the "histone code". Although the roles of the acetylation of particular lysine residues for the ongoing chromatin functions is largely studied, the epigenetic inheritance of histone acetylation is a debated issue. The dynamics of local or global histone acetylation is associated with fundamental cellular processes such as gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair or chromatin condensation. Therefore, it is an essential part of the epigenetic cell response to processes related to internal and external signals. PMID:26303420

  17. PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR PROCESSING AND ANALYZING SPOTTED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE MICROARRAY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thoughtful data analysis is as important as experimental design, biological sample quality, and appropriate experimental procedures for making microarrays a useful supplement to traditional toxicology. In the present study, spotted oligonucleotide microarrays were used to profile...

  18. MICROARRAY DATA ANALYSIS USING MULTIPLE STATISTICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray Data Analysis Using Multiple Statistical Models

    Wenjun Bao1, Judith E. Schmid1, Amber K. Goetz1, Ming Ouyang2, William J. Welsh2,Andrew I. Brooks3,4, ChiYi Chu3,Mitsunori Ogihara3,4, Yinhe Cheng5, David J. Dix1. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Researc...

  19. Microarrays (DNA Chips) for the Classroom Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Betsy; Sussman, Michael; BonDurant, Sandra Splinter; Nienhuis, James; Krysan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We have developed and optimized the necessary laboratory materials to make DNA microarray technology accessible to all high school students at a fraction of both cost and data size. The primary component is a DNA chip/array that students "print" by hand and then analyze using research tools that have been adapted for classroom use. The primary…

  20. DISC-BASED IMMUNOASSAY MICROARRAYS. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray technology as applied to areas that include genomics, diagnostics, environmental, and drug discovery, is an interesting research topic for which different chip-based devices have been developed. As an alternative, we have explored the principle of compact disc-based...

  1. Microarray data classified by artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Linder, Roland; Richards, Tereza; Wagner, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Systems biology has enjoyed explosive growth in both the number of people participating in this area of research and the number of publications on the topic. The field of systems biology encompasses the in silico analysis of high-throughput data as provided by DNA or protein microarrays. Along with the increasing availability of microarray data, attention is focused on methods of analyzing the expression rates. One important type of analysis is the classification task, for example, distinguishing different types of cell functions or tumors. Recently, interest has been awakened toward artificial neural networks (ANN), which have many appealing characteristics such as an exceptional degree of accuracy. Nonlinear relationships or independence from certain assumptions regarding the data distribution are also considered. The current work reviews advantages as well as disadvantages of neural networks in the context of microarray analysis. Comparisons are drawn to alternative methods. Selected solutions are discussed, and finally algorithms for the effective combination of multiple ANNs are presented. The development of approaches to use ANN-processed microarray data applicable to run cell and tissue simulations may be slated for future investigation. PMID:18220242

  2. Data Analysis Strategies for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Paula; Dasilva, Noelia; González-González, María; Matarraz, Sergio; Casado-Vela, Juan; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Microarrays constitute a new platform which allows the discovery and characterization of proteins. According to different features, such as content, surface or detection system, there are many types of protein microarrays which can be applied for the identification of disease biomarkers and the characterization of protein expression patterns. However, the analysis and interpretation of the amount of information generated by microarrays remain a challenge. Further data analysis strategies are essential to obtain representative and reproducible results. Therefore, the experimental design is key, since the number of samples and dyes, among others aspects, would define the appropriate analysis method to be used. In this sense, several algorithms have been proposed so far to overcome analytical difficulties derived from fluorescence overlapping and/or background noise. Each kind of microarray is developed to fulfill a specific purpose. Therefore, the selection of appropriate analytical and data analysis strategies is crucial to achieve successful biological conclusions. In the present review, we focus on current algorithms and main strategies for data interpretation.

  3. Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.

  4. Shrinkage covariance matrix approach for microarray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjanto, Suryaefiza; Aripin, Rasimah

    2013-04-01

    Microarray technology was developed for the purpose of monitoring the expression levels of thousands of genes. A microarray data set typically consists of tens of thousands of genes (variables) from just dozens of samples due to various constraints including the high cost of producing microarray chips. As a result, the widely used standard covariance estimator is not appropriate for this purpose. One such technique is the Hotelling's T2 statistic which is a multivariate test statistic for comparing means between two groups. It requires that the number of observations (n) exceeds the number of genes (p) in the set but in microarray studies it is common that n < p. This leads to a biased estimate of the covariance matrix. In this study, the Hotelling's T2 statistic with the shrinkage approach is proposed to estimate the covariance matrix for testing differential gene expression. The performance of this approach is then compared with other commonly used multivariate tests using a widely analysed diabetes data set as illustrations. The results across the methods are consistent, implying that this approach provides an alternative to existing techniques.

  5. Raman-based microarray readout: a review.

    PubMed

    Haisch, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    For a quarter of a century, microarrays have been part of the routine analytical toolbox. Label-based fluorescence detection is still the commonest optical readout strategy. Since the 1990s, a continuously increasing number of label-based as well as label-free experiments on Raman-based microarray readout concepts have been reported. This review summarizes the possible concepts and methods and their advantages and challenges. A common label-based strategy is based on the binding of selective receptors as well as Raman reporter molecules to plasmonic nanoparticles in a sandwich immunoassay, which results in surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of the reporter molecule. Alternatively, capture of the analytes can be performed by receptors on a microarray surface. Addition of plasmonic nanoparticles again leads to a surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal, not of a label but directly of the analyte. This approach is mostly proposed for bacteria and cell detection. However, although many promising readout strategies have been discussed in numerous publications, rarely have any of them made the step from proof of concept to a practical application, let alone routine use. Graphical Abstract Possible realization of a SERS (Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering) system for microarray readout. PMID:26973235

  6. TgATAT-Mediated α-Tubulin Acetylation Is Required for Division of the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Varberg, Joseph M; Padgett, Leah R; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Sullivan, William J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that causes potentially life-threatening opportunistic disease. New inhibitors of parasite replication are urgently needed, as the current antifolate treatment is also toxic to patients. Microtubules are essential cytoskeletal components that have been selectively targeted in microbial pathogens; further study of tubulin in Toxoplasma may reveal novel therapeutic opportunities. It has been noted that α-tubulin acetylation at lysine 40 (K40) is enriched during daughter parasite formation, but the impact of this modification on Toxoplasma division and the enzyme mediating its delivery have not been identified. We performed mutational analyses to provide evidence that K40 acetylation stabilizes Toxoplasma microtubules and is required for parasite replication. We also show that an unusual Toxoplasma homologue of α-tubulin acetyltransferase (TgATAT) is expressed in a cell cycle-regulated manner and that its expression peaks during division. Disruption of TgATAT with CRISPR/Cas9 ablates K40 acetylation and induces replication defects; parasites appear to initiate mitosis yet exhibit incomplete or improper nuclear division. Together, these findings establish the importance of tubulin acetylation, exposing a new vulnerability in Toxoplasma that could be pharmacologically targeted. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite that infects at least one-third of the world population. New treatments for the disease (toxoplasmosis) are needed since current drugs are toxic to patients. Microtubules are essential cellular structures built from tubulin that show promise as antimicrobial drug targets. Microtubules can be regulated by chemical modification, such as acetylation on lysine 40 (K40). To determine the role of K40 acetylation in Toxoplasma and whether it is a liability to the parasite, we performed mutational analyses of the α-tubulin gene. Our results indicate that parasites cannot survive without K40

  7. TgATAT-Mediated α-Tubulin Acetylation Is Required for Division of the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Varberg, Joseph M.; Padgett, Leah R.; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that causes potentially life-threatening opportunistic disease. New inhibitors of parasite replication are urgently needed, as the current antifolate treatment is also toxic to patients. Microtubules are essential cytoskeletal components that have been selectively targeted in microbial pathogens; further study of tubulin in Toxoplasma may reveal novel therapeutic opportunities. It has been noted that α-tubulin acetylation at lysine 40 (K40) is enriched during daughter parasite formation, but the impact of this modification on Toxoplasma division and the enzyme mediating its delivery have not been identified. We performed mutational analyses to provide evidence that K40 acetylation stabilizes Toxoplasma microtubules and is required for parasite replication. We also show that an unusual Toxoplasma homologue of α-tubulin acetyltransferase (TgATAT) is expressed in a cell cycle-regulated manner and that its expression peaks during division. Disruption of TgATAT with CRISPR/Cas9 ablates K40 acetylation and induces replication defects; parasites appear to initiate mitosis yet exhibit incomplete or improper nuclear division. Together, these findings establish the importance of tubulin acetylation, exposing a new vulnerability in Toxoplasma that could be pharmacologically targeted. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite that infects at least one-third of the world population. New treatments for the disease (toxoplasmosis) are needed since current drugs are toxic to patients. Microtubules are essential cellular structures built from tubulin that show promise as antimicrobial drug targets. Microtubules can be regulated by chemical modification, such as acetylation on lysine 40 (K40). To determine the role of K40 acetylation in Toxoplasma and whether it is a liability to the parasite, we performed mutational analyses of the α-tubulin gene. Our results indicate that parasites cannot survive

  8. Examining microarray slide quality for the EPA using SNL's hyperspectral microarray scanner.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Rachel M.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes research performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess microarray quality on arrays from two platforms of interest to the EPA. Custom microarrays from two novel, commercially produced array platforms were imaged with SNL's unique hyperspectral imaging technology and multivariate data analysis was performed to investigate sources of emission on the arrays. No extraneous sources of emission were evident in any of the array areas scanned. This led to the conclusions that either of these array platforms could produce high quality, reliable microarray data for the EPA toxicology programs. Hyperspectral imaging results are presented and recommendations for microarray analyses using these platforms are detailed within the report.

  9. Microarray analysis at single molecule resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mureşan, Leila; Jacak, Jarosław; Klement, Erich Peter; Hesse, Jan; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bioanalytical chip-based assays have been enormously improved in sensitivity in the recent years; detection of trace amounts of substances down to the level of individual fluorescent molecules has become state of the art technology. The impact of such detection methods, however, has yet not fully been exploited, mainly due to a lack in appropriate mathematical tools for robust data analysis. One particular example relates to the analysis of microarray data. While classical microarray analysis works at resolutions of two to 20 micrometers and quantifies the abundance of target molecules by determining average pixel intensities, a novel high resolution approach [1] directly visualizes individual bound molecules as diffraction limited peaks. The now possible quantification via counting is less susceptible to labeling artifacts and background noise. We have developed an approach for the analysis of high-resolution microarray images. It consists first of a single molecule detection step, based on undecimated wavelet transforms, and second, of a spot identification step via spatial statistics approach (corresponding to the segmentation step in the classical microarray analysis). The detection method was tested on simulated images with a concentration range of 0.001 to 0.5 molecules per square micron and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between 0.9 and 31.6. For SNR above 15 the false negatives relative error was below 15%. Separation of foreground/background proved reliable, in case foreground density exceeds background by a factor of 2. The method has also been applied to real data from high-resolution microarray measurements. PMID:20123580

  10. Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kochzius, Marc; Seidel, Christian; Antoniou, Aglaia; Botla, Sandeep Kumar; Campo, Daniel; Cariani, Alessia; Vazquez, Eva Garcia; Hauschild, Janet; Hervet, Caroline; Hjörleifsdottir, Sigridur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur; Kappel, Kristina; Landi, Monica; Magoulas, Antonios; Marteinsson, Viggo; Nölte, Manfred; Planes, Serge; Tinti, Fausto; Turan, Cemal; Venugopal, Moleyur N.; Weber, Hannes; Blohm, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    Background International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S), cytochrome b (cyt b), and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of “DNA barcoding” and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the “position of label” effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90%) renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. Conclusions/Significance Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products. PMID

  11. Integration of microarray analysis into the clinical diagnosis of hematological malignancies: How much can we improve cytogenetic testing?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jess F.; Aggarwal, Nidhi; Smith, Clayton A.; Gollin, Susanne M.; Surti, Urvashi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Swerdlow, Steven H.; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical utility, diagnostic yield and rationale of integrating microarray analysis in the clinical diagnosis of hematological malignancies in comparison with classical chromosome karyotyping/fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Methods G-banded chromosome analysis, FISH and microarray studies using customized CGH and CGH+SNP designs were performed on 27 samples from patients with hematological malignancies. A comprehensive comparison of the results obtained by three methods was conducted to evaluate benefits and limitations of these techniques for clinical diagnosis. Results Overall, 89.7% of chromosomal abnormalities identified by karyotyping/FISH studies were also detectable by microarray. Among 183 acquired copy number alterations (CNAs) identified by microarray, 94 were additional findings revealed in 14 cases (52%), and at least 30% of CNAs were in genomic regions of diagnostic/prognostic significance. Approximately 30% of novel alterations detected by microarray were >20 Mb in size. Balanced abnormalities were not detected by microarray; however, of the 19 apparently “balanced” rearrangements, 55% (6/11) of recurrent and 13% (1/8) of non-recurrent translocations had alterations at the breakpoints discovered by microarray. Conclusion Microarray technology enables accurate, cost-effective and time-efficient whole-genome analysis at a resolution significantly higher than that of conventional karyotyping and FISH. Array-CGH showed advantage in identification of cryptic imbalances and detection of clonal aberrations in population of non-dividing cancer cells and samples with poor chromosome morphology. The integration of microarray analysis into the cytogenetic diagnosis of hematologic malignancies has the potential to improve patient management by providing clinicians with additional disease specific and potentially clinically actionable genomic alterations. PMID:26299921

