Sample records for acetylene reduction assays

  1. Acetylene, Not Ethylene, Inactivates the Uptake Hydrogenase of Actinorhizal Nodules during Acetylene Reduction Assays 1

    PubMed Central

    Sellstedt, Anita; Winship, Lawrence J.

    1990-01-01

    Acetylene reduction assays were shown to inactivate uptake hydrogenase activity to different extents in one Casuarina and two Alnus symbioses. Inactivation was found to be caused by C2H2 and not by C2H4. Acetylene completely inactivated the hydrogenase activity of intact root systems of Alnus incana inoculated with Frankia strain Avcl1 in 90 minutes, as shown by a drop in the relative efficiency of nitrogenase from 1.0 to 0.73. The hydrogenase of Frankia preparations (containing vesicles) and of cell-free extracts (not containing vesicles) from the same symbiosis was much more susceptible to acetylene inactivation. Cell-free extracts lost all hydrogenase activity after 5 minutes of exposure to acetylene. The hydrogenase activity of intact root systems of Casuarina obesa was less sensitive to acetylene than that of root systems of A. incana, since the relative efficiency of nitrogenase changed only from 1.0 to 0.95 over 90 minutes. Frankia preparations and cell-free extracts of C. obesa still retained hydrogenase activity after a 10 minute-exposure to acetylene. PMID:16667724

  2. Acetylene, Not Ethylene, Inactivates the Uptake Hydrogenase of Actinorhizal Nodules during Acetylene Reduction Assays.

    PubMed

    Sellstedt, A; Winship, L J

    1990-09-01

    Acetylene reduction assays were shown to inactivate uptake hydrogenase activity to different extents in one Casuarina and two Alnus symbioses. Inactivation was found to be caused by C(2)H(2) and not by C(2)H(4). Acetylene completely inactivated the hydrogenase activity of intact root systems of Alnus incana inoculated with Frankia strain Avcl1 in 90 minutes, as shown by a drop in the relative efficiency of nitrogenase from 1.0 to 0.73. The hydrogenase of Frankia preparations (containing vesicles) and of cell-free extracts (not containing vesicles) from the same symbiosis was much more susceptible to acetylene inactivation. Cell-free extracts lost all hydrogenase activity after 5 minutes of exposure to acetylene. The hydrogenase activity of intact root systems of Casuarina obesa was less sensitive to acetylene than that of root systems of A. incana, since the relative efficiency of nitrogenase changed only from 1.0 to 0.95 over 90 minutes. Frankia preparations and cell-free extracts of C. obesa still retained hydrogenase activity after a 10 minute-exposure to acetylene. PMID:16667724

  3. Acetylene inhibition of nitrous oxide reduction by denitrifying bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yoshinari; R. Knowles

    1976-01-01

    Acetylene (0.1 atm) caused complete or almost complete inhibition of reduction of NâO by whole cell suspensions of Pseudomonas perfectomarinus, P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus denitrificans. Acetylene did not inhibit reduction of NOâ⁻ or NOâ⁻ by these organisms. In the presence of acetylene there was stoichiometric conversion of NOâ⁻ or NOâ⁻ to NâO with negligible subsequent reduction of the latter. In

  4. Effect of polynuclear hydrocarbons on algal nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction)

    SciTech Connect

    Bastian, M.V.; Toetz, D.W.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on N/sub 2/ fixation by the alga, Anabaena flos-aquea. The reduction of acetylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 2/) to ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) was measured as a measure of the capacity of an organism to fix atmospheric N/sub 2/ and reduce it to an assimilable form. The primary advantage of this assay is its speed since chemical exposure and quantitative chromatographic analysis can be completed in a few hours.

  5. Comparison of N2 Fixation and Yields in Cajanus cajan between Hydrogenase-Positive and Hydrogenase-Negative Rhizobia by In Situ Acetylene Reduction Assays and Direct 15N Partitioning 1

    PubMed Central

    La Favre, Jeffrey S.; Focht, Dennis D.

    1983-01-01

    Pigeon peas [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] were grown in soil columns containing 15N-enriched organic matter. Seasonal N2 fixation activity was determined by periodically assaying plants for reduction of C2H2. N2 fixation rose sharply from the first assay period at 51 days after planting to a peak of activity between floral initiation and fruit set. N2 fixation (acetylene reduction) activity dropped concomitantly with pod maturation but recovered after pod harvests. Analysis of 15N content of plant shoots revealed that approximately 91 to 94% of plant N was derived from N2 fixation. The effect of inoculation with hydrogenase-positive and hydrogenase-negative rhizobia was examined. Pigeon peas inoculated with strain P132 (hydrogenase-positive) yielded significantly more total shoot N than other inoculated or uninoculated treatments. However, two other hydrogenase-positive strains did not yield significantly more total shoot N than a hydrogenase-negative strain. The extent of nodulation by inoculum strains compared to indigenous rhizobia was determined by typing nodules according to intrinsic antibiotic resistance of the inoculum strains. The inoculum strains were detected in almost all typed nodules of inoculated plants. Gas samples were taken from soil columns several times during the growth cycle of the plants. H2 was never detected, even in columns containing pigeon peas inoculated with hydrogenase-negative rhizobia. This was attributed to H2 consumption by soil bacteria. Estimation of N2 fixation by acetylene reduction activity was closest to the direct 15N method when ethylene concentrations in the gas headspace (between the column lid and soil surface) were extrapolated to include the soil pore space as opposed solely to measurement in the headspace. There was an 8-fold difference between the two acetylene reduction assay methods of estimation. Based on a planting density of 15,000 plants per hectare, the direct 15N fixation rates ranged from 67 (noninoculated) to 134 kilograms per hectare, while grain yields ranged from 540 to 825 kilograms per hectare. Grain yields were not increased with N fertilizer. PMID:16663148

  6. ACETYLENE REDUCTIO'N (NITROGEN FIXATION) IN WISCONSIN LAKES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dondd Rusness; R. N. Burris

    Acetylene reduction has been used as an index of the nitrogen-fixing capacity of the phytoplankton of rcprcscntative oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes in Wisconsin. Acetylene reduction was not measurable in samples from oligotrophic Crystal Lake but was vigorous in samples from eutrophicatecl lakes. The activity during the season fluctuated widely with the dcvclopment of blooms of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae; no activity

  7. Immediate Acetylene Reduction by Excised Grass Roots Not Previously Preincubated at Low Oxygen Tensions 1

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, Peter; Sloger, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Excised roots of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. and corn reduced acetylene in air without the previously reported period of zero activity lasting 8 to 18 hours. The profiles of acetylene-dependent ethylene accumulation by excised roots and intact plants of S. alterniflora were similar. No significant change in the number of bacteria associated with the roots was detectable during the assay. Most of the nitrogenase activity was detected in the roots and rhizomes of the plants. The salt marsh sediment also was capable of reducing acetylene. Additional damage to roots by washing and cutting increased the rate of acetylene reduction with samples incubated in air. Low concentrations of nitrate significantly inhibited the nitrogenase activity associated with the sediment and excised roots, but not with intact plants. Rates of acetylene reduction by excised corn roots were low. Oxidation and endogenous production of ethylene in the absence of acetylene were negligible. Measurements made with excised grass roots as described probably reflect the occurrence and magnitude of nitrogenase activity associated with the plants in the field. PMID:16661045

  8. Nitrogen Fixation (Acetylene Reduction) by Epiphytes of Freshwater Macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Linda R.; Seeley, H. W.

    1978-01-01

    The involvement of epiphytic microorganisms in nitrogen fixation was investigated in a shallow freshwater pond near Ithaca, N.Y. The acetylene reduction technique was used to follow diel and seasonal cycles of nitrogen fixation by epiphytes of Myriophyllum spicatum. Acetylene-reducing activity was maximal between noon and 6 p.m., but substantial levels of activity relative to daytime rates continued through the night. Experiments with the seasonal course of activity showed a gradual decline during the autumn months and no activity in January or February. Activity commenced in May, with an abrupt increase to levels between 0.45 and 0.95 nmol of ethylene formed per mg (dry weight) of plant per h. Through most of the summer months, mean rates of acetylene reduction remained between 0.15 and 0.60 nmol/mg (dry weight) per h. It was calculated from diel and seasonal cycles that, in the pond areas studied, epiphytes were capable of adding from 7.5 to 12.5 ?g of N per mg of plant per year to the pond. This amount is significant relative to the total amount of nitrogen incorporated into the plant. Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), particularly Gloeotrichia, appeared to bear prime responsibility for nitrogen fixation, but photosynthetic bacteria of the genus Rhodopseudomonas were isolated from M. spicatum and shown to support high rates of acetylene reduction. PMID:16345301

  9. Nitrogen-fixation associated with the marine blue-green alga, Trichodesmium , as measured by the acetylene-reduction technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barrie F. Taylor; Chun C. Lee; John S. Bunt

    1973-01-01

    The marine blue-green alga, Trichodesmium, was collected from the Gulf Stream, near Miami, and occurred in two distinct colonial forms both of which reduced acetylene to ethylene. Trichodesmium was more abundant during the summer but its acetylene-reducing potential showed no obvious seasonal variation. Illuminated Trichodesmium reduced acetylene to ethylene equally well either anaerobically or aerobically (20% oxygen). Acetylene-reduction in the

  10. Platinum decorated functionalized defective acetylene black; a promising cathode material for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Badam, Rajashekar; Vedarajan, Raman; Matsumi, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    A novel single-pot method to exfoliate and functionalize acetylene black is proposed. The deliberate functionalization was found to enhance the intrinsic oxygen reduction efficiency along with the nucleation and growth of platinum nano-particles on the surface. The resulting material showed enormously high oxygen reduction reactivity compared to its commercial counterparts. PMID:25989967

  11. Time Course of Acetylene Reduction in Nodules of Five Actinorhizal Genera 1

    PubMed Central

    Tjepkema, John D.; Schwintzer, Christa R.; Monz, Christopher A.

    1988-01-01

    The rate of acetylene reduction was measured as a function of time after addition of 10% acetylene in Alnus, Casuarina, Ceanothus, Datisca, and Myrica. The maximum rate occurred after 45 to 60 seconds and was maintained for an additional 0.5 to 4 minutes before a decline in rate to 30 to 90% of the maximum. The rate then recovered to a value of 63 to 98% of the maximum. Removal of the shoot and lower roots did not affect nodule activity. PMID:16665949

  12. Application of the photoacoustic method to the measurement of acetylene reduction by nitrogenase enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; Carneiro, L. O.; Franco, A. A.; Campos, A. C.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Nitrogenase is an enzyme responsible for the reduction of the atmospheric N2 into NH4^+, which represents the key entry point of the molecular nitrogen into the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen. This enzyme is present in the rhizobial bacteroids, which are symbionts in a Leguminosae plant (Acacia Holosericea), and also reduces acetylene into ethylene at the same rate as the nitrogen reduction. Therefore, a CO2 Laser Photoacoustic system was used for detecting and monitoring the ethylene emission by the nitrogenase activity, in the rhizobial symbionts in Acacia Holosericea, when they are confined in test tubes with acetylene at two different volumes (0.1 and 0.5 ml). Ethylene concentrations are also determined in the ppm range.

  13. Growth and acetylene reduction activity by intact plants of Alnus incana under field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Huss-Danell; Per-Olof Lundquist; Alf Ekblad

    1989-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing grey alder,Alnus incana (L.) Moench, has a potential use in forest soil restoration and as part of energy forestry plantations. As a first step to estimate nitrogen fixation byA. incana under field conditions we performed studies on nitrogenase activity and its possible relation to abiotic factors and growth of the alders. Nitrogenase activity was measured as acetylene reduction

  14. The effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth and nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by subterranean clover and pearl millet 

    E-print Network

    Sherrod, Carole Cay

    1983-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE ON GROWTH AND NITROGEN FIXATION (ACETYLENE REDUCTION) BY SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER AND PEARL MILLET A Thesis by GARGLE CAY SHERROD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Ma3or Sub5ect: Agronomy THE EFFECT OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE ON GRONTH AND NITROGEN FIXATION (ACETYLENE REDUCTION) BY SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER AND PEARL MILLET A Thesis...

  15. High rates of nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) on coral skeletons following bleaching mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, M.; Holmes, G.; Johnstone, R.

    2008-03-01

    Nubbins of the coral Acropora aspera were artificially bleached and nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) rates were measured on the developing epilithic communities. Seasonal comparisons were made between corals that died in summer of heat stress and corals that died in winter from natural cold stress. Rates of acetylene reduction from artificially bleached corals peaked at 26.66 nmol cm-2 h-1 2 weeks after summer mortality, while rates from natural winter mortality peaked at 18.07 nmol cm-2 h-1 12 days after coral death. Comparative rates of acetylene reduction taken from live corals and coral rubble ranged between 0.56 and 1.16 nmol cm-2 h-1, and 0.15 and 12.77 nmol cm-2 h-1, respectively. N2-fixation rates from dead corals were up to 30 times greater than those measured on live corals. The observed increase in N2-fixation from dead corals may increase the availability of nitrogen for use in trophic processes within the reef for an extended period following the initial mortality event. If the spatial scale over which coral mortality has occurred in past thermal bleaching events is considered the ramifications of such an increase may be substantial.

  16. Acetylene reduction, H2 evolution and (15)N 2 fixation in the Alnus incana-Frankia symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Sellstedt, A

    1986-03-01

    Acetylene reduction, (15)N2 reduction and H2 evolution were measured in root systems of intact plants of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) in symbiosis with Frankia. The ratios of C2H2: (15)N2 were compared with C2H2:N2 ratios calculated from C2H2 reduction and H2 evolution, and with C2H2:N2 ratios calculated from accumulated C2H4 production and nitrogen content. It was possible to calculate C2H2:N2 ratios from C2H2 reduction and H2 evolution because this source of Frankia did not show any hydrogenase activity. The ratios obtained using the different methods ranged from 2.72 to 4.42, but these values were not significantly different. It was also shown that enriched (15)N could be detected in the shoot after a 1-h incubation of the root-system. It is concluded that the measurement of H2 evolution in combination with C2H2 reduction represents a nondestructive assay for nitrogen fixation in a Frankia symbiosis which shows no detectable hydrogenase activity. PMID:24240308

  17. Reduction of Acetylene and Hydrazine with a Molybdenum-Glutathione Complex

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Dietrich; Russell, Sterling A.; Evans, Harold J.

    1973-01-01

    Crystalline preparations of a molybdenum-glutathione complex catalyze the reduction of acetylene to ethylene in the presence of borohydride. The reaction proceeds at rates up to 6 mol of C2H2 produced per min per mol of bound Mo, which is 4% of the activity of a quantity of nitrogenase with an equivalent amount of Mo. The activity of the complex is enhanced 100-fold by ATP, but the addition of ADP has no effect. Stimulation in activity by GTP is about the same as that by ATP, and the effects of CTP or UTP are considerably less. Inhibition of acetylene-reduction activity by the addition of 32 mM orthophosphate was 14%, by 32 mM pyrophosphate 62%, by 0.2 atm of O2 65%, and by 0.5 atm of CO 12%; 0.5 atm of H2 had no effect. The molybdenum-glutathione complex also catalyzes the reduction of hydrazine to ammonia in a reaction that is dependent upon borohydride. The reaction is enhanced about 7-fold by ATP and proceeds at a rate of 2 mol of NH3 produced per min per mol of bound Mo. PMID:16592055

  18. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) associated with communities of heterocystous and non-heterocystous blue-green algae in mangrove forests of Sinai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Potts; Heinz Steinitz

    1979-01-01

    High rates of nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) are associated with communities of heterocystous and non-heterocystous blue-green algae, which are widespread and abundant in the coastal mangrove forests of the Sinai Peninsula.

  19. Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculant Mobility, Nodule Occupancy, and Acetylene Reduction in the Soybean Root System

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Timothy R.; Graham, Peter H.

    1989-01-01

    In the American Midwest, superior inoculant rhizobia applied to soybeans usually occupy only 5 to 20% of nodules, and response to inoculation is the exception rather than the rule. Attempts to overcome this problem have met with limited success. We evaluated the ability of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, supplied as a seed coat inoculant, to stay abreast of the infectible region of the developing soybean root system. The rhizoplane population of the inoculant strain declined with distance from site of placement, the decrease being more pronounced on lateral than on taproots. This decline was paralleled by a decrease in inoculant-strain nodule occupancy. Inoculant bradyrhizobia contributed little to nodulation of lateral roots, which at pod-fill accounted for more than 50% of nodule number and mass, and were major contributors to acetylene reduction activity. From these data, it appears that inoculant bradyrhizobia are competitive with indigenous soil strains at the point of placement in the soil but have limited mobility and so are incapable of sustaining high populations throughout the developing root system. The result is low nodule occupancy by the inoculant strain in the tapand lateral roots. Future studies should address aspects of inoculant placement and establishment. PMID:16348026

  20. Acetylene reduction, H 2 evolution and 15 N 2 fixation in the Alnus incana-Frankia symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sellstedt

    1986-01-01

    Acetylene reduction, 15N2 reduction and H2 evolution were measured in root systems of intact plants of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) in symbiosis with Frankia. The ratios of C2H2: 15N2 were compared with C2H2:N2 ratios calculated from C2H2 reduction and H2 evolution, and with C2H2:N2 ratios calculated from accumulated C2H4 production and nitrogen content. It was possible to calculate

  1. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Lan, C. B.; Chen, C. H.; Horng, H. E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H. C.; Lai, Y. K.; Lin, Y. H.; Teng, K. S.

    2009-10-01

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  2. Diel Interactions of Oxygenic Photosynthesis and N2 Fixation (Acetylene Reduction) in a Marine Microbial Mat Community

    PubMed Central

    Bebout, Brad M.; Paerl, Hans W.; Crocker, Kenneth M.; Prufert, Leslie E.

    1987-01-01

    Diel variations in N2 fixation (acetylene reduction), CO2 fixation, and oxygen concentrations were measured, on three separate occasions, in a marine microbial mat located on Shackleford Banks, North Carolina. Nitrogenase activity (NA) was found to be inversely correlated with CO2 fixation and, in two of the three diel periods studied, was higher at night than during the day. Oxygen concentrations within the top 3 mm of the mat ranged from 0 to 400 ?M on a diel cycle; anaerobic conditions generally persisted below 4 mm. NA in the mat was profoundly affected by naturally occurring oxygen concentrations. Experimentally elevated oxygen concentrations resulted in a significant depression of NA, whereas the addition of the Photosystem II inhibitor 3(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea decreased oxygen concentrations within the mat and resulted in a significant short-term enhancement of NA. Mat N2-fixing microorganisms include cyanobacteria and heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, and chemolithotrophic eubacteria. Measured (whole-mat) NA is probably due to a combination of the NA of each of these groups of organisms. The relative contributions of each group to whole-mat NA probably varied during diel and seasonal (successional) cycles. Reduced compounds derived from photosynthetic CO2 fixation appeared to be an important source of energy for NA during the day, whereas heterotrophic or chemolithotrophic utilization of reduced compounds appeared to be an important source of energy for NA at night, under reduced ambient oxygen concentrations. Previous estimates of N2 fixation calculated on the basis of daytime measurements may have seriously underestimated diel and seasonal nitrogen inputs in mat systems. PMID:16347456

  3. Examining the impact of acetylene on N-fixation and the active sediment microbial community.

    PubMed

    Fulweiler, Robinson W; Heiss, Elise M; Rogener, Mary Kate; Newell, Silvia E; LeCleir, Gary R; Kortebein, Sarah M; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Here we examined the impact of a commonly employed method used to measure nitrogen fixation, the acetylene reduction assay (ARA), on a marine sediment community. Historically, the ARA technique has been broadly employed for its ease of use, in spite of numerous known artifacts. To gauge the severity of these effects in a natural environment, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to detect differences in acetylene-treated sediments vs. non-treated control sediments after a 7 h incubation. Within this short time period, significant differences were seen across all activity of microbes identified in the sediment, implying that the changes induced by acetylene occur quickly. The results have important implications for our understanding of marine nitrogen budgets. Moreover, because the ARA technique has been widely used in terrestrial and freshwater habitats, these results may be applicable to other ecosystems. PMID:26029177

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathode contamination - Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Y.; St-Pierre, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Acetylene adsorption on PEMFC electrodes and contamination in single cells are investigated with 300 ppm acetylene at a cathode held at 80 °C. The results of adsorption experiments suggest that acetylene adsorbs readily on electrodes and is reduced to ethylene and ethane under an open circuit potential of H2/N2, as the adsorbates can be electro-oxidized at high potentials. The cell voltage response shows that 300 ppm acetylene results in a cell performance loss of approximately 88%. The voltage degradation curve is divided into two stages by an inflection point, which suggests that potential-dependent processes are involved in acetylene poisoning. These potential-dependent processes may include acetylene oxidation and reduction as well as accumulation of intermediates on the electrode surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis suggests that acetylene affects the oxygen reduction reaction and may also affect mass transport processes. Acetylene also may be reduced in the steady poisoning state of the operating cell. After neat air operation, the cyclic voltammetry results imply that the cathode catalyst surface is almost completely restored, with no contaminant residues remaining in the MEA. Linear scanning voltammetry measurements show no change in hydrogen crossover caused by contamination, and polarization curves confirm complete recovery of cell performance.

  5. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  6. Acylamidation of acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Gridnev, I.D.; Balenkova, E.S.

    1989-01-10

    The reactions of phenylacetylene, 1-heptyne, and diphenylacetylene with the complexes of acetylfluoroborate with acetonitrile and with chloroacetonitrile take place regiospecifically and stereospecifically as syn-addition of the acetyl group and nitrile at the triple bond of the acetylene and lead to previously unknown Z-N-acyl-/beta/-amino, /alpha/,/beta/-unsaturated ketones.

  7. Acetylene-Terminated Polyimide Siloxanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Maudgal, Shubba

    1987-01-01

    Siloxane-containing addition polyimides yield toughened high-temperature adhesives and matrix resins. Addition polyimide made by reaction of aromatic tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride with aromatic diamine in presence of ethynyl-substituted aromatic monoamine. Acetylene-terminated siloxane imide cured by heating to yield acetylene-terminated polyimide siloxane.

  8. Radioenzymatic assay for reductive catalysis of N(5)N(10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Sobti, P; Rothenberg, S P; Quadros, E V

    2000-11-20

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase catalyzes the reduction of N(5), N(10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate to N(5)-methyltetrahydrofolate. Because this substrate is unstable and dissociates spontaneously into formaldehyde and tetrahydrofolate, the customary method to assay the catalytic activity of this enzyme has been to measure the oxidation of [14C]N(5)-methyltetrahydrofolate to N(5), N(10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate and quantify the [14C]formaldehyde that dissociates from this product. This report describes a very sensitive radioenzymatic assay that measures directly the reductive catalysis of N(5),N(10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate. The radio-labeled substrate, [14C]N(5),N(10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate, is prepared by condensation of [C(14)]formaldehyde with tetrahydrofolate and the stability of this substrate is maintained for several months by storage at -80 degrees C in a pH 9.5 buffer. Partially purified methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from rat liver, incubated with the radio-labeled substrate and the cofactors, NADPH and FAD at pH 7. 5, generates [14C]N(5)-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is stable and partitions into the aqueous phase after the assay is terminated with dimedone and toluene. A K(m) value of 8.2 microM was obtained under conditions of increasing substrate concentration to ensure saturation kinetics. This method is simple, very sensitive and measures directly the reduction of N(5), N(10)-methylenetetrahydrofolate to N(5)-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is the physiologic catalytic pathway for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. PMID:11086190

  9. Research in acetylene containing monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogliaruso, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation of precursor bisbenzils with pendant acetylene linkages for use in the synthesis of new aromatic poly (phenyl quinoxalines) was investigated. Attempts to condense para, para prime-dibromo benzil and potassium acetylide in liquid ammonia and in toluene, to prepare 4-phenyl acetyl phenyl ether, 4-(paraacetylphenyl) acetyl phenyl ether, 4-phenyl acetyl-4 primeacetyl phenyl acetyl phenyl ether, the reaction of 4-phenyl acetyl phenyl ether with Villsmeier reagent to prepare 4-(beta-chloro cinnamaldehyde) phenyl ether, the reaction of 4-(para-acetyl phenyl) acetyl phenyl ether with Villsmeier reagent, and the oxidation of bibenzil to prepare benzil are described. The reactions of phenyl acetylene with oxidizing agent, of phenyl acetylene with bromine, of 1,1,2,2-tetrabromo ethyl benzene with zinc and with oxidizing agent are described.

  10. Resazurin reduction assay for ram sperm metabolic activity measured by spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Holyoak, G R; Panter, K E; Liu, Y; Evans, R C; Bunch, T D

    1998-02-01

    Resazurin (7-hydroxy-3H-phenoxazin-3-one 10-oxide) is a redox dye that can be reduced by metabolically active spermatozoa to resorufin and manifested as visual color change from blue (resazurin) to pink (resorufin). This study combined the resazurin reduction test with spectrophotometric methods and investigated the correlation between metabolic activity and fertilization potential of spermatozoa, using ram semen as a model. The absorbance at specific wavelengths of resazurin and resorufin was determined by scanning photo spectrometer (600 nm for resazurin and 570 nm for resorufin, respectively). The absorbance at wavelengths of 600 nm (A600) and 570 nm (A570) was measured by spectrophotometry and used to evaluate sperm metabolic activity. A600 decreased and A570 increased in relationship to the increased concentrations of motile spermatozoa and increased resazurin reaction times. We observed, upon using a retrospective experimental design, that fertile rams had greater relative absorbance values than rams with lower fertility. Also, we observed a wide range variation of absorbance between the fertile rams, which is highly correlated to the sperm motility. We conclude that the spectrophotometric measurement of resazurin reduction for sperm activity might be a good assay for ram fertility. PMID:9452144

  11. Acetylene terminated aspartimides and resins therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor); Connell, John W. (inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Acetylene terminated aspartimides are prepared using two methods. In the first, an amino-substituted aromatic acetylene is reacted with an aromatic bismaleimide in a solvent of glacial acetic acid and/or m-cresol. In the second method, an aromatic diamine is reacted with an ethynyl containing maleimide, such an N-(3-ethynyl phenyl) maleimide, in a solvent of glacial acetic acid and/or m-cresol. In addition, acetylene terminated aspartimides are blended with various acetylene terminated oligomers and polymers to yield composite materials exhibiting improved mechanical properties.

  12. Assessment of buffalo semen with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Aleem, M; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2010-03-01

    The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, which measures the reduction of MTT, is commonly used to validate the viability of metabolically active cells. This study was conducted to evaluate and validate the MTT assay to assess the spermatozoal viability of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and compare the efficiency of the test with the supravital staining technique (eosin and nigrosin) and the hypoosmotic swelling test. Fresh semen samples from breeding Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 25) were collected using an artificial vagina. After assessing the quality of the semen for routine variables, the MTT assay was carried out in PBS. Results revealed a correlation (r = 0.979; P < 0.001) between the viability of spermatozoa and the rate of reduction of MTT. The other proportions of same semen samples showed a poor relationship between the eosin and nigrosin test (r = -0.25), the hypoosmotic swelling test (r = -0.12), and motility (r = -0.15). However, the MTT assay was found to be superior compared with other tests because it was able to determine those spermatozoa that were more than 90% viable. In conclusion, the MTT assay is a simple, robust test that can be used to select Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls on the basis of spermatozoa quality. PMID:20023142

  13. Reduction of bias in neutron multiplicity assay using a weighted point model

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W. H. (William H.); Krick, M. S. (Merlyn S.); Mayo, D. R. (Douglas R.)

    2004-01-01

    Accurate assay of most common plutonium samples was the development goal for the nondestructive assay technique of neutron multiplicity counting. Over the past 20 years the technique has been proven for relatively pure oxides and small metal items. Unfortunately, the technique results in large biases when assaying large metal items. Limiting assumptions, such as unifoh multiplication, in the point model used to derive the multiplicity equations causes these biases for large dense items. A weighted point model has been developed to overcome some of the limitations in the standard point model. Weighting factors are detemiined from Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNPX code. Monte Carlo calculations give the dependence of the weighting factors on sample mass and geometry, and simulated assays using Monte Carlo give the theoretical accuracy of the weighted-point-model assay. Measured multiplicity data evaluated with both the standard and weighted point models are compared to reference values to give the experimental accuracy of the assay. Initial results show significant promise for the weighted point model in reducing or eliminating biases in the neutron multiplicity assay of metal items. The negative biases observed in the assay of plutonium metal samples are caused by variations in the neutron multiplication for neutrons originating in various locations in the sample. The bias depends on the mass and shape of the sample and depends on the amount and energy distribution of the ({alpha},n) neutrons in the sample. When the standard point model is used, this variable-multiplication bias overestimates the multiplication and alpha values of the sample, and underestimates the plutonium mass. The weighted point model potentially can provide assay accuracy of {approx}2% (1 {sigma}) for cylindrical plutonium metal samples < 4 kg with {alpha} < 1 without knowing the exact shape of the samples, provided that the ({alpha},n) source is uniformly distributed throughout the sample and has an average neutron energy close to the O({alpha},n) average neutron energy. Better assay results can be obtained if there is some knowledge of the plutonium geometry, because weighting factor curves can be calculated for any specified geometry.

  14. A quantitative assay for reductive metabolism of a pesticide in fish using electrochemistry coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Ke; Li, Weiming

    2015-04-01

    This is the first study to use electrochemistry to generate a nitro reduction metabolite as a standard for a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative assay. This approach is further used to quantify 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) reductive metabolism. TFM is a widely used pesticide for the population control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive species of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Three animal models, sea lamprey, lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were selected to evaluate TFM reductive metabolism because they have been known to show differential susceptibilities to TFM toxicity. Amino-TFM (aTFM; 3-trifluoromethyl-4-aminophenol) was the only reductive metabolite identified through liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry screening of liver extracts incubated with TFM and was targeted for electrochemical synthesis. After synthesis and purification, aTFM was used to develop a quantitative assay of the reductive metabolism of TFM through liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of aTFM were measured from TFM-treated cellular fractions, including cytosolic, nuclear, membrane, and mitochondrial protein extracts. Sea lamprey extracts produced the highest concentrations (500 ng/mL) of aTFM. In addition, sea lamprey and sturgeon cytosolic extracts showed concentrations of aTFM substantially higher than those of rainbow trout. However, other fractions of lake sturgeon extracts tend to show aTFM concentrations similar to those of rainbow trout but not with sea lamprey. These data suggest that the level of reductive metabolism of TFM may be associated with the sensitivities of the animals to this particular pesticide. PMID:25730707

  15. Reduction of Diagnostic Window by New Fourth-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Assays†

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernard; Mbargane Fall, El Hadji; Berger, Annemarie; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce the diagnostic window between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis, new screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) which permit the simultaneous detection of HIV antigen and antibody have been developed. Two fourth-generation assays, HIV DUO (Biomérieux) and HIV Combi (Boehringer Mannheim), for the combined detection of HIV antigen and antibody, were compared with a third-generation assay (HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus enzyme immunoassay [EIA]; Abbott) and a p24 antigen test (HIV-1 Ag monoclonal; Abbott). A total of 17 seroconversion panels, 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes, and 255 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested. Ten seroconversions were detected an average of 8.1 days earlier with HIV DUO and 7.5 days earlier with HIV Combi than with the third-generation ELISA. Overall, in the 17 seroconversion panels tested, HIV DUO detected HIV-1 infection an average of 4.8 days and HIV Combi detected infection an average of 4.4 days earlier than HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus EIA. HIV antigen was detected with HIV DUO and HIV Combi in all of the 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, including subtype O. With fourth-generation assays, considerably fewer false-positive results (n = 4 to 6) were obtained, in comparison with the third-generation EIA (n = 18). Fourth-generation assays permit an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than third-generation antibody screening assays through the detection of p24 antigen, which may be present in serum samples from individuals with recent HIV infection prior to seroconversion. PMID:9665998

  16. A high-performance liquid chromatography-based assay of glutathione transferase omega 1 supported by glutathione or non-physiological reductants.

    PubMed

    Németi, Balázs; Poór, Miklós; Gregus, Zoltán

    2015-01-15

    The unusual glutathione S-transferase GSTO1 reduces, rather than conjugates, endo- and xenobiotics, and its role in diverse cellular processes has been proposed. GSTO1 has been assayed spectrophotometrically by measuring the disappearance of its substrate, S-(4-nitrophenacyl)glutathione (4-NPG), in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol that regenerates GSTO1 from its mixed disulfide. To assay GSTO1 in rat liver cytosol, we have developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based procedure with two main advantages: (i) it measures the formation of the 4-NPG reduction product 4-nitroacetophenone, thereby offering improved sensitivity and accuracy, and (ii) it can use glutathione, the physiological reductant of GSTO1, which is impossible to do with the spectrophotometric procedure. Using the new assay, we show that (i) the GSTO1-catalyzed reduction of 4-NPG in rat liver cytosol also yields 1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethanol, whose formation from 4-nitroacetophenone requires NAD(P)H; (ii) the two assays measure comparable activities with 2-mercaptoethanol or tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine used as reductant; (iii) the cytosolic reduction of 4-NPG is inhibited by GSTO1 inhibitors (KT53, 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate, and zinc), although the inhibitory effect is strikingly influenced by the type of reductant in the assay and by the sequence of reductant and inhibitor addition. Characterization of GSTO1 inhibitors with the improved assay provides better understanding of interaction of these chemicals with the enzyme. PMID:25283130

  17. Comparison of two assays, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and a coproantigen reduction test (CRT), for the diagnosis of resistance to triclabendazole in Fasciola hepatica in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Flanagan; H. W. J. Edgar; A. Gordon; R. E. B. Hanna; G. P. Brennan; I. Fairweather

    2011-01-01

    A sheep trial was performed to evaluate two diagnostic assays, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and a coproantigen reduction test (CRT), for the diagnosis of resistance of Fasciola hepatica to triclabendazole (TCBZ). The FECRT defines successful TCBZ treatment as a 95% or greater reduction in fluke faecal egg counts (FECs) at 14 days post-treatment (dpt). The CRT defines

  18. Dengue plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) in primary and secondary dengue virus infections: How alterations in assay conditions impact performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephen J; Nisalak, Ananda; Anderson, Kathryn B; Libraty, Daniel H; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Vaughn, David W; Putnak, Robert; Gibbons, Robert V; Jarman, Richard; Endy, Timothy P

    2009-11-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a worsening global health problem. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is currently considered to be the "gold standard" to characterize and quantify circulating levels of anti-DENV neutralizing antibody (NAb). Many variations of the PRNT are currently in use and neither the assay nor its performance conditions have been standardized or harmonized between laboratories. We used a well-characterized panel of acute and late convalescent follow-up sera samples from children experiencing primary and secondary DENV infections to evaluate the performance of the dengue PRNT under a variety of testing conditions. Investigators varied cell type, control virus passage, and the use of complement across multiple assay runs of the same sample panel. Our findings indicate wide variation in PRNT titer results in response to varied testing conditions. PMID:19861618

  19. Acetylene fermentation: An Earth-based analog of biological carbon cycling on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Hoeft, S. E.; Kirshtein, J.; Wolf, K.; Voytek, M. A.; Oremland, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    Acetylene (C2H2) is present in part per million quantities in the atmosphere of Titan; conceivably as an intermediate product of methane photolysis. Currently, Earth’s atmosphere contains only trace amounts of C2H2 (~40 pptv), however higher concentrations likely prevailed during the Hadean and early Archean eons (4.5 - 3.5 Ga). We isolated C2H2-fermenting microbes from various aquatic and sedimentary environments. Acetylene fermentation proceeds via acetylene hydratase (AH) through acetaldehyde, which dismutates to ethanol and acetate, and if oxidants are present (e.g., sulfate) eventually to CO2. Thus, the remnants of a C2H2 cycle exists today on Earth but may also occur on Titan and/or Enceladus, both being planetary bodies hypothesized to have liquid water underlying their frozen surfaces. We developed a molecular method for AH by designing PCR primers to target the functional gene in Pelobacter acetylenicus. We used this method to scan new environments for the presence of AH and we employed DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in order to positively identify pelobacters in environmental samples. Acetylene fermentation was documented in five diverse salt-, fresh-, and ground-water sites. Pelobacter was identified as the genus responsible for acetylene fermentation in some, but not all, of these sites. Successful probing for AH preceded the discovery of acetylene consumption in a contaminated groundwater site, demonstrating the utility of functional gene probing. A pure culture of a C2H2-fermenting pelobacter was obtained from an intertidal mudflat. We also obtained an enrichment culture (co-cultured with a sulfate reducer) from freshwater lake sediments, but neither was pelobacter nor AH detected in this sample, suggesting that an alternative pathway may be involved here. Slurry experiments using these lake sediments either with or without added C2H2 or sulfate showed that sulfate reduction and acetylene fermentation were independent processes. In general, the ubiquity of acetylene fermentation as well as the presence of AH (an enzyme specific to acetylene) begs the questions; 1) why has this ability persisted on Earth for so long in the absence of significant atmospheric acetylene? 2) does C2H2-fermentation represent a possible means of sustaining growth in the anoxic, aqueous subsurface regions of Titan (and Enceladus)?

  20. Determination of rivaroxaban by different factor Xa specific chromogenic substrate assays: reduction of interassay variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Job Harenberg; Roland Krämer; Christina Giese; Svetlana Marx; Christel Weiss; Martin Wehling

    Rivaroxaban and other oral direct factor Xa inhibitors (ODiXa) are currently developed for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic\\u000a diseases using fixed doses. Although routine monitoring is not required, assessing the intensity of anticoagulation may be\\u000a useful under certain clinical conditions. ODiXa prolong coagulation times of several clotting assays and, thus, their concentration\\u000a may be determined in factor Xa specific chromogenic

  1. A highly sensitive colorimetric microplate ferrocyanide assay applied to ascorbate-stimulated transplasma membrane ferricyanide reduction and mitochondrial succinate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lane, Darius J R; Lawen, Alfons

    2008-02-15

    Ferricyanide reduction frequently is analyzed to determine the activity of membraneous reductases. An improved, highly sensitive, and rapid method for quantitative endpoint determination of ferrocyanide is presented. Ferrocyanide is oxidized by Fe(3+) in the presence of Ferene-S under acid conditions to form a chromogenic Ferene-S/Fe(2+) complex. The latter is quantitated at 593 nm with a sensitivity of 33.2 mM(-1) . cm(-1). The assay is 60% more sensitive to ferrocyanide (and with a 50% lower detection limit) than the prevailing method of Avron and Shavit, which employs sulfonated bathophenanthroline as the ferrous chromogen. Both pH dependence and potential sources of interference are discussed. Using the method, a sulfhydryl-sensitive, ascorbate-stimulated transplasma membrane ferricyanide reductase was assayed in human chronic myeloid (K562) leukemia cells. Furthermore, malonate-sensitive succinate dehydrogenase activity of heart mitochondria was easily assayed with ferricyanide as terminal electron acceptor. The current method will suit routine applications demanding high throughput, robustness, and sensitivity in a 96-well plate format. PMID:17949676

  2. Enhancement of acetylene hydrogenation activity over Ni-Zn bimetallic catalyst by doping with Au.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinghua; Huang, Yanqiang; Yang, Xiaofeng; He, Lei; Zhou, Huiran; Lin, Qingquan; Zhang, Tao; Geng, Haoran

    2014-09-01

    A series of modified Ni-Zn bimetallic catalysts were prepared by depositing different kinds of 4 wt% metals (Ir, Pt, Au, Cu, Ag) on the Ni-Zn-Al hydrotalcite (NZAH) and tested in the selective hydrogenation of acetylene. The activity was enhanced by 3-fold over the 4 wt% Au/NZAH, meanwhile, the yield of C2H4 was also increased more than 4 times compared with the NZAH. Characterization by means of H2-TPR, XRD, SEM, and TEM revealed that Au was highly dispersed on the catalyst, and the ternary Au-Ni-Zn alloy was formed during the H2 reduction at 500 degrees C. Doping Au in Ni-Zn bimetallic catalyst weakens the adsorption of acetylene and also hinders the coke deposition on the catalyst, which leads to the enhanced activity in acetylene hydrogenation. PMID:25924346

  3. Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons 

    E-print Network

    Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

    2000-01-01

    Conversion of methane and acetylene to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5) was studied The reaction between methane and acetylene successfully produced high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, benzene...

  4. Microporous metal-organic framework with dual functionalities for highly efficient removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tong-Liang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Bin; Krishna, Rajamani; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Wang, Xue; Zhu, Weidong; Yao, Zizhu; Xiang, Shengchang; Chen, Banglin

    2015-01-01

    The removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures containing 1% acetylene is a technologically very important, but highly challenging task. Current removal approaches include the partial hydrogenation over a noble metal catalyst and the solvent extraction of cracked olefins, both of which are cost and energy consumptive. Here we report a microporous metal-organic framework in which the suitable pore/cage spaces preferentially take up much more acetylene than ethylene while the functional amine groups on the pore/cage surfaces further enforce their interactions with acetylene molecules, leading to its superior performance for this separation. The single X-ray diffraction studies, temperature dependent gas sorption isotherms, simulated and experimental column breakthrough curves and molecular simulation studies collaboratively support the claim, underlying the potential of this material for the industrial usage of the removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures containing 1% acetylene at room temperature through the cost- and energy-efficient adsorption separation process. PMID:26041691

  5. Microporous metal–organic framework with dual functionalities for highly efficient removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tong-Liang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Bin; Krishna, Rajamani; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Wang, Xue; Zhu, Weidong; Yao, Zizhu; Xiang, Shengchang; Chen, Banglin

    2015-01-01

    The removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures containing 1% acetylene is a technologically very important, but highly challenging task. Current removal approaches include the partial hydrogenation over a noble metal catalyst and the solvent extraction of cracked olefins, both of which are cost and energy consumptive. Here we report a microporous metal–organic framework in which the suitable pore/cage spaces preferentially take up much more acetylene than ethylene while the functional amine groups on the pore/cage surfaces further enforce their interactions with acetylene molecules, leading to its superior performance for this separation. The single X-ray diffraction studies, temperature dependent gas sorption isotherms, simulated and experimental column breakthrough curves and molecular simulation studies collaboratively support the claim, underlying the potential of this material for the industrial usage of the removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures containing 1% acetylene at room temperature through the cost- and energy-efficient adsorption separation process. PMID:26041691

  6. Intracellular DNA Damage by Lysine-Acetylene Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wang-Yong; Cao, Qiang; Callahan, Catherine; Galvis, Catalina; Sang, Qing-Xiang; Alabugin, Igor V.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we reported the design and properties of alkyne C-lysine conjugates, a powerful and tunable family of DNA cleaving reagents. We also reported that, upon photoactivation, these molecules are capable of inducing cancer cells death. To prove that the cell death stems from DNA cleavage by the conjugates, we investigated intracellular DNA damage induced by these molecules in LNCap cancer cells using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays. The observation of highly efficient DNA damage confirmed that lysine acetylene conjugate is capable of cleaving the densely compacted intracellular DNA. This result provides a key mechanistic link between efficient DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity towards cancer cells for this family of light-activated anticancer agents. PMID:20814583

  7. A mid-infrared absorption diagnostic for acetylene detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KC, Utsav; Nasir, Ehson F.; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-05-01

    Acetylene is an important combustion intermediate and plays a critical role in soot formation. Accurate measurements of trace concentrations of acetylene can be very useful in validating hydrocarbon oxidation and soot formation mechanisms. Strongest vibrational band of acetylene near 13.7 ?m is probed here to develop a highly sensitive absorption diagnostic. Experiments are carried out behind reflected shock waves to measure absorption cross sections of acetylene near 730 cm-1 over a wide range of temperatures (1000-2200 K) and pressures (1-5 bar). The diagnostic is demonstrated by measuring acetylene formation during the shock-heated pyrolysis and oxidation of propene.

  8. Acetylenes and terpenoids of Bellis perennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinarosa Avato; Aldo Tava

    1995-01-01

    The essential oils of leaves and flowers from Bellis perennis, the common daisy, have been investigated. Polyacetylenes were one of the major chemical classes (18–21%) mainly consisting of two new C10 acetylenic compounds which were identified, by spectroscopic and chemical means, as methyl deca-4,6-diynoate (2,8-tetrahydromatricaria ester) and deca-4,6-diynoic acid.

  9. Influence of and additives on acetylene detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakon, A.; Emelianov, A.; Eremin, A.

    2014-03-01

    The influence of and admixtures (known as detonation suppressors for combustible mixtures) on the development of acetylene detonation was experimentally investigated in a shock tube. The time-resolved images of detonation wave development and propagation were registered using a high-speed streak camera. Shock wave velocity and pressure profiles were measured by five calibrated piezoelectric gauges and the formation of condensed particles was detected by laser light extinction. The induction time of detonation development was determined as the moment of a pressure rise at the end plate of the shock tube. It was shown that additive had no influence on the induction time. For , a significant promoting effect was observed. A simplified kinetic model was suggested and characteristic rates of diacetylene formation were estimated as the limiting stage of acetylene polymerisation. An analysis of the obtained data indicated that the promoting species is atomic chlorine formed by pyrolysis, which interacts with acetylene and produces radical, initiating a chain mechanism of acetylene decomposition. The results of kinetic modelling agree well with the experimental data.

  10. PERKINSUS-"CIDAL" ACTIVITY OF OYSTER HEMOCYTES USING A TETRAZOLIUM DYE REDUCTION ASSAY: OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bactericidal assay developed to assess the ability of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus was optimized to estimate killing of the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus. Assay variables, temperature, hemocyte:parasite ratio, i...

  11. The noncellular reduction of MTT tetrazolium salt by TiO? nanoparticles and its implications for cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Lupu, A R; Popescu, T

    2013-08-01

    We report results of noncellular tests, revealing the occurrence of photocatalytic interactions between titanium dioxide (TiO2, titania) nanoparticles and the MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide] cytotoxicity indicator. These interactions induce the reduction of MTT and formation of purple formazan under biologically relevant conditions. Classical MTT assays have been performed to evaluate the production of formazan in DMEM-F12 and RPMI-1640 cell culture media (containing 10% fetal bovine serum-FBS) treated with Degussa-P25 TiO2 nanoparticles, in the absence of cells. The colorimetric determinations revealed the noncellular MTT to formazan transformation induced by TiO2 nanoparticles, under conditions commonly used for in vitro cytotoxicity testing of nanomaterials. The formazan precipitation was found to be proportional to the TiO2 concentration, being enhanced under laboratory daylight exposure. The photocatalytic nature of the studied effect was assessed under UV irradiation at 365nm. The biological significance of the reported reaction was established with respect to cellular reference experiments performed on V79-4, HeLa and B16 cell lines. The results show false viability increases with up to 14% (for TiO2 concentrations generally higher than 50?g/ml), induced by the TiO2-MTT reaction. This type of artifacts may lead to underestimated toxicity or false proliferation results. PMID:23531555

  12. Diffusion and Reorientations in Crystalline Acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shmuel Albert; John A. Ripmeester

    1972-01-01

    Crystalline acetylene (HC&trpbnd;CH) in its two solid modifications was studied by means of temperature dependent static and rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation time measurements, T1 and T1&rgr; respectively, between 188–122°K. The presence of molecular motions was established in both phases. Two types of motions were observed in the high temperature cubic phase. One of the motions was associated with a minimum

  13. Nuclear Spin Relaxation in Acetylene Gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myong-Ku Ahn; Charles S. Johnson Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Proton spin–lattice relaxation times (T1) have been measured in acetylene gas between ?50 °C and 19°C using a CAT for signal averaging. T1 was found to depend linearly on the number density &rgr; in the range of these measurements (0.1 to 0.9 amagat). The temperature dependence of the ratio T1?&rgr; indicates that the spin–rotational interaction provides the dominant relaxation mechanism.

  14. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity in captive wild ruminants by fecal egg reduction tests and a larval development assay.

    PubMed

    Young, K E; Jensen, J M; Craig, T M

    2000-09-01

    The effectiveness of anthelmintics was evaluated in four herds of captive ruminants, wapiti (Cervus elaphus), Armenian red sheep (Ovis orientalis), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), by the use of fecal egg reduction tests (FERTs) and a commercial larval development assay (LDA) designed to evaluate susceptibility or resistance of nematodes to anthelmintics. Haemonchus sp. was the predominant nematode in the red sheep, giraffe, and pronghorn herds, whereas Ostertagia sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. were predominant in the wapiti. The LDA data indicated susceptibility by the worms to benzimidazoles except in the red sheep flock, which showed a high level of resistance. High levels of resistance to levamisole were seen in the worm populations from the wapiti and red sheep, moderate resistance in the pronghorn herd, and susceptibility in the giraffe herd. Worms were susceptible in all four herds to a combination of benzimidazole/levamisole. There was suspected avermectin resistance by Trichostrongylus sp. in the wapiti herd and by Haemonchus sp. in the giraffe. The FERTs agreed with the LDA in showing the Haemonchus in the giraffe was susceptible to fenbendazole and had suspected resistance to ivermectin, whereas Haemonchus in the red sheep and pronghorn were susceptible to ivermectin. There was correlation between the tests evaluating anthelmintics. The LDA is useful as a screening test in the selection of an anthelmintic for use in grazing ruminants, but the effectiveness of a drug in a host species may depend as much on the dose used, and the method of administration, as it does on the parasite's sensitivity to the anthelmintic. PMID:11237142

  15. Acetylenic polymers for hair styling products.

    PubMed

    Martiny, S

    2002-06-01

    This paper looks at the basic requirements of hair styling products from a consumer's perspective before moving onto a very brief outline of the various chemistries available to the formulator. It then discusses the manufacture of vinyl pyrrolidone from acetylene. The properties of polyvinyl pyrrolidone are described, followed by the features and benefits of some vinyl pyrrolidone copolymers and terpolymers. The instrumental analysis of the hold, flexibility, tack and combing properties of polymer films is discussed in some detail, along with the effect of application type on these measurable properties concentrating upon vinyl caprolactam/vinyl pyrrolidone/dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide acrylates copolymer. PMID:18498505

  16. Pressure-induced polymerization in substituted acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Chellappa, Raja S.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David (LANL)

    2012-04-10

    A fundamental understanding of shock-induced chemical reactions in organics is still lacking and there are limited studies devoted to determining reaction mechanisms, evolution of bonding, and effect of functional group substitutions. The fast timescale of reactions occurring during shock compression create significant experimental challenges (diagnostics) to fully quantify the mechanisms involved. Static compression combined with temperature provides a complementary route to investigate the equilibrium phase space and metastable intermediates under extreme P-T conditions. In this study, we present our results from our ongoing high pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments on substituted acetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C=CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-SiC=CH]. We observed that the onset pressure of chemical reactions (at room temperature) in these compounds is higher under static compression (TBA: 12 GPa and ETMS: 17.6 GPa) when compared to shock input pressures (TBA: 6.1 GPa and ETMS: 6.6 GPa). At elevated temperatures, reactivity was observed to occur at pressures comparable to shock conditions. The products were polymeric in nature, recovered to ambient conditions with little degradation.

  17. Pressure-induced Polymerization in Substituted Acetylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappa, Raja; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    A fundamental understanding of shock-induced chemical reactions in organics is still lacking and there are limited studies devoted to determining reaction mechanisms, evolution of bonding, and effect of functional group substitutions. The fast timescale of reactions occurring during shock compression create significant experimental challenges (diagnostics) to fully quantify the mechanisms involved. Static compression provides a complementary route to investigate the equilibrium phase space and metastable intermediates during high pressure chemistry, although at a much slower timescale. In this study, we present our results from our ongoing high pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy experiments on substituted acetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH3)3-C?CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH3)3-SiC?CH]. We observed that the onset pressure of chemical reactions (at room temperature) in these compounds is significantly higher in static compression (TBA: 11 GPa and ETMS: 26 GPa) when compared to shock input pressures (TBA: 6.1 GPa and ETMS: 6.6 GPa). The products were polymeric in nature, recovered to ambient conditions with little degradation and fully characterized using spectroscopy, calorimetry, and other techniques to identify reaction mechanisms.

  18. Pressure-induced polymerization in substituted acetylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappa, Raja; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Sheffield, S. A.; Robbins, David L.

    2012-03-01

    A fundamental understanding of shock-induced chemical reactions in organics is still lacking and there are limited studies devoted to determining reaction mechanisms, evolution of bonding, and effect of functional group substitutions. The fast timescale of reactions occurring during shock compression create significant experimental challenges (diagnostics) to fully quantify the mechanisms involved. Static compression combined with temperature provides a complementary route to investigate the equilibrium phase space and metastable intermediates under extreme P-T conditions. In this study, we present our results from our ongoing high pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments on substituted acetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH3)3-C=CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH3)3-SiC=CH]. We observed that the onset pressure of chemical reactions (at room temperature) in these compounds is higher under static compression (TBA: 12 GPa and ETMS: 17.6 GPa) when compared to shock input pressures (TBA: 6.1 GPa and ETMS: 6.6 GPa). At elevated temperatures, reactivity was observed to occur at pressures comparable to shock conditions. The products were polymeric in nature, recovered to ambient conditions with little degradation.

  19. Pressure-induced Polymerization in Substituted Acetylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappa, Raja; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David

    2011-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of shock-induced chemical reactions in organics is still lacking and there are limited studies devoted to determining reaction mechanisms, evolution of bonding, and effect of functional group substitutions. The fast timescale of reactions occurring during shock compression create significant experimental challenges (diagnostics) to fully quantify the mechanisms involved. Static compression provides a complementary route to investigate the equilibrium phase space and metastable intermediates during high pressure chemistry, although at a much slower timescale. In this study, we present our results from our ongoing high pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy experiments on substituted acetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH3)3 -C ?CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH3)3 -Si ?CH]. We observed that the onset pressure of chemical reactions (at room temperature) in these compounds is significantly higher in static compression (TBA: 11 GPa and ETMS: 26 GPa) when compared to shock input pressures (TBA: 6.1 GPa and ETMS: 6.6 GPa). The products were polymeric in nature, recovered to ambient conditions with little degradation and fully characterized using spectroscopy, calorimetry, and other techniques to identify reaction mechanisms. LDRD-DR (PI: Dana Dattelbaum)

  20. Characterization of a reduction-sensitive factor from human plasma responsible for apparent false activity in competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, E F; Weare, J A; Randell, R; Holland, P V; Madsen, G; Decker, R H

    1991-01-01

    Addition of reducing agents to competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) eliminates apparent false reactivity of specimens obtained from individuals with no prior history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and without other serological markers of HBV infection. We have purified and characterized a reduction-sensitive factor (RSF) isolated from the plasma of several volunteer blood donors. Column fractions were assayed fro anti-HBc by using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence assay with a detection of 0.15 Paul Ehrlich Institut units per ml at 50% inhibition. Gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 indicated that reductant-sensitive samples possessed anti-HBc activity that was associated with immunoglobulin M (IgM), whereas reductant-stable activity was associated with IgG. Gel filtration followed by metal chelate affinity chromatography resulted in a 55-fold purification and demonstrated that RSF activity copurifies with IgM. RSF was recovered from a recombinant hepatitis B core antigen matrix and shown to be an IgM species by immunoblot. In addition, RSF activity coeluted with IgM protein from anti-mu-chain Sepharose. Discrepancies between enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay procedures for anti-HBc (Corzyme and Corab, respectively: Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) appear to be due to the relative sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay for IgM anti-HBc (sevenfold greater than the radioimmunoassay using a specific panel). The biological basis for the occurrence of low levels of nonspecific IgM anti-HBc reactivity in individuals not previously exposed to HBV remains to be elucidated. PMID:2037679

  1. A biogeochemical and genetic survey of acetylene fermentation by environmental samples and bacterial isolates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Laurence G.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Kirshtein, Julie; Voytek, Mary A.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Anoxic samples (sediment and groundwater) from 13 chemically diverse field sites were assayed for their ability to consume acetylene (C2H2). Over incubation periods ranging from ˜ 10 to 80 days, selected samples from 7 of the 13 tested sites displayed significant C2H2 removal. No significant formation of ethylene was noted in these incubations; therefore, C2H2 consumption could be attributed to acetylene hydratase (AH) rather than nitrogenase activity. This putative AH (PAH) activity was observed in only 21% of the total of assayed samples, while amplification of AH genes from extracted DNA using degenerate primers derived from Pelobacter acetylenicus occurred in even fewer (9.8%) samples. Acetylene-fermenting bacteria were isolated as a pure culture from the sediments of a tidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay (SFB93) and as an enrichment culture from freshwater Searsville Lake (SV7). Comparison of 16S rDNA clone libraries revealed that SFB93 was closely related to P. carbolinicus, while SV7 consisted of several unrelated bacteria. AH gene was amplified from SFB93 but not SV7. The inability of the primers to generate amplicons in the SV7 enrichment, as well as from several of the environmental samples that displayed PAH activity, implied that either the primers were too highly constrained in their specificity or that there was a different type of AH gene in these environmental samples than occurs in P. acetylenicus. The significance of this work with regard to the search for life in the outer Solar System, where C2HL2 is abundant, is discussed.

  2. Conducting Acetylene-Terminated Polyaniline Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbur, J.; Sandreczki, T. C.; Park, J.; Zhong, Z.; Brown, I. M.; Leopold, D. J.

    1996-03-01

    Short polyaniline oligomers terminated with acetylene groups were synthesized and characterized. Synthesis was by adaptation of the procedures of Wudl, et al. (JACS 109, 3677 (1987)) and Manassen and Khalif. (JACS 88, 1943 (1966)) The as-synthesized materials were in oxidation states between fully reduced leucoemeraldine and half- oxidized emeraldine. Further oxidation was with O2. Typical conductivities were on the order of 0.01 S/cm. The oligomers were characterized using several spectroscopic methods including UV-vis, FTIR, and ESR. Oxidation states were determined by recording the total coulombs required to convert the partially-oxidized conducting forms to fully-reduced forms. Conductivity was monitored as a function of time at 150 C. Data from conventional high molecular weight polyaniline were collected for comparison.

  3. High pressure chemistry of substituted acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robbins, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    High pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on substituted polyacetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C{triple_bond}CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-Si{triple_bond}CH] to investigate pressure-induced chemical reactions. The starting samples were the low temperature crystalline phases which persisted metastably at room temperature and polymerized beyond 11 GPa and 26 GPa for TBA and ETMS respectively. These reaction onset pressures are considerably higher than what we observed in the shockwave studies (6.1 GPa for TBA and 6.6 GPa for ETMS). Interestingly, in the case of ETMS, it was observed with fluid ETMS as starting sample, reacts to form a semi-crystalline polymer (crystalline domains corresponding to the low-T phase) at pressures less than {approx}2 GPa. Further characterization using vibrational spectroscopy is in progress.

  4. Molecular beam infrared spectra of dimers formed from acetylene, methyl acetylene, and ethene as a function of source pressure and concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gad Fischer; R. E. Miller; P. F. Vohralik; R. O. Watts

    1985-01-01

    Infrared spectra have been obtained for dimers formed from acetylene, methyl acetylene, and ethylene using a wide variety of free jet source conditions. An F-center laser was used to excite various C–H stretch fundamentals in the range 3000–3300 cm?1. Rotational structure was resolved in the spectra of both acetylene and methyl acetylene dimers when dilute mixtures of either gas in

  5. Laser absorption diagnostic for measuring acetylene concentrations in shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranic, Ivo; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2014-07-01

    A fixed-wavelength direct absorption laser diagnostic for high-temperature measurements of acetylene concentration was developed. The diagnostic, based on a tunable continuous wave distributed feedback diode laser, was optimized primarily for studying chemical kinetics behind reflected shock waves. The center wavelength (3335.55 cm-1) of the tunable diagnostic was typically set at the peak of the 3300 cm-1 absorption band of acetylene at high temperatures. The absorption spectrum of acetylene diluted in argon was characterized using scanned-wavelength direct absorption measurements from 1070 to 1720 K and 0.8 to 4.0 atm. Line fitting of the measured absorption spectra was not possible due to the large number of transitions overlapped by pressure broadening that contribute to the spectrum. Instead, empirical fits for the peak absorption coefficient and its corresponding wavelength as a function of temperature and pressure were generated. Furthermore, in order to allow for characterization of interference absorption in kinetic studies, empirical fits for the acetylene absorption coefficient in the region around the primary absorption feature were developed. Absorption coefficient measurements of propyne and 1-butyne, which may be the primary interference candidates, reveal that their absorption coefficients are constant in the wavelength range of interest, and are much smaller than those of acetylene. Therefore, the acetylene concentration in the presence of these interfering species can be inferred using two-color techniques. The utility of the acetylene diagnostic was demonstrated by measuring acetylene mole fraction time-histories during the pyrolysis of propene and 1-butene.

  6. A highly sensitive colorimetric microplate ferrocyanide assay applied to ascorbate-stimulated transplasma membrane ferricyanide reduction and mitochondrial succinate oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfons Lawen

    2008-01-01

    Ferricyanide reduction frequently is analyzed to determine the activity of membraneous reductases. An improved, highly sensitive, and rapid method for quantitative endpoint determination of ferrocyanide is presented. Ferrocyanide is oxidized by Fe3+ in the presence of Ferene-S under acid conditions to form a chromogenic Ferene-S\\/Fe2+ complex. The latter is quantitated at 593 nm with a sensitivity of 33.2 mM?1 ·

  7. Electron impact induced anion production in acetylene.

    PubMed

    Szyma?ska, Ewelina; ?adež, Iztok; Krishnakumar, E; Mason, Nigel J

    2014-02-28

    A detailed experimental investigation of electron induced anion production in acetylene, C2H2, in the energy range between 1 and 90 eV is presented. The anions are formed by two processes in this energy range: dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and dipolar dissociation (DD). DEA in C2H2 is found to lead to the formation of H(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) through excitation of resonances in the electron energy range 1-15 eV. These anionic fragments are formed with super thermal kinetic energy and reveal no anisotropy in the angular distributions. DD in C2H2 leads to the formation of H(-), C(-)/CH(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) with threshold energies of 15.7, 20.0 and 16.5 eV respectively. The measured anion yields have been used to calculate anion production rates for H(-), C(-)/CH(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) in Titan's ionosphere. PMID:24343432

  8. Identification of proteins capable of metal reduction from the proteome of the Gram-positive bacterium Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 using an NADH-based activity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Otwell, Annie E.; Sherwood, Roberts; Zhang, Sheng; Nelson, Ornella D.; Li, Zhi; Lin, Hening; Callister, Stephen J.; Richardson, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal reduction capability has been found in numerous species of environmentally abundant Gram-positive bacteria. However, understanding of microbial metal reduction is based almost solely on studies of Gram-negative organisms. In this study, we focus on Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1, a Gram-positive metal reducer whose genome lacks genes with similarity to any characterized metal reductase. D. reducens has been shown to reduce not only Fe(III), but also the environmentally important contaminants U(VI) and Cr(VI). By extracting, separating, and analyzing the functional proteome of D. reducens, using a ferrozine-based assay in order to screen for chelated Fe(III)-NTA reduction with NADH as electron donor, we have identified proteins not previously characterized as iron reductases. Their function was confirmed by heterologous expression in E. coli. These are the protein NADH:flavin oxidoreductase (Dred_2421) and a protein complex composed of oxidoreductase FAD/NAD(P)-binding subunit (Dred_1685) and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1B (Dred_1686). Dred_2421 was identified in the soluble proteome and is predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein. Dred_1685 and Dred_1686 were identified in both the soluble as well as the insoluble (presumably membrane) protein fraction, suggesting a type of membrane-association, although PSORTb predicts both proteins are cytoplasmic. Furthermore, we show that these proteins have the capability to reduce soluble Cr(VI) and U(VI) with NADH as electron donor. This study is the first functional proteomic analysis of D. reducens, and one of the first analyses of metal and radionuclide reduction in an environmentally relevant Gram-positive bacterium.