  12. Metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine for energy and neurotransmitter synthesis in the immature rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Scafidi, Susanna; Fiskum, Gary; Lindauer, Steven L.; Bamford, Penelope; Shi, Da; Hopkins, Irene; McKenna, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is an endogenous metabolic intermediate that facilitates the influx and efflux of acetyl groups across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Exogenously administered ALCAR has been used as a nutritional supplement and also as an experimental drug with reported neuroprotective properties and effects on brain metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine oxidative metabolism of ALCAR in the immature rat forebrain. Metabolism was studied in 21 day old rat brain at 15, 60 and 120 minutes after an intraperitoneal injection of [2-13C]acetyl-L-carnitine. The amount, pattern, and fractional enrichment of 13C-labeled metabolites were determined by ex vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolism of the acetyl moiety from [2-13C]ALCAR via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle led to incorporation of label into the C4, C3 and C2 positions of glutamate (GLU), glutamine (GLN) and GABA. Labeling patterns indicated that [2-13C]ALCAR was metabolized by both neurons and glia; however, the percent enrichment was higher in GLN and GABA than in GLU, demonstrating high metabolism in astrocytes and GABAergic neurons. Incorporation of label into the C3 position of alanine, both C3 and C2 of lactate, and the C1 and C5 positions of glutamate and glutamine demonstrated that [2-13C]ALCAR was actively metabolized via the pyruvate recycling pathway. The enrichment of metabolites with 13C from metabolism of ALCAR was highest in alanine C3 (10%) and lactate C3 (9%), with considerable enrichment in GABA C4 (8%), GLN C3 (~4%) and GLN C5 (5%). Overall, our 13C-NMR studies reveal that the acetyl moiety of ALCAR is metabolized for energy in both astrocytes and neurons and the label incorporated into the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Cycling ratios showed prolonged cycling of carbon from the acetyl moiety of ALCAR in the TCA cycle. Labeling of compounds formed from metabolism of [2-13C]ALCAR via the pyruvate recycling pathway was higher than values reported for other

  13. Evidence for N----O acetyl migration as the mechanism for O acetylation of peptidoglycan in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, C; Clarke, A J

    1991-01-01

    O-acetylated peptidoglycan was purified from Proteus mirabilis grown in the presence of specifically radiolabelled glucosamine derivatives, and the migration of the radiolabel was monitored. Mild-base hydrolysis of the isolated peptidoglycan (to release ester-linked acetate) from cells grown in the presence of 40 microM [acetyl-3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in the release of [3H]acetate, as detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The inclusion of either acetate, pyruvate, or acetyl phosphate, each at 1 mM final concentration, did not result in a diminution of mild-base-released [3H]acetate levels. No such release of [3H]acetate was observed with peptidoglycan isolated from either Escherichia coli incubated with the same radiolabel or P. mirabilis grown with [1,6-3H]N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or D-[1-14C]glucosamine. These observations support a hypothesis that O acetylation occurs by N----O acetyl transfer within the sacculus. A decrease in [3H]acetate release by mild-base hydrolysis was observed with the peptidoglycan of P. mirabilis cultures incubated in the presence of antagonists of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, penicillin G and D-cycloserine. The absence of free-amino sugars in the peptidoglycan of P. mirabilis but the detection of glucosamine in spent culture broths implies that N----O transacetylation is intimately associated with peptidoglycan turnover. PMID:2066331

  14. 9-O-Acetylation of sialic acids is catalysed by CASD1 via a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Anna-Maria T.; Bakkers, Mark J. G.; Buettner, Falk F. R.; Hartmann, Maike; Grove, Melanie; Langereis, Martijn A.; de Groot, Raoul J.; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids, terminal sugars of glycoproteins and glycolipids, play important roles in development, cellular recognition processes and host–pathogen interactions. A common modification of sialic acids is 9-O-acetylation, which has been implicated in sialoglycan recognition, ganglioside biology, and the survival and drug resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Despite many functional implications, the molecular basis of 9-O-acetylation has remained elusive thus far. Following cellular approaches, including selective gene knockout by CRISPR/Cas genome editing, we here show that CASD1—a previously identified human candidate gene—is essential for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. In vitro assays with the purified N-terminal luminal domain of CASD1 demonstrate transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-coenzyme A to CMP-activated sialic acid and formation of a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. Our study provides direct evidence that CASD1 is a sialate O-acetyltransferase and serves as key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans. PMID:26169044

  15. Application of reverse-phase HPLC to quantify oligopeptide acetylation eliminates interference from unspecific acetyl CoA hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Evjenth, Rune; Hole, Kristine; Ziegler, Mathias; Lillehaug, Johan R

    2009-01-01

    Protein acetylation is a common modification that plays a central role in several cellular processes. The most widely used methods to study these modifications are either based on the detection of radioactively acetylated oligopetide products or an enzyme-coupled reaction measuring conversion of the acetyl donor acetyl CoA to the product CoASH. Due to several disadvantages of these methods, we designed a new method to study oligopeptide acetylation. Based on reverse phase HPLC we detect both reaction products in a highly robust and reproducible way. The method reported here is also fully compatible with subsequent product analysis, e.g. by mass spectroscopy. The catalytic subunit, hNaa30p, of the human NatC protein N-acetyltransferase complex was used for N-terminal oligopeptide acetylation. We show that unacetylated and acetylated oligopeptides can be efficiently separated and quantified by the HPLC-based analysis. The method is highly reproducible and enables reliable quantification of both substrates and products. It is therefore well-suited to determine kinetic parameters of acetyltransferases. PMID:19660098

  16. 9-O-Acetylation of sialic acids is catalysed by CASD1 via a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Anna-Maria T; Bakkers, Mark J G; Buettner, Falk F R; Hartmann, Maike; Grove, Melanie; Langereis, Martijn A; de Groot, Raoul J; Mühlenhoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids, terminal sugars of glycoproteins and glycolipids, play important roles in development, cellular recognition processes and host-pathogen interactions. A common modification of sialic acids is 9-O-acetylation, which has been implicated in sialoglycan recognition, ganglioside biology, and the survival and drug resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Despite many functional implications, the molecular basis of 9-O-acetylation has remained elusive thus far. Following cellular approaches, including selective gene knockout by CRISPR/Cas genome editing, we here show that CASD1--a previously identified human candidate gene--is essential for sialic acid 9-O-acetylation. In vitro assays with the purified N-terminal luminal domain of CASD1 demonstrate transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-coenzyme A to CMP-activated sialic acid and formation of a covalent acetyl-enzyme intermediate. Our study provides direct evidence that CASD1 is a sialate O-acetyltransferase and serves as key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans. PMID:26169044

  17. A microarray for assessing transcription from pelagic marine microbial taxa

    PubMed Central

    Shilova, Irina N; Robidart, Julie C; James Tripp, H; Turk-Kubo, Kendra; Wawrik, Boris; Post, Anton F; Thompson, Anne W; Ward, Bess; Hollibaugh, James T; Millard, Andy; Ostrowski, Martin; J Scanlan, David; Paerl, Ryan W; Stuart, Rhona; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches have revealed unprecedented genetic diversity within microbial communities across vast expanses of the world's oceans. Linking this genetic diversity with key metabolic and cellular activities of microbial assemblages is a fundamental challenge. Here we report on a collaborative effort to design MicroTOOLs (Microbiological Targets for Ocean Observing Laboratories), a high-density oligonucleotide microarray that targets functional genes of diverse taxa in pelagic and coastal marine microbial communities. MicroTOOLs integrates nucleotide sequence information from disparate data types: genomes, PCR-amplicons, metagenomes, and metatranscriptomes. It targets 19 400 unique sequences over 145 different genes that are relevant to stress responses and microbial metabolism across the three domains of life and viruses. MicroTOOLs was used in a proof-of-concept experiment that compared the functional responses of microbial communities following Fe and P enrichments of surface water samples from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. We detected transcription of 68% of the gene targets across major taxonomic groups, and the pattern of transcription indicated relief from Fe limitation and transition to N limitation in some taxa. Prochlorococcus (eHLI), Synechococcus (sub-cluster 5.3) and Alphaproteobacteria SAR11 clade (HIMB59) showed the strongest responses to the Fe enrichment. In addition, members of uncharacterized lineages also responded. The MicroTOOLs microarray provides a robust tool for comprehensive characterization of major functional groups of microbes in the open ocean, and the design can be easily amended for specific environments and research questions. PMID:24477198

  18. Multiplex component-based allergen microarray in recent clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Patelis, A; Borres, M P; Kober, A; Berthold, M

    2016-08-01

    During the last decades component-resolved diagnostics either as singleplex or multiplex measurements has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing important information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate clinical applications of the multiplex microarray technique in the diagnosis and risk assessment of allergic patients, and its usefulness in studies of allergic diseases. The usefulness of ImmunoCAP ISAC has been validated in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, food allergy and anaphylaxis. ISAC provides a broad picture of a patient's sensitization profile from a single test, and provides information on specific and cross-reactive sensitizations that facilitate diagnosis, risk assessment, and disease management. Furthermore, it can reveal unexpected sensitizations which may explain anaphylaxis previously categorized as idiopathic and also display for the moment clinically non-relevant sensitizations. ISAC can facilitate a better selection of relevant allergens for immunotherapy compared with extract testing. Microarray technique can visualize the allergic march and molecular spreading in the preclinical stages of allergic diseases, and may indicate that the likelihood of developing symptomatic allergy is associated with specific profiles of sensitization to allergen components. ISAC is shown to be a useful tool in routine allergy diagnostics due to its ability to improve risk assessment, to better select relevant allergens for immunotherapy as well as detecting unknown sensitization. Multiplex component testing is especially suitable for patients with complex symptomatology. PMID:27196983

  19. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P < 0.05). An increase in moisture, water, and oil absorption capacity was observed for the acetylated starch and, which was less pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed starch but more pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed acetylated product. The latter product underwent an increase in resistant starch content, which is induced by a rise in hydrolysis time to attain about 67 % after 1 h of reaction. The modified starch samples were added to cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch. PMID:26787967

  20. Epigenetic engineering: histone H3K9 acetylation is compatible with kinetochore structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jan H.; Jakubsche, Julia N.; Martins, Nuno M.; Kagansky, Alexander; Nakano, Megumi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kelly, David A.; Turner, Bryan M.; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Larionov, Vladimir; Earnshaw, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Human kinetochores are transcriptionally active, producing very low levels of transcripts of the underlying alpha-satellite DNA. However, it is not known whether kinetochores can tolerate acetylated chromatin and the levels of transcription that are characteristic of housekeeping genes, or whether kinetochore-associated ‘centrochromatin’, despite being transcribed at a low level, is essentially a form of repressive chromatin. Here, we have engineered two types of acetylated chromatin within the centromere of a synthetic human artificial chromosome. Tethering a minimal NF-κB p65 activation domain within kinetochore-associated chromatin produced chromatin with high levels of histone H3 acetylated on lysine 9 (H3K9ac) and an ~10-fold elevation in transcript levels, but had no substantial effect on kinetochore assembly or function. By contrast, tethering the herpes virus VP16 activation domain produced similar modifications in the chromatin but resulted in an ~150-fold elevation in transcripts, approaching the level of transcription of an endogenous housekeeping gene. This rapidly inactivated kinetochores, causing a loss of assembled CENP-A and blocking further CENP-A assembly. Our data reveal that functional centromeres in vivo show a remarkable plasticity – kinetochores tolerate profound changes to their chromatin environment, but appear to be critically sensitive to the level of centromeric transcription. PMID:22331359

  1. Histone Acetylation and Its Modifiers in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Chaoyuan; Sun, Guangdong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to DN is required to develop more effective therapeutic options. It is becoming more evident that histone acetylation (HAc), as one of the epigenetic mechanisms, is thought to be associated with the etiology of diabetic vascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), and DN. Histone acetylases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the well-known regulators of reversible acetylation in the amino-terminal domains of histone and nonhistone proteins. In DN, however, the roles of histone acetylation (HAc) and these enzymes are still controversial. Some new evidence has revealed that HATs and HDACs inhibitors are renoprotective in cellular and animal models of DN, while, on the other hand, upregulation of HAc has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. In this review, we focus on the recent advances on the roles of HAc and their covalent enzymes in the development and progression of DN in certain cellular processes including fibrosis, inflammation, hypertrophy, and oxidative stress and discuss how targeting these enzymes and their inhibitors can ultimately lead to the therapeutic approaches for treating DN. PMID:27379253

  2. Histone Acetylation and Its Modifiers in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Chaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to DN is required to develop more effective therapeutic options. It is becoming more evident that histone acetylation (HAc), as one of the epigenetic mechanisms, is thought to be associated with the etiology of diabetic vascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), and DN. Histone acetylases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the well-known regulators of reversible acetylation in the amino-terminal domains of histone and nonhistone proteins. In DN, however, the roles of histone acetylation (HAc) and these enzymes are still controversial. Some new evidence has revealed that HATs and HDACs inhibitors are renoprotective in cellular and animal models of DN, while, on the other hand, upregulation of HAc has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. In this review, we focus on the recent advances on the roles of HAc and their covalent enzymes in the development and progression of DN in certain cellular processes including fibrosis, inflammation, hypertrophy, and oxidative stress and discuss how targeting these enzymes and their inhibitors can ultimately lead to the therapeutic approaches for treating DN. PMID:27379253