  9. Determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Suenaga, Hikaru; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Ezoe, Takatoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-15

    A method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins using a colorimetric microbial viability assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt {2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt (WST-8)} via 2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone (NQ) was developed. Measurement conditions were optimized for the microbiological determination of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin B(6), biotin, folic acid, niacin, and pantothenic acid, using microorganisms that have a water-soluble vitamin requirement. A linear relationship between absorbance and water-soluble vitamin concentration was obtained. The proposed method was applied to determine the concentration of vitamin B(6) in various foodstuffs. There was good agreement between vitamin B(6) concentrations determined after 24h using the WST-8 colorimetric method and those obtained after 48h using a conventional method. The results suggest that the WST-8 colorimetric assay is a useful method for the rapid determination of water-soluble vitamins in a 96-well microtiter plate. PMID:23140724

  10. Nongenotoxic effects and a reduction of the DXR-induced genotoxic effects of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower) seeds revealed by micronucleus assays in mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This research evaluated the genotoxicity of oil and tincture of H. annuus L. seeds using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between these preparations and the genotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DXR) was also analysed (antigenotoxicity test). Methods Experimental groups were evaluated at 24-48 h post treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (positive control – NEU), DXR (chemotherapeutic), NaCl (negative control), a sunflower tincture (THALS) and two sources of sunflower oils (POHALS and FOHALS). Antigenotoxic assays were carried out using the sunflower tincture and oils separately and in combination with NUE or DXR. Results For THALS, analysis of the MNPCEs showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. A significant reduction in MNPCE was observed when THALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) was administered in combination with DXR (5 mg.Kg-1). For POHALS or FOHALS, analysis of the MNPCEs also showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. However, the combination DXR?+?POHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) or DXR?+?FOHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) not contributed to the MNPCEs reduction. Conclusions This research suggests absence of genotoxicity of THALS, dose-, time- and sex-independent, and its combination with DXR can reduce the genotoxic effects of DXR. POHALS and FOHALS also showed absence of genotoxicity, but their association with DXR showed no antigenotoxic effects. PMID:24694203

  11. Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Orfelinda Avalo; Moura, Francisco José; de Albuquerque Brocchi, Eduardo; de Siqueira, Rogério Navarro Correia; de Souza, Rodrigo Fernandes Magalhães

    2014-12-01

    Iron-nickel alloys have been synthesized through thermal decomposition of nitrates aqueous solutions followed by H2 reduction. The effect of temperature [773 K to 973 K (500 °C to 700 °C)] over the oxide reduction kinetics has been studied. The results indicate that at 973 K (700 °C) and for a reaction time of 90 minutes, it was possible to obtain Fe-Ni alloys with distinct compositions. The X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) of the initial oxide mixture has shown distinct peaks of iron and nickel oxides (Fe2O3, NiO, and Fe2NiO4). The same analysis for the reduced samples suggests that alloying has taken place. Indeed, the Rietveld analysis of the XRD patterns indicates the presence of two solid solutions—alpha (BCC) and FeNi3 (FCC), with varying mass percent depending on the initial Fe to Ni ratio, in accordance with the information contained in the Fe-Ni phase diagram. The calculated alloy average crystallite size has shown to be equal to 26 nm. Total magnetization measurements suggest a superparamagnetic behavior, which is a typical result for magnetic materials of considerable nanostructured content, in accordance with the expectation based on the quantitative evaluation of the XRD data.

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-103 - Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping. 56.50-103 Section 56.50-103...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements... Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping. (a) This section applies to...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-103 - Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping. 56.50-103 Section 56.50-103...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements... Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping. (a) This section applies to...

  14. 46 CFR 56.50-103 - Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping. 56.50-103 Section 56.50-103...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements... Fixed oxygen-acetylene distribution piping. (a) This section applies to...

  15. Transport of methane, acetylene, and acetaldehyde through activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, R.; Madey, R.; Photinos, P.J. (Kent State Univ., OH (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The outlet concentration as a function of time for pulsed and stepped inputs of 100 ppm concentrations of methane, acetylene, and acetaldehyde adsorptives in helium at 1 atm pressure through columns of activated carbon at 25{degree}C were measured and correlated with the solutions to a longitudinal-diffusion model with a linear isotherm. The solutions provided good fits to the experimental data for adsorptives with linear and almost linear isotherms, viz., methane and acetylene, respectively. The nonlinear isotherm of acetaldehyde precludes the determination of the longitudinal diffusion coefficient.

  16. Microgravity Superagglomerates Produced By Silane And Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman (Technical Monitor); Bundy, Matthew; Mulholland, George W.; Manzello, Samuel; Yang, Jiann; Scott, John Henry; Sivathanu, Yudaya

    2003-01-01

    The size of the agglomerates produced in the upper portion of a flame is important for a variety of applications. Soot particle size and density effect the amount of radiative heat transfer from a fire to its surroundings. Particle size determines the lifetime of smoke in a building or in the atmosphere, and exposure hazard for smoke inhaled and deposited in the lungs. The visibility through a smoke layer and dectectability of the smoke are also greatly affected by agglomerate size. Currently there is limited understanding of soot growth with an overall dimension of 10 m and larger. In the case of polystyrene, smoke agglomerates in excess of 1 mm have been observed raining out from large fires. Unlike hydrocarbon fuels, silane has the advantage that silica particles are the major combustion product resulting in a particle volume fraction a factor of ten greater than that for a carbonaceous smoke. There are two very desirable properties of silica aero-gels that are important for both space and earth based applications. The first important property is its inertness to most oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Therefore, silica aero-gels make excellent fire ablatives and can be used in very demanding applications. The second important property is that silica aero-gels are expected to have very high porosity (greater than 0.999), making them lightweight and ideal for aerospace applications. The added benefit of the high porosity is that they can be used as extremely efficient filters for many earth based applications as well. Evidence of the formation of superagglomerates in a laminar acetylene/air diffusion flame was found by Sorensen et al. [1]. An interconnecting web of super-agglomerates was observed to span the width of the soot plume in the region just above the flame tip and described as a gel state. It was observed that this gel state immediately breaks up into agglomerates as larges as 100 m due to buoyancy induced turbulence. Large soot agglomerates were observed in microgravity butane jet diffusion flames by Ito et al.[2]. Several other works to date have studied the effect of flame structure on soot volume fraction and agglomeration size in a microgravity environment.[3-4]. In microgravity the absence of buoyant convective flows increases the residence time in the flame and causes a broadening of the high temperature region in the flame. Both of these factors play a significant role in gas phase radiation and soot formation

  17. Spectroscopy and energetics of the acetylene molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Brian J.

    This article reviews laser-spectroscopic studies of the structure, energetics, and dynamics of processes involving small polyatomic molecules, particularly acetylene (ethyne, C2H2). The linear, centrosymmetric structure of C2H2 is deceptively simple, given that aspects of its optical spectra and dynamics have proved to be unusually complicated. The article focuses on the ground electronic state of C2H2, where rovibrational eigenstates are only approximately described in normal-mode terms, because intramolecular processes (such as anharmonic mixing, ?-type resonances, and Coriolis coupling) introduce extensive global and local perturbations. These tend to spoil quantum numbers and symmetries that are well-defined in low-order basis states. Such effects within the rovibrational energy states of C2H2 are systematically characterized, together with dynamical descriptions in terms of polyad models and insight into photochemical or photophysical processes that may occur at high vibrational energies, without direct electronic excitation. Time-resolved optical double-resonance spectroscopy, probed by ultraviolet-laser-induced fluorescence and pumped by either infrared absorption or coherent Raman excitation, has proved particularly useful in exploring such effects in gas-phase C2H2; techniques of this type are discussed in detail, together with other laser-spectroscopic methods that provide complementary mechanistic information. A closely related topic concerns the area of optothermal molecular-beam spectroscopy, with particular emphasis on research by the late Roger E. Miller to whose memory this article is dedicated. Key publications by Miller and coworkers, in many of which C2H2 and its isotopomers play a central role, are reviewed. These cover the following themes: structure of molecular complexes and clusters, infrared predissociation spectra, rotational and vibrational energy transfer, differential scattering, photofragmentation of oriented complexes, superfluid-helium nanodroplet spectroscopy, aerosols formed in low-temperature diffusion cells, surface scattering experiments, optically selected mass spectrometry, and characterization of biomolecules. A unifying issue that links the assorted topics of this article is the role that intramolecular perturbations can play to enhance (and sometimes suppress) the efficiency of rovibrational energy transfer in colliding molecules or in molecular complexes and clusters; C2H2 and its isotopomers have been a rich source of insight in this regard, although they continue to pose challenges to our understanding.

  18. Study of acetylene poisoning of Pt cathode on proton exchange membrane fuel cell spatial performance using a segmented cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; St-Pierre, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Acetylene is a welding fuel and precursor for organic synthesis, which requires considering it to be a possible air pollutant. In this work, the spatial performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell exposed to 300 ppm C2H2 and different operating currents was studied with a segmented cell system. The injection of C2H2 resulted in a cell performance decrease and redistribution of segments' currents depending on the operating conditions. Performance loss was 20-50 mV at 0.1-0.2 A cm-2 and was accompanied by a rapid redistribution of localized currents. Acetylene exposure at 0.4-1.0 A cm-2 led to a sharp voltage decrease to 0.07-0.13 V and significant changes in current distribution during a transition period, when the cell reached a voltage of 0.55-0.6 V. A recovery of the cell voltage was observed after stopping the C2H2 injection. Spatial electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data showed different segments' behavior at low and high currents. It was assumed that acetylene oxidation occurs at high cell voltage, while it reduces at low cell potential. A detailed analysis of the current density distribution, its correlation with EIS data and possible C2H2 oxidation/reduction mechanisms are presented and discussed.

  19. First Pauson–Khand reaction on sugar acetylenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Isobe; Shigeyuki Takai

    1999-01-01

    Pauson–Khand reaction was achieved on the sugar acetylenes having an allylic ether substituent at the two-position of the tetrahydropyran ring to provide tri-cyclic products with high stereospecificity. This is the first example of Pauson–Khand reactions with compounds on carbohydrate or tetrahydropyranose ring, and the scope is described.

  20. Butadiene from acetylene-ethylene cross-metathesis.

    PubMed

    Trotu?, Ioan-Teodor; Zimmermann, Tobias; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Geboers, Jan; Schüth, Ferdi

    2015-04-28

    Acetylene to butadiene direct synthesis, via enyne cross-metathesis, is demonstrated with commercial ruthenium carbene catalysts. Using excess of ethylene, yields greater than 50% are obtained. High activity is observed in the first minute of the reaction (TOF > 800 h(-1) based on butadiene). Catalyst reusability and poisoning are discussed. PMID:25811306

  1. The overtone dynamics of acetylene above 10 000 cm?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. SmithS; John S. Winn

    1991-01-01

    The 10 000–13 000 cm?1 C–H stretching spectra of normal acetylene have been measured with a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and a long path gas cell. Over 400 rovibrational lines were assigned and analyzed yielding band origins and rotational constants. Comparison of calculated and observed rotational constants and intensities confirmed the vibrational assignments made in this region. A vibrational

  2. Photothermal lensing spectroscopy of supersonic jet expansions of acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max F. Hineman; Rene G. Rodriguez; Joseph W. Nibler

    1988-01-01

    Photothermal lensing effects are observed in the early expansion stages (X\\/D=1–7) of a supersonic free jet and narrow P and R branch rotational lines have been recorded at 100 MHz resolution for the ?2 +5?3 band of acetylene. Rotational Raman loss spectra were also recorded and, from the collision-broadened linewidths of these, it is estimated that about 100 collisions occur

  3. Apparatus and process for mechanical power production by acetylene combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The design is given of a combustion engine having a combustion zone for burning acetylene with an oxygen-containing gas to produce mechanical power and exhaust gases including HâO and oxides of carbon. A reaction zone contains a compound selected from the group consisting of sodium peroxide, potassium peroxide, lithium peroxide, sodium superoxide, potassium superoxide and lithium superoxide for reacting HâO

  4. Thermodynamic study on the formation of acetylene during coal pyrolysis in the arc plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, W.; Li, F.; Cai, G.; Lu, Y.; Chang, L. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2009-07-01

    Based on the principle of minimizing the Gibbs free energy, the composition of C-H-O-N-S equilibrium system about acetylene formation during the pyrolysis in arc plasma jet for four kinds of different rank-ordered coals such as Datong, Xianfeng, Yangcheng, and Luan was analyzed and calculated. The results indicated that hydrogen, as the reactive atmosphere, was beneficial to the acetylene formation. The coal ranks and the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur in coal all could obviously affect the acetylene yield. The mole fraction of acetylene is the maximum when the ratio value of atom H/C was 2. The content of oxygen was related to the acetylene yield, but it does not compete with CO formation. These agreed with the experimental results, and they could help to select the coal type for the production of acetylene through plasma pyrolysis process.

  5. Kinetics and Structure of Superagglomerates Produced by Silane and Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, G. W.; Hamins, A.; Sivathanu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of smoke in a laminar diffusion flame involves several steps. The first step is particle inception/nucleation in the high-temperature fuel-rich region of the flame followed by surface growth and coagulation/coalescence of the small particles. As the primary spheres grow in size and lose hydrogen, the colliding particles no longer coalesce but retain their identity as a cluster of primary spheres, termed an agglomerate. Finally, in the upper portion of the flame, the particles enter an oxidizing environment which may lead to partial or complete burnout of the agglomerates. Currently there is no quantitative model for describing the growth of smoke agglomerates up to superagglomerates with an overall dimension of 10 microns and greater. Such particles are produced during the burning of acetylene and fuels containing benzene rings such as toluene and polystyrene. In the case of polystyrene, smoke agglomerates in excess of 1 mm have been observed "raining" out from large fires. Evidence of the formation of superagglomerates in a laminar acetylene/air diffusion flame has been recently reported. Acetylene was chosen as the fuel since the particulate loading in acetylene/air diffusion flames is very high. Photographs were obtained by Sorensen using a microsecond xenon lamp of the "stream" of soot just above the flame. For low flow rates of acetylene, only submicrometer soot clusters are produced and they give rise to the homogeneous appearance of the soot stream. When the flow rate is increased to 1.7 cu cm/s, soot clusters up to 10 microns are formed and they are responsible for the graininess and at a flow rate of 3.4 cu cm/s, a web of interconnected clusters as large as the width of the flame is seen. This interconnecting web of superagglomerates is described as a gel state by Sorensen et al (1998). This is the first observation of a gel for a gas phase system. It was observed that this gel state immediately breaks up into agglomerates due to buoyancy induced turbulence and gravitational sedimentation.

  6. Autoxidation and acetylene-accelerated oxidation of NO in a 2-phase system; implications for the expression of denitrification in ex situ experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Dörsch, Peter; Bakken, Lars

    2013-04-01

    Denitrification allows microorganisms to sustain respiration under anoxic conditions. The typical niche for denitrification is an environment with fluctuating oxygen concentrations such as soils and borders between anoxic and oxic zones of biofilms and sediments. In such environments, the organisms need adequate regulation of denitrification in response to changing oxygen availability to tackle both oxic and anoxic spells. The regulation of denitrification in soils has environmental implications, since it affects the proportions of N2, N2O and NO emitted to the atmosphere. The expression of denitrification enzymes is regulated by a complex regulatory network involving one or several positive feedback loops via the intermediate nitrogen oxides. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to induce denitrification in model organisms, but the quantitative effect of NO and its concentration dependency has not been assessed for denitrification in soils. NO is chemically unstable in the presence of oxygen due to autoxidation, and the oxidation of NO is accelerated by acetylene (C2H2) which is commonly used as an inhibitor of N2O reductase in denitrification studies. As a first step to a better understanding of NO's role in soil denitrification, we investigated NO oxidation kinetics for a closed "two phase" system (i.e. liquid phase + headspace) typically used for denitrification experiments with soil slurries, with and without acetylene present. Models were developed to adequately predict autoxidation and acetylene-accelerated oxidation. The minimum oxygen concentration in the headspace ([O2]min, mL L-1) for acetylene-accelerated NO oxidation was found to increase linearly with the NO concentration ([NO], mL L-1); [O2]min= 0.192 + [NO]*0.1 (r2=0.978). The models for NO oxidation were then used to assess NO-oxidation rates in denitrification experiments with batches of bacterial cells extracted from soil. The batches were exposed to low initial oxygen concentrations in gas tight serum flasks (with and without C2H2), and monitored for O2, NO, N2O and N2 production while depleting the oxygen and switching to anoxic respiration. Acetylene effectively scavenged NO from the cultures until oxygen concentration reached below ~0.19 mL L-1, and the estimated rate of acetylene-accelerated NO oxidation was more than sufficient to explain an observed reduction of the N2O production induced by acetylene. When [O2] reached below 0.19 mL L-1, the NO concentrations increased and stabilized at the same level as in the treatments without acetylene, but the rate of denitrification was much lower than without acetylene. The results indicate that the early accumulation of 10-20 nM NO during oxygen depletion has a significant effect on the expression of denitrification in soil communities. This warrants a greater interest in NO as a regulator of denitrification in soils and shows that the acetylene inhibition method may be problematic even for intentionally anoxic incubations, unless precautions are taken to secure initial O2-concentrations below 0.19 mL O2 L-1.

  7. Enumeration and Relative Importance of Acetylene-Reducing (Nitrogen-Fixing) Bacteria in a Delaware Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Dicker, Howard J.; Smith, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of N2-fixing bacteria were enumerated from the top 1 cm of the surface in four vegetational areas in a Delaware salt marsh. The results over the 9-month sampling period showed that there were no discernible seasonal patterns for any of the groups enumerated (Azotobacter sp., Clostridium sp., and Desulfovibrio sp.). Azotobacter sp. was present in numbers of 107 per g of dry mud, whereas the two anaerobic fixers were present in much lower numbers (103 to 104 per g of dry mud). There were no differences in the numbers of each group among the different vegetational areas, indicating that there was a heterogeneous population of N2 fixers present. Additional studies indicate that the activity of sulfate reducers (Desulfovibrio sp.) may account for as much as 50% of the total observed acetylene reduction activity. Oxygen was found to exert little effect on the observed acetylene reduction activity, indicating that stable aerobic and anaerobic microenvironments exist in the surface layer of marsh sediments. PMID:16345564

  8. Experimental methods to examine the role of vibrational excitation in the singlet-triplet spin-orbit coupling in acetylene

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Erika Marie

    2010-01-01

    Despite being a seemingly simple molecule, acetylene has a complicated electronic structure that has been studied extensively both experimentally and theoretically. Acetylene has been observed to have a complex spin-orbit ...

  9. Growth transition from single wall- to double walled carbon nanotubes by using acetylene gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijaya Kayastha; Yoke Khin Yap

    2006-01-01

    Based on a growth model that we have proposed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [1, 2], we found that similar mechanism is applied for the growth of single wall- and double walled- CNTs by acetylene gas. This model combines disociative adsorption of acetylene molecules on Fe catalyst and the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Basically, the growth is the consequence of optimization of

  10. Stability of an Acetylene Frequency Reference inside Kagome Structured Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    E-print Network

    Washburn, Brian

    to an acetylene transition inside kagome photonic crystal fiber. Stability as measured with a carbon nanotubeStability of an Acetylene Frequency Reference inside Kagome Structured Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Kevin Knabe1 , Jinkang Lim1 , Karl Tillman1 , Rajesh Thapa1 , François Couny2 , Phillip S. Light2

  11. Acetylene Fermentation: Relevance to Primordial Biogeochemistry and the Search for Life in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Baesman, S. M.; Miller, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    Acetylene supports the growth of some terrestrial anaerobes. The reaction is highly exothermic. The abundance of acetylene in the methane-rich planet(oid)s of the outer solar system could represent a means of nourishment for resident alien microbes.

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Theoretical investigation of the first-shell mechanism of acetylene

    E-print Network

    Liao, Rongzhen

    Abstract The reaction mechanism of the hydration of acetylene to acetaldehyde catalyzed by [WIV O(mnt)2- lyzes the transformation of acetylene to acetaldehyde (Eq. 1) [1­3]. HÀCCÀH þ H2O AH H3CÀCHO ð1Þ a vinyl alcohol intermediate. Finally, an isomerization of vinyl alcohol to acetaldehyde takes place

  13. Ultrafast hydrogen migration in acetylene cation driven by non-adiabatic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol

    2013-03-01

    Non-adiabatic dynamics of the acetylene cation is investigated using mixed quantum-classical dynamics based on trajectory surface hopping. To describe the non-adiabatic effects, two surface hopping methods are used, namely, Tully's fewest switches and Landau-Zener surface hopping. Similarities and differences between the results based on those two methods are discussed. We find that the photoionization of acetylene into the first excited state A2? g+ drives the molecule from the linear structure to a trans-bent structure. Through a conical intersection the acetylene cation can relax back to either the ground state of acetylene or vinylidene. We conclude that hydrogen migration always takes place after non-radiative electronic relaxation to the ground state of the monocation. Based on the analysis of correlation functions we identify coherent oscillations between acetylene and vinylidene with a period of about 70 fs after the electronic relaxation.

  14. Suicidal inactivation and labelling of ammonia mono-oxygenase by acetylene.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, M R; Wood, P M

    1985-01-01

    Acetylene brings about a progressive inactivation of ammonia mono-oxygenase, the ammonia-oxidizing enzyme in Nitrosomonas europaea. High NH4+ ion concentrations were protective. The inactivation followed first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of 1.5 min-1 at saturating concentrations of acetylene. If acetylene was added in the absence of O2, the cells remained active until O2 was re-introduced. A protective effect was also demonstrated with thiourea, a reversible non-competitive inhibitor of ammonia oxidation. Incubation of cells with [14C]acetylene was found to cause labelling of a single membrane polypeptide. This ran on dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an Mr value of 28 000. It is concluded that acetylene is a suicide substrate for the mono-oxygenase. The labelling experiment provides the first identification of a constituent polypeptide of ammonia mono-oxygenase. Images Fig. 4. PMID:4004794

  15. Ultrafast hydrogen migration in acetylene cation driven by non-adiabatic effects.

    PubMed

    Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol

    2013-03-01

    Non-adiabatic dynamics of the acetylene cation is investigated using mixed quantum-classical dynamics based on trajectory surface hopping. To describe the non-adiabatic effects, two surface hopping methods are used, namely, Tully's fewest switches and Landau-Zener surface hopping. Similarities and differences between the results based on those two methods are discussed. We find that the photoionization of acetylene into the first excited state A(2)?g(+) drives the molecule from the linear structure to a trans-bent structure. Through a conical intersection the acetylene cation can relax back to either the ground state of acetylene or vinylidene. We conclude that hydrogen migration always takes place after non-radiative electronic relaxation to the ground state of the monocation. Based on the analysis of correlation functions we identify coherent oscillations between acetylene and vinylidene with a period of about 70 fs after the electronic relaxation. PMID:23485298

  16. Antitrypanosomal Acetylene Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    de Á Santos, Luciana; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Tempone, Andre G; Correa, Daniela S; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Quintiliano, Natalia F; Rodrigues-Oliveira, André F; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Martins, Roberto Carlos C; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-01-01

    Chagas' disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan and affects the poorest population in the world, causing high mortality and morbidity. As a result of the toxicity and long duration of current treatments, the discovery of novel and more efficacious drugs is crucial. In this work, the hexane extract from seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi by the colorimetric MTT assay (IC50 of 65.44 ?g/mL). Using chromatographic fractionation over SiO2, this extract afforded a fraction composed by one active compound (IC50 of 10.70 µg/mL), which was chemically characterized as 12,14-octadecadiynoic acid (macrocarpic acid). Additionally, two new inactive acetylene compounds (?,?'-dimacro-carpoyl-?-oleylglycerol and ?-macrocarpoyl-?'-oleylglycerol) were also isolated from the hexane extract. The complete characterization of the isolated compounds was performed by analysis of NMR and MS data as well as preparation of derivatives. PMID:25961159

  17. Opsonophagocytic assay.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Markryan; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay is used as a correlate for protection to measure the functional capacities of vaccine-candidate-raised antibodies. This in vitro assay aids selecting promising vaccines by demonstrating whether the vaccine-induced antibodies drive efficient complement deposition and subsequent opsonophagocytic killing. Here, we describe two protocols for an OPK assay using either human-derived PMNs or cultured HL-60 cells. PMID:24218277

  18. Analysis of acetylene in blood and urine using cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Hara, Kenji; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kageura, Mitsuyoshi; Takamoto, Mutsuo; Matsusue, Aya; Sugimura, Tomoko; Kubo, Shin-ichi

    2009-09-01

    A method for quantitative analysis of acetylene in blood and urine samples was investigated. Using cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), acetylene was measured with isobutane as the internal standard in the headspace method, which revealed a linear response over the entire composite range with an excellent correlation coefficient, both in blood (R = 0.9968, range = 5.39-43.1 microg/ml) and urine (R = 0.9972, range = 2.16-10.8 microg/ml). The coefficients of variation (CV) for blood ranged from 2.62 to 11.6% for intra-day and 4.55 to 10.4% for inter-day. The CV for urine ranged from 2.38 to 3.10% for intra-day and 4.83 to 11.0% for inter-day. The recovery rate as an index of accuracy ranged from 83 to 111%. The present method showed good reliability, and is also simple and rapid. In actual samples from a charred cadaver due to acetylene explosion, the measured concentrations of acetylene by this method were 21.5 microg/ml for femoral vein blood, 17.9 microg/ml for right atrial blood, 25.5 microg/ml for left atrial blood and 7.49 microg/ml for urine. Quantification of acetylene provides important information, because the acetylene concentration is a vital reaction or sign. For example, when acetylene is filled in a closed space and then explodes, in antemortem explosion, the blood acetylene concentration of the cadaver might be significant. On the other hand, in postmortem explosion, acetylene is not detected in blood. Furthermore, when several victims are involved in one explosion, comparison of the sample concentrations can also provide useful information to establish the conditions at the accident scene; therefore, the present method is useful in forensics. PMID:19423404

  19. Acetylene as a substrate in the development of primordial bacterial communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, C.W.; Strohmaier, F.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The fermentation of atmospheric acetylene by anaerobic bacteria is proposed as the basis of a primordial heterotrophic food chain. The accumulation of fermentation products (acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetate and hydrogen) would create niches for sulfate-respiring bacteria as well as methanogens. Formation of acetylene-free environments in soils and sediments would also alter the function of nitrogenase from detoxification to nitrogen-fixation. The possibility of an acetylene-based anaerobic food chain in Jovian-type atmospheres is discussed. ?? 1988 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. Inhibition of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions by using the acetylene block technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Addition of acetylene to microcosms simultaneously amended with nitrate and alkylbenzenes resulted in inhibition of the rate of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Toluene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were recalcitrant, whereas ethylbenzene was degraded at a slower rate than usual. Benzene was not degraded in either case. Addition of acetylene to microcosms preexposed to nitrate and alkylbenzenes produced similar inhibition. These data indicate that the activities of microorganisms that degrade alkylbenzenes under denitrifying conditions may be suppressed if the standard acetylene block technique is used to verify denitrifying activity.

  1. On the C?H bond dissociation energy of acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, J. A. Montgomery G. A., Jr.

    1990-04-01

    Ab initio calculations, including extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, are reported for the C?H bond dissociation energy of acetylene. These calculations, which have a rms error of 0.51 kcal/mol per bond for the atomization energies of 13 well-known molecules, give D0(H-CCH) = 131.54 kcal/mol, in good agreement with previous results, but about 5 kcal/mol above the recent measurement of Green, Kinsey and Field ( D0 ? 126.647 ± 0.002 kcal/mol), and that of Segall, Lavi, Wen and Wittig ( D0 = 127 ± 1.5 kcal/mol). The electron affinity of CCH is calculated to be within 0.18 kcal/mol of the recent measurement of Ervin et al. (2.969 ± 0.010 eV)

  2. Organogermanium Chemistry: Germacyclobutanes and digermane Additions to Acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Michael Chubb

    2003-12-12

    This dissertation comprises two main research projects. The first project, presented in Chapter 1, involves the synthesis and thermochemistry of germacyclobutanes (germetanes). Four new germetanes (spirodigermetane, diallylgermetane, dichlorogermetane, and germacyclobutane) have been synthesized using a modified di-Grignard synthesis. Diallylgermetane is shown to be a useful starting material for obtaining other germetanes, particularly the parent germetane, germacyclobutane. The gas-phase thermochemistries of spirodigermetane, diallylgermetane and germacyclobutane have been explored via pulsed stirred-flow reactor (SFR) studies, showing remarkable differences in decomposition, depending on the substitution at the germanium atom. The second project investigates the thermochemical, photochemical, and catalytic additions of several digermanes to acetylenes. The first examples of thermo- and photochemical additions of Ge-Ge bonds to C{triple_bond}C are demonstrated. Mechanistic investigations are described and comparisons are made to analogous disilane addition reactions, previously studied in their group.

  3. Detection of acetylene in the infrared spectrum of comet Hyakutake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooke, T. Y.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Weaver, H. A.; Crovisier, J.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crisp, D.

    1996-01-01

    Comets are rich in volatile materials, of which roughly 80% (by number) are water molecules. Considerable progress is being made in identifying the other volatile species, the abundances of which should enable us to determine whether comets formed primarily from ice-covered interstellar grains, or from material that was chemically processed in the early solar nebula. Here we report the detection of acetylene (C2H2) in the infrared spectrum of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). The estimated abundance is 0.3-0.9%, relative to water, which is comparable to the predicted solid-phase abundance in cold interstellar clouds. This suggests that the volatiles in comet Hyakotake may have come from ice-covered interstellar grains, rather than material processed in the accretion disk out of which the Solar System formed.

  4. Laminar counterflow mixing of acetylene into hot combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Breitbach, H.; Goettgens, J.; Mauss, F.; Pitsch, H.; Peters, N. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Mechanik

    1994-12-31

    In an axisymmetric counterflow configuration, acetylene was blown against the hot post flame gases of a rich premixed acetylene-air flame stabilized on a sinter metal, thereby creating a broad pyrolysis zone. This one-dimensional configuration has several interesting features for soot formation studies. Temperature, oxygen leakage through the premixed flame, and residence time in the pyrolysis region can be independently controlled by varying the stoichiometry and composition of the premixed flame and the velocity of the fuel counterflow. The thickness of the pyrolysis region, where the soot formation occurs, is large and, thus, experimentally well accessible and resolvable. Along the axis of symmetry, concentration profiles of various stable species up to C{sub 4} hydrocarbons were measured by gas chromatography. Thermocouples were used for temperature measurements. The soot volume fraction was determined by a laser-light extinction method and Abel`s inversion. The experimental results were compared with one-dimensional calculations using a kinetically based soot model. The reaction mechanism contains 62 species and about 400 reactions. The soot formation mechanism accounts for all possible coagulation processes between polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles, namely PAH-PAH coagulation leading to particle inception, PAH-particle coagulation, and particle-particle coagulation, for surface growth by C{sub 2}H{sub 2} addition and for oxidation. The results of the numerical simulation and the experiment show a good agreement for temperature and major species. The prediction for the maximum value of the soot volume fraction is quite good, but deviations in the measured and calculated profiles suggest an underestimated soot particle diffusion, indicating an overprediction of the particle sizes in the soot formation model.

  5. Determination of Total Antioxidant Capacity by a New Spectrofluorometric Method Based on Ce(IV) Reduction: Ce(III) Fluorescence Probe for CERAC Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilek Ozyurt; Birsen Demirata; Resat Apak

    A Ce(IV)-based reducing capacity (CERAC) assay was developed to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of foods, in\\u000a which Ce(IV) would selectively oxidize antioxidant compounds but not citric acid and reducing sugars which are not classified\\u000a as antioxidants. The method is based on the electron-transfer (ET) reaction between Ce(IV) ion and antioxidants in optimized\\u000a acidic sulphate medium (i.e., 0.3 M H2SO4

  6. Determination of total antioxidant capacity by a new spectrofluorometric method based on Ce(IV) reduction: Ce(III) fluorescence probe for CERAC assay.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2011-11-01

    A Ce(IV)-based reducing capacity (CERAC) assay was developed to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of foods, in which Ce(IV) would selectively oxidize antioxidant compounds but not citric acid and reducing sugars which are not classified as antioxidants. The method is based on the electron-transfer (ET) reaction between Ce(IV) ion and antioxidants in optimized acidic sulphate medium (i.e., 0.3 M H(2)SO(4) and 0.7 M Na(2)SO(4)) and subsequent determination of the produced Ce(III) ions by a fluorometric method. The fluorescent product, Ce(III), exhibited strong fluorescence at 360 nm with an excitation wavelength of 256 nm, the fluorescence intensity being correlated to antioxidant power of the original sample. The linear concentration range for most antioxidants was quite wide, e.g., 5.0 × 10(-7)-1.0 × 10(-5) M for quercetin. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the TAC assay of antioxidant compounds such as trolox, quercetin, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin, naringin, naringenin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, glutathione, and cysteine. The proposed method was reproducible, additive in terms of TAC values of constituents of complex mixtures, and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC coefficients) of the tested antioxidant compounds gave good correlations with those found by reference methods such as ABTS and CUPRAC. PMID:21617997

  7. RAS Assays

    Cancer.gov

    The proportion of oncogenic mutants of KRAS proteins that are in the "active" (GTP-bound) form is far higher than that of wild-type RAS proteins. Scientists at the National Lab are developing high-throughput in vitro assays to measure interactions of GTP-loaded KRAS and effectors, such as CRAF and calmodulin, as well as imaging assays that can detect oncogenic KRAS interactions inside cells.

  8. KISS: Kinetics and Structure of Superagglomerates Produced by Silane and Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, G. W.; Yang, J. C.; Scott, J. H.; Sivithanu, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the process of gas phase agglomeration leading to superagglomerates and a gel-like structure for microgravity (0-g) silane and acetylene flames. Ultimately one would apply this understanding to predicting flame conditions that could lead to the gas phase production of an aero-gel. The approach is to burn acetylene and silane and to analyze the evolution of the soot and silica agglomerates. Acetylene is chosen because it has one of the highest soot volume fractions and there is evidence of super agglomerates being formed in laminar acetylene flames. Silane has the advantage that silica particles are the major combustion product resulting in a particle volume fraction a factor of ten greater than that for a carbonaceous smoke.

  9. Spectroscopy and theory of cis-trans isomerization in the S? state of acetylene

    E-print Network

    Changala, P. Bryan (Peter Bryan)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of parallel experimental and theoretical studies of the rovibrational structure and dynamics of the Si state of acetylene, C2H2 . This small molecule is a prototypical system for the study of cis-trans ...

  10. State-to-state vibrational predissociation dynamics of the acetylene-HF complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudejans, L.; Moore, D. T.; Miller, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    The vibrational predissociation of the acetylene-HF complex has been studied by probing the final state distributions of the photofragments, including the intermolecular scalar correlations. Results are presented for excitation of both the asymmetric C-H stretching vibration of the acetylene and the H-F stretch. In the latter case, the primary dissociation channel is V-R, resulting in highly rotationally excited HF produced in coincidence with ground vibrational state acetylene. Excitation of the asymmetric C-H stretch results in intramolecular V-V energy transfer to the C-C stretch excited state of the acetylene. The dissociation energy of the complex is determined to be 1088 cm-1±2 cm-1.

  11. Characterization of the Minimum Energy Paths and Energetics for the Reaction of Vinylidene with Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1995-01-01

    The reaction of vinylidene (CH2C) with acetylene may be an initiating reaction in soot formation. We report minimum energy paths and accurate energetics for a pathway leading to vinyl-acetylene and for a number of isomers of C4H4. The calculations use complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) derivative methods to characterize the stationary points and internally contacted configuration interaction (ICCI) and/or coupled cluster singles and doubles with a perturbational estimate of triple excitations (CCSD(T)) to determine the energetics. We find an entrance channel barrier of about 5 kcal/mol for the addition of vinylidene to acetylene, but no barriers above reactants for the reaction pathway leading to vinyl-acetylene.

  12. Large core acetylene-filled photonic microcells made by tapering the hollow-core fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Wheeler; M. D. W. Grogan; P. S. Light; F. Couny; T. A. Birks; F. Benabid

    2010-01-01

    We fabricated low insertion loss and large core (40 – 70 µm) kagomé lattice acetylene-filled photonic microcells by tapering the large outer diameter kagomé fibers and splicing their reduced ends to a single mode fiber.

  13. Stability of an acetylene frequency reference inside kagome structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Knabe; Jinkang Lim; Karl Tillman; Rajesh Thapa; François Couny; Phillip S. Light; Jeffrey W. Nicholson; Brian R. Washburn; Fetah Benabid; Kristan L. Corwin

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-wave laser has been stabilized to an acetylene transition inside kagome photonic crystal fiber. Stability as measured with a carbon nanotube fiber laser frequency comb is better than 1times10-11 at 10 s.

  14. INHIBITION OF ALKYLBENZENE BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS BY USING THE ACETYLENE BLOCK TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addition of acetylene to microcosms simultaneously amended with nitrate and alkylbenzenes resulted in inhibition of the rate of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. oluene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were recalcitrant, whereas ethylbenzene was degra...

  15. INHIBITION OF ALKYLBENZENE BIODEGRADATION UNDER DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS BY USING THE ACETYLENE BLOCK TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addition of acetylene to microcosms simultaneously amended with nitrate and alkylbenzenes resulted in inhibition of the rate of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Toluene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were recalcitrant, whereas ethylbenzene was degr...

  16. Room-temperature acetylene hydration by a Hg(ii)-laced metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Yee, Ka-Kit; Wong, Yan-Lung; Zha, Meiqin; Adhikari, Ramesh Y; Tuominen, Mark T; He, Jun; Xu, Zhengtao

    2015-06-23

    Thiol (-SH) groups within a Zr(iv)-based metal-organic framework (MOF) anchor Hg(ii) atoms; oxidation by H2O2 then leads to acidic sulfonate functions for catalyzing acetylene hydration at room temperature. PMID:26062539

  17. Solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium-catalyzed oligomerization of tert-butyl acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Sheng Cheng; Guo-Feng Wei; Shi-Wen Huang; Jin-Zhao; Huan-Feng Jiang

    2007-01-01

    A solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium-catalyzed oligomerization of tert-butyl acetylene was reported in this paper. The reaction was carried out smoothly in benzene\\/n-BuOH binary solvents system. When benzene, unpolar aprotic solvent, became preponderating in the binary solvents system, a cyclotrimerization process occurred to produce 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene via a mechanism of three acetylene molecular to insert step by step forming ?-butadienyl-Pd and ?-hexatrienyl-Pd intermediates,

  18. High resolution spectroscopic detection of acetylene–vinylidene isomerization by spectral cross correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongqin Chen; David M. Jonas; J. L. Kinsey; R. W. Field

    1989-01-01

    Information about the unimolecular acetylene (HC 3\\/4 CH)?vinylidene (H2C=C:) isomerization on the S0 energy surface has been extracted from vibrationally unassigned high resolution stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of acetylene. The combination of a new pattern recognition scheme, spectral cross correlation (SCC) with complete nuclear permutation-inversion (CNPI) group theory is shown to be a powerful new technique for characterizing bond

  19. High resolution spectroscopic detection of acetylene-vinylidene isomerization by spectral cross correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongqin Chen; David M. Jonas; J. L. Kinsey; R. W. Field

    1989-01-01

    Information about the unimolecular acetylene (HC 3\\/4 CH)âvinylidene (HâC=C:) isomerization on the {ital S}â energy surface has been extracted from vibrationally unassigned high resolution stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of acetylene. The combination of a new pattern recognition scheme, spectral cross correlation (SCC) with complete nuclear permutation-inversion (CNPI) group theory is shown to be a powerful new technique for characterizing

  20. Anisotropic Molecular Reorientation in Methyl-d3-acetylene in the Liquid State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jonas; T. M. Digennaro

    1969-01-01

    The temperature dependence of deuteron and proton spin–lattice relaxation times, T1, has been measured in methyl-d3-acetylene and methylacetylene-d1 using the adiabatic fast passage method. The difference in activation energies obtained from deuteron T1 data for acetylenic deuteron (Ea = 1.7 kcal?mole) and methyl-d3 deuterons (Ea = 1.1 kcal?mole) demonstrates that the reorientation is anisotropic without assumption of any model for

  1. Electronic relaxation and vibrational predissociation of benzene-acetylene van der Waals complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Shelley; H.-L. Dai; T. Troxler

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation spectra and dispersed fluorescence spectra of van der Waals complexes formed between benzene and acetylene, B.An with n=1,2, were measured in the vicinity of the benzene S1<--S0 60110n transitions. Based on spectral shifts, fluorescence lifetimes and an acetylene concentration study, the complex exhibiting the largest blue shift (+136 cm-1) is assigned to the B.A dimer complex. Two other

  2. Electronic relaxation and vibrational predissociation of benzene-acetylene van der Waals complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Shelley; H.-L. Dai; T. Troxler

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation spectra and dispersed fluorescence spectra of van der Waals complexes formed between benzene and acetylene, B?An with n=1,2, were measured in the vicinity of the benzene S1?S0 60110n transitions. Based on spectral shifts, fluorescence lifetimes and an acetylene concentration study, the complex exhibiting the largest blue shift (+136 cm?1) is assigned to the B?A dimer complex. Two other

  3. Identification of Novel Acetylenic Alcohols and a New Dihydrothiopyranone from the Tropical Sponge Reniochalina sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyi-Seung Lee; Ji Hye Lee; Hoshik Won; Song-Kyu Park; Hwan Mook Kim; Hee Jae Shin; Heung Sik Park; Chung J. Sim; Hye-Kyeong Kim

    2009-01-01

    Two new acetylenic alcohols (1–2) and a new dihydrothiopyranone (3) were isolated from the tropical sponge Reniochalina sp. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods to be (3R)-hydroxyoctatriacont-(4E)-en-1-yne (1), 5-hydroxyheptatriacont-(3Z)-en-1-yne (2) and 2-hexadecyl-2,3-dihydrothiopyran-4-one (3). The acetylenic alcohol (1) exhibited significant growth inhibitory effect against human tumor cell lines.

  4. Infrared spectra of some organotin oxygen-containing compounds of the acetylene series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. I. Shergina; N. I. Golovanova; R. G. Mirskov; V. M. Vlasov

    1967-01-01

    1.The infrared spectra of ten organotin oxygen-containing acetylenic compounds were obtained for the first time.2.The vibration frequency of the acetylenic bond is greatly affected by the introduction of the tin atoma to it, which is associated with d-p-interaction. The nature of the other radicals has little effect on the vibration frequency of the C=C bond.3.The vibration frequencies of the other

  5. A porous metal-organic framework with ultrahigh acetylene uptake capacity under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jiandong; Jiang, Feilong; Wu, Mingyan; Liu, Caiping; Su, Kongzhao; Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Hong, Maochun

    2015-01-01

    Acetylene, an important petrochemical raw material, is very difficult to store safely under compression because of its highly explosive nature. Here we present a porous metal-organic framework named FJI-H8, with both suitable pore space and rich open metal sites, for efficient storage of acetylene under ambient conditions. Compared with existing reports, FJI-H8 shows a record-high gravimetric acetylene uptake of 224?cm3 (STP)?g?1 and the second-highest volumetric uptake of 196?cm3 (STP)?cm?3 at 295?K and 1?atm. Increasing the storage temperature to 308?K has only a small effect on its acetylene storage capacity (?200?cm3 (STP)?g?1). Furthermore, FJI-H8 exhibits an excellent repeatability with only 3.8% loss of its acetylene storage capacity after five cycles of adsorption–desorption tests. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation reveals that not only open metal sites but also the suitable pore space and geometry play key roles in its remarkable acetylene uptake. PMID:26123775

  6. A porous metal-organic framework with ultrahigh acetylene uptake capacity under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiandong; Jiang, Feilong; Wu, Mingyan; Liu, Caiping; Su, Kongzhao; Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Hong, Maochun

    2015-01-01

    Acetylene, an important petrochemical raw material, is very difficult to store safely under compression because of its highly explosive nature. Here we present a porous metal-organic framework named FJI-H8, with both suitable pore space and rich open metal sites, for efficient storage of acetylene under ambient conditions. Compared with existing reports, FJI-H8 shows a record-high gravimetric acetylene uptake of 224?cm(3) (STP)?g(-1) and the second-highest volumetric uptake of 196?cm(3) (STP)?cm(-3) at 295?K and 1?atm. Increasing the storage temperature to 308?K has only a small effect on its acetylene storage capacity (?200?cm(3) (STP)?g(-1)). Furthermore, FJI-H8 exhibits an excellent repeatability with only 3.8% loss of its acetylene storage capacity after five cycles of adsorption-desorption tests. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation reveals that not only open metal sites but also the suitable pore space and geometry play key roles in its remarkable acetylene uptake. PMID:26123775

  7. Isotope effect in dissociative electron attachment to acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    May, O.; Fedor, J.; Allan, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 9, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2009-07-15

    Absolute partial cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to H-C{identical_to}C-H and D-C{identical_to}C-D have been measured using a time-of-flight ion spectrometer combined with a trochoidal electron monochromator. For C{sub 2}H{sub 2} the present data are in good agreement with the total cross sections measured previously in our laboratory using the total ion-collection method. The present measurements on deuterated acetylene revealed a pronounced isotope effect at the first dissociative electron attachment band at 3 eV, with the cross section for C{sub 2}D{sup -}/C{sub 2}D{sub 2} being 14.4 times smaller than that for C{sub 2}H{sup -}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The dominant fragments at the second dissociative attachment band around 8 eV are the light fragments H{sup -} or D{sup -}. These bands exhibit weaker isotope effects, in agreement with their assignment to Feshbach resonances with narrow autodetachment widths.

  8. An improved processible acetylene-terminated polyimide for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, A. L.; Naselow, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    The newest member of a family of thermosetting acetylene-substituted polyimide oligomers is HR600P. This oligomer is the isoimide version of the oligomer known as HR600P and Thermid 600. Although both types of material yield the same heat resistant end products after cure, HR600P has much superior processing characteristics. This attributed to its lower melting temperature (160 + or - 10 C, 320 + or - 20 F) in contrast to 202 C (396 F) for Thermid MC-600, its longer gel time at its processing temperature (16 to 30 minutes bvs 3 minutes), and its excellent solubility in low boiling solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, glymes, or 4:1 methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixtures. These advantages provide more acceptable coating and impregnation procedures, allow for more complete removal at lower temperatures, provide a longer pot life or working time, and allow composite structure fabrication in conventional autoclaves used for epoxy composite curing. The excellent processing characteristics of HR600P allow its use in large area laminated structures, structural composites, and molding compositions.

  9. Acetylene-chromene terminated resins as high temperature thermosets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godschalx, J. P.; Inbasekaran, M. N.; Bartos, B. R.; Scheck, D. M.; Laman, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    A novel phase transfer catalyzed process for the preparation of propargyl ethers has been developed. The propargyl ethers serve as precursors to a new class of thermosetting resins called acetylene-chromene terminated (ACT) resins. Heat treatment of a solution of propargyl ethers with various catalysts, followed by removal of solvent leads to the ACT resins via partial conversion of the propargyl ether groups to chromenes. This process reduces the energy content of the resin systems and reduces the amount of shrinkage found during cure. Due to the presence of the solvent the process is safe and gives rise to low viscosity products suitable for resin transfer molding and filament winding type applications. Due to the high glass transition temperature, high modulus, and low moisture uptake the cured resins display better than 232 C/wet performance. The thermal stability of the ACT resins in air at 204 C is superior to that of conventional bismaleimide resins. The resins also display excellent electrical properties.

  10. Catalytic conversion of acetylene to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over particles of pyroxene and alumina.

    PubMed

    Tian, M; Liu, B S; Hammonds, M; Wang, N; Sarre, P J; Cheung, A S-C

    2013-07-13

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be present in many astrophysical objects and environments, but our understanding of their formation mechanism(s) is far from satisfactory. In this paper, we describe an investigation of the catalytic conversion reaction of acetylene gas to PAHs over pyroxene and alumina. Crystalline silicates such as pyroxenes (with general formula [Mg, Fe]SiO?) and alumina (Al?O?) are observed astrophysically through their infrared spectra and are likely to promote grain surface chemical reactions. In the experiments reported here, gas-phase PAHs were produced by the catalytic reaction of acetylene over crystalline silicates and alumina using a pulsed jet expansion technique and the gaseous products detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In a separate experiment, the catalytic formation of PAHs from acetylene was further confirmed with acetylene gas at atmospheric pressure flowing continuously through a fixed-bed reactor. The gas effluent and carbonaceous compounds deposited on the catalysts were dissolved separately in dichloromethane and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the samples studied, alumina showed higher activity than the pyroxene-type grains for the acetylene reaction. It is proposed that formation of the PAHs relies on the Mg²? ions in the pyroxenes and Al³? ions in alumina, where these ions act as Lewis acid sites. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the structure and physical properties of the pyroxene and alumina samples. PMID:23734053

  11. Improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay using the MultiScreen® Assay System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Janssen; K. Ensing; R. A. de Zeeuw

    1999-01-01

    In this article, an improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay is described, which allows substantial reduction in assay time. The filtration in this method was performed by using the MultiScreen® Assay System. The latter consists of a 96-well plate with glass fibre filters sealed at the bottom, which allows both the incubation and the filtration of the specimen in the same plate.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of solid acetylene: a multispectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuylle, Steven H.; Zhao, Dongfeng; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Linnartz, Harold

    2014-10-01

    Aims: Gas phase acetylene (C2H2) and polyynes (H(-C?C-)mH) are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium. However, astrochemical models systematically underestimate the observed abundances, supporting the idea that enrichment from the solid state takes place. In this laboratory-based study, we investigate the role C2H2 plays in interstellar ice chemistry and we discuss the way its photoproducts may affect gas phase compositions. Methods: C2H2 ice is investigated under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation in its pure form as present in the atmosphere of Titan and in a water-dominated ice as present on grain mantles in molecular clouds and on comets. To disentangle the photochemical network, a unique, complementary combination of infrared and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy is used. Results: From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the VUV-induced solid state C2H2 reaction network is dominated by polymerization resulting in the formation of polyynes at least up to C20H2 and larger polyyne-like molecules. At low temperatures, this process takes place very efficiently and suggests low barriers. When extending this reaction scheme to a water-rich environment, the dominant reaction products are CO and CO2 but the simultaneous detection of polyyne like molecules is evidence that the reactions as observed in pure C2H2 ice persist. Conclusions: From the spectroscopic evidence as presented in this laboratory study, it is concluded that the formation of polyynes upon VUV irradiation of interstellar ices is a process that may contribute to at least part of the observed gas phase enrichment in space.

  13. Inhibition of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions by using acetylene block technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Aquifers contaminated with gasoline and other fuels often exhibit levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in excess of regulatory limits mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Addition of acetylene to microcosms simultaneously amended with nitrate and alkylbenzenes resulted in inhibition of the rate of alkylbenzene biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Toluene, xylenes, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were recalcitrant, whereas ethylbenzene was degraded at a slower rate than usual. Benzene was not degraded in either case. Addition of acetylene to microcosms preexposed to nitrate and alkylbenzenes produced similar inhibition. These data indicate that the activities of microorganisms that degrade alkylbenzenes under denitrifying conditions may be suppressed if the standard acetylene block technique is used to verify denitrifying activity.

  14. Direct conversion of methane to acetylene or syngas at room temperature using non-equilibrium pulsed discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Kado; Kohei Urasaki; Yasushi Sekine; Kaoru Fujimoto

    2003-01-01

    Non-catalytic direct conversion of methane to valuable products was studied using non-equilibrium pulsed discharge under the conditions of ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Acetylene was produced with 95% selectivity and 52% methane conversion. An addition of oxygen, carbon dioxide and steam contributed significantly to suppress the carbon deposition and produced carbon monoxide as well as acetylene. Methane conversion increased with

  15. Assaying mechanosensation*

    PubMed Central

    Chalfie, Martin; Hart, Anne C.; Rankin, Catharine H.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans detect and respond to diverse mechanical stimuli using neuronal circuitry that has been defined by decades of work by C. elegans researchers. In this WormMethods chapter, we review and comment on the techniques currently used to assess mechanosensory response. This methods review is intended both as an introduction for those new to the field and a convenient compendium for the expert. A brief discussion of commonly used mechanosensory assays is provided, along with a discussion of the neural circuits involved, consideration of critical protocol details, and references to the primary literature. PMID:25093996

  16. Cation-? and CH-? Interactions in the Coordination and Solvation of Cu(+)(acetylene)n Complexes.

    PubMed

    Brathwaite, Antonio D; Ward, Timothy B; Walters, Richard S; Duncan, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Copper-acetylene cation complexes of the form Cu(C2H2)n(+) (n = 1-8) are produced by laser ablation in a supersonic expansion of acetylene/argon. The ions are mass selected and studied via infrared laser photodissociation spectroscopy in the C-H stretching region (3000-3500 cm(-1)). The structure and bonding of these complexes are investigated through the number of infrared active bands, their relative intensities and their frequency positions. Density functional theory calculations are carried out in support of the experimental data. The combined data show that cation-? complexes are formed for the n = 1-3 species, resulting in red-shifted C-H stretches on the acetylene ligands. The coordination of the copper cation is completed with three acetylene ligands, forming a "propeller" structure with D3 symmetry. Surprisingly, complexes with even greater numbers of acetylenes than this (4-6) have distinctive infrared band patterns quite different from those of the smaller complexes. Experiment combined with theory establishes that there is a fascinating pattern of second-sphere solvation involving the binding of acetylenes in bifurcated CH-? binding sites at the apex of two core ligands. This binding motif leads to three equivalent sites for second-sphere ligands, which when filled form a highly symmetrical Cu(+)(C2H2)6 complex. Solvent binding in this complex induces a structural change to planarity in the core, producing an appealing "core-shell" structure with D3h symmetry. PMID:25951753

  17. Novel solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium\\/copper(II) halide catalyzed oligomerization of tert -butyl acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Sheng Cheng; Guo-Feng Wei; Zu-Liang Huang

    2007-01-01

    Solvent-controlled chemoselective palladium-catalyzed oligomerization of tert-butyl acetylene is reported in this paper. The reaction was carried out smoothly in benzene\\/n-BuOH binary solvent system. When unpolar aprotic benzene was the preponderating component in the binary system, a cyclotrimerization\\u000a process occurred to produce 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene via a mechanism of three acetylene molecules, inserted step by step, forming ?-butadienyl-Pd and ?-hexatrienyl-Pd intermediates. While when

  18. Solid-state NMR studies of the adsorption of acetylene on platinum/alumina catalysts 

    E-print Network

    Lambregts, Marsha Jo Lupher

    1991-01-01

    SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Approved as to style and content by: ames F. Haw...

  19. Identification of non-precious metal alloy catalysts for selective hydrogenation of acetylene.

    PubMed

    Studt, Felix; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Bligaard, Thomas; Sørensen, Rasmus Z; Christensen, Claus H; Nørskov, Jens K

    2008-06-01

    The removal of trace acetylene from ethylene is performed industrially by palladium hydrogenation catalysts (often modified with silver) that avoid the hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane. In an effort to identify catalysts based on less expensive and more available metals, density functional calculations were performed that identified relations in heats of adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules and fragments on metal surfaces. This analysis not only verified the facility of known catalysts but identified nickel-zinc alloys as alternatives. Experimental studies demonstrated that these alloys dispersed on an oxide support were selective for acetylene hydrogenation at low pressures. PMID:18535238

  20. Rhenium-catalyzed anti-Markovnikov addition reaction of methanetricarboxylates to unactivated terminal acetylenes.

    PubMed

    Hori, Shunsuke; Murai, Masahito; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2015-02-01

    A novel anti-Markovnikov addition reaction of methanetricarboxylates with terminal acetylenes under neutral conditions was achieved using a rhenium complex. This transformation represents a rare example of intermolecular anti-Markovnikov addition of carbon nucleophiles to unactivated terminal acetylenes. 1,3-Diesters having bulky substituents at the active methylene carbon are also applicable as substrates to provide anti-Markovnikov adducts as single regio- and stereoisomers. Preliminary mechanistic studies imply that the rhenium vinylidene species is the key intermediate in the current catalytic cycle. PMID:25563809

  1. Acetylene- and Phenylacetylene-Terminated Poly(Arylene Ether Benzimidazole)s (PAEBI's)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Polymers prepared by first synthesizing polymers terminated with hydroxy groups, then reacting them with either 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride or 4-fluoro-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone. Endcapped polymers thermally cured to yield materials with attractive combination of properties. Cured acetylene-and phenylacetylene-terminated PAEBI's exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures and better retention of mechanical properties at high temperatures. Cured acetylene- and phenylacetylene-terminated polymers exhibit excellent adhesion to copper foil and polyimide film. Potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, composite matrices, fibers, films, membranes, and moldings.

  2. Heats of Formation of Triplet Ethylene, Ethylidene, and Acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.T.; Matus, M.H.; Lester Jr, W.A.; Dixon, David A.

    2007-06-28

    Heats of formation of the lowest triplet state of ethylene and the ground triplet state of ethylidene have been predicted by high level electronic structure calculations. Total atomization energies obtained from coupled-cluster CCSD(T) energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit using correlation consistent basis sets (CBS), plus additional corrections predict the following heats of formation in kcal/mol: Delta H0f(C2H4,3A1) = 80.1 at 0 K and 78.5 at 298 K, and Delta H0f(CH3CH,3A") = 86.8 at 0 K and 85.1 at 298 K, with an error of less than +-1.0 kcal/mol. The vertical and adiabatic singlet-triplet separation energies of ethylene were calculated as Delta ES-T,vert = 104.1 and Delta ES-T,adia = 65.8 kcal/mol. These results are in excellent agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) values of 103.5 +- 0.3 and 66.4 +- 0.3 kcal/mol. Both sets of computational values differ from the experimental estimate of 58 +- 3 kcal/mol for the adiabatic splitting. The computed singlet-triplet gap at 0 K for acetylene is Delta ES-T,adia(C2H2) = 90.5 kcal/mol, which is in notable disagreement with the experimental value of 82.6 kcal/mol. The heat of formation of the triplet is Delta H0f(C2H2,3B2) = 145.3 kcal/mol. There is a systematic underestimation of the singlet-triplet gaps in recent photodecomposition experiments by ~;;7 to 8 kcal/mol. For vinylidene, we predict Delta H0f(H2CC,1A1) = 98.8 kcal/mol at 298 K (exptl. 100.3 +- 4.0), Delta H0f(H2CC,3B2) = 146.2 at 298 K, and an energy gap Delta ES-T-adia(H2CC) = 47.7 kcal/mol.

  3. REGULAR ARTICLE The invasive Sorghum halepense harbors endophytic

    E-print Network

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H.

    plant growth, namely mobilizing phosphorus and iron chelation, are known for closest matching relatives acetylene reduction assay Introduction The modification of resource availability (here broadly considered

  4. Well-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition of Acetylene on Cobalt Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoon Huh; Jeong Yong Lee; Cheol Jin Lee

    2003-01-01

    Well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of acetylene on cobalt nanoparticles. The synthesized CNTs have a very uniform diameter and high purity. Our results demonstrate that the alignment, density, and diameter of CNTs can be easily controlled by adjusting cobalt nanoparticles on substrates.

  5. TOXICITY OF ACETYLENIC ALCOHOLS TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS: NARCOSIS AND PROELECTROPHILE ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 96-h LC50 values for 16 acetylenic alcohols in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were determined using continuous-flow diluters. The measured LC50 values for seven tertiary propargylic alcohols agreed closely with the QSAR predictions based upon data for other organic ...

  6. Note: A new acetylenic ketone from the bark of Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya Zhao; Guo-Qiang Song; Yue-Wei Guo

    2005-01-01

    A new acetylenic ketone isolated from the bark of Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongifolia has been characterized as 13-tetradecyn-2-one on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with related model compounds. Four known related lipids have also been isolated from this plant.

  7. Triplet Acetylenes as Synthetic Equivalents of 1,2-Bicarbenes: Phantom n,* State Controls Reactivity in

    E-print Network

    Alabugin, Igor

    acetylene: PET). Dramatically enhanced ISC between -* S1 state and "phantom" n,* triplet excited state is likely to be important in directing reactivity to the triplet pathway. The role of PET can be minimized coordination polymers. Introduction The triple bond is among the most important functional groups in organic

  8. Mechanistic aspects of [Rh(nbd)CI][sub 2]initiated oligomerization of new acetylenic monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Densmore, C.G. (Crystal G); Rasmussen, P.G. (Paul G.)

    2004-01-01

    Although a number of papers report the use of rhodium-based initiators, very little has been said about the mechanism of acetylene polymerizations. Kishimoto and coworkers recently proposed an insertion mechanism for the rhodium-initiated polymerization of phenylacetylenes. The initiator consisted of the tetracoordinate rhodium complex, Rh(C{triple_bond}CC{sub 6}H{sub 5})(nbd)(PPh{sub 3}) with 4-(dimethylamino)-pyidine. The product was found to be stereoregular poly(phenylacety1ene) with a cis-transoidal backbone microstructure. Gorman and coworkers found palladium and nickel-based catalysts to be successful in the polymerization of cyanoacetylene. Zhan and Yang addressed the polymerization mechanism of acetylenes using palladium and nickel acetylide catalysts. They propose that the initial activation step, and also the rate-determining step, involve coordination of a nickel or palladium acetylide catalyst with an acetylene. Based on NMR and elemental analysis, we propose a more complete mechanistic picture of acetylene polymerizations, especially those with electron-withdrawing substituents.

  9. Immobilized nickel catalysts for cyclotrimerizations of acetylenes: enhancement of activities, stabilities, and lifetimes

    E-print Network

    Bluemel, Janet

    Immobilized nickel catalysts for cyclotrimerizations of acetylenes: enhancement of activities to optimize the stability and mini- mize leaching of nickel catalysts for alkyne cyclotrimerization supports. They have, for example, been successfully used to immobilize carbonyl nickel3 or rho- dium2

  10. Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame

    E-print Network

    Dandy, David

    1 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame K Abstract Diamond growth in low pressure combustion flames was studied using a safer, more economical and chemical kinetic time scales in the combustion reactor. 1 Present Address: 3M Corporation, Bldg. 60-1N-01

  11. Modification of the carbon fiber\\/matrix interface using gas plasma treatment with acetylene and oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Feih; P. Schwartz

    1998-01-01

    Acetylene and oxygen gas plasma treatment of PAN-based carbon fibers to increase the interfacial shear strength was investigated. The effects of different gas mixtures and exposure times were studied. Changes in the fiber surface chemistry were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and wetting tests. The adhesion of epoxy to treated fibers was measured using the

  12. Stability of Optical Frequency References Based on Acetylene-filled Kagome-structured Hollow Core Fiber

    E-print Network

    Washburn, Brian

    bandgap fiber [1] and 70 µm 19-cell kagome fiber. (b) Sub-Doppler dispersion signal obtained with rf, Large-Core Kagome Photonic Crystal Fiber," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)(OSA, SanStability of Optical Frequency References Based on Acetylene-filled Kagome-structured Hollow Core

  13. Methane emissions measured at two California landfills by OTM-10 and an acetylene tracer method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane emissions were measured at two municipal solid waste landfills in California using static flux chambers, an optical remote sensing approach known as vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) using a tunable diode laser (TDL) and a novel acetylene tracer method. The tracer meth...