  3. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model. PMID:26944428

  4. Molecular mechanism for USP7-mediated DNMT1 stabilization by acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingdong; Yang, Huirong; Fang, Jian; Ma, Lixiang; Gong, Rui; Wang, Ping; Li, Ze; Xu, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    DNMT1 is an important epigenetic regulator that plays a key role in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Here we determined the crystal structure of DNMT1 in complex with USP7 at 2.9 Å resolution. The interaction between the two proteins is primarily mediated by an acidic pocket in USP7 and Lysine residues within DNMT1's KG linker. This intermolecular interaction is required for USP7-mediated stabilization of DNMT1. Acetylation of the KG linker Lysine residues impair DNMT1–USP7 interaction and promote the degradation of DNMT1. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors results in an increase in acetylated DNMT1 and decreased total DNMT1 protein. This negative correlation is observed in differentiated neuronal cells and pancreatic cancer cells. Our studies reveal that USP7-mediated stabilization of DNMT1 is regulated by acetylation and provide a structural basis for the design of inhibitors, targeting the DNMT1–USP7 interaction surface for therapeutic applications. PMID:25960197

  5. Acetylated 1,3-diaminopropane antagonizes abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Fabien; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Tran, Daniel; Bousserouel, Hadjira; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Vavasseur, Alain; Kwak, June M; Sentenac, Hervé; Bouteau, François; Leung, Jeffrey

    2014-07-01

    Faced with declining soil-water potential, plants synthesize abscisic acid (ABA), which then triggers stomatal closure to conserve tissue moisture. Closed stomates, however, also create several physiological dilemmas. Among these, the large CO2 influx required for net photosynthesis will be disrupted. Depleting CO2 in the plant will in turn bias stomatal opening by suppressing ABA sensitivity, which then aggravates transpiration further. We have investigated the molecular basis of how C3 plants resolve this H2 O-CO2 conflicting priority created by stomatal closure. Here, we have identified in Arabidopsis thaliana an early drought-induced spermidine spermine-N(1) -acetyltransferase homolog, which can slow ABA-mediated stomatal closure. Evidence from genetic, biochemical and physiological analyses has revealed that this protein does so by acetylating the metabolite 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP), thereby turning on the latter's intrinsic activity. Acetylated DAP triggers plasma membrane electrical and ion transport properties in an opposite way to those by ABA. Thus in adapting to low soil-water availability, acetyl-DAP could refrain stomates from complete closure to sustain CO2 diffusion to photosynthetic tissues. PMID:24891222

  6. Acetylation reduces SOX9 nuclear entry and ACAN gene transactivation in human chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bar Oz, Michal; Kumar, Ashok; Elayyan, Jinan; Reich, Eli; Binyamin, Milana; Kandel, Leonid; Liebergall, Meir; Steinmeyer, Juergen; Lefebvre, Veronique; Dvir-Ginzberg, Mona

    2016-06-01

    Changes in the content of aggrecan, an essential proteoglycan of articular cartilage, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent age-related, degenerative joint disease. Here, we examined the effect of SOX9 acetylation on ACAN transactivation in the context of osteoarthritis. Primary chondrocytes freshly isolated from degenerated OA cartilage displayed lower levels of ACAN mRNA and higher levels of acetylated SOX9 compared with cells from intact regions of OA cartilage. Degenerated OA cartilage presented chondrocyte clusters bearing diffused immunostaining for SOX9 compared with intact cartilage regions. Primary human chondrocytes freshly isolated from OA knee joints were cultured in monolayer or in three-dimensional alginate microbeads (3D). SOX9 was hypo-acetylated in 3D cultures and displayed enhanced binding to a -10 kb ACAN enhancer, a result consistent with higher ACAN mRNA levels than in monolayer cultures. It also co-immunoprecipitated with SIRT1, a major deacetylase responsible for SOX9 deacetylation. Finally, immunofluorescence assays revealed increased nuclear localization of SOX9 in primary chondrocytes treated with the NAD SIRT1 cofactor, than in cells treated with a SIRT1 inhibitor. Inhibition of importin β by importazole maintained SOX9 in the cytoplasm, even in the presence of NAD. Based on these data, we conclude that deacetylation promotes SOX9 nuclear translocation and hence its ability to activate ACAN. PMID:26910618

  7. Acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 64 regulates nucleosome dynamics and facilitates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Mohn, Fabio; Ryan, Daniel P; Montellier, Emilie; Kacem, Salim; Tropberger, Philipp; Kallis, Eleni; Holzner, Monika; Hoerner, Leslie; Feldmann, Angelika; Richter, Florian Martin; Bannister, Andrew J; Mittler, Gerhard; Michaelis, Jens; Khochbin, Saadi; Feil, Robert; Schuebeler, Dirk; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Daujat, Sylvain; Schneider, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins have emerged as a major mechanism for regulating gene expression. However, our understanding of how histone modifications directly affect chromatin function remains limited. In this study, we investigate acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 64 (H3K64ac), a previously uncharacterized acetylation on the lateral surface of the histone octamer. We show that H3K64ac regulates nucleosome stability and facilitates nucleosome eviction and hence gene expression in vivo. In line with this, we demonstrate that H3K64ac is enriched in vivo at the transcriptional start sites of active genes and it defines transcriptionally active chromatin. Moreover, we find that the p300 co-activator acetylates H3K64, and consistent with a transcriptional activation function, H3K64ac opposes its repressive counterpart H3K64me3. Our findings reveal an important role for a histone modification within the nucleosome core as a regulator of chromatin function and they demonstrate that lateral surface modifications can define functionally opposing chromatin states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01632.001 PMID:24668167

  8. Acetylation of C/EBPα inhibits its granulopoietic function

    PubMed Central

    Bararia, Deepak; Kwok, Hui Si; Welner, Robert S.; Numata, Akihiko; Sárosi, Menyhárt B.; Yang, Henry; Wee, Sheena; Tschuri, Sebastian; Ray, Debleena; Weigert, Oliver; Levantini, Elena; Ebralidze, Alexander K.; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tenen, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBPα at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBPα DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBPα transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBPα is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBPα mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBPα-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBPα and demonstrate the importance of C/EBPα acetylation in myeloid differentiation. PMID:27005833

  9. Rapid test for acetyl-methyl-carbinol formation by Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, S M; Nichols, C W; Qadri, S G; Villarreal, A

    1978-01-01

    A modified Voges-Proskauer test is described which distinguishes within 4 to 8 hours between organisms that can produce acetyl-methyl-carbinol (acetoin) from glucose fermentation and those that cannot. PMID:363745

  10. Acetylation of C/EBPα inhibits its granulopoietic function.

    PubMed

    Bararia, Deepak; Kwok, Hui Si; Welner, Robert S; Numata, Akihiko; Sárosi, Menyhárt B; Yang, Henry; Wee, Sheena; Tschuri, Sebastian; Ray, Debleena; Weigert, Oliver; Levantini, Elena; Ebralidze, Alexander K; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tenen, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBPα at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBPα DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBPα transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBPα is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBPα mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBPα-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBPα and demonstrate the importance of C/EBPα acetylation in myeloid differentiation. PMID:27005833

  11. Data detailing the platelet acetyl-lysine proteome

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Joseph E.; David, Larry L.; McCarty, Owen J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Here we detail proteomics data that describe the acetyl-lysine proteome of blood platelets (Aslan et al., 2015 [1]). An affinity purification – mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach was used to identify proteins modified by Nε-lysine acetylation in quiescent, washed human platelets. The data provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms of platelet function mediated by protein lysine acetylation. Additionally, as platelets are anucleate and lack histone proteins, they offer a unique and valuable system to study the regulation of cytosolic proteins by lysine acetylation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaino et al., 2014 [2]) via with PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002332. PMID:26904711

  12. Data detailing the platelet acetyl-lysine proteome.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Joseph E; David, Larry L; McCarty, Owen J T

    2015-12-01

    Here we detail proteomics data that describe the acetyl-lysine proteome of blood platelets (Aslan et al., 2015 [1]). An affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach was used to identify proteins modified by Nε-lysine acetylation in quiescent, washed human platelets. The data provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms of platelet function mediated by protein lysine acetylation. Additionally, as platelets are anucleate and lack histone proteins, they offer a unique and valuable system to study the regulation of cytosolic proteins by lysine acetylation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaino et al., 2014 [2]) via with PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002332. PMID:26904711

  13. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  14. Rapid test for acetyl-methyl-carbinol formation by Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Qadri, S M; Nichols, C W; Qadri, S G; Villarreal, A

    1978-10-01

    A modified Voges-Proskauer test is described which distinguishes within 4 to 8 hours between organisms that can produce acetyl-methyl-carbinol (acetoin) from glucose fermentation and those that cannot. PMID:363745

  15. Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Supply: Functional Expression of a Bacterial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in the Cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Barbara U.; van Rossum, Harmen M.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R.; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1α, E1β, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs+ reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. PMID:25336454

  16. RNA-sequencing analysis of high glucose-treated monocytes reveals novel transcriptome signatures and associated epigenetic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Feng; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Lingxiao; Wang, Jinhui; Gao, Harry; Wu, Xiwei

    2013-01-01

    We performed high throughput transcriptomic profiling with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to uncover network responses in human THP-1 monocytes treated with high glucose (HG). Our data analyses revealed that interferon (IFN) signaling, pattern recognition receptors, and activated interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) were enriched among the HG-upregulated genes. Motif analysis identified an HG-responsive IRF-mediated network in which interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were enriched. Notably, this network showed strong overlap with a recently discovered IRF7-driven network relevant to Type 1 diabetes. We next examined if the HG-regulated genes possessed any characteristic chromatin features in the basal state by profiling 15 active and repressive chromatin marks under normal glucose conditions using chromatin immunoprecipitation linked to promoter microarrays. Composite profiles revealed higher histone H3 lysine-9-acetylation levels around the promoters of HG-upregulated genes compared with all RefSeq promoters. Interestingly, within the HG-upregulated genes, active chromatin marks were enriched not only at high CpG content promoters, but surprisingly also at low CpG content promoters. Similar results were obtained with peripheral blood monocytes exposed to HG. These new results reveal a novel mechanism by which HG can exercise IFN-α-like effects in monocytes by upregulating a set of ISGs poised for activation with multiple chromatin marks. PMID:23386205

  17. Assessment and integration of publicly available SAGE, cDNA microarray, and oligonucleotide microarray expression data for global coexpression analyses.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Obi L; Pleasance, Erin D; Fulton, Debra L; Oveisi, Mehrdad; Ester, Martin; Siddiqui, Asim S; Jones, Steven J M

    2005-10-01

    Large amounts of gene expression data from several different technologies are becoming available to the scientific community. A common practice is to use these data to calculate global gene coexpression for validation or integration of other "omic" data. To assess the utility of publicly available datasets for this purpose we have analyzed Homo sapiens data from 1202 cDNA microarray experiments, 242 SAGE libraries, and 667 Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray experiments. The three datasets compared demonstrate significant but low levels of global concordance (rc<0.11). Assessment against Gene Ontology (GO) revealed that all three platforms identify more coexpressed gene pairs with common biological processes than expected by chance. As the Pearson correlation for a gene pair increased it was more likely to be confirmed by GO. The Affymetrix dataset performed best individually with gene pairs of correlation 0.9-1.0 confirmed by GO in 74% of cases. However, in all cases, gene pairs confirmed by multiple platforms were more likely to be confirmed by GO. We show that combining results from different expression platforms increases reliability of coexpression. A comparison with other recently published coexpression studies found similar results in terms of performance against GO but with each method producing distinctly different gene pair lists. PMID:16098712

  18. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

  19. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false N-Acetyl-L-methionine. 172.372 Section 172.372 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.372 N-Acetyl-L-methionine....

  20. Olig1 Acetylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Oligodendrocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K.; Jin, Weilin

    2015-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig1 is critical for both oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in mice. Nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein occurs during brain development and in multiple sclerosis, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we report that Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation drive its active translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in both mouse and rat oligodendrocytes. We identified three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) localized in the basic helix-loop-helix domain and one specific acetylation site at Lys 150 (human Olig1) in NES1. Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation are regulated by the acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein and the histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC10. Acetylation of Olig1 decreased its chromatin association, increased its interaction with inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and facilitated its retention in the cytoplasm of mature oligodendrocytes. These studies establish that acetylation of Olig1 regulates its chromatin dissociation and subsequent translocation to the cytoplasm and is required for its function in oligodendrocyte maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein has been observed during mouse and human brain development and in multiple sclerosis in several studies, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we provide insight into the mechanism by which acetylation of Olig1 regulates its unique nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling during oligodendrocyte development and how the acetylation status of Olig1 modulates its distinct function in the nucleus versus the cytoplasm. The current study provides a unique example of a lineage-specific transcription factor that is actively translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm as the cell differentiates. Importantly, we demonstrate that this process is tightly controlled by acetylation at a single

  1. Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Ratta, Barkha; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips is gaining momentum in recent years. Hence, it is possible to design customized microarray chip for viruses infecting livestock in India. Customized microarray chips identified Bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), Canine Adeno Virus-1 (CAV-1), and Canine Parvo Virus-2 (CPV-2) in clinical samples. Microarray identified specific probes were further confirmed using RT-PCR in all clinical and known samples. Therefore, the application of microarray chips during viral disease outbreaks in Indian livestock is possible where conventional methods are unsuitable. It should be noted that customized application requires a detailed cost efficiency calculation. PMID:26912948

  2. Advancing translational research with next-generation protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaobo; Petritis, Brianne; LaBaer, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Protein microarrays are a high-throughput technology used increasingly in translational research, seeking to apply basic science findings to enhance human health. In addition to assessing protein levels, posttranslational modifications, and signaling pathways in patient samples, protein microarrays have aided in the identification of potential protein biomarkers of disease and infection. In this perspective, the different types of full-length protein microarrays that are used in translational research are reviewed. Specific studies employing these microarrays are presented to highlight their potential in finding solutions to real clinical problems. Finally, the criteria that should be considered when developing next-generation protein microarrays are provided. PMID:26749402

  3. Downregulation of Rubisco Activity by Non-enzymatic Acetylation of RbcL.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Hong, Hui; Li, Wei-Chao; Yang, Lili; Huang, Jirong; Xiao, You-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Gen-Yun

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is assimilated by the most abundant but sluggish enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Here we show that acetylation of lysine residues of the Rubisco large subunit (RbcL), including Lys201 and Lys334 in the active sites, may be an important mechanism in the regulation of Rubisco activities. It is well known that Lys201 reacts with CO2 for carbamylation, a prerequisite for both carboxylase and oxygenase activities of Rubisco, and Lys334 contacts with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP). The acetylation level of RbcL in plants is lower during the day and higher at night, inversely correlating with the Rubisco carboxylation activity. A search of the chloroplast proteome database did not reveal a canonical acetyltransferase; instead, we found that a plant-derived metabolite, 7-acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (AMC), can non-enzymatically acetylate both native Rubisco and synthesized RbcL peptides spanning Lys334 or Lys201. Furthermore, lysine residues were modified by synthesized 4-methylumbelliferone esters with different electro- and stereo-substitutes, resulting in varied Rubisco activities. 1-Chloroethyl 4-methylcoumarin-7-yl carbonate (ClMC) could transfer the chloroethyl carbamate group to lysine residues of RbcL and completely inactivate Rubisco, whereas bis(4-methylcoumarin-7-yl) carbonate (BMC) improved Rubisco activity through increasing the level of Lys201 carbamylation. Our findings indicate that RbcL acetylation negatively regulates Rubisco activity, and metabolic derivatives can be designed to dissect and improve CO2 fixation efficiency of plants through lysine modification. PMID:27109602

  4. Evaluation of a novel automated allergy microarray platform compared with three other allergy test methods.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; Önell, A; Baldracchini, F; Hui, V; Jolles, S; El-Shanawany, T

    2016-04-01

    Microarray platforms, enabling simultaneous measurement of many allergens with a small serum sample, are potentially powerful tools in allergy diagnostics. We report here the first study comparing a fully automated microarray system, the Microtest allergy system, with a manual microarray platform, Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC), and two well-established singleplex allergy tests, skin prick test (SPT) and ImmunoCAP, all tested on the same patients. One hundred and three adult allergic patients attending the allergy clinic were included into the study. All patients were tested with four allergy test methods (SPT, ImmunoCAP, Microtest and ISAC 112) and a total of 3485 pairwise test results were analysed and compared. The four methods showed comparable results with a positive/negative agreement of 81-88% for any pair of test methods compared, which is in line with data in the literature. The most prevalent allergens (cat, dog, mite, timothy, birch and peanut) and their individual allergen components revealed an agreement between methods with correlation coefficients between 0·73 and 0·95. All four methods revealed deviating individual patient results for a minority of patients. These results indicate that microarray platforms are efficient and useful tools to characterize the specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E profile of allergic patients using a small volume of serum sample. The results produced by the Microtest system were in agreement with diagnostic tests in current use. Further data collection and evaluation are needed for other populations, geographical regions and allergens. PMID:26437695

  5. An acetylation switch controls TDP-43 function and aggregation propensity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Todd J; Hwang, Andrew W; Restrepo, Clark R; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M Y

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 pathology is a disease hallmark that characterizes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). Although a critical role for TDP-43 as an RNA-binding protein has emerged, the regulation of TDP-43 function is poorly understood. Here, we identify lysine acetylation as a novel post-translational modification controlling TDP-43 function and aggregation. We provide evidence that TDP-43 acetylation impairs RNA binding and promotes accumulation of insoluble, hyper-phosphorylated TDP-43 species that largely resemble pathological inclusions in ALS and FTLD-TDP. Moreover, biochemical and cell-based assays identify oxidative stress as a signalling cue that promotes acetylated TDP-43 aggregates that are readily engaged by the cellular defense machinery. Importantly, acetylated TDP-43 lesions are found in ALS patient spinal cord, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 acetylation and loss of RNA binding are linked to TDP-43 proteinopathy. Thus, modulating TDP-43 acetylation represents a plausible strategy to fine-tune TDP-43 activity, which could provide new therapeutic avenues for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25556531

  6. Effects of peptide acetylation and dimethylation on electrospray ionization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Cho; Kang, Jeong Won; Choi, Yuri; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Peptide acetylation and dimethylation have been widely used to derivatize primary amino groups (peptide N-termini and the ε-amino group of lysines) for chemical isotope labeling of quantitative proteomics or for affinity tag labeling for selection and enrichment of labeled peptides. However, peptide acetylation results in signal suppression during electrospray ionization (ESI) due to charge neutralization. In contrast, dimethylated peptides show increased ionization efficiency after derivatization, since dimethylation increases hydrophobicity and maintains a positive charge on the peptide under common LC conditions. In this study, we quantitatively compared the ESI efficiencies of acetylated and dimethylated model peptides and tryptic peptides of BSA. Dimethylated peptides showed higher ionization efficiency than acetylated peptides for both model peptides and tryptic BSA peptides. At the proteome level, peptide dimethylation led to better protein identification than peptide acetylation when tryptic peptides of mouse brain lysate were analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS. These results demonstrate that dimethylation of tryptic peptides enhanced ESI efficiency and provided up to two-fold improved protein identification sensitivity in comparison with acetylation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26889926

  7. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  8. An acetylation switch controls TDP-43 function and aggregation propensity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Todd J.; Hwang, Andrew W.; Restrepo, Clark R.; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 pathology is a disease hallmark that characterizes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). Although a critical role for TDP-43 as an RNA-binding protein has emerged, the regulation of TDP-43 function is poorly understood. Here we identify lysine acetylation as a novel post-translational modification controlling TDP-43 function and aggregation. We provide evidence that TDP-43 acetylation impairs RNA-binding and promotes accumulation of insoluble, hyper-phosphorylated TDP-43 species that largely resemble pathological inclusions in ALS and FTLD-TDP. Moreover, biochemical and cell-based assays identify oxidative stress as a signaling cue that promotes acetylated TDP-43 aggregates that are readily engaged by the cellular defense machinery. Importantly, acetylated TDP-43 lesions are found in ALS patient spinal cord, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 acetylation and loss of RNA binding are linked to TDP-43 proteinopathy. Thus, modulating TDP-43 acetylation represents a plausible strategy to fine-tune TDP-43 activity, which could provide new therapeutic avenues for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25556531

  9. Acetyl Radical Generation in Cigarette Smoke: Quantification and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10–150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commerial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass filber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acealdehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke. PMID:25253993

  10. Methods to detect NF-κB Acetylation and Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, JinJing; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-translational modifications of NF-κB, including acetylation and methylation, have emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for determining the duration and strength of NF-κB nuclear activity as well as its transcriptional output. Within the seven NF-κB family proteins, the RelA subunit of NF-κB is the most studied for its regulation by lysine acetylation and methylation. Acetylation or methylation at different lysine residues modulates distinct functions of NF-κB, including DNA binding and transcription activity, protein stability, and its interaction with NF-κB modulators. Here, we describe the experimental methods to monitor the in vitro and in vivo acetylated or methylated forms of NF-κB. These methods include radiolabeling the acetyl- or methyl- groups and immunoblotting with pan or site-specific acetyl- or methyl-lysine antibodies. Radiolabeling is useful in the initial validation of the modifications. Immunoblotting with antibodies provides a rapid and powerful approach to detect and analyze the functions of these modifications in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25736763

  11. The Structure- and Metal-dependent Activity of Escherichia coli PgaB Provides Insight into the Partial De-N-acetylation of Poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine*

    PubMed Central

    Little, Dustin J.; Poloczek, Joanna; Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Nitz, Mark; Howell, P. Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides are required for the development and integrity of biofilms produced by a wide variety of bacteria. In Escherichia coli, partial de-N-acetylation of the exopolysaccharide poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) by the periplasmic protein PgaB is required for polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-dependent biofilm formation. To understand the molecular basis for PNAG de-N-acetylation, the structure of PgaB in complex with Ni2+ and Fe3+ have been determined to 1.9 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively, and its activity on β-1,6-GlcNAc oligomers has been characterized. The structure of PgaB reveals two (β/α)x barrel domains: a metal-binding de-N-acetylase that is a member of the family 4 carbohydrate esterases (CE4s) and a domain structurally similar to glycoside hydrolases. PgaB displays de-N-acetylase activity on β-1,6-GlcNAc oligomers but not on the β-1,4-(GlcNAc)4 oligomer chitotetraose and is the first CE4 member to exhibit this substrate specificity. De-N-acetylation occurs in a length-dependent manor, and specificity is observed for the position of de-N-acetylation. A key aspartic acid involved in de-N-acetylation, normally seen in other CE4s, is missing in PgaB, suggesting that the activity of PgaB is attenuated to maintain the low levels of de-N-acetylation of PNAG observed in vivo. The metal dependence of PgaB is different from most CE4s, because PgaB shows increased rates of de-N-acetylation with Co2+ and Ni2+ under aerobic conditions, and Co2+, Ni2+ and Fe2+ under anaerobic conditions, but decreased activity with Zn2+. The work presented herein will guide inhibitor design to combat biofilm formation by E. coli and potentially a wide range of medically relevant bacteria producing polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-dependent biofilms. PMID:22810235

  12. PMD: A Resource for Archiving and Analyzing Protein Microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhaowei; Huang, Likun; Zhang, Hainan; Li, Yang; Guo, Shujuan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Shi-hua; Chen, Ziqing; Wang, Jingfang; Tao, Sheng-ce

    2016-01-01

    Protein microarray is a powerful technology for both basic research and clinical study. However, because there is no database specifically tailored for protein microarray, the majority of the valuable original protein microarray data is still not publically accessible. To address this issue, we constructed Protein Microarray Database (PMD), which is specifically designed for archiving and analyzing protein microarray data. In PMD, users can easily browse and search the entire database by experimental name, protein microarray type, and sample information. Additionally, PMD integrates several data analysis tools and provides an automated data analysis pipeline for users. With just one click, users can obtain a comprehensive analysis report for their protein microarray data. The report includes preliminary data analysis, such as data normalization, candidate identification, and an in-depth bioinformatics analysis of the candidates, which include functional annotation, pathway analysis, and protein-protein interaction network analysis. PMD is now freely available at www.proteinmicroarray.cn. PMID:26813635

  13. Immobilization Techniques for Microarray: Challenges and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Song, Keumsoo; Sonawane, Mukesh Digambar; Sayyed, Danishmalik Rafiq; Kim, Taisun

    2014-01-01

    The highly programmable positioning of molecules (biomolecules, nanoparticles, nanobeads, nanocomposites materials) on surfaces has potential applications in the fields of biosensors, biomolecular electronics, and nanodevices. However, the conventional techniques including self-assembled monolayers fail to position the molecules on the nanometer scale to produce highly organized monolayers on the surface. The present article elaborates different techniques for the immobilization of the biomolecules on the surface to produce microarrays and their diagnostic applications. The advantages and the drawbacks of various methods are compared. This article also sheds light on the applications of the different technologies for the detection and discrimination of viral/bacterial genotypes and the detection of the biomarkers. A brief survey with 115 references covering the last 10 years on the biological applications of microarrays in various fields is also provided. PMID:25429408

  14. Use of microarray technologies in toxicology research.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Kent E; Freeman, Willard M; Aschner, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Microarray technology provides a unique tool for the determination of gene expression at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA). The simultaneous measurement of the entire human genome (thousands of genes) will facilitate the uncovering of specific gene expression patterns that are associated with disease. One important application of microarray technology, within the context of neurotoxicological studies, is its use as a screening tool for the identification of molecular mechanisms of toxicity. Such approaches enable researchers to identify those genes and their products (either single or whole pathways) that are involved in conferring resistance or sensitivity to toxic substances. This review addresses: (1) the potential uses of array data; (2) the various array platforms, highlighting both their advantages and disadvantages; (3) insights into data analysis and presentation strategies; and (4) concrete examples of DNA array studies in neurotoxicological research. PMID:12782098

  15. A Flexible Microarray Data Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dembélé, Doulaye

    2013-01-01

    Microarray technology allows monitoring of gene expression profiling at the genome level. This is useful in order to search for genes involved in a disease. The performances of the methods used to select interesting genes are most often judged after other analyzes (qPCR validation, search in databases...), which are also subject to error. A good evaluation of gene selection methods is possible with data whose characteristics are known, that is to say, synthetic data. We propose a model to simulate microarray data with similar characteristics to the data commonly produced by current platforms. The parameters used in this model are described to allow the user to generate data with varying characteristics. In order to show the flexibility of the proposed model, a commented example is given and illustrated. An R package is available for immediate use.