  14. Synthesis of acetylenic carbinols of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Pavlikov; L. N. Skripnichenko; L. A. Usbynyuk; V. V. Murav'ev; A. B. Shapiro; É. G. Rozantsev

    1978-01-01

    Conclusions A convenient method was proposed for the preparation of acetylenic carbinols of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine series by the ethynylation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine in liquid ammonia in the presence of alcoholic alkali.

  15. OZONE PRODUCTION FROM IRRADIATION OF ACETYLENE/CHLORINE MIXTURES IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of chlorine radicals with acetylene in air in the absence of oxides of nitrogen result In the formation of ozone. o ozone is observed when chlorine radicals react with methylacetylene or ethylacetylene under similar conditions. ormyl chloride is observed in all syste...

  16. The effect of strain rate on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in acetylene diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Manabu; Duan, Shici; Senkan, Selim [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Acetylene is a ubiquitous combustion intermediate that is also believed to be the major precursor for aromatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and soot formation in both hydrocarbon and halogenated hydrocarbon flames. However, in spite of its important role as a flame intermediate, the detailed chemical structures of acetylene diffusion flames have not been studied in the past. Here the detailed chemical structures of counterflow diffusion flames of acetylene at strain rates of 37.7 and 50.3 s{sup -1} are presented. Both flames possessed the same carbon density of 0.37 g/L corresponding to an acetylene mole fraction of 0.375 in argon on the fuel side, and an oxygen mole fraction of 0.22 in argon on the oxidizer side. Concentration profiles of a large number of major, minor, and trace species, including a wide spectrum of aromatics and PAH, have been determined by direct sampling from flames using a heated quartz microprobe coupled to an online gas chromatograph/mass selective detector (GC/MSD). Temperature profiles were made using a thermocouple and the rapid insertion technique. Although the major species concentrations were nearly the same in the two flames, the mole fraction profiles of trace combustion by-products were significantly lower in the higher-strain-rate flame, by nearly two orders of magnitude for PAH. These comparative results provide new information on the trace chemistries of acetylene flames and should be useful for the development and validation of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms describing the formation of toxic by-products in the combustion of hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons. (author)

  17. Nitrogen-Fixing (Acetylene Redution) Activity and Population of Aerobic Heterotrophic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Associated with Wetland Rice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Iwao; Barraquio, Wilfredo L.; De Guzman, Marcelino R.; Cabrera, Delfin A.

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing activity associated with different wetland rice varieties was measured at various growth stages by an in situ acetylene reduction method after the activities of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in the flood water and on the lower portion of the rice stem were eliminated. Nitrogen-fixing activities associated with rice varieties differed with plant growth stages. The activities increased with plant age, and the maximum was about at heading stage. The nitrogen fixed during the whole cropping period was estimated at 5.9 kg of N per ha for variety IR26 (7 days) and 4.8 kg of N per ha for variety IR36 (95 days). The population of aerobic heterotrophic N2-fixing bacteria associated with rice roots and stems was determined by the most-probable-number method, using semisolid glucose-yeast extract and semisolid malate-yeast extract media. The addition of yeast extract to the glucose medium increased the number and activity of aerobic heterotrophic N2-fixing bacteria. The glucose-yeast extract medium gave higher counts of aerobic N2-fixing bacteria associated with rice roots than did the malate-yeast extract medium, on which Spirillum-like bacteria were usually observed. The lower portion of the rice stem was also inhabited by N2-fixing bacteria and was an active site of N2 fixation. PMID:16345379

  18. Growth of few-wall carbon nanotubes with narrow diameter distribution over Fe-Mo-MgO catalyst by methane/acetylene catalytic decomposition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Few-wall carbon nanotubes were synthesized by methane/acetylene decomposition over bimetallic Fe-Mo catalyst with MgO (1:8:40) support at the temperature of 900°C. No calcinations and reduction pretreatments were applied to the catalytic powder. The transmission electron microscopy investigation showed that the synthesized carbon nanotubes [CNTs] have high purity and narrow diameter distribution. Raman spectrum showed that the ratio of G to D band line intensities of IG/ID is approximately 10, and the peaks in the low frequency range were attributed to the radial breathing mode corresponding to the nanotubes of small diameters. Thermogravimetric analysis data indicated no amorphous carbon phases. Experiments conducted at higher gas pressures showed the increase of CNT yield up to 83%. Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction were employed to evaluate the nature of catalyst particles. PMID:22300375

  19. Measuring Hydroxyl Radicals during the Oxidation of Methane, Ethane, Ethylene, and Acetylene in a Shock Tube Using UV Absorption Spectroscopy 

    E-print Network

    Aul, Christopher J

    2013-05-02

    . Tests were completed using the absorption coefficient correlation on stoichiometric mixtures of methane, methane and water, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene to compare against a comprehensive, detailed chemical kinetics mechanism which considers up...

  20. Preparation of Unsaturated Nitriles by the Modification of Mitsunobu-Wilk Procedure II Carbon Elongation of ?-Acetylenic Alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed C. Aesa; Gábor Baán; Lajos Novák; Csaba Szántay

    1995-01-01

    An efficient one-step procedure for the converison of ?-acetylenic alcohols into the corresponding nitriles using triphenylphosphine (PPh3)-diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD) in the presence of acetone cyanohydrin is described.

  1. State dynamics of acetylene excited to individual rotational level of the V 12K10,1,2 subbands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir I. Makarov; Sergei A. Kochubei; Igor V. Khmelinskii

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of the IR emission induced by excitation of the acetylene molecule at the 32 Ka2, A~ 1Au<--41 la1, X~ 1Sigmag+ transition was investigated. Vibrationally resolved IR emission spectra were recorded at different delay times after the laser excitation pulse. The observed IR emission was assigned to transitions between vibrational levels of the acetylene molecule in the ground state.

  2. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and high level ab initio calculations of the halide-acetylene dimer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckham, D. A. R.; Conran, S.; Lapere, K. M.; Kettner, M.; McKinley, A. J.; Wild, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Anion photoelectron spectra are presented for the halide-acetylene complexes, X-⋯C2H2 where X = Cl, Br, and I. Electron binding energies are determined to be 4.1, 3.8 and 3.4 eV, respectively. Results from CCSD(T) calculations are presented for the neutral halogen-acetylene complexes. Two minima are predicted corresponding to a linear C? v and T-shaped C2 v geometry, with the T-shaped geometry stationary point predicted to be the global minimum. The form of the photoelectron spectrum is determined via prediction of the Franck-Condon factors linking the anion and neutral states.

  3. Characterization of the Minimum Energy Paths and Energetics for the reaction of Vinylidene with Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1995-01-01

    The reaction of vinylidene (CH2C) with acetylene may be an initiating reaction in soot formation. We report minimum energy paths and accurate energetics for a pathway leading to vinylacetylene and for a number of isomers Of C4H4. The calculations use complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) derivative methods to characterize the stationary points and internally contacted configuration interaction (ICCI) and/or coupled cluster singles and doubles with a perturbational estimate of triple excitations (CCSD(T)) to determine the energetics. We find an entrance channel barrier of about 5 kcal/mol for the addition of vinylidene to acetylene, but no barriers above reactants for the reaction pathway leading to vinylacetylene.

  4. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Jianyi; Xu, Dingguo; Guo, Hua; Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helpsmore »to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.« less

  5. A detailed kinetic modeling study of aromatics formation in laminar premixed acetylene and ethylene flames

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Frenklach, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-07-01

    A computational study was performed for the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in laminar premixed acetylene and ethylene flames. A new detailed reaction mechanism describing fuel pyrolysis and oxidation, benzene formation, and PAH mass growth and oxidation is presented and critically tested. It is shown that the reaction model predicts reasonably well the concentration profiles of major and intermediate species and aromatic molecules in a number of acetylene and ethylene flames reported in the literature. It is demonstrated that reactions of n-C{sub 4}H{sub x} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} leading to the formation of one-ring aromatics are as important as the propargyl recombination, and hence must be included in kinetic modeling of PAH formation in hydrocarbon flames. It is further demonstrated that the mass growth of PAHs can be accounted for by the previously proposed H-abstraction-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-addiction mechanism.

  6. Electromagnetically induced transparency in acetylene molecules with counterpropagating beams in V and ? schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, P. S.; Benabid, F.; Pearce, G. J.; Couny, F.; Bird, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the experimental observation of electromagnetically induced transparency in V and ? energy level schemes using counterpropagating coupling and probe beam geometry. The observation was achieved using an acetylene photonic microcell. The conditions required for this observation are explored theoretically, and we show that the use of counterpropagating beams in electromagnetically induced transparency may have applications as a spectroscopic technique where velocity discrimination is desirable.

  7. State-to-state rotational energy transfer in highly vibrationally excited acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Tobiason; A. L. Utz; F. F. Crim

    1992-01-01

    Vibrational overtone excitation of single rovibrational eigenstates in acetylene, followed by state-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) interrogation of the collisionally populated quantum states, permits a direct determination of both the pathways and rates of state-to-state rotational energy transfer in a polyatomic molecule containing about 10 000 cm?1 of internal energy. The data, which we acquire under single-collision conditions, demonstrate the importance

  8. Mode specific vibrational relaxation in the acetylene–hydrogen fluoride binary complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. S. Huang; R. E. Miller

    1989-01-01

    The optothermal molecular beam technique has been used to record the near infrared spectrum of the acetylene–HF binary complex associated with the ?7 vibrational mode (asymmetric C–H stretch). A fit to this perpendicular band spectrum gives accurate rotational constants for both the ground and excited vibrational states, as well as the vibrational origin, namely A‘=1.192 60(5) cm?1 , B‘=0.157 34(1)

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of acetylene in the 110- to 135-nm region

    SciTech Connect

    Tiee, J.J.; Sander, R.K.; Quick, C.R.; Estler, R.

    1986-01-01

    State-specific photofragmentation of acetylene in the 110- to 135-nm region has been studied using vuv laser and synchrotron sources. Investigations have been focused on learning the spectroscopic identity of the excited photoproducts by examining their time-resolved fluorescence. Results of the quenching of the excited photofragment emission and the emission polarization measurements are presented. An interpretation of these results in relating the observed photoproducts to the vuv photodissociation process is discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fluorescence and stimulated emission S1 --> S0 spectra of acetylene: Regular and ergodic regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Abramson; Robert W. Field; Dan Imre; K. K. Innes; James L. Kinsey

    1985-01-01

    The S1 ? S0 transition of acetylene has been studied by spontaneous and stimulated emission. In the spontaneous emission studies, we report new data on low-resolution dispersed fluorescence from an unrelaxed single rotational level of S1. Transitions into S0 levels from the zero-point level up to ?28 000 cm?1 of vibrational energy are reported. Earlier investigations of the emission from

  11. State-to-state relaxation of highly vibrationally excited acetylene by argon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Tobiason; M. D. Fritz; F. F. Crim

    1994-01-01

    Vibrational overtone excitation followed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) interrogation determines state-to-state rotational and vibrational relaxation rates of highly energetic acetylene molecules by argon. We initially excite a single rotational state of the vibration 3?3 (three quanta of C–H stretch, Evib=9640 cm?1) and detect the state (3?3, Jf=20) in rotational relaxation measurements or the state (?1+?2+?3+2?4, l=0, Jf=4) in vibrational relaxation

  12. A study on methane coupling to acetylene under the microwave plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ChangSheng Shen; YongZhi Sun; DeKun Sun; HongSheng Yang

    2010-01-01

    By optimizing the microwave chemistry reactor made of the rectangular waveguide resonator, the methane conversion (the maximum\\u000a 93.7%), the C2 hydrocarbon yield (the maximum 91.0%) and the acetylene yield (the maximum 88.6%) were all greatly increased under the microwave\\u000a plasma. Furthermore, for the optimal reactor, the change of the methane conversion and the C2 hydrocarbon yield is little within the

  13. 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid, new acetylenic acid from mosses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt Åndersson; Wayne H. Anderson; Jacques R. Chipault; Eldon C. Ellison; Stuart W. Fenton; Joanne L. Gellerman; John M. Hawkins; Hermann Schlenk

    1974-01-01

    Lipids of the moss,Ceratodon purpureus, yield up to 25% of an acetylenic acid which was identified as allcis-9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid. The methyl ester of this acid was isolated in 95% purity by gas liquid chromatography.\\u000a Mass spectroscopy provided the mol wt and confirmed methyl stearate as product of hydrogenation. Ozonization indicated a triple\\u000a bond in position 6 and a double bond

  14. Nanosecond Pulse Burst Ignition of Ethylene and Acetylene by Uniform Low-Temperature Plasmas1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mintusov; M. Nishihara; N. Jiang; I. Choi; M. Uddi; A. Dutta; W. R. Lempert; I. V. Adamovich

    2008-01-01

    Nanosecond pulse burst plasma ignition measurements and kinetic modeling calculations have been used to analyze kinetics of low-temperature plasma assisted ignition of hydrocarbon fuels. Uniform low-temperature plasmas have been generated by high voltage, nanosecond duration pulses at high pulse repetition rates. Pulse bursts of up to 1000 pulses have been used to ignite premixed ethylene-air and acetylene-air flows. Ignition delay

  15. Atmospheric acetylene and its relationship with CO as an indicator of air mass age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaping Xiao; Daniel J. Jacob; Solene Turquety

    2007-01-01

    Acetylene (C2H2) and CO originating from combustion are strongly correlated in atmospheric observations, offering constraints on atmospheric dilution and chemical aging. We examine here the C2H2-CO relationships in aircraft observations worldwide, and interpret them with simple models as well as with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). A C2H2 global source of 6.6 Tg yr?1 in GEOS-Chem simulates the ensemble

  16. Atmospheric acetylene and its relationship with CO as an indicator of air mass age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaping Xiao; Daniel J. Jacob; Solene Turquety

    2007-01-01

    Acetylene (C2H2) and CO originating from combustion are strongly correlated in atmospheric observations, offering constraints on atmospheric dilution and chemical aging. We examine here the C2H2-CO relationships in aircraft observations worldwide, and interpret them with simple models as well as with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). A C2H2 global source of 6.6 Tg yr-1 in GEOS-Chem simulates the ensemble

  17. Theoretical study of the C-H bond dissociation energy of acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Peter R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a theoretical study of the convergence of the C-H bond dissociation energy (D sub o) of acetylene with respect to both the one- and n-particle spaces. Their best estimate for D sub o of 130.1 plus or minus 1.0 kcal/mole is slightly below previous theoretical estimates, but substantially above the value determined using Stark anticrossing spectroscopy that is asserted to be an upper bound.

  18. Chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formation from phenyl radical pyrolysis and reaction of phenyl and acetylene.

    PubMed

    Comandini, A; Malewicki, T; Brezinsky, K

    2012-03-15

    An experimental investigation of phenyl radical pyrolysis and the phenyl radical + acetylene reaction has been performed to clarify the role of different reaction mechanisms involved in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) serving as precursors for soot formation. Experiments were conducted using GC/GC-MS diagnostics coupled to the high-pressure single-pulse shock tube present at the University of Illinois at Chicago. For the first time, comprehensive speciation of the major stable products, including small hydrocarbons and large PAH intermediates, was obtained over a wide range of pressures (25-60 atm) and temperatures (900-1800 K) which encompass the typical conditions in modern combustion devices. The experimental results were used to validate a comprehensive chemical kinetic model which provides relevant information on the chemistry associated with the formation of PAH compounds. In particular, the modeling results indicate that the o-benzyne chemistry is a key factor in the formation of multi-ring intermediates in phenyl radical pyrolysis. On the other hand, the PAHs from the phenyl + acetylene reaction are formed mainly through recombination between single-ring aromatics and through the hydrogen abstraction/acetylene addition mechanism. Polymerization is the common dominant process at high temperature conditions. PMID:22339468

  19. Toward spectroscopically accurate global ab initio potential energy surface for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization.

    PubMed

    Han, Huixian; Li, Anyang; Guo, Hua

    2014-12-28

    A new full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization on the ground (S0) electronic state has been constructed by fitting ?37,000 high-level ab initio points using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method with a root mean square error of 9.54 cm(-1). The geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of acetylene, vinylidene, and all other stationary points (two distinct transition states and one secondary minimum in between) have been determined on this PES. Furthermore, acetylene vibrational energy levels have been calculated using the Lanczos algorithm with an exact (J = 0) Hamiltonian. The vibrational energies up to 12,700 cm(-1) above the zero-point energy are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians, suggesting that the PES is approaching spectroscopic accuracy. In addition, analyses of the wavefunctions confirm the experimentally observed emergence of the local bending and counter-rotational modes in the highly excited bending vibrational states. The reproduction of the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians for highly excited bending states signals the coming of age for the ab initio based PES, which can now be trusted for studying the isomerization reaction. PMID:25554156

  20. Selective Formation of Indene through the Reaction of Benzyl Radicals with Acetylene.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dorian S N; Kaiser, Ralf I; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid

    2015-07-20

    The combustion of fossil fuels forms polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) composed of five- and six- membered aromatic rings, such as indene (C9 H8 ), which are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and deleterious to the environment. Indene, the simplest PAH with single five- and six-membered rings, has been predicted theoretically to be formed through the reaction of benzyl radicals with acetylene. Benzyl radicals are found in significant concentrations in combustion flames, owing to their highly stable aromatic and resonantly stabilized free-radical character. We provide compelling experimental evidence that indene is synthesized through the reaction of the benzyl radical (C7 H7 ) with acetylene (C2 H2 ) under combustion-like conditions at 600 K. The mechanism involves an initial addition step followed by cyclization and aromatization through atomic hydrogen loss. This reaction was found to form the indene isomer exclusively, which, in conjunction with the high concentrations of benzyl and acetylene in combustion environments, indicates that this pathway is the predominant route to synthesize the prototypical five- and six-membered PAH. PMID:25917234

  1. A spectroscopic study of the premixed acetylene-nitrous oxide flame

    SciTech Connect

    Darian, S.T.; Vanpee, M.

    1987-10-01

    Premixed flat flames of acetylene-nitrous oxide were stabilized on a perforated, water cooled burner, 3 in. in diameter. A rich flame (C/sub 2/H/sub 2/:27%, N/sub 2/O:73%) was stabilized at 20 mm Hg and a lean flame (C/sub 2/H/sub 2/:9%, N/sub 2/O:91%) at 45 mm Hg. Temperature profiles and concentration profiles of free radicals and of stable products of reaction were determined in the reaction and postreaction zones using spectroscopic techniques. NO, CN, NH, C/sub 2/, CH, and OH were measured by absorption using single rotational lines of their molecular spectra in the visible or ..mu..v regions. H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ were measured using the integrated emission intensities of their infrared spectra. Results indicated that the combustion of acetylene-nitrous oxide flames occurs in two steps: decomposition of nitrous oxide into O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, and NO followed by combustion of acetylene with oxygen. The presence of NO is responsible for the reactions.

  2. Imaging the C black formation by acetylene pyrolysis with molecular reactive force field simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoyang; Zhang, Chi; Ma, Yu; Xue, Xianggui

    2015-04-21

    C black is a class of substantial materials with a long history of applications. However, apart from some descriptions of primary reactions, subsequent processes leading up to the final formation mechanism remain unclear. This mechanism is also crucial for understanding the formation of other carbonaceous materials. In this work, we visualize C black formation by acetylene pyrolysis using molecular dynamics simulations with a molecular reactive force field named ReaxFF. We find that the formation undergoes four stages: (1) chain elongation by H abstraction and polymerization of small C species, (2) chain branching, (3) cyclization and ring densification, and (4) condensed ring folding. The simulated C black particle possesses a structure of folded graphite layers, which is in good accordance with experimental observations. Cyclization and condensation are derived from fusion between neighboring chains, significantly varying from common experimental observations at relatively low temperatures that abide by the mechanism of H abstraction and C2H2 addition. Moreover, polyyne and polyene are usually found during acetylene pyrolysis, suggesting that the pyrolysis of acetylene and other hydrocarbons may be a feasible method of obtaining carbyne, a novel carbonaceous material with a high value. PMID:25854895

  3. Soot Formation in Laminar Acetylene/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The flame structure and soot-formation (soot nucleation and growth) properties of axisymmetric laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally. Test conditions involved acetylene-nitrogen jets burning in coflowing air at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were limited to the axes of the flames and included soot concentrations, soot temperatures, soot structure, major gas species concentrations, radical species (H, OH, and O) concentrations, and gas velocities. The results show that as distance increases along the axes of the flames, detectable soot formation begins when significant H concentrations are present, and ends when acetylene concentrations become small. Species potentially associated with soot oxidation--O2, CO2, H2O, O, and OH-are present throughout the soot-formation region so that soot formation and oxidation proceed at the same time. Strong rates of soot growth compared to soot nucleation early in the soot-formation process, combined with increased rates of soot nucleation and oxidation as soot formation proceeds, causes primary soot particle diameters to reach a maximum relatively early in the soot-formation process. Aggregation of primary soot particles proceeds, however, until the final stages of soot oxidation. Present measurements of soot growth (corrected for soot oxidation) in laminar diffusion flames were consistent with earlier measurements of soot growth in laminar premixed flames and exhibited encouraging agreement with existing hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanisms in the literature that were developed based on measurements within laminar premixed flames. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates in the present laminar diffusion flames also were consistent with corresponding rates measured in laminar premixed flames and yielded a crude correlation in terms of acetylene and H concentrations and the temperature.

  4. Soot Formation in Laminar Acetylene/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The flame structure and soot-formation (soot nucleation and growth) properties of axisymmetric laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally. Test conditions involved acetylene-nitrogen jets burning in coflowing air at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were limited to the axes of the flames and included soot concentrations, soot temperatures, soot structure, major gas species concentrations, radical species (H, OH, and O) concentrations, and gas velocities. The results show that as distance increases along the axes of the flames, detectable soot formation begins when significant H concentrations are present, and ends when acetylene concentrations become small. Species potentially associated with soot oxidation-O2, CO2, H2O, O, and OH-are present throughout the soot-formation region so that soot formation and oxidation proceed at the same time. Strong rates of soot growth compared to soot nucleation early in the soot-formation process, combined with increased rates of soot nucleation and oxidation as soot formation proceeds, causes primary soot particle diameters to reach a maximum relatively early in the soot-formation process. Aggregation of primary soot particles proceeds, however, until the final stages of soot oxidation. Present measurements of soot growth (corrected for soot oxidation) in laminar diffusion flames were consistent with earlier measurements of soot growth in laminar premixed flames and exhibited encouraging agreement with existing hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanisms in the literature that were developed based on measurements within laminar premixed flames. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates in the present laminar diffusion flames also were consistent with corresponding rates measured in laminar premixed flames and yielded a crude correlation in terms of acetylene and H concentrations and the temperature.

  5. Soot Formation in Laminar Acetylene/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The flame structure and soot-formation (soot nucleation and growth) properties of axisymmetric laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally. Test conditions involved acetylene-nitrogen jets burning in coflowing air at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were limited to the axes of the flames and included soot concentrations, soot temperatures, soot structure, major gas species concentrations, radical species (H, OH, and O) concentrations, and gas velocities. The results show that as distance increases along the axes of the flames, detectable soot formation begins when significant H concentrations are present, and ends when acetylene concentrations become small. Species potentially associated with soot oxidation-O2, CO2, H2O, O, and OH-are present throughout the soot-formation region so that soot formation and oxidation proceed at the same time. Strong rates of soot growth compared to soot nucleation early in the soot-formation process, combined with increased rates of soot nucleation and oxidation as soot formation proceeds, causes primary soot particle diameters to reach a maximum relatively early in the soot-formation process. Aggregation of primary soot particles proceeds, however, until the final stages of soot oxidation. Present measurements of soot growth (corrected for soot oxidation) in laminar diffusion flames were consistent with earlier measurements of soot growth in laminar premixed flames and exhibited encouraging agreement with existing hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanisms in the literature that were developed based on measurements within laminar premixed flames. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates in the present laminar diffusion flames also were consistent with corresponding rates measured in laminar premixed flames and yielded a crude correlation in terms of acetylene and H concentrations and the temperature.

  6. Poly(acetylene) as a positive electrode in lithium sulfur oxyhalide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, Jeffrey M.; Weiner, Bryndyn; Smith, Jerry J.; Nowak, Robert J.

    1989-03-01

    Conductive poly(acetylene) film was employed as the positive electrode in primary lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells. Neutral (CH)x, doped to the metallic state upon in situ exposure to LiAlCl4/sulfur oxyhalide electrolytes, acts as a catalytic surface rather than as the active electrochemical element. Sulfur oxyhalides were reduced on(CH)x film at high rates as on PTFE-bonded Shawinigan carbon black felt. Electrode capacity was limited by the inability of the electrolyte to permeate the (CH)x film and the formation of a surface passive filmby discharge products.

  7. Intramolecular vibrational relaxation and forbidden transitions in the SEP spectrum of acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Jonas; S. A. B. Solina; B. Rajaram; R. J. Silbey; R. W. Field; K. Yamanouchi; S. Tsuchiya

    1992-01-01

    A˜ 1Au?X˜ 1?g+ SEP spectra of acetylene near EVIB=7000 cm?1 show that Darling–Dennison resonance between the cis- and trans-bending vibrations is the firststep in a series of anharmonic resonances which can transfer nearly all the vibrational energy out of the Franck–Condon bright states at higher energy. In addition to allowed ‖?K‖?‖K’?l‘‖=1 rotational transitions, nominally forbidden ‖?K‖=0,2,3 rotational transitions have also

  8. Adhesion of diamond coatings synthesized by oxygen-acetylene flame CVD on tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, S.; Stankovic, S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Dekanski, A. [Institute for Electrochemistry, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1995-12-31

    The results of a study concerned with chemical vapor deposition of diamond on tungsten carbide cutting tools using an oxygen-acetylene flame in a normal ambient environment are presented. Effects of preparation conditions on the adhesion of the coating have been investigated, including different surface treatment, different position of the flame with respect to the coated surface, effect of an intermediate poorly crystalline diamond layer, etc. In particular, effect of polishing and ultrasonic lapping with diamond powder was compared with that of a corresponding treatment with SiC powder.

  9. Ab-initio simulation of the ionization and fragmentation of acetylene by strong femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russakoff, Arthur; Bubin, Sergiy; Varga, Kalman

    2015-01-01

    The electron and nuclear dynamics of acetylene when interacting with strong short laser pulses has been simulated in the framework of real-space Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) and molecular dynamics. The stretching and dissociation of individual bonds are reported, and are shown to depend on the laser field intensity and orientation relative to the laser polarization. The ionization dynamics, including ionization from individual Kohn-Sham orbitals, is also reported. The orbital ionization dynamics are shown to vary with an increase in the intensity of the laser field.

  10. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene, Ethylene, and Diborane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The net heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction of diborane with a mixture of acetylene and ethylene was found to be 20,440 +/- 150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net-heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,850 +/- 150 Btu per pound.

  11. Wavelength-modulation detection of acetylene with a near-infrared external-cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Daniel B.; Hovde, David Christian

    1995-10-01

    An external-cavity diode laser operating at 1500 nm was used to record the combination band of acetylene (C2H2). By combination of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with a noise-canceler detection circuit, a minimum detectable absorbance of 4.8 \\times 10 -4 with a 300-ms time constant was achieved, although this result was limited by etalon fringes. When combined with this detection technique, continuous, widely tunable output from an external-cavity laser is ideally suited for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy with excellent sensitivity.

  12. Electromagnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Benabid, F; Light, P; Couny, F; Russell, P

    2005-07-25

    We report a set of experimental observations on electromagnetically induced transparency in acetylene filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, involving both Lambda-type and V-type interactions over several lines of the R-branch of the nu1 + nu3 ro-vibrational overtone band. Transparency as high as ~70% was achieved. A theoretical account of the sources of decoherence shows that collisions with the inner wall of the fiber core and laser frequency-jitter dominate the coherence decay. PMID:19498571

  13. Silicon carbide-derived carbon nanocomposite as a substitute for mercury in the catalytic hydrochlorination of acetylene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingyun; Pan, Xiulian; Yu, Liang; Ren, Pengju; Wu, Xing; Sun, Litao; Jiao, Feng; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene hydrochlorination is an important coal-based technology for the industrial production of vinyl chloride, however it is plagued by the toxicity of the mercury chloride catalyst. Therefore extensive efforts have been made to explore alternative catalysts with various metals. Here we report that a nanocomposite of nitrogen-doped carbon derived from silicon carbide activates acetylene directly for hydrochlorination in the absence of additional metal species. The catalyst delivers stable performance during a 150 hour test with acetylene conversion reaching 80% and vinyl chloride selectivity over 98% at 200 °C. Experimental studies and theoretical simulations reveal that the carbon atoms bonded with pyrrolic nitrogen atoms are the active sites. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that such a nanocomposite is a potential substitute for mercury while further work is still necessary to bring this to the industrial stage. Furthermore, the finding also provides guidance for design of carbon-based catalysts for activation of other alkynes. PMID:24751500

  14. Polymerization of ionized acetylene clusters into covalent bonded ions: evidence for the formation of benzene radical cation.

    PubMed

    Momoh, Paul O; Abrash, Samuel A; Mabrouki, Ridha; El-Shall, M Samy

    2006-09-27

    Since the discovery of acetylene and benzene in protoplanetary nebulae under powerful ultraviolet ionizing radiation, efforts have been made to investigate the polymerization of ionized acetylene. Here we report the efficient formation of benzene ions within gas-phase ionized acetylene clusters (C2H2)n+ with n = 3-60. The results from experiments, which use mass-selected ion mobility techniques, indicate that the (C2H2)3+ ion has unusual stability similar to that of the benzene cation; its primary fragment ions are similar to those reported from the benzene cation, and it has a collision cross section of 47.4 A2 in helium at 300 K, similar to the value of 47.9 A2 reported for the benzene cation. In other words, (C2H2)3+ structurally looks like benzene, it has stability similar to that of benzene, it fragments such as benzene, therefore, it must be benzene! PMID:16984178

  15. Model for Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes from Acetylene Based on Real-Time Studies of Vertically Aligned Growth Kinetics

    E-print Network

    of heterogeneous chain reactions. Propagation of chain reactions requires regeneration of the active sites that canARTICLES Model for Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes from Acetylene Based on Real-Time Studies of acetylene. The molecular beam environment was used to suppress gas phase reaction pathways and limit

  16. Formation of artificial pores in nano-TiO2 photo-electrode films using acetylene-black for high-efficiency, dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Tae-Yeon; Han, Chi-Whan; Jun, Yongseok; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2013-01-01

    Acetylene-black paste without a light scattering layer was applied to meso-porous TiO2 photo-electrode films with a crystalline framework, a low residual carbon, and a tunable morphological pore size. The thermal-treated TiO2 photo-electrode films had an increased acetylene-black concentration with an increase in artificial pores and a decrease in residual carbon. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was enhanced by the use of the TiO2 photo-anode pastes at various acetylene-black concentrations. The photo-conversion efficiency of the DSSCs using TiO2 photo-electrode films with 1.5 wt% acetylene-black was enhanced from 7.98 (no acetylene-black) to 9.75% without the integration of a light- scattering layer. PMID:23511122

  17. Photoluminescent, wide-bandgap aSiC:H alloy films deposited by Cat-CVD using acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alka Kumbhar; Samadhan B Patil; Sanjay Kumar; R Lal; R. O Dusane

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon\\/carbon films (a-Si-C:H) are deposited from a silane and acetylene gas mixture by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition (Cat-CVD) technique. It is observed that under certain conditions of total gas pressure and filament temperature (TF), the optical bandgap varies non-linearly with the acetylene to silane (C2H2\\/SiH4) ratio, having a maximum value of 3.6 eV for a C2H2\\/SiH4 ratio

  18. Taple-top imaging of the non-adiabatically driven isomerization in the acetylene cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Samuel; Ibrahim, Heide; Wales, Benji; Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Bisson, Éric; Hebeisen, Christoph T.; Wanie, Vincent; Giguere, Mathieu; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Sanderson, Joe; Schuurman, Michael S.; Légaré, François

    2014-05-01

    One of the primary goals of modern ultrafast science is to follow nuclear and electronic evolution of molecules as they undergo a photo-chemical reaction. Most of the interesting dynamics phenomena in molecules occur when an electronically excited state is populated. When the energy difference between electronic ground and excited states is large, Free Electron Laser (FEL) and HHG-based VUV sources were, up to date, the only light sources able to efficiently initiate those non-adiabatic dynamics. We have developed a simple table-top approach to initiate those rich dynamics via multiphoton absorption. As a proof of principle, we studied the ultrafast isomerization of the acetylene cation. We have chosen this model system for isomerization since the internal conversion mechanism which leads to proton migration is still under debate since decades. Using 266 nm multiphoton absorption as a pump and 800 nm induced Coulomb Explosion as a probe, we have shoot the first high-resolution molecular movie of the non-adiabatically driven proton migration in the acetylene cation. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with high level ab initio trajectory simulations.