  16. Microarrays: how many do you need?

    PubMed

    Zien, Alexander; Fluck, Juliane; Zimmer, Ralf; Lengauer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We estimate the number of microarrays that is required in order to gain reliable results from a common type of study: the pairwise comparison of different classes of samples. We show that current knowledge allows for the construction of models that look realistic with respect to searches for individual differentially expressed genes and derive prototypical parameters from real data sets. Such models allow investigation of the dependence of the required number of samples on the relevant parameters: the biological variability of the samples within each class, the fold changes in expression that are desired to be detected, the detection sensitivity of the microarrays, and the acceptable error rates of the results. We supply experimentalists with general conclusions as well as a freely accessible Java applet at www.scai.fhg.de/special/bio/howmanyarrays/ for fine tuning simulations to their particular settings. PMID:12935350

  17. Glycan microarrays for decoding the glycome

    PubMed Central

    Rillahan, Cory D.; Paulson, James C.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade glycan microarrays have revolutionized the analysis of the specificity of glycan binding proteins, providing information that simultaneously illuminates the biology mediated by them and decodes the information content of the glycome. Numerous methods have emerged for arraying glycans in a ‘chip’ format, and glycan libraries have been assembled that address the diversity of the human glycome. Such arrays have been successfully used for analysis of glycan binding proteins that mediate mammalian biology, host-pathogen interactions, immune recognition of glycans relevant to vaccine production and cancer antigens. This review covers the development of glycan microarrays and applications that have provided insights into the roles of mammalian and microbial glycan binding proteins. PMID:21469953

  18. A Genetically Encoded FRET Probe to Detect Intranucleosomal Histone H3K9 or H3K14 Acetylation Using BRD4, a BET Family Member.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Shiho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ito, Akihiro; Nakao, Yoichi; Yoshida, Minoru

    2016-03-18

    Acetylation is a well-characterized histone modification, which plays important roles in controlling epigenetic gene expression, and its malfunction is tightly associated with cancer. By taking advantage of the specific binding of BRD4 to acetylated lysine residues, we developed a FRET-based probe for visualizing histone H3 acetylation in living cells. BRD4, a protein known to be involved in acute myeloid leukemia and nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma, recognizes the acetylation of histone H3 via its bromodomains. The probe exhibited a significant change in FRET signaling that was dependent on histone H3 acetylation. Mutagenesis studies revealed that an increase in the emission ratio reflected the acetylation of either K9 or K14 of histone H3 within the probe. Since BRD4 has increasingly drawn attention as a new anticancer drug target, we demonstrated that the developed fluorescent probe will also serve as a powerful tool to evaluate BRD4 inhibitors in living cells. PMID:25946208

  19. KLF4 mediates the link between TGF-β1-induced gene transcription and H3 acetylation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ming; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Wang, Chang; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Li; Wen, Jin-Kun

    2015-09-01

    Transcriptional activation by transcription factors is coupled with histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. However, the relationship between TGF-β1-induced gene transcription by Krüppel-like factor (KLF)-4 and histone acetylation remains unknown. In our study, KLF4 overexpression or knockdown, respectively increased or decreased H3 acetylation and p300 occupancy, which is concentrated in the region containing TGF-β1 control elements (TCEs) of the genes by TGF-β1 regulation during vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays showed that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) formed a complex with KLF4 to inhibit the phosphorylation of the latter in basal conditions. After TGF-β1 signaling activation, PTEN was phosphorylated by p38 MAPK or PI3K/Akt signaling, phosphorylated PTEN lost its ability to dephosphorylate KLF4, and the cofactors interacting with KLF4 switched from PTEN to p300. Then, KLF4-p300 complexes were recruited to KLF4-binding sites of the gene promoter of VSMCs, to acetylate histone H3 and activate transcription. In addition, phosphorylated KLF4 enhanced p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity via the p38 MAPK pathway, which may be responsible for H3 acetylation. Taken together, the results of our study reveal a novel mechanism whereby KLF4 mediates the link between TGF-β1-induced gene transcription activation and H3 acetylation during VSMC differentiation. PMID:26082460

  20. N-Acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine in primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells and in the human urothelial cell line 5637.

    PubMed

    Föllmann, Wolfram; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Behm, Claudia; Degen, Gisela H; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferases (NAT) are important enzymes in the metabolism of certain carcinogenic arylamines, as N-acetylation decreases or prevents their bioactivation via N-hydroxylation. To study such processes in the bladder, cell culture models may be used, but metabolic competence needs to be characterized. This study focused on the N-acetylation capacity of two urothelial cell systems, using p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and the hair dye precursor p-phenylenediamine (PPD), two well-known substrates of the enzyme NAT1. The constitutive NAT1 activity was investigated using primary cultures of porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) and in the human urothelial cell line 5637 to assess their suitability for further in vitro studies on PABA and PPD-induced toxicity. N-Acetylation of PABA and PPD was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis in cytosols of the two cell systems upon incubation with various substrate levels for up to 60 min. The primary PUBEC revealed higher N-acetylation rates (2.5-fold for PABA, 5-fold for PPD) compared to the 5637 cell line, based on both PABA conversion to its acetylated metabolite and formation of mono- and diacetylated PPD. The urothelial cell systems may thus be useful as a tool for further studies on the N-acetylation of aromatic amines via NAT1. PMID:22994574

  1. Protein microarrays based on polymer brushes prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Raphael; Kauffmann, Ekkehard; Ehrat, Markus; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2010-12-13

    Polymer brushes represent an interesting platform for the development of high-capacity protein binding surfaces. Whereas the protein binding properties of polymer brushes have been investigated before, this manuscript evaluates the feasibility of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) and PGMA-co-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PGMA-co-PDEAEMA) (co)polymer brushes grown via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) as protein reactive substrates in a commercially available microarray system using tantalum-pentoxide-coated optical waveguide-based chips. The performance of the polymer-brush-based protein microarray chips is assessed using commercially available dodecylphosphate (DDP)-modified chips as the benchmark. In contrast to the 2D planar, DDP-coated chips, the polymer-brush-covered chips represent a 3D sampling volume. This was reflected in the results of protein immobilization studies, which indicated that the polymer-brush-based coatings had a higher protein binding capacity as compared to the reference substrates. The protein binding capacity of the polymer-brush-based coatings was found to increase with increasing brush thickness and could also be enhanced by copolymerization of 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA), which catalyzes epoxide ring-opening of the glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) units. The performance of the polymer-brush-based microarray chips was evaluated in two proof-of-concept microarray experiments, which involved the detection of biotin-streptavidin binding as well as a model TNFα reverse assay. These experiments revealed that the use of polymer-brush-modified microarray chips resulted not only in the highest absolute fluorescence readouts, reflecting the 3D nature and enhanced sampling volume provided by the brush coating, but also in significantly enhanced signal-to-noise ratios. These characteristics make the proposed polymer brushes an attractive alternative to commercially available, 2D microarray

  2. Cell shape regulates global histone acetylation in human mammaryepithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Le Beyec, Johanne; Xu, Ren; Lee, Sun-Young; Nelson, Celeste M.; Rizki, Aylin; Alcaraz, Jordi; Bissell, Mina J.

    2007-02-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether lrECM-dependent cell rounding and global histone deacetylation are indeed part of a common physical-biochemical pathway. Using 3D cultures as well as nonadhesive and micropatterned substrata, here we showed that the cell 'rounding' caused by lrECM was sufficient to induce deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the absence of biochemical cues. Microarray and confocal analysis demonstrated that this deacetylation in 3D culture is associated with a global increase in chromatin condensation and a reduction in gene expression. Whereas cells cultured on plastic substrata formed prominent stress fibers, cells grown in 3D lrECM or on micropatterns lacked these structures. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D phenocopied the lrECM-induced cell rounding and histone deacetylation. These results reveal a novel link between ECM-controlled cell shape and chromatin structure, and suggest that this link is mediated by changes in the actin cytoskeleton.

  3. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  4. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  5. Glycan specificity of neuraminidases determined in microarray format.

    PubMed

    McCombs, Janet E; Diaz, Jason P; Luebke, Kevin J; Kohler, Jennifer J

    2016-06-16

    Neuraminidases hydrolytically remove sialic acids from glycoconjugates. Neuraminidases are produced by both humans and their pathogens, and function in normal physiology and in pathological events. Identification of neuraminidase substrates is needed to reveal their mechanism of action, but high-throughput methods to determine glycan specificity of neuraminidases are limited. Here we use two glycan labeling reactions to monitor neuraminidase activity toward glycan substrates. While both periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation (PAL) and galactose oxidase and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation (GAL) can be used to monitor neuraminidase activity toward glycans in microtiter plates, only GAL accurately measured neuraminidase activity toward glycans displayed on a commercial glass slide microarray. Using GAL, we confirm known linkage specificities of three pneumococcal neuraminidases and obtain new information about underlying glycan specificity. PMID:27131125

  6. Metadata Management and Semantics in Microarray Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Kocabaş, F; Can, T; Baykal, N

    2011-01-01

    The number of microarray and other high-throughput experiments on primary repositories keeps increasing as do the size and complexity of the results in response to biomedical investigations. Initiatives have been started on standardization of content, object model, exchange format and ontology. However, there are backlogs and inability to exchange data between microarray repositories, which indicate that there is a great need for a standard format and data management. We have introduced a metadata framework that includes a metadata card and semantic nets that make experimental results visible, understandable and usable. These are encoded in syntax encoding schemes and represented in RDF (Resource Description Frame-word), can be integrated with other metadata cards and semantic nets, and can be exchanged, shared and queried. We demonstrated the performance and potential benefits through a case study on a selected microarray repository. We concluded that the backlogs can be reduced and that exchange of information and asking of knowledge discovery questions can become possible with the use of this metadata framework. PMID:24052712

  7. Development and Applications of the Lectin Microarray.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Jun; Kuno, Atsushi; Tateno, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The lectin microarray is an emerging technology for glycomics. It has already found maximum use in diverse fields of glycobiology by providing simple procedures for differential glycan profiling in a rapid and high-throughput manner. Since its first appearance in the literature in 2005, many application methods have been developed essentially on the same platform, comprising a series of glycan-binding proteins immobilized on an appropriate substrate such as a glass slide. Because the lectin microarray strategy does not require prior liberation of glycans from the core protein in glycoprotein analysis, it should encourage researchers not familiar with glycotechnology to use glycan analysis in future work. This feasibility should provide a broader range of experimental scientists with good opportunities to investigate novel aspects of glycoscience. Applications of the technology include not only basic sciences but also the growing fields of bio-industry. This chapter describes first the essence of glycan profiling and the basic fabrication of the lectin microarray for this purpose. In the latter part the focus is on diverse applications to both structural and functional glycomics, with emphasis on the wide applicability now available with this new technology. Finally, the importance of developing advanced lectin engineering is discussed. PMID:25821171

  8. RNAi microarray analysis in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Mousses, Spyro; Caplen, Natasha J; Cornelison, Robert; Weaver, Don; Basik, Mark; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Lotufo, Roberto A; Choudary, Ashish; Dougherty, Edward R; Suh, Ed; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2003-10-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is a powerful new tool for analyzing gene knockdown phenotypes in living mammalian cells. To facilitate large-scale, high-throughput functional genomics studies using RNAi, we have developed a microarray-based technology for highly parallel analysis. Specifically, siRNAs in a transfection matrix were first arrayed on glass slides, overlaid with a monolayer of adherent cells, incubated to allow reverse transfection, and assessed for the effects of gene silencing by digital image analysis at a single cell level. Validation experiments with HeLa cells stably expressing GFP showed spatially confined, sequence-specific, time- and dose-dependent inhibition of green fluorescence for those cells growing directly on microspots containing siRNA targeting the GFP sequence. Microarray-based siRNA transfections analyzed with a custom-made quantitative image analysis system produced results that were identical to those from traditional well-based transfection, quantified by flow cytometry. Finally, to integrate experimental details, image analysis, data display, and data archiving, we developed a prototype information management system for high-throughput cell-based analyses. In summary, this RNAi microarray platform, together with ongoing efforts to develop large-scale human siRNA libraries, should facilitate genomic-scale cell-based analyses of gene function. PMID:14525932

  9. Integrating data from heterogeneous DNA microarray platforms.

    PubMed

    Valente, Eduardo; Rocha, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    DNA microarrays are one of the most used technologies for gene expression measurement. However, there are several distinct microarray platforms, from different manufacturers, each with its own measurement protocol, resulting in data that can hardly be compared or directly integrated. Data integration from multiple sources aims to improve the assertiveness of statistical tests, reducing the data dimensionality problem. The integration of heterogeneous DNA microarray platforms comprehends a set of tasks that range from the re-annotation of the features used on gene expression, to data normalization and batch effect elimination. In this work, a complete methodology for gene expression data integration and application is proposed, which comprehends a transcript-based re-annotation process and several methods for batch effect attenuation. The integrated data will be used to select the best feature set and learning algorithm for a brain tumor classification case study. The integration will consider data from heterogeneous Agilent and Affymetrix platforms, collected from public gene expression databases, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus. PMID:26673932

  10. An imputation approach for oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wen, Yalu; Lu, Qing; Fu, Wenjiang J

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are commonly adopted for detecting and qualifying the abundance of molecules in biological samples. Analysis of microarray data starts with recording and interpreting hybridization signals from CEL images. However, many CEL images may be blemished by noises from various sources, observed as "bright spots", "dark clouds", and "shadowy circles", etc. It is crucial that these image defects are correctly identified and properly processed. Existing approaches mainly focus on detecting defect areas and removing affected intensities. In this article, we propose to use a mixed effect model for imputing the affected intensities. The proposed imputation procedure is a single-array-based approach which does not require any biological replicate or between-array normalization. We further examine its performance by using Affymetrix high-density SNP arrays. The results show that this imputation procedure significantly reduces genotyping error rates. We also discuss the necessary adjustments for its potential extension to other oligonucleotide microarrays, such as gene expression profiling. The R source code for the implementation of approach is freely available upon request. PMID:23505547

  11. [Genomic medicine. Polymorphisms and microarray applications].

    PubMed

    Spalvieri, Mónica P; Rotenberg, Rosa G

    2004-01-01

    This update shows new concepts related to the significance of DNA variations among individuals, as well as to their detection by using a new technology. The sequencing of the human genome is only the beginning of what will enable us to understand genetic diversity. The unit of DNA variability is the polymorphism of a single nucleotide (SNP). At present, studies on SNPs are restricted to basic research but the large number of papers on this subject makes feasible their entrance into clinical practice. We illustrate here the use of SNPs as molecular markers in ethnical genotyping, gene expression in some diseases and as potential targets in pharmacological response, and also introduce the technology of arrays. Microarrays experiments allow the quantification and comparison of gene expression on a large scale, at the same time, by using special chips and array designs. Conventional methods provide data from up to 20 genes, while a single microarray may provide information about thousands of them simultaneously, leading to a more rapid and accurate genotyping. Biotechnology improvements will facilitate our knowledge of each gene sequence, the frequency and exact location of SNPs and their influence on cellular behavior. Although experimental efficiency and validity of results from microarrays are still controversial, the knowledge and characterization of a patient's genetic profile will lead, undoubtedly, to advances in prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of human diseases. PMID:15637833

  12. High-Throughput Enzyme Kinetics Using Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Lu; Edward S. Yeung

    2007-11-01

    We report a microanalytical method to study enzyme kinetics. The technique involves immobilizing horseradish peroxidase on a poly-L-lysine (PLL)- coated glass slide in a microarray format, followed by applying substrate solution onto the enzyme microarray. Enzyme molecules are immobilized on the PLL-coated glass slide through electrostatic interactions, and no further modification of the enzyme or glass slide is needed. In situ detection of the products generated on the enzyme spots is made possible by monitoring the light intensity of each spot using a scientific-grade charged-coupled device (CCD). Reactions of substrate solutions of various types and concentrations can be carried out sequentially on one enzyme microarray. To account for the loss of enzyme from washing in between runs, a standard substrate solution is used for calibration. Substantially reduced amounts of substrate solution are consumed for each reaction on each enzyme spot. The Michaelis constant K{sub m} obtained by using this method is comparable to the result for homogeneous solutions. Absorbance detection allows universal monitoring, and no chemical modification of the substrate is needed. High-throughput studies of native enzyme kinetics for multiple enzymes are therefore possible in a simple, rapid, and low-cost manner.

  13. Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Luttik, Marijke A H; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-01-01

    The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1α, E1β, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs(+) reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. Importance: Genetically engineered microorganisms are intensively investigated and applied for production of biofuels and chemicals from renewable sugars. To make such processes economically and environmentally sustainable, the energy

  14. DNA Microarray for Detection of Gastrointestinal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Miguel A.; Soto-del Río, María de los Dolores; Gutiérrez, Rosa María; Chiu, Charles Y.; Greninger, Alexander L.; Contreras, Juan Francisco; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteritis is a clinical illness of humans and other animals that is characterized by vomiting and diarrhea and caused by a variety of pathogens, including viruses. An increasing number of viral species have been associated with gastroenteritis or have been found in stool samples as new molecular tools have been developed. In this work, a DNA microarray capable in theory of parallel detection of more than 100 viral species was developed and tested. Initial validation was done with 10 different virus species, and an additional 5 species were validated using clinical samples. Detection limits of 1 × 103 virus particles of Human adenovirus C (HAdV), Human astrovirus (HAstV), and group A Rotavirus (RV-A) were established. Furthermore, when exogenous RNA was added, the limit for RV-A detection decreased by one log. In a small group of clinical samples from children with gastroenteritis (n = 76), the microarray detected at least one viral species in 92% of the samples. Single infection was identified in 63 samples (83%), and coinfection with more than one virus was identified in 7 samples (9%). The most abundant virus species were RV-A (58%), followed by Anellovirus (15.8%), HAstV (6.6%), HAdV (5.3%), Norwalk virus (6.6%), Human enterovirus (HEV) (9.2%), Human parechovirus (1.3%), Sapporo virus (1.3%), and Human bocavirus (1.3%). To further test the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray, the results were verified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) detection of 5 gastrointestinal viruses. The RT-PCR assay detected a virus in 59 samples (78%). The microarray showed good performance for detection of RV-A, HAstV, and calicivirus, while the sensitivity for HAdV and HEV was low. Furthermore, some discrepancies in detection of mixed infections were observed and were addressed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the viruses involved. It was observed that differences in the amount of genetic material favored the detection of the most abundant

  15. Identification of cellular factors binding to acetylated HIV-1 integrase.

    PubMed

    Allouch, Awatef; Cereseto, Anna

    2011-11-01

    The viral protein integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into the host cellular genome. We have recently demonstrated that IN is acetylated by a cellular histone acetyltransferase, p300, which modifies three lysines located in the C-terminus of the viral factor (Cereseto et al. in EMBO J 24:3070-3081, 2005). This modification enhances IN catalytic activity, as demonstrated by in vitro assays. Consistently, mutations introduced in the targeted lysines greatly decrease the efficiency of HIV-1 integration. Acetylation was proven to regulate protein functions by modulating protein-protein interactions. HIV-1 to efficiently complete its replication steps, including the integration reaction, requires interacting with numerous cellular factors. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether acetylation might modulate the interaction between IN and the cellular factors. To this aim we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening that differs from the screenings so far performed (Rain et al. in Methods 47:291-297, 2009; Studamire and Goff in Retrovirology 5:48, 2008) for using as bait IN constitutively acetylated. From this analysis we have identified thirteen cellular factors involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, nuclear transport, RNA binding, protein synthesis regulation and microtubule organization. To validate these interactions, binding assays were performed showing that acetylation increases the affinity of IN with specific factors. Nevertheless, few two-hybrid hits bind with the same affinity the acetylated and the unmodified IN. These results further underlie the relevance of IN post-translational modification by acetylation in HIV-1 replication cycle. PMID:20016921

  16. ArrayWiki: an enabling technology for sharing public microarray data repositories and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Todd H; Torrance, JT; Li, Henry; Wang, May D

    2008-01-01

    Background A survey of microarray databases reveals that most of the repository contents and data models are heterogeneous (i.e., data obtained from different chip manufacturers), and that the repositories provide only basic biological keywords linking to PubMed. As a result, it is difficult to find datasets using research context or analysis parameters information beyond a few keywords. For example, to reduce the "curse-of-dimension" problem in microarray analysis, the number of samples is often increased by merging array data from different datasets. Knowing chip data parameters such as pre-processing steps (e.g., normalization, artefact removal, etc), and knowing any previous biological validation of the dataset is essential due to the heterogeneity of the data. However, most of the microarray repositories do not have meta-data information in the first place, and do not have a a mechanism to add or insert this information. Thus, there is a critical need to create "intelligent" microarray repositories that (1) enable update of meta-data with the raw array data, and (2) provide standardized archiving protocols to minimize bias from the raw data sources. Results To address the problems discussed, we have developed a community maintained system called ArrayWiki that unites disparate meta-data of microarray meta-experiments from multiple primary sources with four key features. First, ArrayWiki provides a user-friendly knowledge management interface in addition to a programmable interface using standards developed by Wikipedia. Second, ArrayWiki includes automated quality control processes (caCORRECT) and novel visualization methods (BioPNG, Gel Plots), which provide extra information about data quality unavailable in other microarray repositories. Third, it provides a user-curation capability through the familiar Wiki interface. Fourth, ArrayWiki provides users with simple text-based searches across all experiment meta-data, and exposes data to search engine crawlers

  17. SMARCAD1 is an ATP-dependent stimulator of nucleosomal H2A acetylation via CBP, resulting in transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Doiguchi, Masamichi; Nakagawa, Takeya; Imamura, Yuko; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Higashi, Miki; Kubota, Kazuishi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Asahara, Hiroshi; Iida, Midori; Fujii, Satoshi; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Liu, Ziying; Nandu, Tulip; Kraus, W. Lee; Ueda, Hitoshi; Ito, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays a pivotal role in transcriptional regulation, and ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling activity is required for optimal transcription from chromatin. While these two activities have been well characterized, how they are coordinated remains to be determined. We discovered ATP-dependent histone H2A acetylation activity in Drosophila nuclear extracts. This activity was column purified and demonstrated to be composed of the enzymatic activities of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and SMARCAD1, which belongs to the Etl1 subfamily of the Snf2 family of helicase-related proteins. SMARCAD1 enhanced acetylation by CBP of H2A K5 and K8 in nucleosomes in an ATP-dependent fashion. Expression array analysis of S2 cells having ectopically expressed SMARCAD1 revealed up-regulated genes. Using native genome templates of these up-regulated genes, we found that SMARCAD1 activates their transcription in vitro. Knockdown analysis of SMARCAD1 and CBP indicated overlapping gene control, and ChIP-seq analysis of these commonly controlled genes showed that CBP is recruited to the promoter prior to SMARCAD1. Moreover, Drosophila genetic experiments demonstrated interaction between SMARCAD1/Etl1 and CBP/nej during development. The interplay between the remodeling activity of SMARCAD1 and histone acetylation by CBP sheds light on the function of chromatin and the genome-integrity network. PMID:26888216

  18. Acetylation of p65 at lysine 314 is important for late NF-κB-dependent gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background NF-κB regulates the expression of a large number of target genes involved in the immune and inflammatory response, apoptosis, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. We have earlier reported that p65, a subunit of NF-κB, is acetylated in vitro and in vivo at three different lysines (K310, K314 and K315) by the histone acetyltransferase p300. Results In this study, we describe that site-specific mutation of p65 at lysines 314 and 315 enhances gene expression of a subset of NF-κB target genes including Mmp10 and Mmp13. Increased gene expression was mainly observed three hours after TNFα stimulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments with an antibody raised against acetylated lysine 314 revealed that chromatin-bound p65 is indeed acetylated at lysine 314. Conclusions Together, our results establish acetylation of K314 as an important regulatory modification of p65 and subsequently of NF-κB-dependent gene expression. PMID:20064247

  19. AMP-Forming Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthetase in the Outermost Membrane of the Hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Florian; Küper, Ulf; Meyer, Carolin; Daxer, Stefanie; Müller, Volker; Rachel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Ignicoccus hospitalis, a hyperthermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic crenarchaeon was found to possess a new CO2 fixation pathway, the dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle. The primary acceptor molecule for this pathway is acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which is regenerated in the cycle via the characteristic intermediate 4-hydroxybutyrate. In the presence of acetate, acetyl-CoA can alternatively be formed in a one-step mechanism via an AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). This enzyme was identified after membrane preparation by two-dimensional native PAGE/SDS-PAGE, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight tandem mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. The ACS of I. hospitalis exhibits a molecular mass of ∼690 kDa with a monomeric molecular mass of 77 kDa. Activity tests on isolated membranes and bioinformatic analyses indicated that the ACS is a constitutive membrane-associated (but not an integral) protein complex. Unexpectedly, immunolabeling on cells of I. hospitalis and other described Ignicoccus species revealed that the ACS is localized at the outermost membrane. This perfectly coincides with recent results that the ATP synthase and the H2:sulfur oxidoreductase complexes are also located in the outermost membrane of I. hospitalis. These results imply that the intermembrane compartment of I. hospitalis is not only the site of ATP synthesis but may also be involved in the primary steps of CO2 fixation. PMID:22247508

  20. HAT3-mediated acetylation of PCNA precedes PCNA monoubiquitination following exposure to UV radiation in Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devanand; Saha, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications impact various processes. In examining histone acetyltranferase HAT3 of Leishmania donovani, we find elimination of HAT3 causes decreased cell viability due to defects in histone deposition, and aberrant cell cycle progression pattern. HAT3 associates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), helping load PCNA onto chromatin in proliferating cells. HAT3-nulls show heightened sensitivity to UV radiation. Following UV exposure, PCNA cycles off/on chromatin only in cells expressing HAT3. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway prior to UV exposure allows accumulation of chromatin-bound PCNA, and reveals that HAT3-nulls are deficient in PCNA monoubiquitination as well as polyubiquitination. While poor monoubiquitination of PCNA may adversely affect translesion DNA synthesis-based repair processes, polyubiquitination deficiencies may result in continued retention of chromatin-bound PCNA, leading to genomic instability. On suppressing the proteasome pathway we also find that HAT3 mediates PCNA acetylation in response to UV. HAT3-mediated PCNA acetylation may serve as a flag for PCNA ubiquitination, thus aiding DNA repair. While PCNA acetylation has previously been linked to its degradation following UV exposure, this is the first report linking a HAT-mediated PCNA acetylation to PCNA monoubiquitination. These findings add a new dimension to our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating PCNA ubiquitination post-UV exposure in eukaryotes. PMID:25948582

  1. Assessing Statistical Significance in Microarray Experiments Using the Distance Between Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Douglas; Lazar, Peter; Schoenfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    We propose permutation tests based on the pairwise distances between microarrays to compare location, variability, or equivalence of gene expression between two populations. For these tests the entire microarray or some pre-specified subset of genes is the unit of analysis. The pairwise distances only have to be computed once so the procedure is not computationally intensive despite the high dimensionality of the data. An R software package, permtest, implementing the method is freely available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network at http://cran.r-project.org. PMID:19529777