  19. Accurate partition function for acetylene, 12C2H2, and related thermodynamical quantities.

    PubMed

    Amyay, B; Fayt, A; Herman, M

    2011-12-21

    The internal partition function (Q(int)) of ethyne (acetylene), (12)C(2)H(2), is calculated by explicit summation of the contribution of all individual vibration-rotation energy levels up to 15,000 cm(-1). The corresponding energies are predicted from a global model and constants reproducing within 3? all 18,415 published vibration-rotation lines in the literature involving vibrational states up to 8900 cm(-1), as produced by Amyay et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 267, 80 (2011)]. Values of Q(int), with distinct calculations for para and ortho species are provided from 1 to 2000 K, in step of 1 K. The total internal partition function at 298.15 K is 104.224387(47) or 416.89755(19), with the nuclear degeneracy spin factors taken as 1/4:3/4 (astronomer convention) or 1:3 (atmospheric convention), respectively, for para:ortho species. The Helmholtz function, Gibbs enthalpy function, entropy, and specific heat at constant pressure are also calculated over the same temperature range. Accuracies as well as the missing contribution of the vinylidene isomer of acetylene in the calculations are discussed. PMID:22191873

  20. Transient responses of nitrogenase to acetylene and oxygen in actinorhizal nodules and cultured frankia.

    PubMed

    Silvester, W B; Winship, L J

    1990-02-01

    Nitrogenase activity in root nodules of four species of actinorhizal plants showed varying declines in response to exposure to acetylene (10% v/v). Gymnostoma papuanum (S. Moore) L. Johnson. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. nodules showed a small decline (5-15%) with little or no recovery over 15 minutes. Myrica gale L. nodules showed a sharp decline followed by a rapid return to peak activity. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) Clausen. nodules usually showed varying degrees of decline followed by a slower return to peak or near-peak activity. We call these effects acetylene-induced transients. Rapid increases in oxygen tension also caused dramatic transient decreases in nitrogenase activity in all species. The magnitude of the transient decrease was related to the size of the O(2) partial pressure (pO(2)) rise, to the proximity of the starting and ending oxygen tensions to the pO(2) optimum, and to the time for which the plant was exposed to the lower pO(2). Oxygen-induced transients, induced both by step jumps in pO(2) and by O(2) pulses, were also observed in cultures of Frankia. The effects seen in nodules are purely a response by the bacterium and not a nodule effect per se. Oxygen-induced nitrogenase transients in actinorhizal nodules from the plant genera tested here do not appear to be a result of changes in nodule diffusion resistance. PMID:16667301

  1. Transient responses of nitrogenase to acetylene and oxygen in actinorhizal nodules and cultured Frania

    SciTech Connect

    Silvester, W.B.; Winship, L.J. (Harvard Univ., Petersham, MA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Nitrogenase activity in root nodules of four species of actinorhizal plants showed varying declines in response to exposure to acetylene (10% v/v). Gymnostoma papuanum (S.Moore) L. Johnson. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. nodules showed a small decline (5-15%) with little or no recovery over 15 minutes. Myrica gale L. nodules showed a sharp decline followed by a rapid return to peak activity. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) Clausen. nodules usually showed varying degrees of decline followed by a slower return to peak or near-peak activity. We call these effects acetylene-induced transients. Rapid increases in oxygen tension also caused dramatic transient decreases in nitrogenase activity in all species. The magnitude of the transient decrease was related to the size of the O{sub 2} partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) rise, to the proximity of the starting and ending oxygen tensions to the pO{sub 2} optimum, and to the time for which the plant was exposed to the lower pO{sub 2}. Oxygen-induced transients, induced both by step jumps in pO{sub 2} and by O{sub 2} pulses, were also observed in cultures of Frankia. The effects seen in nodules are purely a response by the bacterium and not a nodule effect per se. Oxygen-induced nitrogenase transients in actinorhizal nodules from the plant genera tested here do not appear to be a result of changes in nodule diffusion resistance.

  2. Length Dependence of Ionization Potentials of Trans-Acetylenes: Internally-Consistent DFT/GW Approach

    E-print Network

    Pinheiro, Max; Rinke, Patrick; Blum, Volker; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We follow the evolution of the Ionization Potential (IP) for the paradigmatic quasi-one-dimensional trans-acetylene family of conjugated molecules, from short to long oligomers and to the infinite polymer trans-poly-acetylene (TPA). Our results for short oligomers are very close to experimental available data. We find that the IP varies with oligomer length and converges to the given value for TPA with a smooth, coupled inverse-length-exponential behavior. Our prediction is based on an "internally-consistent" scheme to adjust the exchange mixing parameter $\\alpha$ of the PBEh hybrid density functional, so as to obtain a description of the electronic structure consistent with the quasiparticle approximation for the IP. This is achieved by demanding that the corresponding quasiparticle correction, in the GW@PBEh approximation, vanishes for the IP when evaluated at PBEh($\\alpha^{ic}$). We find that $\\alpha^{ic}$ is also system-dependent and converges with increasing oligomer length, allowing to capture the depen...

  3. Vibration–rotation spectrum of the acetylene–carbon monoxide van der Waals molecule in the 3 ? region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Marshall; Diana G. Prichard; J. S. Muenter

    1989-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum of the acetylene–carbon monoxide van der Waals molecule has been obtained in the 3 ? region. A color center laser was used to excite the vibration of the complex which corresponds to the antisymmetric hydrogen stretching mode in the monomer in a pulsed molecular jet. The form of the spectrum indicates that the molecule is a

  4. Vibration-rotation spectrum of the acetylene-carbon monoxide van der Waals molecule in the 3 µ region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Marshall; Diana G. Prichard; J. S. Muenter

    1989-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum of the acetylene--carbon monoxide van der Waals molecule has been obtained in the 3 ..mu.. region. A color center laser was used to excite the vibration of the complex which corresponds to the antisymmetric hydrogen stretching mode in the monomer in a pulsed molecular jet. The form of the spectrum indicates that the molecule is a

  5. Regioselective vinylation of kojic acid using acetylenic esters in the presence of triphenylphosphine or tert -butyl isocyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sakineh Asghari; Maryam Faraji-Najjarkolaee; Mohammad Ahmadipour

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  The 1:1 reactive intermediates generated by addition of tert-butyl isocyanide or triphenylphosphine to acetylenic esters were trapped by kojic acid to yield O-vinylated and C-vinylated\\u000a kojic acid, respectively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Graphical abstract  

  6. Convergence in the QM-Only and QM/MM Modeling of Enzymatic Reactions: A Case Study for Acetylene

    E-print Network

    Liao, Rongzhen

    Convergence in the QM-Only and QM/MM Modeling of Enzymatic Reactions: A Case Study for Acetylene/molecular mechanics (MM) calculations on an enzyme- catalyzed reaction to assess the convergence behavior of QM- only hydratase, a model with 408 QM atoms thus seems sufficient to achieve convergence in the computed relative

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Characterization of the Minimum Energy Paths for the Ring Closure Reactions of C4H3 with Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1995-01-01

    The ring closure reaction of C4H3 with acetylene to give phenyl radical is one proposed mechanism for the formation of the first aromatic ring in hydrocarbon combustion. There are two low-lying isomers of C4H3; 1-dehydro-buta-l-ene-3-yne (n-C4H3) and 2-dehydro-buta-l-ene-3-yne (iso-C4H3). It has been proposed that only n-C4H3 reacts with acetylene to give phenyl radical, and since iso-C4H3 is more stable than n-C4H3, formation of phenyl radical by this mechanism is unlikely. We report restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) plus singles and doubles configuration interaction calculations with a Davidson's correction (RHF+1+2+Q) using the Dunning correlation consistent polarized valence double zeta basis set (cc-pVDZ) for stationary point structures along the reaction pathway for the reactions of n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 with acetylene. n-C4H3 plus acetylene (9.4) has a small entrance channel barrier (17.7) (all energetics in parentheses are in kcal/mol with respect to iso-C4H3 plus acetylene) and the subsequent closure steps leading to phenyl radical (-91.9) are downhill with respect to the entrance channel barrier. Iso-C4H3 Plus acetylene also has an entrance channel barrier (14.9) and there is a downhill pathway to 1-dehydro-fulvene (-55.0). 1-dehydro-fulvene can rearrange to 6-dehydro-fulvene (-60.3) by a 1,3-hydrogen shift over a barrier (4.0), which is still below the entrance channel barrier, from which rearrangement to phenyl radical can occur by a downhill pathway. Thus, both n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 can react with acetylene to give phenyl radical with small barriers.

  10. Diagnostic assays used to control small ruminant lentiviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The serological diagnostic tests such as the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay and various types of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have contributed to the reduction of small ruminant lentivirus infections worldwide. Since there are no treatments or efficacious vaccines, the serolog...

  11. APPLICABILITY OF MICROBIAL TOXICITY ASSAYS TO ASSESSMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial assays of dissolved oxygen (DO) uptake and resazurin reduction (RR) assays were compared with regard to applicability for hazard assessment schemes and determination of bioactive residues in soil and biota. The DO method is simpler and less expensive but is less sensiti...

  12. Analysis of the seed oil of Heisteria silvanii (Olacaceae)—A rich source of a novel C 18 acetylenic fatty acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Spitzer; Werner Tomberg; Rudolf Hartmann; Reiner Aichholz

    1997-01-01

    Besides some usual fatty acids (FA), two conjugated ene-yne acetylenic FA [trans-10-heptadecen-8-ynoic acid (pyrulic acid) (7.4%), and trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (ximenynic acid) (3.5%)], a novel ene-yne-ene acetylenic FA [cis-7, trans-11-octadecadiene-9-ynoic acid (heisteric acid) (22.6%)], and 9,10-epoxystearic acid (0.6%) could be identified in the seed\\u000a oil of Heisteria silvanii (Olacaceae). Two further conjugated acetylenic FA [9,11-octadecadiynoic acid (0.1%) and 13-octadecene-9,11-diynoic acid (0.4%)

  13. Tabletop imaging of structural evolutions in chemical reactions demonstrated for the acetylene cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Heide; Wales, Benji; Beaulieu, Samuel; Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Fowe, Emmanuel P.; Bisson, Éric; Hebeisen, Christoph T.; Wanie, Vincent; Giguére, Mathieu; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Spanner, Michael; Bandrauk, André D.; Sanderson, Joseph; Schuurman, Michael S.; Légaré, François

    2014-07-01

    The introduction of femto-chemistry has made it a primary goal to follow the nuclear and electronic evolution of a molecule in time and space as it undergoes a chemical reaction. Using Coulomb Explosion Imaging, we have shot the first high-resolution molecular movie of a to and fro isomerization process in the acetylene cation. So far, this kind of phenomenon could only be observed using vacuum ultraviolet light from a free-electron laser. Here we show that 266?nm ultrashort laser pulses are capable of initiating rich dynamics through multiphoton ionization. With our generally applicable tabletop approach that can be used for other small organic molecules, we have investigated two basic chemical reactions simultaneously: proton migration and C=C bond breaking, triggered by multiphoton ionization. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the timescales and relaxation pathways predicted by new and quantitative ab initio trajectory simulations.

  14. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: I. Amorphous and Crystalline Acetylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. L.; Ferrante, R. F.; Moore, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report recent measurements on acetylene (C2H2) ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System and the interstellar medium. New near- and mid-infrared data, including optical constants (n, k), absorption coefficients (alpha), and absolute band strengths (A), are presented for both amorphous and crystalline phases of C2H2 that exist below 70 K. Comparisons are made to earlier work. Electronic versions of the data are made available, as is a computer routine to use our reported n and k values to simulate the observed IR spectra. Suggestions are given for the use of the data and a comparison to a spectrum of Makemake is made.

  15. Pendular state spectroscopy of an asymmetric top: Parallel and perpendicular bands of acetylene-HF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. T.; Oudejans, L.; Miller, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    We report here a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the pendular state spectroscopy of a near-prolate asymmetric top molecule and consider the specific case of the acetylene-HF binary complex in a static electric field. The experiments were carried out using the optothermal detection method and the spectra were recorded in an electric field of sufficient magnitude to give rise to substantial orientation in a number of states. The calculated and experimental spectra are compared for different vibrational band types and polarization configurations. In this way we have identified the states that give the best orientation and thus are well suited to photodissociation studies. The hybridized orientational probability distributions are presented for the relevant states.

  16. Graphenes in the absence of metals as carbocatalysts for selective acetylene hydrogenation and alkene hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Ana; Neatu, Florentina; Florea, Mihaela; Parvulescu, Vasile; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2014-10-01

    Catalysis makes possible a chemical reaction by increasing the transformation rate. Hydrogenation of carbon–carbon multiple bonds is one of the most important examples of catalytic reactions. Currently, this type of reaction is carried out in petrochemistry at very large scale, using noble metals such as platinum and palladium or first row transition metals such as nickel. Catalysis is dominated by metals and in many cases by precious ones. Here we report that graphene (a single layer of one-atom-thick carbon atoms) can replace metals for hydrogenation of carbon–carbon multiple bonds. Besides alkene hydrogenation, we have shown that graphenes also exhibit high selectivity for the hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of a large excess of ethylene.

  17. Soot Volume Fraction Maps for Normal and Reduced Gravity Laminar Acetylene Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1997-01-01

    The study of soot particulate distribution inside gas jet diffusion flames is important to the understanding of fundamental soot particle and thermal radiative transport processes, as well as providing findings relevant to spacecraft fire safety, soot emissions, and radiant heat loads for combustors used in air-breathing propulsion systems. Compared to those under normal gravity (1-g) conditions, the elimination of buoyancy-induced flows is expected to significantly change the flow field in microgravity (O g) flames, resulting in taller and wider flames with longer particle residence times. Work by Bahadori and Edelman demonstrate many previously unreported qualitative and semi-quantitative results, including flame shape and radiation, for sooting laminar zas jet diffusion flames. Work by Ku et al. report soot aggregate size and morphology analyses and data and model predictions of soot volume fraction maps for various gas jet diffusion flames. In this study, we present the first 1-g and 0-g comparisons of soot volume fraction maps for laminar acetylene and nitrogen-diluted acetylene jet diffusion flames. Volume fraction is one of the most useful properties in the study of sooting diffusion flames. The amount of radiation heat transfer depends directly on the volume fraction and this parameter can be measured from line-of-sight extinction measurements. Although most Soot aggregates are submicron in size, the primary particles (20 to 50 nm in diameter) are in the Rayleigh limit, so the extinction absorption) cross section of aggregates can be accurately approximated by the Rayleigh solution as a function of incident wavelength, particles' complex refractive index, and particles' volume fraction.

  18. Rapid mercury assays

    SciTech Connect

    Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

  19. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  20. The effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth and nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by subterranean clover and pearl millet

    E-print Network

    Sherrod, Carole Cay

    1983-01-01

    Conclusive evidence indicates that VAN stimulate plant growth by increasing the uptake of several nutrients, especially phosphorus (Gerdemann, 1968, 1975; Mosse, 1973). Gray and Gerdemann (1969) ex- posed mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal onion (Allium ~ce a...

  1. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) in the sediments of the Pluss-See: with special attention to the role of sedimentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Blauw

    1987-01-01

    Sediments of productive lakes are usually rich in organic matter and, except for a thin surficial layer, anaerobic. These conditions seem to be favourable for heterotrophic nitrogen fixation. However, these sediments also contain relatively high ammonium concentrations. Ammonium represses the synthesis of the enzyme nitrogenase. Moreover, ammonium inhibits the activity of the enzyme in aerobic nitrogen fixers. These effects of

  2. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Study of the S[subscript 1] State of Doubly-Substituted [superscript 13]C Acetylene and Harmonic Force Field Determination

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Jun

    In the first half of this study, rotational and vibrational constants of six Franck–Condon bright vibrational levels of S1 doubly-substituted 13C acetylene are determined from laser-induced fluorescence spectra and an ...

  3. Relaxation of individual rotational levels of the A ? 1 A u electronic state of acetylene excited to the 2 ? 3 ? and ( ? 1 ?+ ? 3 ?+ ? 6 ?) vibrational modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir I. Makarov; Edwin Quiñones

    2000-01-01

    Collisionless and collisional (self-quenching) rate constants were measured for several rotational states of the V21K01 and V21K21 subbands of acetylene under bulk conditions. For jet-cooled acetylene, the collisionless decay rates measured for the 1161V16K10 subband are larger than those for the V21K01 and V21K21 subbands. The present results are compared with the kinetic data available from the literature. The differences

  4. Non-thermal RF plasma effects on surface properties of Pd\\/TiO 2 catalysts for selective hydrogenation of acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanan Li; Ben W. L. Jang

    2011-01-01

    Non-thermal RF plasma modification has been applied to Pd\\/TiO2 catalysts for selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of ethylene. High ethylene selectivity and high acetylene conversion were obtained over the plasma-treated catalysts. To understand the plasma effect, the catalysts were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry in hydrogen (H2-DSC), pulse H2 chemisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier

  5. Assays without Borders

    Cancer.gov

    CPTAC researchers partner with international labs to demonstrate the ability of Targeted mass spectrometry–based assays to reproducibly quantify Human proteins across labs, countries and continents in a recently published journal article.

  6. Can Analysis of Acetylene and Its Biodegradation Products in Enceladus Plumes be Used to Detect the Presence of Sub-Surface Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The search for biosignatures of life on Earth includes measurement of the stable isotope fractionation of reactants and products attributed to enzymatic processes and comparison with the often smaller chemical (abiotic) fractionation. We propose that this approach might be applied to study the origin and fate of organic compounds contained in water vapor plumes emanating from Enceladus or other icy bodies, perhaps revealing information about the potential for biology occurring within a sub-surface "habitable" zone. Methanol and C2-hydrocarbons including ethylene, ethane and acetylene (C2H2) have been identified in the plumes of Enceladus. Biological degradation of acetylene proceeds by anaerobic fermentation via acetylene hydratase through acetaldehyde, with a second enzyme (acetaldehyde dismutase) forming acetate and ethanol. We found that incubation of cultures of acetylene-fermenting bacteria exhibit a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with the net removal of C2H2. Consumption of acetylene by both growing and washed-cell cultures of bacteria closely related to Pelobacter acetylenicus (e.g, strain SFB93) was accompanied by a carbon isotopic fractionation of about 2 per mil (KIE = 1.8-2.7 ‰), a result we are examining with other cultures of acetylene fermenters. In addition, we are measuring the carbon isotopic composition of acetaldehyde, ethanol and acetate during fermentation to learn whether these products are fractionated sufficiently, relative to their substrate, to warrant measurement of their isotopic composition in Enceladus (or Europa) plumes to indicate enzymatic activity in liquid environments below the crust of these moons.

  7. Evaluation of flame resistance of polymer materials under the effect of explosions of acetylene-oxygen mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotushkin, V.V.; Chernykh, E.M.; Krikunov, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    ABS-2020 plastic is used extensively in the manufacture of protective devices positioned on gas generators and lines for the transport of fuel and dangerously explosive gases. The strength characteristics of the material used for construction of the device must exceed the maximum fracturing capacity of the explosion of the given gas and must be retained on a permissible level during service. To evaluate flame resistance the authors introduce a new criterion, i.e., the number of explosions of acetylene-oxygen mixtures acting on the plastic without impairing its load-carrying capacity. The authors present and solve an equation from which they obtain the critical number of explosions (n /SUB cr/ = 29). Thus, the fire resistance of the protecting device made of ABS-2020 plastic will be ensured at the number of repeated explosions of the acetylene-oxygen mixture of n <29 and the protecting device should be replaced after 28 flashbacks.

  8. Photodestruction of PAHs in the interstellar medium. I. Photodissociation rates for the loss of an acetylenic group.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, T.; Leach, S.; Sedlmayr, E.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a model for interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in order to estimate their rate of photodissociation in the interstellar medium. These photo-reactions include the loss of atomic and molecular hydrogen and the loss of the acetylene molecule. We have studied the stability of PAHs in the regions of high UV radiation where the infrared emission bands attributed to PAHs are observed (reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, active galactic nuclei, HII regions...) by comparing the rate of acetylene loss to the rate of accretion of carbon to PAHs. This comparison shows that only PAHs with more than 50 carbon atoms may survive the UV radiation field of these regions, whereas smaller PAHs such as coronene or ovalene are destroyed within a few years.

  9. Triplet acetylenes as synthetic equivalents of 1,2-bicarbenes: phantom n,pi state controls reactivity in triplet photocycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Tarek A; Kovalenko, Serguei V; Manoharan, Mariappan; Clark, Ronald J; Ghiviriga, Ion; Alabugin, Igor V

    2005-03-30

    Diaryl acetylenes, in which one of the aryl groups is either a pyridine or a pyrazine, undergo efficient triplet state photocycloaddition to 1,4-cyclohexadiene with formation of 1,5-diaryl substituted tetracyclo[3.3.0.0(2,8).0(4,6)]octanes (homoquadricyclanes). In the case of pyrazinyl acetylenes, the primary homoquadricyclane products undergo a secondary photochemical rearangement leading to diaryl substituted tricyclo[3.2.1.0(4,6)]oct-2-enes. Mechanistic and photophysical studies suggest that photocycloaddition proceeds through an electrophilic triplet excited state whereas the subsequent rearrangement to the tricyclooctenes proceeds through a singlet excited state. Chemical and quantum yields for the cycloaddition, in general, correlate with the electron acceptor character of aryl substituents but are attenuated by photophysical factors, such as the competition between the conversion of acetylene singlet excited state into the reactive triplet excited states (intersystem crossing: ISC) and/or to the radical-anion (photoelectron transfer from the diene to the excited acetylene: PET). Dramatically enhanced ISC between pi-pi S(1) state and "phantom" n,pi triplet excited state is likely to be important in directing reactivity to the triplet pathway. The role of PET can be minimized by the judicious choice of reaction conditions (solvent, concentration, etc.). From a practical perspective, such reactions are interesting because "capping" of the triple bond with the polycyclic framework orients the terminal aryl (4-pyridyl, 4-tetrafluoropyridyl, phenyl, etc.) groups in an almost perfect 60 degrees angle and renders such molecules promising supramolecular building blocks, especially in the design of metal coordination polymers. PMID:15783209

  10. Direct measurements of rotation-specific, state-to-state vibrational energy transfer in highly vibrationally excited acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Tobiason; A. L. Utz; F. F. Crim

    1994-01-01

    Vibrational overtone excitation followed by laser-induced fluorescence detection allows the direct measurement of rotationally resolved vibrational energy transfer rates in highly vibrationally excited acetylene molecules. We detect transfer from the initial, even rotational states Ji=0–22 of 3?3 (?˜0=9640 cm?1) to the nearly isoenergetic final state Jf=4 of ?1+?2+?3+2?4, l=0 (?˜0=9668 cm?1). For these pathways, we observe changes in energy of

  11. Energy transfer in the 31,214151 Fermi-resonant states of acetylene. I. Rotational energy transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Frosfl

    1993-01-01

    An infrared–ultraviolet double resonance technique is used to probe the state-to-state rotational energy transfer dynamics of self-relaxation in acetylene. The output of an optical parametric oscillator at ?3 ?m is used to excite C2H2 to a rotational level within one of its Fermi-resonant 31,214151 states. By fixing this wavelength and scanning the frequency-doubled output of a tunable dye laser, laser

  12. Magnetic field quenching of individual rotational levels of the A~ 1Au, 2v3' state of acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir I. Makarov; Edwin Quiñones

    2003-01-01

    Following optical excitation of the A~ 1Au, 2v3', Ka=0 and 2 states of acetylene under collisionless conditions, population is transferred to the continuum spectrum of the ground state (the dominant process), to neighboring triplet ``dark'' manifolds as well as to low vibrational states in the ground state (as fluorescence). These states undergo the singlet-triplet crossing reversibly and intramolecular relaxation from

  13. Energy transfer in highly vibrationally excited acetylene: Relaxation for vibrational energies from 6500 to 13 000 cm?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Utz; J. D. Tobiason; M. D. Fritz; F. F. Crim

    1992-01-01

    Vibrational overtone excitation of acetylene molecules to energies between 6500 and 13 000 cm?1 followed by interrogation of the excited states during collisional relaxation determines both the mechanism and rates of energy transfer. A pulsed visible or near-infrared laser excites a single rotational state of C2H2 in the region of the first (2?CH), second (3?CH), or third (4?CH) overtone of

  14. Laser Double-Resonance Studies of Electronic Spectroscopy and State-Resolved Collisional Relaxation in Highly Vibrationally Excited Acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Daniel Tobiason

    1992-01-01

    Vibrational overtone excitation combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection of acetylene molecules permits rotation-selected spectroscopy of the (A ^1rm A_{rm u}) electronic state and direct, state-resolved measurements of collisional energy transfer in the highly vibrationally excited ground electronic state. We assign energies of 1,045 transitions to previously unobserved ungerade vibrational states 2800-4500 cm^{-1} above the A state origin. An analysis yields

  15. Mesostructured silicas as supports for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of phenyl acetylene and 1-phenyl-1-hexyne to alkenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Marín-Astorga; Gina Pecchi; Thomas J. Pinnavaia; Gabriela Alvez-Manoli; Patricio Reyes

    2006-01-01

    The stereoselective hydrogenation of phenyl acetylene and 1-phenyl-1-hexyne at 298K and atmospheric pressure of H2 over Pd catalysts supported on mesostructured silica was studied. The catalysts were prepared by the impregnation of HMS and MSU-X silicas with 3-D wormhole framework structures and MCM-41 silica with a 1-D hexagonal framework using a toluene solution of Pd(acac)2 to obtain a metal content

  16. Large-core acetylene-filled photonic microcells made by tapering a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Natalie V; Grogan, Michael D W; Light, Philip S; Couny, Francois; Birks, Timothy A; Benabid, Fetah

    2010-06-01

    We report on kagomé-lattice photonic microcells with low losses, large outer diameters, and large cores. The large (40-70microm) cores are accommodated by tapering the fibers and splicing the reduced ends to a single-mode fiber. We demonstrate the repeatability of this process and obtain splice losses of 0.6dB by optimizing the taper transition length. Narrow electromagnetically induced transparencies and saturable absorption are demonstrated in an acetylene-filled photonic microcell. PMID:20517447

  17. A geochemical model of non-ideal solutions in the methane-ethane-propane-nitrogen-acetylene system on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, Christopher R.; Shock, Everett L.

    2013-08-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, has an atmosphere and surface that are rich in organic compounds. Liquid hydrocarbons exist on the surface, most famously as lakes. Photochemical reactions produce solid organics in Titan's atmosphere, and these materials settle or snow onto the surface. At the surface, liquids can interact with solids, and geochemical processes can occur. The consequences of these processes can be explored using a thermodynamic model to calculate the solubilities of gases and solids in liquid hydrocarbons at cryogenic temperatures. The van Laar model developed in this study was parameterized using experimental phase equilibrium data, and accurately represents the data for the CH4-C2H6-C3H8-N2-C2H2 chemical system from 90 to 110 K. The model generally gives more accurate results than existing models. The model also features a suitable balance between accuracy and simplicity, and can serve as a foundation for studies of fluvial geochemistry on Titan because it can be extended to any number of components while maintaining thermodynamic consistency. Application of the model to Titan reveals that the equilibrium composition of surface liquids depends on the abundance of methane gas in the local atmosphere, consistent with prior studies. The concentration of molecular nitrogen in Titan's lakes varies inversely with the ethane content of the lakes. The model indicates that solid acetylene should be quite soluble in surface liquids, which implies that acetylene-rich sedimentary rocks would be susceptible to chemical erosion, and acetylene evaporites may form on Titan. The geochemical character of acetylene in liquid hydrocarbons on Titan appears to be intermediate to those of calcite and gypsum in surface waters on Earth. Specific recommendations are given of observational, experimental, and theoretical work that will lead to significant advancements in our knowledge of geochemical processes on Titan. This paper represents the beginning of a new kind of geochemistry, called cryogenic fluvial geochemistry, with Titan starring as the first example.

  18. Ultrasonic enhancement of bead-based bioaffinity assays M. Wiklund* and H. M. Hertz

    E-print Network

    diagnostics, in drug discovery/proteomics research, and in food-industry quality controls. In particular, there is a growing demand for sensitive, selective, simple, easy- operational and cost-effective assays that can are reduction in consumption of biochemical reagents and simplification of the assay protocols. Therefore, assay

  19. Multiphoton Ionization Vibrational State Selective Studies of Acetylene Cation Reaction Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Thomas Michael

    1988-11-01

    Three photon resonant, four photon (3 + 1) ionization spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy have been used to study the ungerade excited states of acetylene in the energy range from 74,500 to 90,000 cm^{ -1}. Sharp bands from the nR (pi _sp{rm u}{3}ns sigma_{rm g}) and ^1Phi_{rm u } (pi_sp{rm u}{3}nddelta_ {rm g}) Rydberg series dominate the MPI spectrum. A large number of Rydberg and valence states which are prominent in VUV absorption spectra are absent or weak in MPI studies, presumably due to rapid non-radiative decay at the intermediate level. In addition, third harmonic interference effects have been demonstrated to be important in 3 + 1 ionization via the G ^1Pi_{rm u} >=ts X ^1Sigma _sp{rm g}{+} transition. The photoelectron results demonstrate that ionization through bands which are mixed results in complicated ion vibrational distributions and ionization through the sharp bands occurs via Deltanu = 0 Franck-Condon transitions. The Deltanu = 0 transitions were used to produce vibrationally state selected beams of acetylene cations. The vibrational and translational energy dependence of the reactions of these ions with CH _4 and CD_4 have been investigated in detail using a newly constructed radio frequency guided ion beam mass spectrometer. Production of C_2H_sp{3 }{+}, C_3H _sp{4}{+}, and C_3H_sp{5} {+} are observed as the major reaction products and C_3H_sp {3}{+} is observed as a minor product in reactions with methane. Formation of C _2H_sp{3}{+ } was shown to be strongly dependent upon both vibrational and collision energy. The vibrational enhancement was greatest for the bending mode and the reaction proceeds via a direct stripping mechanism. Formation of C _3H_sp{4}{+ } and C_3H_sp {5}{+} is inhibited by both vibrational and translational energy and the inhibition is less for the bending motion. Energy dependencies, product isotope ratios and thermochemical barriers suggest the formation of a collision complex.