  2. Polylactide/acetylated nanocrystalline cellulose composites prepared by a continuous route: A phase interface-property relation study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunjiang; Chen, Jianxiang; Wu, Defeng; Chen, Yang; Lv, Qiaolian; Wang, Mengqi

    2016-08-01

    A 'continuous route' was developed in this work for the preparation of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) filled polylactide (PLA) composites. It combines several separated steps, including extraction of NCC, surface acetylation of NCC, and final composite preparation, into a continuous process, without traditional freeze drying. The obtained PLA composites were then studied in terms of phase interface structure, rheological and mechanical properties. The results reveal that surface acetylation of NCC can improve its affinity to PLA evidently. The thickened interfacial layer makes the system filled with modified NCC show lower percolation threshold than the one filled with pristine NCC; and the former presents a typical strain-scaling stress overshoot behavior in the start-up shear flow because the network structure of modified NCC presents stronger characteristics of self-similarity. The phase interface adhesion also plays an important role in the mechanical behavior of PLA/NCC composites, which is further revealed by the nanomechanical analysis using atom force microscopy. PMID:27112851

  3. Olig1 Acetylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Oligodendrocyte Development.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jinxiang; Bercury, Kathryn K; Jin, Weilin; Macklin, Wendy B

    2015-12-01

    The oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig1 is critical for both oligodendrocyte development and remyelination in mice. Nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of Olig1 protein occurs during brain development and in multiple sclerosis, but the detailed molecular mechanism of this translocation remains elusive. Here, we report that Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation drive its active translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in both mouse and rat oligodendrocytes. We identified three functional nuclear export sequences (NES) localized in the basic helix-loop-helix domain and one specific acetylation site at Lys 150 (human Olig1) in NES1. Olig1 acetylation and deacetylation are regulated by the acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein and the histone deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC10. Acetylation of Olig1 decreased its chromatin association, increased its interaction with inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and facilitated its retention in the cytoplasm of mature oligodendrocytes. These studies establish that acetylation of Olig1 regulates its chromatin dissociation and subsequent translocation to the cytoplasm and is required for its function in oligodendrocyte maturation. PMID:26631469

  4. Multivariate curve resolution for hyperspectral image analysis :applications to microarray technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Sinclair, Michael B.; Haaland, David Michael; Martinez, M. Juanita (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Anthony D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) using constrained alternating least squares algorithms represents a powerful analysis capability for a quantitative analysis of hyperspectral image data. We will demonstrate the application of MCR using data from a new hyperspectral fluorescence imaging microarray scanner for monitoring gene expression in cells from thousands of genes on the array. The new scanner collects the entire fluorescence spectrum from each pixel of the scanned microarray. Application of MCR with nonnegativity and equality constraints reveals several sources of undesired fluorescence that emit in the same wavelength range as the reporter fluorphores. MCR analysis of the hyperspectral images confirms that one of the sources of fluorescence is due to contaminant fluorescence under the printed DNA spots that is spot localized. Thus, traditional background subtraction methods used with data collected from the current commercial microarray scanners will lead to errors in determining the relative expression of low-expressed genes. With the new scanner and MCR analysis, we generate relative concentration maps of the background, impurity, and fluorescent labels over the entire image. Since the concentration maps of the fluorescent labels are relatively unaffected by the presence of background and impurity emissions, the accuracy and useful dynamic range of the gene expression data are both greatly improved over those obtained by commercial microarray scanners.

  5. Chromosomal imbalances in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor detected by metaphase and microarray comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yasuko; Yoshida, Aki; Numoto, Kunihiko; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Wai, Daniel; Ohata, Norihide; Takeda, Ken; Kawai, Akira; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2006-02-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly malignant tumors affecting adolescents and adults. There have been a few reports on chromosomal aberrations of MPNSTs; however, the tumor-specific alteration remains unknown. We characterized the genomic alterations in 8 MPNSTs and 8 schwannomas by metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In 5 of 8 MPNSTs, microarray CGH was added for more detailed analyses. Frequent gains were identified on 3q13-26, 5p13-14, and 12q11-23 and frequent losses were at 1p31, 10p, 11q24-qter, 16, and 17. Microarray CGH revealed frequent gains of EGFR, DAB2, MSH2, KCNK12, DDX15, CDK6, and LAMA3, and losses of CDH1, GLTSCR2, EGR1, CTSB, GATA3, and SULT2A1. These genes seem to be responsible for developing MPNSTs. The concordance rate between metaphase CGH and microarray CGH was 66%. Metaphase CGH was useful for identifying chromosomal alterations before applying microarray CGH. PMID:16391845

  6. Modulation of gene expression in Leishmania drug resistant mutants as determined by targeted DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Chantal; Trudel, Nathalie; Brochu, Christian; Marquis, Nathalie; Fadili, Amal El; Peytavi, Régis; Briand, Guylaine; Richard, Dave; Messier, Nadine; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Corbeil, Jacques; Bergeron, Michel G.; Légaré, Danielle; Ouellette, Marc

    2003-01-01

    In the protozoan parasite Leishmania, drug resistance can be a complex phenomenon. Several metabolic pathways and membrane transporters are implicated in the resistance phenotype. To monitor the expression of these genes, we generated custom DNA microarrays with PCR fragments corresponding to 44 genes involved with drug resistance. Transcript profiling of arsenite and antimony resistant mutants with these arrays pinpointed a number of genes overexpressed in mutants, including the ABC transporter PGPA, the glutathione biosynthesis genes γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) and the glutathione synthetase (GSH2). Competitive hybridisations with total RNA derived from sensitive and methotrexate resistant cells revealed the overexpression of genes coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-TS), pteridine reductase (PTR1) and S-adenosylmethionine synthase (MAT2) and a down regulation of one gene of the folate transporter (FT) family. By labelling the DNA of sensitive and resistant parasites we could also detect several gene amplification events using DNA microarrays including the amplification of the S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase gene (SAHH). Alteration in gene expression detected by microarrays was validated by northern blot analysis, while Southern blots indicated that most genes overexpressed were also amplified, although other mechanisms were also present. The microarrays were useful in the study of resistant parasites to pinpoint several genes linked to drug resistance. PMID:14530437

  7. An equipment-free polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic spotter for fabrication of microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Teng; Li, Gang; Jia, Chunping; Gao, Kunpeng; Zhao, Jianlong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost, power-free, and easy-to-use spotter system for fabrication of microarrays. The spotter system uses embedded dispensing microchannels combined with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane containing regular arrays of well-defined thru-holes to produce precise, uniform DNA or protein microarrays for disease diagnosis or drug screening. Powered by pre-evacuation of its PDMS substrate, the spotter system does not require any additional components or external equipment for its operation, which can potentially allow low-cost, high-quality microarray fabrication by minimally trained individuals. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used to modify the PDMS surface to prevent protein adsorption by the microchannels. Experimental results indicate that the PDMS spotter shows excellent printing performance for immobilizing proteins. The measured coefficient of variation (CV) of the diameter of 48 spots was 2.63% and that of the intensity within one array was 2.87%. Concentration gradient experiments revealed the superiority of the immobilization density of the PDMS spotter over the conventional pin-printing method. Overall, this low-cost, power-free, and easy-to-use spotting system provides an attractive new method to fabricate microarrays. PMID:24803969

  8. Microarray and KOG analysis of Acanthamoeba healyi genes up-regulated by mouse-brain passage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Xuan, Ying-Hua; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2014-08-01

    Long-term cultivation in a laboratory could reduce the virulence of Acanthamoeba. To identify virulence factors of Acanthamoeba, the authors compared the transcription profiles of long-term cultivated Acanthamoeba healyi (OLD) and three times mouse-brain passaged A. healyi (MBP) using microarray analysis and eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments. Microarray analysis revealed that 601 genes were up-regulated by mouse-brain passage. The results of real-time PCR of 8 randomly selected genes up-regulated in the MBP strain confirmed microarray analysis findings. KOG assignments showed relatively higher percentages of the MBP strain up-regulated genes in T article (signal transduction mechanism), O article (posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones), C article (energy production and conversion), and J article (translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis). In particular, the MBP strain showed higher expressions of cysteine protease and metalloprotease. A comparison of KOG assignments by microarray analysis and previous EST (expressed sequence tags) analysis showed similar populations of up-regulated genes. These results provide important information regarding the identification of virulence factors of pathogenic Acanthamoeba. PMID:24859526

  9. Identification of significant features in DNA microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Bair, Eric

    2013-01-01

    DNA microarrays are a relatively new technology that can simultaneously measure the expression level of thousands of genes. They have become an important tool for a wide variety of biological experiments. One of the most common goals of DNA microarray experiments is to identify genes associated with biological processes of interest. Conventional statistical tests often produce poor results when applied to microarray data owing to small sample sizes, noisy data, and correlation among the expression levels of the genes. Thus, novel statistical methods are needed to identify significant genes in DNA microarray experiments. This article discusses the challenges inherent in DNA microarray analysis and describes a series of statistical techniques that can be used to overcome these challenges. The problem of multiple hypothesis testing and its relation to microarray studies are also considered, along with several possible solutions. PMID:24244802

  10. High-throughput allogeneic antibody detection using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jed; Sahaf, Bita; Perloff, Spenser; Schoenrock, Kelsi; Wu, Fang; Nakasone, Hideki; Coller, John; Miklos, David

    2016-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have traditionally been used to detect alloantibodies in patient plasma samples post hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); however, protein microarrays have the potential to be multiplexed, more sensitive, and higher throughput than ELISAs. Here, we describe the development of a novel and sensitive microarray method for detection of allogeneic antibodies against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded on the Y chromosome, called HY antigens. Six microarray surfaces were tested for their ability to bind recombinant protein and peptide HY antigens. Significant allogeneic immune responses were determined in male patients with female donors by considering normal male donor responses as baseline. HY microarray results were also compared with our previous ELISA results. Our overall goal was to maximize antibody detection for both recombinant protein and peptide epitopes. For detection of HY antigens, the Epoxy (Schott) protein microarray surface was both most sensitive and reliable and has become the standard surface in our microarray platform. PMID:26902899

  11. A novel multifunctional oligonucleotide microarray for Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microarrays are invaluable tools for genome interrogation, SNP detection, and expression analysis, among other applications. Such broad capabilities would be of value to many pathogen research communities, although the development and use of genome-scale microarrays is often a costly undertaking. Therefore, effective methods for reducing unnecessary probes while maintaining or expanding functionality would be relevant to many investigators. Results Taking advantage of available genome sequences and annotation for Toxoplasma gondii (a pathogenic parasite responsible for illness in immunocompromised individuals) and Plasmodium falciparum (a related parasite responsible for severe human malaria), we designed a single oligonucleotide microarray capable of supporting a wide range of applications at relatively low cost, including genome-wide expression profiling for Toxoplasma, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotyping of both T. gondii and P. falciparum. Expression profiling of the three clonotypic lineages dominating T. gondii populations in North America and Europe provides a first comprehensive view of the parasite transcriptome, revealing that ~49% of all annotated genes are expressed in parasite tachyzoites (the acutely lytic stage responsible for pathogenesis) and 26% of genes are differentially expressed among strains. A novel design utilizing few probes provided high confidence genotyping, used here to resolve recombination points in the clonal progeny of sexual crosses. Recent sequencing of additional T. gondii isolates identifies >620 K new SNPs, including ~11 K that intersect with expression profiling probes, yielding additional markers for genotyping studies, and further validating the utility of a combined expression profiling/genotyping array design. Additional applications facilitating SNP and transcript discovery, alternative statistical methods for quantifying gene expression, etc. are also pursued at pilot scale to inform

  12. Prenatal chromosomal microarray for the Catholic physician

    PubMed Central

    Bringman, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal chromosomal microarray (CMA) is a test that is used to diagnose certain genetic problems in the fetus. While the test has been used in the pediatric setting for several years, it is now being introduced for use in the prenatal setting. The test offers great hope for detection of certain genetic defects in the fetus so that early intervention can be performed to improve the outcome for that individual. As with many biotechnical advances, CMA comes with certain bioethical issues that need to be addressed prior to its implementation. This paper is intended to provide guidance to all those that provide counseling regarding genetic testing options during pregnancy. PMID:24899750

  13. Protein Microarrays--Without a Trace

    SciTech Connect

    Camarero, J A

    2007-04-05

    Many experimental approaches in biology and biophysics, as well as applications in diagnosis and drug discovery, require proteins to be immobilized on solid supports. Protein microarrays, for example, provide a high-throughput format to study biomolecular interactions. The technique employed for protein immobilization is a key to the success of these applications. Recent biochemical developments are allowing, for the first time, the selective and traceless immobilization of proteins generated by cell-free systems without the need for purification and/or reconcentration prior to the immobilization step.

  14. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  15. Determination of NAT2 acetylation status in the Greenlandic population.