  20. Factors influencing the antioxidant activity determined by the ABTS.+ radical cation assay.

    PubMed

    Miller, N J; Rice-Evans, C A

    1997-03-01

    This study introduces a simple direct antioxidant assay, based on the reduction of the ABTS.+ radical cation, and compares it with the myoglobin/ABTS.+ assay. The methods give closely similar results, establishing that the antioxidants studied to date in the latter assay act by scavenging the ABTS.+ radical cation and not by inhibiting its formation through reduction of ferryl myoglobin or reaction with H2O2. PMID:9161842

  1. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    PubMed

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  2. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. [Glutathione and glutathione assays].

    PubMed

    Rousar, Tomás; Cervinková, Zuzana; Muzáková, Vladimíra; Kucera, Otto; Lotková, Halka; Krivákovaá, Pavla

    2005-01-01

    Glutathione, the very important intracellular antioxidant, is present in intracelullar environment in milimolar concentrations. Glutathione is a tripeptide molecule, which plays an essential role in the antioxidant system, as well as in maintenance of the intracellular redox state. This thiol compound exists in two forms, the reduced (GSH) and the oxidized (GSSG), and the ratio of both forms is crucial for the characterization of the oxidative stress in cells. Number of analytical methods have been developed for the measurement of the glutathione. Especially, High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods (HPLC) are mostly used linked to different types of detection, including electrochemical, UV/VIS or fluorimetric detection. Another approach for glutathione assay is using the spectral methods, either fluorimetric or spectrophotometric assays. In enzymatic assay, glutathione reductase reduces GSSG with simultaneous oxidation of specific substrate, which is sequentially photometrically detected. The fluorimetric method is based on the detection of derivatized GSH molecule. PMID:16669486

  4. Intramolecular vibrational relaxation and forbidden transitions in the SEP spectrum of acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, D.M.; Solina, S.A.B.; Rajaram, B.; Silbey, R.J.; Field, R.W. (Department of Chemistry and George R. Harrison Spectroscopy Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)); Yamanouchi, K.; Tsuchiya, S. (Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153 (Japan))

    1992-08-15

    {ital {tilde A}} {sup 1}{ital A}{sub {ital u}}{r arrow}{ital {tilde X}} {sup 1{Sigma}}{sub {ital g}}{sup +} SEP spectra of acetylene near {ital E}{sub VIB}=7000 cm{sup {minus}1} show that Darling--Dennison resonance between the {ital cis}- and {ital trans}-bending vibrations is the {ital first} {ital step} in a series of anharmonic resonances which can transfer nearly all the vibrational energy out of the Franck--Condon bright states at higher energy. In addition to allowed {vert bar}{Delta}{ital K}{vert bar}{equivalent to}{vert bar}{ital K}{prime}{minus}l{double prime}{vert bar}=1 rotational transitions, nominally forbidden {vert bar}{Delta}{ital K}{vert bar}=0,2,3 rotational transitions have also been observed due to axis-switching and rotational-l-resonance. Although the range of detectable fluorescence dips is only about 30, the range of detectable SEP intensities in these spectra is probably about 500.

  5. The Fourier transform absorption spectrum of acetylene between 7000 and 7500 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyulin, O. M.; Vander Auwera, J.; Campargue, A.

    2015-07-01

    High resolution (0.011 cm-1) room temperature (295 K) Fourier transform absorption spectra (FTS) of acetylene have been recorded between 7000 and 7500 cm-1. Line parameters (positions, intensities and self broadening coefficients) have been measured using a multispectrum treatment of three FTS spectra, recorded at 3.84, 8.04 and 56.6 hPa. As a result, a list of 3788 lines was constructed with intensities ranging between about 10-26 and 10-22 cm/molecule. Comparison with accurate predictions provided by a global effective operator model (Lyulin OM, Perevalov VI, Teffo JL, Proc. SPIE 2004;5311:134-43) led to the assignment of 2471 of these lines to 12C2H2. The assigned lines belong to 29 12C2H2 bands, 12 of them being newly reported. Spectroscopic parameters of the upper vibrational levels were derived from band-by-band fits of the line positions (typical rms values are on the order of 0.001 cm-1). About half of the analyzed bands were found to be affected by rovibrational perturbations. Line parameters obtained in this work were compared with those available for about 350 transitions in the HITRAN 2012 database. The large set of new data will be valuable to refine the parameters of the global effective Hamiltonian and dipole moments of 12C2H2.

  6. Molecular Heterogeneous Catalysis: a Single-Site Zeolite-Supported Rhodium Complex for Acetylene Cyclotrimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kletnieks, P.W.; Liang, A.J.; Craciun, R.; Ehresmann, J.O.; Marcus, D.M.; Bhirud, V.A.; Klaric, M.M.; Hayman, M.J.; Guenther, D.R.; Bagatchenko, O.P.; Dixon, D.A.; Gates, B.C.; Haw, J.F.

    2009-06-01

    By anchoring metal complexes to supports, researchers have attempted to combine the high activity and selectivity of molecular homogeneous catalysis with the ease of separation and lack of corrosion of heterogeneous catalysis. However, the intrinsic nonuniformity of supports has limited attempts to make supported catalysts truly uniform. We report the synthesis and performance of such a catalyst, made from [Rh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COCHCOCH{sub 3})] and a crystalline support, dealuminated Y zeolite, giving {l_brace}Rh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{r_brace} groups anchored by bonds to two zeolite oxygen ions, with the structure determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and the uniformity of the supported complex demonstrated by {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. When the ethylene ligands are replaced by acetylene, catalytic cyclotrimerization to benzene ensues. Characterizing the working catalyst, we observed evidence of intermediates in the catalytic cycle by NMR spectroscopy. Calculations at the level of density functional theory confirmed the structure of the as-synthesized supported metal complex determined by EXAFS spectroscopy. With this structure as an anchor, we used the computational results to elucidate the catalytic cycle (including transition states), finding results in agreement with the NMR spectra.

  7. Macroautophagic cargo sequestration assays.

    PubMed

    Seglen, Per O; Luhr, Morten; Mills, Ian G; Sætre, Frank; Szalai, Paula; Engedal, Nikolai

    2015-03-01

    Macroautophagy, the process responsible for bulk sequestration and lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm, is often monitored by means of the autophagy-related marker protein LC3. This protein is linked to the phagophoric membrane by lipidation during the final steps of phagophore assembly, and it remains associated with autophagic organelles until it is degraded in the lysosomes. The transfer of LC3 from cytosol to membranes and organelles can be measured by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence microscopy, but these assays provide no information about functional macroautophagic activity, i.e., whether the phagophores are actually engaged in the sequestration of cytoplasmic cargo and enclosing this cargo into sealed autophagosomes. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggest that macroautophagy can proceed independently of LC3. There is therefore a need for alternative methods, preferably effective cargo sequestration assays, which can monitor actual macroautophagic activity. Here, we provide an overview of various approaches that have been used over the last four decades to measure macroautophagic sequestration activity in mammalian cells. Particular emphasis is given to the so-called "LDH sequestration assay", which measures the transfer of the autophagic cargo marker enzyme LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) from the cytosol to autophagic vacuoles. The LDH sequestration assay was originally developed to measure macroautophagic activity in primary rat hepatocytes. Subsequently, it has found use in several other cell types, and in this article we demonstrate a further validation and simplification of the method, and show that it is applicable to several cell lines that are commonly used to study autophagy. PMID:25576638

  8. Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene [~ over A] [superscript 1]A[subscript u] — [~ over X] [superscript 1?[+ over g] transition. I. Method for calculating polyatomic linear—bent vibrational intensity factors and evaluation of calculated intensities for the gerade vibrational modes in acetylene

    E-print Network

    Park, Barratt

    Franck-Condon vibrational overlap integrals for the [~ over A] [superscript 1]A[subscript u] — [~ over X [superscript 1]?[+ over g] transition in acetylene have been calculated in full dimension in the harmonic normal mode ...

  9. Reactions of Cg10062, a cis-3-Chloroacrylic Acid Dehalogenase Homologue, with Acetylene and Allene Substrates: Evidence for a Hydration-Dependent Decarboxylation.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, Jamison P; Johnson, William H; Schroeder, Gottfried K; Whitman, Christian P

    2015-05-19

    Cg10062 is a cis-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (cis-CaaD) homologue from Corynebacterium glutamicum with an unknown function and an uninformative genomic context. It shares 53% pairwise sequence similarity with cis-CaaD including the six active site amino acids (Pro-1, His-28, Arg-70, Arg-73, Tyr-103, and Glu-114) that are critical for cis-CaaD activity. However, Cg10062 is a poor cis-CaaD: it lacks catalytic efficiency and isomer specificity. Two acetylene compounds (propiolate and 2-butynoate) and an allene compound, 2,3-butadienoate, were investigated as potential substrates. Cg10062 functions as a hydratase/decarboxylase using propiolate as well as the cis-3-chloro- and 3-bromoacrylates, generating mixtures of malonate semialdehyde and acetaldehyde. The two activities occur sequentially at the active site using the initial substrate. With 2,3-butadienoate and 2-butynoate, Cg10062 functions as a hydratase and converts both to acetoacetate. Mutations of the proposed water-activating residues (E114Q, E114D, and Y103F) have a range of consequences from a reduction in wild type activity to a switch of activities (i.e., hydratase into a hydratase/decarboxylase or vice versa). The intermediates for the hydration and decarboxylation products can be trapped as covalent adducts to Pro-1 when NaCNBH3 is incubated with the E114D mutant and 2,3-butadienoate or 2-butynoate, and the Y103F mutant and 2-butynoate. Three mechanisms are presented to explain these findings. One mechanism involves the direct attack of water on the substrate, whereas the other two mechanisms use covalent catalysis in which a covalent bond forms between Pro-1 and the hydration product or the substrate. The strengths and weaknesses of the mechanisms and the implications for Cg10062 function are discussed. PMID:25894805

  10. An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Nitrogen-Broadened Acetylene Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibault, Franck; Martinez, Raul Z.; Bermejo, Dionisio; Ivanov, Sergey V.; Buzykin, Oleg G.; Ma, Qiancheng

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental nitrogen-broadening coefficients derived from Voigt profiles of isotropic Raman Q-lines measured in the 2 band of acetylene (C2H2) at 150 K and 298 K, and compare them to theoretical values obtained through calculations that were carried out specifically for this work. Namely, full classical calculations based on Gordon's approach, two kinds of semi-classical calculations based on Robert Bonamy method as well as full quantum dynamical calculations were performed. All the computations employed exactly the same ab initio potential energy surface for the C2H2N2 system which is, to our knowledge, the most realistic, accurate and up-to-date one. The resulting calculated collisional half-widths are in good agreement with the experimental ones only for the full classical and quantum dynamical methods. In addition, we have performed similar calculations for IR absorption lines and compared the results to bibliographic values. Results obtained with the full classical method are again in good agreement with the available room temperature experimental data. The quantum dynamical close-coupling calculations are too time consuming to provide a complete set of values and therefore have been performed only for the R(0) line of C2H2. The broadening coefficient obtained for this line at 173 K and 297 K also compares quite well with the available experimental data. The traditional Robert Bonamy semi-classical formalism, however, strongly overestimates the values of half-width for both Qand R-lines. The refined semi-classical Robert Bonamy method, first proposed for the calculations of pressure broadening coefficients of isotropic Raman lines, is also used for IR lines. By using this improved model that takes into account effects from line coupling, the calculated semi-classical widths are significantly reduced and closer to the measured ones.

  11. An experimental and theoretical study of nitrogen-broadened acetylene lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Franck; Martínez, Raúl Z.; Bermejo, Dionisio; Ivanov, Sergey V.; Buzykin, Oleg G.; Ma, Qiancheng

    2014-07-01

    We present experimental nitrogen-broadening coefficients derived from Voigt profiles of isotropic Raman Q-lines measured in the ?2 band of acetylene (C2H2) at 150 K and 298 K, and compare them to theoretical values obtained through calculations that were carried out specifically for this work. Namely, full classical calculations based on Gordon's approach, two kinds of semi-classical calculations based on Robert-Bonamy method as well as full quantum dynamical calculations were performed. All the computations employed exactly the same ab initio potential energy surface for the C2H2-N2 system which is, to our knowledge, the most realistic, accurate and up-to-date one. The resulting calculated collisional half-widths are in good agreement with the experimental ones only for the full classical and quantum dynamical methods. In addition, we have performed similar calculations for IR absorption lines and compared the results to bibliographic values. Results obtained with the full classical method are again in good agreement with the available room temperature experimental data. The quantum dynamical close-coupling calculations are too time consuming to provide a complete set of values and therefore have been performed only for the R(0) line of C2H2. The broadening coefficient obtained for this line at 173 K and 297 K also compares quite well with the available experimental data. The traditional Robert-Bonamy semi-classical formalism, however, strongly overestimates the values of half-width for both Q- and R-lines. The refined semi-classical Robert-Bonamy method, first proposed for the calculations of pressure broadening coefficients of isotropic Raman lines, is also used for IR lines. By using this improved model that takes into account effects from line coupling, the calculated semi-classical widths are significantly reduced and closer to the measured ones.

  12. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  13. Lifespan Assay Reagents needed

    E-print Network

    Lamitina, Todd

    with a 50µl spot of OP50 Lifespan assay using RNAi · 6cm NGM/FUDR RNAi plates - standard NGM recipe + 50µg/ml FUDR + 1mM IPTG + 25µg/ml carbenicillin) seeded with a 50µl spot of appropriate RNAi bacteria · 6cm NGM RNAi plates - standard NGM recipe + 1mM IPTG + 25µg/ml carbenicillin) seeded with a 50µl spot

  14. Laser double-resonance studies of electronic spectroscopy and state-resolved collisional relaxation in highly vibrationally excited acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Tobiason, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Vibrational overtone excitation combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection of acetylene molecules permits rotation-selected spectroscopy of the ([tilde A][sup 1]A[sub u]) electronic state and direct, state-resolved measurements of collisional energy transfer in the highly vibrationally excited ground electronic state. The author assigns energies of 1,045 transitions to previously unobserved ungerade vibrational states 2800-4500 cm[sup [minus]1] above the [tilde A] state origin. An analysis yields frequencies of 2856.4 and 3894.3 cm[sup [minus]1] for [nu][sub v][prime] and [nu][sub 3][prime] + [nu][sub 5][prime]. The author performs the first normal coordinate analysis of [tilde A] state acetylene based only on directly observed fundamentals. The spectroscopy measurements enable double-resonance experiments on the collisional dynamics of highly vibrationally excited acetylene. The quenching rate for single rotational states is twice the Lennard-Jones gas kinetic rate and fairly independent of vibrational energy level. Collision-induced detection of vibrational overtone excitation under single collision conditions allows direct measurements of state-of-state rotational and vibrational energy transfer. A collision-induced spectrum obtained by this new technique immediately identifies transfer channels and the [Delta]J and [Delta]E dependence of the transfer rates. The author observes changes of [vert bar][Delta]J[vert bar] and [Delta]E [approx] 3kT in a single collision. Directly measured rates for one set of vibrational relaxation pathways account for [approximately]3% of the total relaxation rate. The author also observes other vibrational relaxation pathways. The available pathways suggest that vibrational relaxation accounts for the rest of the total relaxation. Changes of [vert bar]J[vert bar] = 18 and [vert bar][Delta]E[vert bar] [approximately] 500 cm[sup [minus]1] in a single collision are observed.

  15. Differential inhibition of thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4 biosynthesis by two naturally occurring acetylenic fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Croft, K D; Beilin, L J; Ford, G L

    1987-10-17

    The seed oil of the plant Ixiolaena brevicompta is a rich source of crepenynic acid (octadec-cis-9-en-12-ynoic acid), which has been linked with extensive sheep mortalities in Western New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. A number of acetylenic fatty acids have been found to interfere with lipid and fatty acid metabolism and inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes in a variety of tissues. We have investigated the effects of crepenynic acid and ximenynic acid (octadec-trans-11-en-9-ynoic acid) on leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 production in rat peritoneal leukocytes and compare them with non-acetylenic compounds linoleic and ricinoleic acids. In concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 microM linoleic acid and ricinoleic acid had only minimal effects on leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 production in ionophore-stimulated cells. Ximenynic acid gave dose-dependent inhibition of leukotriene B4, thromboxane B2 and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha production. Ximenynic acid appears to be a more effective inhibitor of leukotriene B4 than crepenynic acid with an IC50 of 60 microM compared to 85 microM. On the other hand, crepenynic acid is a much more effective inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase products, having an IC50 for thromboxane B2 of less than 10 microM. Both acetylenic fatty acids inhibited phospholipase activity in these cells by 40-50% at a concentration of 100 microM but had no inhibitory effect at 10 microM. These results indicate that crepenynic acid and ximenynic acid differentially inhibit the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of stimulated leukocytes, and that at high doses of these fatty acids the effect on these products may be partially due to inhibition of phospholipase A2. PMID:2822134

  16. Simplified Cartesian basis model for intrapolyad emission intensities in the bent-to-linear electronic transition of acetylene.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Steeves, Adam H; Baraban, Joshua H; Field, Robert W

    2015-02-01

    The acetylene emission spectrum from the trans-bent electronically excited à state to the linear ground electronic X? state has attracted considerable attention because it grants Franck–Condon access to local bending vibrational levels of the X? state with large-amplitude motion along the acetylene ? vinylidene isomerization coordinate. For emission from the ground vibrational level of the à state, there is a simplifying set of Franck–Condon propensity rules that gives rise to only one zero-order bright state per conserved vibrational polyad of the X? state. Unfortunately, when the upper level involves excitation in the highly admixed ungerade bending modes, ?4? and ?6?, the simplifying Franck–Condon propensity rule breaks down--as long as the usual polar basis (with v and l quantum numbers) is used to describe the degenerate bending vibrations of the X? state--and the intrapolyad intensities result from complicated interference patterns between many zero-order bright states. In this article, we show that, when the degenerate bending levels are instead treated in the Cartesian two-dimensional harmonic oscillator basis (with vx and vy quantum numbers), the propensity for only one zero-order bright state (in the Cartesian basis) is restored, and the intrapolyad intensities are simple to model, as long as corrections are made for anharmonic interactions. As a result of trans ? cis isomerization in the à state, intrapolyad emission patterns from overtones of ?4? and ?6? evolve as quanta of trans bend (?3?) are added, so the emission intensities are not only relevant to the ground-state acetylene ? vinylidene isomerization, they are also a direct reporter of isomerization in the electronically excited state. PMID:25625552

  17. Insect vector transmission assays.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Tedeschi, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by phloem-feeding vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera. Following acquisition from the infected source plant, there is a latent period before the vector can transmit, so transmission assays consist of three basic steps: acquisition, latency, and inoculation. More than 90 vector species (plant-, leafhoppers, and psyllids) have been discovered so far but many others are still undiscovered, and their role in spreading economically important crop diseases is neglected. Therefore, screening for vectors is an essential step in developing rational control strategies targeted against the actual vectors for phytoplasma-associated diseases. The mere detection of a phytoplasma in an insect does not imply that the insect is a vector; a transmission assay is required to provide conclusive evidence. Transmission experiments can be carried out using insects from phytoplasma-free laboratory colonies or field-collections. Moreover, transmission assays can be performed by feeding vectors on an artificial diet through Parafilm(®), after which phytoplasmas can be detected in the sucrose feeding medium by PCR. Transmission trials involve the use of different techniques according to the biology of the different vector species; planthoppers, leafhoppers, and psyllids. PMID:22987407

  18. Vibrationally resolved study of the fourth photoelectron band of acetylene at 23.5 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göthe, M. Carlsson; Chau, F. T.; Baltzer, P.; Svensson, S.; Wannberg, B.; Karlsson, L.

    1990-11-01

    The inner valence C 2? +g electronic state of the acetylene cation has been studied by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy using HeII excitation. Vibrational structure is resolved and is interpreted in terms of a vibrational progression in the totally symmetric v2(? +g) mode. A Franck—Condon analysis has been carried out and force constants corresponding to the CH stretching, CC stretching and CH?CC stretching interaction have been determined. The CH and CC bond lengths have been deduced and the values are found to be 1.088 ± 0.005 and 1.439 ± 0.005 Å, respectively.

  19. The ?CC+3?CH rovibrational manifold of acetylene. I. Collision-induced state-to-state transfer kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela P. Milce; Brian J. Orr

    1997-01-01

    Infrared–ultraviolet double resonance (IR–UV DR) spectroscopy is used to measure colli-sion-induced, rotationally resolved state-to-state energy transfer in the ?CC+3?CH vibrational manifold of gas-phase acetylene, C2H2. Attention focuses on three sets of vibrational eigenstates spectroscopically labeled (0 1 3 0 0)I0, (0 1 3 0 0)II0, and (4 0 3 3)+0, with vibrational term energies in the region 11 585–11 600

  20. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene and Diborane (LFPL-CZ-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Harrison, Jr.; Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction acetylene and diborane was found to be 20,100 +/- 100 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and chemical analyses both of the sample and of the combustion products indicated combustion in the bomb calorimeter to have been 97 percent complete. The estimated net heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,700 +/- 100 Btu per pound.

  1. Histrionicotoxins: Roentgen-Ray Analysis of the Novel Allenic and Acetylenic Spiroalkaloids Isolated from a Colombian Frog, Dendrobates histrionicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Daly; Isabella Karle; Charles W. Myers; Takashi Tokuyama; James A. Waters; Bernhard Witkop

    1971-01-01

    The structures and absolute configuration of two unique alkaloids isolated from the Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus, have been elucidated by Roentgen-ray (x-ray) crystallography. Histrionicotoxin is (2pR, 6S, 7pS, 8aS)-7-(cis-1-buten-3-ynyl)-8-hydroxy-2-(cis -2-penten-4-ynyl)-1-azaspiro[5.5] undecane, while in dihydro-isohistrionicotoxin the acetylenic 2-pentenynyl side chain is replaced by an allenic 2-(3,4 pentadienyl) substituent. Dendrobates histrionicus exhibits remarkable interpopulational variations in amounts and composition of skin toxins,

  2. Structure and frictional characteristics of Ti–6Al–4V plasma-based ion implanted with nitrogen then acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lifang Xia; Hongbing Ji; Mingren Sun; Yue Sun; Xinxin Ma

    1999-01-01

    The concentration depth profiles, structure and ball-on-disk frictional characteristics of Ti–6Al–4V plasma-based ion implanted with nitrogen (energy 60 keV) then acetylene (energy 10–30 keV) were investigated. The implanted samples (R=0.05–2×1011 ? cm?1 for the modified layers) included three zones: a top H–DLC zone, a C, N, Ti, O coexisting intermediate zone which had undergone chemical state changes indicating TiN, TiC,

  3. State dynamics of acetylene excited to individual rotational level of the V1(2)K1(0,1,2) subbands.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Kochubei, Sergei A; Khmelinskii, Igor V

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of the IR emission induced by excitation of the acetylene molecule at the 3(2) Ka2, A1Au<--4(1) la1, X1Sigmag+ transition was investigated. Vibrationally resolved IR emission spectra were recorded at different delay times after the laser excitation pulse. The observed IR emission was assigned to transitions between vibrational levels of the acetylene molecule in the ground state. Values of the relaxation parameters of different vibrational levels of the ground state were obtained. The Ti-->Tj transition was detected by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 455 nm spectral range after excitation of the acetylene molecule at the same transition. Rotationally resolved spectra of the respective transition were obtained and analyzed at different delay times after the laser excitation pulse. The dynamics of the S1-->Tx-->T1-->S0 transitions was investigated, and the relaxation parameter values were estimated for the T1 state. PMID:17362104

  4. NO A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}-X{sup 2}II chemiluminescence produced from the reaction of excited NO{sub 2} with acetylene and its derivatives in their triplet states

    SciTech Connect

    Sisk, Wade; Endo; Hiromu; Shibuya, Kazuhiko; Obi, Kinichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-08-06

    This paper discusses how reacting excited NO{sub 2} with acetylene and its derivatives produced NO(A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}) by a NO A{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X{sup 2}II chemiluminescence produced by a triplet-state mechanism, with acetylene > methylacetylene > ethylacetylene > phenylacetylene > benzene in terms of efficiency. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The effects of environmental and management factors on the nitrogenase activity, total N content, and yield of seedling alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Timothy Charles

    1978-01-01

    , showed a decline in C2H pro- duction. Generally, good agreement and strong correlations have been found between the rate of acetylene reduction and plant DM, slant N content, or visual ratings of effec- tiveness (3, 41, 43, 52). In a study by Becker... INTRODUCTION. LITERATURE REVIEW. . . . , . . . Harvest Management. . . . . . . Light Intensity. . . . . . . . , ~ . . . , . . . , . . . , . Nitrogen Content. . . . . . . . ~ . The Acetylene Assay And Nitrogenase Actlvitye...

  6. Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

  7. Portable gas chromatograph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Holfeld; C. S. Mallard; T. A. Larue

    1979-01-01

    An improved inexpensive portable gas chromatograph for the acetylene reduction assay of nitrogenase is described. The instrument is more convenient to use than a previously described model. Modifications permit the detection of hydrogen or methane.

  8. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  9. Adsorption and reaction of acetylene on clean and oxygen-precovered Pd(100) studied with high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Höfert, O; Lorenz, M P A; Streber, R; Zhao, W; Bayer, A; Steinrück, H-P; Papp, C

    2013-10-28

    We investigated the adsorption and thermal evolution of acetylene on clean Pd(100) and Pd(100) precovered with 0.25 ML oxygen. The measurements were performed in situ by fast XPS at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II. On Pd(100) acetylene molecularly adsorbs at 130 K. Upon heating transformation to a CCH species occurs around 390 K along with the formation of a completely dehydrogenated carbon species. On the oxygen-precovered surface partial CCH formation already occurs upon adsorption at 130 K, and the dehydrogenation temperature and the stability range of CCH are shifted to lower temperatures by ?200 K. PMID:24182063

  10. Adsorption and reaction of acetylene on clean and oxygen-precovered Pd(100) studied with high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfert, O.; Lorenz, M. P. A.; Streber, R.; Zhao, W.; Bayer, A.; Steinrück, H.-P.; Papp, C.

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the adsorption and thermal evolution of acetylene on clean Pd(100) and Pd(100) precovered with 0.25 ML oxygen. The measurements were performed in situ by fast XPS at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II. On Pd(100) acetylene molecularly adsorbs at 130 K. Upon heating transformation to a CCH species occurs around 390 K along with the formation of a completely dehydrogenated carbon species. On the oxygen-precovered surface partial CCH formation already occurs upon adsorption at 130 K, and the dehydrogenation temperature and the stability range of CCH are shifted to lower temperatures by ˜200 K.

  11. Growth cone collapse assay.

    PubMed

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia. PMID:24838959

  12. Titan haze: structure and properties of cyanoacetylene and cyanoacetylene-acetylene photopolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, D. W.; Ferris, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    The structure and morphological properties of polymers produced photochemically from the UV irradiation of cyanoacetylene and cyanoacetylene mixtures have been examined to evaluate their possible contribution to the haze layers found on Titan. A structural analysis of these polymers may contribute to our understanding of the data returned from the Huygens probe of the Cassini mission that will pass through the atmosphere of Titan in the year 2004. Infrared analysis, elemental analysis, and thermal methods (thermogravimetric analysis, thermolysis, pyrolysis) were used to examine structures of polycyanoacetylenes produced by irradiation of the gas phase HC3N at 185 and 254 nm. The resulting brown to black polymer, which exists as small particles, is believed to be a branched chain of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, which, on exposure to heat, cyclizes to form a graphitic structure. Similar methods of analysis were used to show that when HC3N is photolyzed in the presence of Titan's other atmospheric constituents (CH4, C2H6, C2H2, and CO), a copolymer is formed in which the added gases are incorporated as substituents on the polymer chain. Of special significance is the copolymer of HC3N and acetylene (C2H2). Even in experiments where C2H2 was absorbing nearly all of the incident photons, the ratio of C2H2 to HC3N found in the resulting polymer was only 2:1. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visually examine the polymer particles. While pure polyacetylene particles are amorphous spheres roughly 1 micrometer in diameter, polycyanoacetylenes appear to be strands of rough, solid particles slightly smaller in size. The copolymer of HC3N and C2H2 exhibits characteristics of both pure polymers. This is particularly important as pure polyacetylenes do not match the optical constants measured for Titan's atmospheric hazes. The copolymers produced by the incorporation of other minor atmospheric constituents, like HC3N, into the polyacetylenes are expected to have optical constants more comparable to those of the Titan haze.

  13. 193.3 nm photodissociation of acetylene: Nascent state distribution of CCH radical studied by laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yen-Chu; Chen, Fu-Tang; Chou, Liang-Chien; Shiu, Ying-Jen

    1996-11-01

    The nascent rovibronic distribution of CCH radicals in the 193.3 nm photolysis of acetylene has been measured by laser-induced fluorescence in a supersonic jet. CCH fragments in the X˜ 2?+ state are vibrationally hot, but rotationally cold. Predominant CCH fragments were observed at levels of the X˜ state with large mixing of Östate character, particularly levels near the potential minimum of à 2?. This indicates that a nonadiabatic transition near the exit channels plays an important role in the 193.3 nm photodissociation of acetylene. Some, but not all, of the K=1 levels have distinctively bimodal rotational distributions. The relative vibrational energy distributions obtained from this work were used to simulate the translational energy distribution of the hydrogen atom by Balko, Zhang, and Lee [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 7958 (1991)] to extract the population distribution of CCH. It is thus determined that the majority of CCH radicals are formed in the ground electronic state (X˜). Less than half of the CCH population was detected at K=1 levels, and the rest was distributed among K=0, 2, and 3 stacks. The bond energy of HCC-H is estimated as 131.5±0.5 kcal/mol from the vibronic energy of the most populated CCH fragments determined in this work and the translational energy of the recoiled hydrogen atom reported previously by Balko, Zhang, and Lee and Segall, Wen, Lavi, Singer, and Wittig [J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8078 (1991)].

  14. Rationally tuned micropores within enantiopure metal-organic frameworks for highly selective separation of acetylene and ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Sheng-Chang [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Zhang, Zhangjing [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Zhao, Cong-Gui [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Zhao, Xuebo [University of Newcastle upon Tyne; Ding, De-Rong [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Xie, Ming-Hua [University of Texas, Pan American, Edinburg, TX; Wu, Chuan-De [University of Texas, Pan American, Edinburg, TX; Madhab, Das [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA); Gill, Rachel [University of Newcastle upon Tyne; Thomas, K Mark [University of Newcastle upon Tyne; Chen, Banglin [University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA)

    2011-01-01

    Separation of acetylene and ethylene is an important industrial process because both compounds are essential reagents for a range of chemical products and materials. Current separation approaches include the partial hydrogenation of acetylene into ethylene over a supported Pd catalyst, and the extraction of cracked olefins using an organic solvent; both routes are costly and energy consuming. Adsorption technologies may allow separation, but microporous materials exhibiting highly selective adsorption of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} have not been realized to date. Here, we report the development of tunable microporous enantiopure mixed-metal-organic framework (M'MOF) materials for highly selective separation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. The high selectivities achieved suggest the potential application of microporous M'MOFs for practical adsorption-based separation of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  15. Quantum Chemical Simulations Reveal Acetylene-Based Growth Mechanisms in the Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Eres, Gyula [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Ying [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Gao, Xingfa [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Qian, Hu-Jun [Jilin University, Changchun] [Jilin University, Changchun; Ohta, Yasuhito [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Wu, Xiaona [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Morokuma, Keiji [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Irle, Stephan [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan] [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan

    2014-01-01

    Nonequilibrium quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulation of early stages in the nucleation process of carbon nanotubes from acetylene feedstock on an Fe38 cluster was performed based on the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) potential. Representative chemical reactions were studied by complimentary static DFTB and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oligomerization and cross-linking reactions between carbon chains were found as the main reaction pathways similar to that suggested in previous experimental work. The calculations highlight the inhibiting effect of hydrogen for the condensation of carbon ring networks, and a propensity for hydrogen disproportionation, thus enriching the hydrogen content in already hydrogen-rich species and abstracting hydrogen content in already hydrogen-deficient clusters. The ethynyl radical C2H was found as a reactive, yet continually regenerated species, facilitating hydrogen transfer reactions across the hydrocarbon clusters. The nonequilibrium QM/MD simulations show the prevalence of a pentagon-first nucleation mechanism where hydrogen may take the role of one arm of an sp2 carbon Y-junction. The results challenge the importance of the metal carbide formation for SWCNT cap nucleation in the VLS model and suggest possible alternative routes following hydrogen-abstraction acetylene addition (HACA)-like mechanisms commonly discussed in combustion synthesis.