    PubMed

    Geller, Frank; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders; Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Birch, Emilie; Nordholm, Anne Christine; Johansen, Marie Mila Broby; Børresen, Malene Landbo; Feenstra, Bjarke; Melbye, Mads

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a well-studied phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme relevant in drug metabolism and cancerogenesis. NAT2 activity is largely determined by genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of the corresponding gene. We investigated NAT2 acetylation status in 1556 individuals from Greenland based on four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels and the tagging SNP rs1495741. There was good concordance between the NAT2 status inferred by the different SNP combinations. Overall, the fraction of slow acetylators was low with 17.5 % and varied depending on the degree of Inuit ancestry; in individuals with <50 % Inuit ancestry, we observed more than 25 % slow acetylators reflecting European ancestry. Greenland has a high incidence of tuberculosis, and individual dosing of isoniazid according to NAT2 status has been shown to improve treatment and reduce side effects. Our findings could be a first step in pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Greenland. PMID:25794903

  16. Synthetic biology for engineering acetyl coenzyme A metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The use of this cell factory for cost-efficient production of novel fuels and chemicals requires high yields and low by-product production. Many industrially interesting chemicals are biosynthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which serves as a central precursor metabolite in yeast. To ensure high yields in production of these chemicals, it is necessary to engineer the central carbon metabolism so that ethanol production is minimized (or eliminated) and acetyl-CoA can be formed from glucose in high yield. Here the perspective of generating yeast platform strains that have such properties is discussed in the context of a major breakthrough with expression of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol. PMID:25370498

  17. Refractive index change detection based on porous silicon microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weirong; Jia, Zhenhong; Li, Peng; Lv, Guodong; Lv, Xiaoyi

    2016-05-01

    By combining photolithography with the electrochemical anodization method, a microarray device of porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal was fabricated on the crystalline silicon substrate. The optical properties of the microarray were analyzed with the transfer matrix method. The relationship between refractive index and reflectivity of each array element of the microarray at 633 nm was also studied, and the array surface reflectivity changes were observed through digital imaging. By means of the reflectivity measurement method, reflectivity changes below 10-3 can be observed based on PS microarray. The results of this study can be applied to the detection of biosensor arrays.

  18. Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.; Bollinger, Nikki

    2005-10-31

    Protein microarrays are a rapidly developing analytic tool with diverse applications in biomedical research. These applications include profiling of disease markers or autoimmune responses, understanding molecular pathways, protein modifications and protein activities. One factor that is driving this expanding usage is the wide variety of experimental formats that protein microarrays can take. In this review, we provide a short, conceptual overview of the different approaches for protein microarray. We then examine some of the most significant applications of these microarrays to date, with an emphasis on how global protein analyses can be used to facilitate biomedical research.

  19. Synthesis of polyrotaxanes from acetyl-β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, I. S.; Nikolić, L.; Nikolić, V.; Ilić, D.; Budinski-Simendić, J.

    2011-12-01

    Polyrotaxanes are intermediary products in the synthesis of topological gels. They are created by inclusion complex formation of hydrophobic linear macromolecules with cyclodextrins or their derivatives. Then, pairs of cyclodextrin molecules with covalently linkage were practically forming the nodes of the semi-flexible polymer network. Such gels are called topological gels and they can absorb huge quantities of water due to the net flexibility allowing the poly(ethylene oxide) chains to slide through the cyclodextrin cavities, without being pulled out altogether. For polyrotaxane formation poly(ethylene oxide) was used like linear macromolecules. There are hydroxyl groups at poly(ethylene oxide) chains, whereby the linking of the voluminous molecules should be made. To avoid the reaction of cyclodextrin OH groups with stoppers, they should be protected by, e.g., acetylation. In this work, the acetylation of the OH groups of β-cyclodextrin was performed by acetic acid anhydride with iodine as the catalyst. The acetylation reaction was assessed by the FTIR and HPLC method. By the HPLC analysis was found that the acetylation was completed in 20 minutes. Inserting of poly(ethylene oxide) with 4000 g/mol molecule mass into acetyl-β-cyclodextrin with 2:1 poly(ethylene oxide) monomer unit to acetyl-β-cyclodextrin ratio was also monitored by FTIR, and it was found that the process was completed in 12 h at the temperature of 10°C. If the process is performed at temperatures above 10°C, or for periods longer than 12 hours, the process of uncontrolled hydrolysis of acetate groups was initiated.

  20. Interaction of RNA polymerase II with acetylated nucleosomal core particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pineiro, M.; Gonzalez, P.J.; Hernandez, F.; Palacian, E. )

    1991-05-31

    Chemical acetylation of nucleosomal cores is accompanied by an increase in their efficiency as in vitro transcription templates. Low amounts of acetic anhydride cause preferential modification of the amino-terminal tails of core histones. Modification of these domains, which causes moderate structural effects, is apparently correlated with the observed stimulation of RNA synthesis. In contrast, extensive modification of the globular regions of core histones, which is accompanied by a large structural relaxation of the particle, causes little additional effect on transcription. Acetylation of the amino-terminal domains of histones might stimulate transcription by changing the interaction of the histone tails with components of the transcriptional machinery.

  1. Histone acetylation: a switch between repressive and permissive chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Eberharter, Anton; Becker, Peter B.

    2002-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic chromatin has a major impact on all nuclear processes involving DNA substrates. Gene expression is affected by the positioning of individual nucleosomes relative to regulatory sequence elements, by the folding of the nucleosomal fiber into higher-order structures and by the compartmentalization of functional domains within the nucleus. Because site-specific acetylation of nucleosomal histones influences all three aspects of chromatin organization, it is central to the switch between permissive and repressive chromatin structure. The targeting of enzymes that modulate the histone acetylation status of chromatin, in synergy with the effects mediated by other chromatin remodeling factors, is central to gene regulation. PMID:11882541

  2. Myofibril growth during cardiac hypertrophy is regulated through dual phosphorylation and acetylation of the actin capping protein CapZ.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Hsi; Warren, Chad M; Li, Jieli; McKinsey, Timothy A; Russell, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    The mechanotransduction signaling pathways initiated in heart muscle by increased mechanical loading are known to lead to long-term transcriptional changes and hypertrophy, but the rapid events for adaptation at the sarcomeric level are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that actin filament assembly during cardiomyocyte growth is regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of CapZβ1. In rapidly hypertrophying neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) stimulated by phenylephrine (PE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) of CapZβ1 revealed a shift toward more negative charge. Consistent with this, mass spectrometry identified CapZβ1 phosphorylation on serine-204 and acetylation on lysine-199, two residues which are near the actin binding surface of CapZβ1. Ectopic expression of dominant negative PKCɛ (dnPKCɛ) in NRVMs blunted the PE-induced increase in CapZ dynamics, as evidenced by the kinetic constant (Kfrap) of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and concomitantly reduced phosphorylation and acetylation of CapZβ1. Furthermore, inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increased lysine-199 acetylation on CapZβ1, which increased Kfrap of CapZ and stimulated actin dynamics. Finally, we show that PE treatment of NRVMs results in decreased binding of HDAC3 to myofibrils, suggesting a signal-dependent mechanism for the regulation of sarcomere-associated CapZβ1 acetylation. Taken together, this dual regulation through phosphorylation and acetylation of CapZβ1 provides a novel model for the regulation of myofibril growth during cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27185186

  3. Global Histone H4 Acetylation in the Olfactory Bulb of Lactating Rats with Different Patterns of Maternal Behavior.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Ivy Reichert Vital; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Dani, Caroline; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Giovenardi, Márcia

    2016-10-01

    In rats, variations in the levels of neuromodulatory molecules and in the expression of their receptors are observed during pregnancy and postpartum. These changes may contribute to the development and management of maternal behavior. The frequency of licking the pups is used to evaluate maternal care, having mothers with low licking (LL) and high licking (HL) frequencies. Previously, we found that HL had increased levels of transcriptional expression of the receptors for serotonin (HTR1a, HTR1b), estrogen (Erα), dopamine (D1a), and prolactin (Prlr) than LL in the olfactory bulb (OB); however, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unknown. Since evidences pointed out that epigenetic marks, which may alter gene expression, are modulated by environmental factors such as exercise, diet, maternal care, and xenobiotic exposure, our objective was to verify the acetylation levels of histone-H4 in the OB of LL and HL rats. Maternal behavior was studied for the first 7 postpartum days. LL (n = 4) and HL (n = 5) mothers were selected according to the behavior of licking their pups. Acetylation levels of histone-H4 were determined using the Global Histone-H4 Acetylation Assay Kit and expressed as ng/mg protein (mean ± SD). Analysis revealed that HL (278.36 ± 68.95) had increased H4 acetylation levels than LL (183.24 ± 73.05; p = 0.045). The enhanced expression of the previously studied receptors in the OB could be related, at least in part, to the hyperacetylation status of histone-H4 here observed. Afterward, the modulation of histone acetylation levels could exert a pivotal role through molecular mechanisms involved in the different patterns of maternal behavior. PMID:26620050

  4. Inferring genetic networks from microarray data.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Elebeoba Eni; Davidson, George S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2004-06-01

    In theory, it should be possible to infer realistic genetic networks from time series microarray data. In practice, however, network discovery has proved problematic. The three major challenges are: (1) inferring the network; (2) estimating the stability of the inferred network; and (3) making the network visually accessible to the user. Here we describe a method, tested on publicly available time series microarray data, which addresses these concerns. The inference of genetic networks from genome-wide experimental data is an important biological problem which has received much attention. Approaches to this problem have typically included application of clustering algorithms [6]; the use of Boolean networks [12, 1, 10]; the use of Bayesian networks [8, 11]; and the use of continuous models [21, 14, 19]. Overviews of the problem and general approaches to network inference can be found in [4, 3]. Our approach to network inference is similar to earlier methods in that we use both clustering and Boolean network inference. However, we have attempted to extend the process to better serve the end-user, the biologist. In particular, we have incorporated a system to assess the reliability of our network, and we have developed tools which allow interactive visualization of the proposed network.

  5. Enzyme Microarrays Assembled by Acoustic Dispensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wong, E. Y.; Diamond, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Miniaturizing bioassays to the nanoliter scale for high-throughput screening reduces the consumption of reagents that are expensive or difficult to handle. Utilizing acoustic dispensing technology, nanodroplets containing 10 µM ATP (3 µCi/µL 32P) and reaction buffer in 10% glycerol were positionally dispensed to the surface of glass slides to form 40 nL compartments (100 droplets/slide) for Pim1 (Proviral integration site 1) kinase reactions. The reactions were activated by dispensing 4 nL of various levels of a pyridocarbazolo-cyclopentadienyl ruthenium-complex Pim1 inhibitor, followed by dispensing 4 nL of a Pim1 kinase and peptide substrate solution to achieve final concentrations of 150 nM enzyme and 10 µM substrate. The microarray was incubated at 30°C (97% Rh) for 1.5 hr. The spots were then blotted to phosphocellulose membranes to capture phosphorylated substrate. Using phosphor imaging to quantify the washed membranes, the assay showed that, for doses of inhibitor from 0.75 µM to 3 µM, Pim1 was increasingly inhibited. Signal-to-background ratios were as high as 165 and average coefficients of variation (CVs) for the assay were ~20%. CVs for dispensing typical working buffers were under 5%. Thus, microarrays assembled by acoustic dispensing are promising as cost-effective tools that can be used in protein assay development. PMID:18616925

  6. Laser direct writing of biomolecule microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, P.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Berthet, F. X.; Colina, M.; Elvira, J.; Morenza, J. L.

    Protein-based biosensors are highly efficient tools for protein detection and identification. The production of these devices requires the manipulation of tiny amounts of protein solutions in conditions preserving their biological properties. In this work, laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) was used for spotting an array of a purified bacterial antigen in order to check the viability of this technique for the production of protein microarrays. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam (355 nm wavelength, 10 ns pulse duration) was used to transfer droplets of a solution containing the Treponema pallidum 17 kDa protein antigen on a glass slide. Optical microscopy showed that a regular array of micrometric droplets could be precisely and uniformly spotted onto a solid substrate. Subsequently, it was proved that LIFT deposition of a T. pallidum 17 kDa antigen onto nylon-coated glass slides preserves its antigenic reactivity and diagnostic properties. These results support that LIFT is suitable for the production of protein microarrays and pave the way for future diagnostics applications.

  7. Segmentation of prostate cancer tissue microarray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Harvey E.; Can, Ali; Padfield, Dirk

    2006-02-01

    Prostate cancer is diagnosed by histopathology interpretation of hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)-stained tissue sections. Gland and nuclei distributions vary with the disease grade. The morphological features vary with the advance of cancer where the epithelial regions grow into the stroma. An efficient pathology slide image analysis method involved using a tissue microarray with known disease stages. Digital 24-bit RGB images were acquired for each tissue element on the slide with both 10X and 40X objectives. Initial segmentation at low magnification was accomplished using prior spectral characteristics from a training tissue set composed of four tissue clusters; namely, glands, epithelia, stroma and nuclei. The segmentation method was automated by using the training RGB values as an initial guess and iterating the averaging process 10 times to find the four cluster centers. Labels were assigned to the nearest cluster center in red-blue spectral feature space. An automatic threshold algorithm separated the glands from the tissue. A visual pseudo color representation of 60 segmented tissue microarray image was generated where white, pink, red, blue colors represent glands, epithelia, stroma and nuclei, respectively. The higher magnification images provided refined nuclei morphology. The nuclei were detected with a RGB color space principle component analysis that resulted in a grey scale image. The shape metrics such as compactness, elongation, minimum and maximum diameters were calculated based on the eigenvalues of the best-fitting ellipses to the nuclei.

  8. Mining microarray expression data by literature profiling

    PubMed Central

    Chaussabel, Damien; Sher, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Background The rapidly expanding fields of genomics and proteomics have prompted the development of computational methods for managing, analyzing and visualizing expression data derived from microarray screening. Nevertheless, the lack of efficient techniques for assessing the biological implications of gene-expression data remains an important obstacle in exploiting this information. Results To address this need, we have developed a mining technique based on the analysis of literature profiles generated by extracting the fre