  16. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  17. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee A.; Alvarez, Giraldo; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported

  18. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan; Miller, Lee; Greenwood, Zach; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported.

  19. Macropinosome quantitation assay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack T.H.; Teasdale, Rohan D.; Liebl, David

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to phagocytosis, macropinocytosis is not directly initiated by interactions between cell surface receptors and cargo ligands, but is a result of constitutive membrane ruffling driven by dynamic remodelling of cortical actin cytoskeleton in response to stimulation of growth factor receptors. Wang et al. (2010) [13] developed a reliable assay that allows quantitative assessment of the efficiency and kinetics of macropinosome biogenesis and/or maturation in cells where the function of a targeted protein has been perturbed by pharmacological inhibitors or by knock-down or knock-out approaches. In this manuscript we describe a modified quantitative protocol to measure the rate and volume of fluid phase uptake in adherent cells. This assay:•uses fluorescent dextran, microscopy and semi-automated image analysis;•allows quantitation of macropinosomes within large numbers of individual cells;•can be applied also to non-homogenous cell populations including transiently transfected cell monolayers. We present the background necessary to consider when customising this protocol for application to new cell types or experimental variations.

  20. Assays for ?-synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    This review describes different ways to achieve and monitor reproducible aggregation of ?-synuclein, a key protein in the development of Parkinson's disease. For most globular proteins, aggregation is promoted by partially denaturing conditions which compromise the native state without destabilizing the intermolecular contacts required for accumulation of regular amyloid structure. As a natively disordered protein, ?-synuclein can fibrillate under physiological conditions and this process is actually stimulated by conditions that promote structure formation, such as low pH, ions, polyamines, anionic surfactants, fluorinated alcohols and agitation. Reproducibility is a critical issue since ?-synuclein shows erratic fibrillation behavior on its own. Agitation in combination with glass beads significantly reduces the variability of aggregation time curves, but the most reproducible aggregation is achieved by sub-micellar concentrations of SDS, which promote the rapid formation of small clusters of ?-synuclein around shared micelles. Although the fibrils produced this way have a different appearance and secondary structure, they are rich in cross-? structure and are amenable to high-throughput screening assays. Although such assays at best provide a very simplistic recapitulation of physiological conditions, they allow the investigator to focus on well-defined molecular events and may provide the opportunity to identify, e.g. small molecule inhibitors of aggregation that affect these steps. Subsequent experiments in more complex cellular and whole-organism environments can then validate whether there is any relation between these molecular interactions and the broader biological context. PMID:21163351

  1. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-07-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year.

  2. The effects on N 2 fixation (C 2 H 2 reduction), bacterial population and rice plant growth of two modes of straw application to a wetland rice field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Ladha; A. Tirol-Padre; M. L. G. Daroy; G. Punzalan; I. Watanabe

    1987-01-01

    The effects of incorporation and surface application of straw to a wetland rice field on nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction), bacterial population and rice plant growth were studied. Rice straw (5 t ha-1) was chopped (10- to 15-cm pieces) and applied to the field 2 weeks before transplanting IR42, a long-duration variety, and IR50, a short-duration variety. The acetylene-reducing activity (ARA)

  3. Cholesterol Efflux Assay

    PubMed Central

    Low, Hann; Hoang, Anh; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol content of cells must be maintained within the very tight limits, too much or too little cholesterol in a cell results in disruption of cellular membranes, apoptosis and necrosis 1. Cells can source cholesterol from intracellular synthesis and from plasma lipoproteins, both sources are sufficient to fully satisfy cells' requirements for cholesterol. The processes of cholesterol synthesis and uptake are tightly regulated and deficiencies of cholesterol are rare 2. Excessive cholesterol is more common problem 3. With the exception of hepatocytes and to some degree adrenocortical cells, cells are unable to degrade cholesterol. Cells have two options to reduce their cholesterol content: to convert cholesterol into cholesteryl esters, an option with limited capacity as overloading cells with cholesteryl esters is also toxic, and cholesterol efflux, an option with potentially unlimited capacity. Cholesterol efflux is a specific process that is regulated by a number of intracellular transporters, such as ATP binding cassette transporter proteins A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) and scavenger receptor type B1. The natural acceptor of cholesterol in plasma is high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I. The cholesterol efflux assay is designed to quantitate the rate of cholesterol efflux from cultured cells. It measures the capacity of cells to maintain cholesterol efflux and/or the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol released from cells. The assay consists of the following steps. Step 1: labelling cellular cholesterol by adding labelled cholesterol to serum-containing medium and incubating with cells for 24-48 h. This step may be combined with loading of cells with cholesterol. Step 2: incubation of cells in serum-free medium to equilibrate labelled cholesterol among all intracellular cholesterol pools. This stage may be combined with activation of cellular cholesterol transporters. Step 3: incubation of cells with extracellular acceptor and quantitation of movement of labelled cholesterol from cells to the acceptor. If cholesterol precursors were used to label newly synthesized cholesterol, a fourth step, purification of cholesterol, may be required. The assay delivers the following information: (i) how a particular treatment (a mutation, a knock-down, an overexpression or a treatment) affects the capacity of cell to efflux cholesterol and (ii) how the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol is affected by a disease or a treatment. This method is often used in context of cardiovascular research, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders, infectious and reproductive diseases. PMID:22414908

  4. Predissociation of acetylene from the A~ 1Au state studied by absorption, laser-induced fluorescence, and H-atom action spectroscopies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinori Suzuki; Nobuhisa Hashimoto

    1999-01-01

    The rovibrational state dependence of the fluorescence and dissociation yields of acetylene in the A~ state has been measured. The fluorescence quantum yield varies with a rotational quantum number at the V3K1 level, indicating that quenching due to electronic relaxation is present below the dissociation energy. The absolute value of the fluorescence quantum yield, determined for the first time, was

  5. Just Click It: Undergraduate Procedures for the Copper(I)-Catalyzed Formation of 1,2,3-Triazoles from Azides and Terminal Acetylenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpless, William D.; Peng Wu; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Lindberg, James G.

    2005-01-01

    The click chemistry uses only the most reliable reactions to build complex molecules from olefins, electrophiles and heteroatom linkers. A variation on Huisgen's azide-alkyne 1,2,3-triazole synthesis, the addition of the copper (I), the premium example of the click reaction, catalyst strongly activates terminal acetylenes towards the 1,3-dipole in…

  6. Mechanism and Kinetics of the Reaction of Acetylene and Nitric Oxide Hue Minh Thi Nguyen,, Raman Sumathi, and Minh Tho Nguyen*,

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    the reaction is an autocatalyzed radical chain polymerization1-3 producing very few species smaller than C4 H4Mechanism and Kinetics of the Reaction of Acetylene and Nitric Oxide Hue Minh Thi Nguyen,, Raman which, in turn, suggests an absence of a reaction at low temperatures. HCO + HCN is found

  7. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and...Quality Assurance § 225.158 Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by...

  8. Tuberosity Reduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... forming. Tuberosity reductions are less common today because dental implants are becoming more popular. In addition, fewer people lose all their teeth and require upper dentures. However, some people with teeth and some who ...

  9. Assessment of plaque assay methods for alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in plaque assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed. PMID:23085307

  10. NCI Launches Proteomics Assay Portal

    Cancer.gov

    In a paper recently published by the journal Nature Methods, Investigators from the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (NCI-CPTAC) announced the launch of a proteomics Assay Portal for multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assays. This community web-based repository for well-characterized quantitative proteomic assays currently consists of 456 unique peptide assays to 282 unique proteins and serves as a public resource of methodologies and data related to cancer associated targets.

  11. The MTT assay for chemosensitivity testing of human tumors of the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Nikkhah; J. C. Tonn; O. Hoffmann; H.-P. Kraemer; J. L. Darling; R. Schönmayr; W. Schachenmayr

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the experimental conditions of the MTT assay for primary cultures of human brain tumors. This assay is based on the mitochondrial reduction of MTT-(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) salt to formazan crystals by living cells. Formazan can be quantified spectrophotometrically. This assay measures the antimetabolic and, by using an adequate recovery period for the cells,

  12. Synthesis of 1-(methanesulfonyl- and aminosulfonylphenyl)acetylenes that possess a 2-( N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyridin-2-one) pharmacophore: Evaluation as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5-lipoxygenase with anti-inflammatory activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morshed Alam Chowdhury; Khaled R. A. Abdellatif; Ying Dong; Moshfiqur Rahman; Dipankar Das; Mavanur R. Suresh; Edward E. Knaus

    2009-01-01

    A hitherto unknown class of linear acetylene regioisomers were designed such that a SO2Me or SO2NH2 group was located at the ortho-, meta- or para-position of the acetylene C-1 phenyl ring, and a N-difluoromethyl-1,2-dihydropyridin-2-one moiety was attached via its C-5 position to the C-2 position on an acetylene template (scaffold). All three SO2Me regioisomers, and the 4-SO2NH2 analog, were potent

  13. Propensities toward C{sub 2}H({ital {tilde A}} {sup 2}{Pi}) in acetylene photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Riehn, C.W.; Dulligan, M.; Wittig, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0482 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0482 (United States)

    1995-10-15

    When expansion-cooled acetylene is excited to the {nu}{sup {double_prime}}{sub 1}+3{nu}{sup {double_prime}}{sub 3} vibrational level (4 quanta of CH-stretch) and then photodissociated at 248.3 nm, the dominant product channel is C{sub 2}H({ital {tilde A}} {sup 2}{Pi}). This differs markedly from one-photon 193.3 nm photodissociation, which provides 1200 cm{sup {minus}1} less energy and yields C{sub 2}H({ital {tilde X}} {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}) as the primary product. Photodissociation at 121.6 nm yields C{sub 2}H({ital {tilde A}} {sup 2}{Pi}) exclusively. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  14. Triel Bonds, ?-Hole-?-Electrons Interactions in Complexes of Boron and Aluminium Trihalides and Trihydrides with Acetylene and Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, S?awomir J

    2015-01-01

    MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations were performed on complexes of aluminium and boron trihydrides and trihalides with acetylene and ethylene. These complexes are linked through triel bonds where the triel center (B or Al) is characterized by the Lewis acid properties through its ?-hole region while ?-electrons of C2H2 or C2H4 molecule play the role of the Lewis base. Some of these interactions possess characteristics of covalent bonds, i.e., the Al-?-electrons links as well as the interaction in the BH3-C2H2 complex. The triel-?-electrons interactions are classified sometimes as the 3c-2e bonds. In the case of boron trihydrides, these interactions are often the preliminary stages of the hydroboration reaction. The Quantum Theory of "Atoms in Molecules" as well as the Natural Bond Orbitals approach are applied here to characterize the ?-hole-?-electrons interactions. PMID:26102066

  15. Absorption Cross Section of Gaseous Acetylene at 85 K in the Wavelength Range 110-155 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bing-Ming; Chen, Hui-Fen; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Hong-Kai; Alam, M. S.; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh

    2011-09-01

    Absorption spectra and absorption cross sections of gaseous acetylene, C2H2, at 298 and 85 K were measured in the wavelength range 110-155 nm with a slit-jet system coupled to a synchrotron as a source of vacuum ultraviolet light. Using published spectral parameters of C2H2, we simulated the absorption profile for the Rydberg transition to state 4R 0 in the range 124.6-125.1 nm, according to which the temperature of the jet-expanded sample at stagnation pressure 200 Torr is 85 ± 5 K. Our cross sections of C2H2 are applicable for determining properties sensitive to temperature for diagnostic work on Saturn and Titan.

  16. ABSORPTION CROSS SECTION OF GASEOUS ACETYLENE AT 85 K IN THE WAVELENGTH RANGE 110-155 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Bing-Ming; Chen, Hui-Fen; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Hong-Kai; Alam, M. S.; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh, E-mail: bmcheng@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, No. 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Absorption spectra and absorption cross sections of gaseous acetylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, at 298 and 85 K were measured in the wavelength range 110-155 nm with a slit-jet system coupled to a synchrotron as a source of vacuum ultraviolet light. Using published spectral parameters of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, we simulated the absorption profile for the Rydberg transition to state 4R{sub 0} in the range 124.6-125.1 nm, according to which the temperature of the jet-expanded sample at stagnation pressure 200 Torr is 85 {+-} 5 K. Our cross sections of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} are applicable for determining properties sensitive to temperature for diagnostic work on Saturn and Titan.

  17. Histrionicotoxins: Roentgen-Ray Analysis of the Novel Allenic and Acetylenic Spiroalkaloids Isolated from a Colombian Frog, Dendrobates histrionicus

    PubMed Central

    Daly, John W.; Karle, Isabella; Myers, Charles W.; Tokuyama, Takashi; Waters, James A.; Witkop, Bernhard

    1971-01-01

    The structures and absolute configuration of two unique alkaloids isolated from the Colombian frog, Dendrobates histrionicus, have been elucidated by Roentgen-ray (x-ray) crystallography. Histrionicotoxin is (2pR, 6S, 7pS, 8aS)-7-(cis-1-buten-3-ynyl)-8-hydroxy-2-(cis-2-penten-4- ynyl)-1-azaspiro[5.5] undecane, while in dihydro-isohistrionicotoxin the acetylenic 2-pentenynyl side chain is replaced by an allenic 2-(3,4 pentadienyl) substituent. Dendrobates histrionicus exhibits remarkable interpopulational variations in amounts and composition of skin toxins, in behavior, and in phenotypic characters, aspects of which are illustrated in a color plate. The histrionico-toxins are the third class of alkaloids isolated from the defensive skin secretions of Neotropical (Dendrobatidae) frogs. Images PMID:5288773

  18. Two-dimensional imaging of glyoxal (C2H2O2) in acetylene flames using laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, F. E.; Bjorge, T.; Magnussen, B. F.; Bengtsson, P. E.; Mauss, F.

    1998-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence measurements have been performed in turbulent non-premixed flames close to the lift-off point and in laminar premixed acetylene flames. The spectrally analyzed fluorescence signal showed good correspondence to known spectra from glyoxal (C2H2O2). Laser-induced fluorescence spectra from glyoxal vapor using the same excitation wavelength of 428 nm showed the same strongest lines as the signal from the flame. Glyoxal was visualized in two different modes; two-dimensional imaging and a spatial-spectral mode where spectra were obtained at different spatial positions in the flame simultaneously. For the premixed laminar rich flame it is shown that glyoxal is produced early in the flame, before the signals for C2 and CH appear. For the turbulent non-premixed flames it is shown that glyoxal is produced in a layer on the fuel rich side of the flames. Here the fuel is premixed with ambient air. This layer is thin and has a high spatial resolution. The general trend was that the glyoxal signal appeared in regions with a lower temperature compared with the emission from C2 and CH. The imaging of glyoxal in turbulent acetylene flames is a promising tool for achieving new insight into flame phenomena, as it gives very good structural information on the flame front. Tests so far do not indicate that the detected glyoxal is a result of photo-production. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of glyoxal in flames using laser-induced fluorescence.

  19. Structure of host-guest complexes between dibenzo-18-crown-6 and water, ammonia, methanol, and acetylene: evidence of molecular recognition on the complexation.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Ryoji; Kokubu, Satoshi; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Haino, Takeharu; Ebata, Takayuki

    2011-04-21

    Complexes of dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6, host) with water, ammonia, methanol, and acetylene (guest) in supersonic jets have been characterized by laser induced fluorescence (LIF), UV-UV hole-burning (UV-UV HB), and IR-UV double resonance (IR-UV DR) spectroscopy. Firstly, we reinvestigated the conformation of bare DB18C6 (species m1 and m2) and the structure of DB18C6-H(2)O (species a) [R. Kusaka, Y. Inokuchi, T. Ebata, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2008, 10, 6238] by measuring IR-UV DR spectra in the region of the methylene CH stretching vibrations. The IR spectral feature of the methylene CH stretch of DB18C6-H(2)O is clearly different from those of bare DB18C6 conformers, suggesting that DB18C6 changes its conformation when forming a complex with a water molecule. With the aid of Monte Carlo simulation for extensive conformational search and density functional calculations (M05-2X/6-31+G*), we reassigned species m1 and m2 to conformers having C(1) and C(2) symmetry, respectively. Also, we confirmed the DB18C6 part in species a of DB18C6-H(2)O to be "boat" conformation (C(2v)). Secondly, we identified nine, one, and two species for the DB18C6 complexes with ammonia, methanol, and acetylene, respectively, by the combination of LIF and UV-UV HB spectroscopy. From the IR spectroscopic measurement in the methylene CH stretching region, a similar conformational change was identified in the DB18C6-ammonia complexes, but not in the complexes with methanol or acetylene. The structures of all the complexes were determined by analyzing the electronic transition energies, exciton splitting, and IR spectra in the region of the OH, NH, and CH stretching vibrations. In DB18C6-ammonia complexes, an ammonia molecule is incorporated into the cavity of the boat conformation by forming "bifurcated" and "bidentate" hydrogen-bond (H-bond), similar to the case of the DB18C6-H(2)O complex. On the other hand, in the DB18C6-methanol and -acetylene complexes, methanol and acetylene molecules are simply attached to the C(1) and C(2) conformations, respectively. From the difference of the DB18C6 conformations depending on the type of the guest molecules, it is concluded that DB18C6 distinguishes water and ammonia from methanol and acetylene when it forms complexes, depending on whether guest molecules have an ability to form bidentate H-bonding. PMID:21409190

  20. Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene [~ over A] [superscript 1]A[subscript u] — [~ over X] [superscript 1?[+ over g] transition. II. Vibrational overlap factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade modes

    E-print Network

    Baraban, Joshua H.

    A full-dimensional Franck-Condon calculation has been applied to the [~ over A] [superscript 1]A[subscript u] — [~ over X] [superscript 1]?[+ over g] transition in acetylene in the harmonic normal mode basis. Details of ...

  1. The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dejian Huang; Boxin Ou; Ronald L. Prior

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Depending upon the reactions involved, these assays can roughly be classified into two types: assays based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions and assays based on electron transfer (ET). The majority of HAT-based assays apply

  2. Rapid and convenient assays to assess potential inhibitory activity on in vitro hepatitis A replication.

    PubMed

    Debing, Yannick; Kaplan, Gerardo G; Neyts, Johan; Jochmans, Dirk

    2013-05-01

    Three different antiviral assays were developed for the in vitro screening of inhibitors of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) of which (i) a cytopathic effect reduction assay suitable for medium-to-high-throughput screening and (ii) two virus yield reduction assays (based on quantification of viral RNA) for genotypes IB and IIIA. The assays were validated for antiviral studies with interferon-alpha (IFN?) and amantadine HCl, two known inhibitors of HAV replication. IFN? effectively inhibited HAV replication, whereas the activity of amantadine HCl appeared to be strain-dependent. Employing these assays, we assessed the effect of the known enterovirus inhibitors pleconaril, rupintrivir and enviroxime on HAV replication. Pleconaril exhibited some very moderate activity, the effect of rupintrivir proved to be strain-dependent. Enviroxime did not inhibit HAV replication, suggesting that phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III? is not crucial in the HAV life cycle. PMID:23528258

  3. Mandibular reduction.

    PubMed

    Chan, Theodore C; Harrigan, Richard A; Ufberg, Jacob; Vilke, Gary M

    2008-05-01

    Patients who dislocate their mandible often present to the Emergency Department for care. Dislocation can occur after a variety of activities that hyperextend the mandible or open the mouth widely, such as yawning, laughing, or taking a large bite. Anterior dislocation is the most common type, in which the condylar head of the mandible dislocates out of the glenoid fossa anterior to the articular eminence of the temporal bone. These dislocations are often complicated by muscle spasm and trismus, making reduction more difficult. The emergency physician can often reduce the anterior mandibular dislocation with or without procedural sedation or local anesthesia. A variety of methods are available for closed reduction, including the classic approach and various alternatives such as the recumbent, posterior, and ipsilateral approaches, as well as the wrist pivot method, alternative manual technique, and gag reflex induction. This article will review the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of acute mandibular dislocations, as well as discuss the various closed reduction methods available for the practitioner. PMID:18242920

  4. From Antenna to Assay

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ?60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. To efficiently sensitize Eu(III) emission, we have used the 1-hydroxypyridin-2-one (1,2-HOPO) chelate to create remarkable ligands that combine excellent photophysical properties and exceptional aqueous stabilities. A more complete understanding of this chromophore has been achieved by combining low-temperature phosphorescence measurements with the same TD-DFT approach used with the IAM system. Eu(III) complexes with strong CPL activity have also been obtained with chiral 1,2-HOPO ligands. We have also undertaken the kinetic analysis of radiative and non-radiative decay pathways for a series of Eu(III) complexes; the importance of the metal ion symmetry on the ensuing photophysical properties is clear. Lastly, we describe a Tb(III)-IAM compound—now carried through to commercial availability—that offers improved performance in the common HTRF platform and has the potential to vastly improve sensitivity. PMID:19323456

  5. Doug Berndt Evaluated Bacterial Assay

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS microbiology technician evaluates a bacterial assay to determine the cause of a wildlife mortality. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease....

  6. Non-resonant wavelength modulation saturation spectroscopy in acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres applied to modulation-free laser diode stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Pablo; Lynch, Michael; Charlton, Christy; Donegan, John F; Weldon, Vincent

    2009-12-01

    In this paper the application of Wavelength Modulation (WM) techniques to non-resonant saturation spectroscopy in acetylene-filled Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibres (HC-PBFs) and modulation-free Laser Diode (LD) frequency stabilisation is investigated. In the first part WM techniques are applied to non-resonant pump-probe saturation of acetylene overtone rotational transitions in a HC-PBF. A high-power DFB chip-on-carrier mounted LD is used in conjunction with a tuneable External Cavity Laser (ECL) and the main saturation parameters are characterized. In the second part a novel feedback system to stabilize the DFB emission wavelength based on the WM saturation results is implemented. Modulation-free locking of the DFB laser frequency to the narrow linewidth saturation feature is achieved for both constant and variable LD temperatures. PMID:20052257

  7. Synthesis of indoles, benzofurans, and related heterocycles via an acetylene-activated SNAr/intramolecular cyclization cascade sequence in water or DMSO.

    PubMed

    Hudson, R; Bizier, N P; Esdale, K N; Katz, J L

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of 2-substituted indoles and benzofurans was achieved by nucleophilic aromatic substitution, followed by subsequent 5-endo-dig cyclization between the nucleophile and an ortho acetylene. The acetylene serves the dual role of the electron withdrawing group to activate the substrate for SNAr, and the C1-C2 carbon scaffold for the newly formed 5-membered heteroaromatic ring. This method allows for the bond forming sequence of Ar-X-N/O-C1 to proceed in a single synthetic step, furnishing indoles and benzofurans in moderate to high yields. Since the method is not transition metal mediated, brominated and chlorinated substrates are tolerated, and benzofuran formation can be conducted using water or water-DMSO mixtures as solvent. PMID:25608594

  8. Modelling of the Stabilization of the Complex of a Single Walled (5,5) Carbon Nanotube C60H20 with Cumulenic or Acetylenic Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinadayalane, T. C.; Gorb, Leonid; Dodziuk, Helena; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2005-09-01

    Model calculations have been carried out for a (5,5) single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) C60H20 and cumulene C2nH4 or acetylene C2nH2 (n = 1-4) chains and for their complexes obtained by insertion of a respective chain into the nanotube to check whether the theoretical simulation can (a) reproduce the stabilization of such supramolecular system and (b) propose which structure, i. e. acetylenic or cumulenic one, forms more stable complexes with SWNTs on the basis of quantum chemical calculations. In agreement with expectations, the calculations have revealed that the supramolecular systems are not stabilized at the DFT and HF level but, interestingly, reveal stabilization at the MP2/6-31G* level. Practically the same HOMO and LUMO energy gaps and very small charge transfer between the SWNT and chains have been found.

  9. Measurements of linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene in the ?4+?5 combination band using a cw quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-11-01

    Linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene have been measured at 296 K in the P branch of the ?4+?5 combination band for 25 rotational transitions. The effect of gas temperature is studied over 296-683 K for five transitions to allow the determination of the temperature dependent exponent n for N2- and Ar-broadening coefficients. These measurements were performed using a continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) operating over 1253-1310 cm-1. Spectroscopic parameters were obtained by fitting absorption spectra using Voigt, Galatry and Rautian profiles. Linestrength and broadening results are compared with previous studies available in literature for the ?4+?5 combination band and other vibrational bands of acetylene.

  10. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON NOx REDUCTION UNDER PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Subha K. Kumpaty; Kannikeswaran Subramanian; Victor P. Nokku; Tyrus L. Hodges; Adel Hassouneh; Ansumana Darboe; Sravan K. Kumpati

    1998-06-01

    In this work, both computer simulation and experimental studies were conducted to investigate several strategies for NO{sub x} reduction under pulverized coal combustion conditions with an aim to meet the stringent environmental standards for NO{sub x} control. Both computer predictions and reburning experiments yielded favorable results in terms of NO{sub x} control by reburning with a combination of methane and acetylene as well as non-selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with ammonia following reburning with methane. The greatest reduction was achieved at the reburning stoichiometric ratio of 0.9; the reduction was very significant, as clearly shown in Chapters III and V. Both the experimental and computational results favored mixing gases: methane and acetylene (90% and 10% respectively) and methane and ammonia (98% and 2%) in order to get optimum reduction levels which can not be achieved by individual gases at any amounts. Also, the above gaseous compositions as reburning fuels seemed to have a larger window of stoichiometric ratio (SR2 < 0.9) as opposed to just methane (SR2=0.9) so as to reduce and keep NO{sub x} at low ppm levels. From the various computational runs, it has been observed that although there are several pathways that contribute to NO{sub x} reduction, the key pathway is NO {r_arrow} HCN {r_arrow} NH{sub 3} {r_arrow} N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. With the trends established in this work, it is possible to scale the experimental results to real time industrial applications using computational calculations.

  11. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food and...Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a) Identification. An endotoxin assay is a device that uses serological...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food...and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A sulfhemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food...Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A carboxyhemoglobin assay is a device used to determine the...

  14. Rotational spectroscopy of the first excited state of the acetylenic C H stretch of 3-fluoropropyne performed by infrared-Fourier transform microwave microwave triple-resonance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin O. Douglass; Frances S. Rees; Richard D. Suenram; Brooks H. Pate; Igor Leonov

    2005-01-01

    The rotational spectra of 3-fluoropropyne in the ground and first excited acetylenic C H stretch vibrational state have been measured. The pure rotational spectrum of the normal species and the 13C isotopomers were measured using FTMW-cwMW double-resonance spectroscopy based on the Autler Townes (AC Stark) effect. The lineshape properties of this measurement make it possible to determine the transition strength,

  15. Direct measurements of state-to-state rotational and vibrational energy transfer in highly vibrational excited acetylene: vibrational overtone excitation--LIF detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Tobiason; A. L. Utz; Fleming F. Crim

    1993-01-01

    Vibrational overtone excitation of single rovibrational eigenstates followed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection of the collisionally populated quantum states in single collision conditions provides a method for directly measuring state-to-state rotational and vibrational energy transfer rates in highly vibrationally excited acetylene. There are several advantages in collecting the data in vibrational overtone excitation spectra with LIF detection (scanning excitation laser

  16. Collision-induced state-to-state energy transfer in the ?2+3?3 rovibrational manifold of gas-phase acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Milce; H.-D. Barth; B. J. Orr

    1994-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared-ultraviolet double resonance spectroscopy is used to measure collision-induced rovibrational energy transfer in the ?2+3?3 region (?11 600 cm?1) of gas-phase acetylene. Of particular interest is rotationally resolved V–V transfer between the Fermi-coupled 2133 and 11234351 levels, for which the rate is relatively high (approximately 13% of the Lennard-Jones collision rate) and the relevant rovibrational states markedly perturbed.

  17. Measurement of Rotational State-To Relaxation Coefficients by Raman-Raman Double Resonance. Application to Self-Collisions in Acetylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Domenech; R. Z. Martinez; D. Bermejo

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a technique for the measurement of state-to-state rotational relaxation rates due to collisions in the gas phase. A single J state of the v_{2}=1 vibrational level of acetylene is populated by a Stimulated Raman process. After a variable delay of a few ns we record high resolution (˜ 0.003 cm^{-1}) spectra of the Q-branch of the v_{2}=2<--

  18. Effect of Nitrate and Acetylene on nirS, cnorB, and nosZ Expression and Denitrification Activity in Pseudomonas mandelii?

    PubMed Central

    Saleh-Lakha, Saleema; Shannon, Kelly E.; Henderson, Sherri L.; Zebarth, Bernie J.; Burton, David L.; Goyer, Claudia; Trevors, Jack T.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrate acts as an electron acceptor in the denitrification process. The effect of nitrate in the range of 0 to 1,000 mg/liter on Pseudomonas mandelii nirS, cnorB, and nosZ gene expression was studied, using quantitative reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Denitrification activity was measured by using the acetylene blockage method and gas chromatography. The effect of acetylene on gene expression was assessed by comparing denitrification gene expression in P. mandelii culture grown in the presence or absence of acetylene. The higher the amount of NO3? present, the greater the induction and the longer the denitrification genes remained expressed. nirS gene expression reached a maximum at 2, 4, 4, and 6 h in cultures grown in the presence of 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 mg of KNO3/liter, respectively, while induction of nirS gene ranged from 12- to 225-fold compared to time zero. cnorB gene expression also followed a similar trend. nosZ gene expression did not respond to NO3? treatment under the conditions tested. Acetylene decreased nosZ gene expression but did not affect nirS or cnorB gene expression. These results showed that nirS and cnorB responded to nitrate concentrations; however, significant denitrification activity was only observed in culture with 1,000 mg of KNO3/liter, indicating that there was no relationship between gene expression and denitrification activity under the conditions tested. PMID:19525277

  19. Chemistry and kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of pyrocarbon—II pyrocarbon deposition from ethylene, acetylene and 1,3-butadiene in the low temperature regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Becker; K. J. Hüttinger

    1998-01-01

    Pyrocarbon deposition from ethylene, acetylene and 1,3-butadiene was studied with a vertical hot-wall reactor at ambient pressure and 1000 °C; initial partial pressures of the hydrocarbons and residence time were varied. Steady-state pyrocarbon deposition rates and corresponding compositions of the gas-phase were determined. Reaction models describing homogeneous gas-phase and heterogeneous pyrocarbon deposition reactions were derived and applied for simulation of

  20. A DFT+U study of acetylene selective hydrogenation on oxygen defective anatase (101) and rutile (110) TiO2 supported Pd4 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Lv, Cun-Qin; Guo, Yong; Wang, Gui-Chang

    2012-03-01

    The reaction mechanisms for selective acetylene hydrogenation on three different supports, Pd4 cluster, oxygen defective anatase (101), and rutile (110) titania supported Pd4, cluster are studied using the density functional theory calculations with a Hubbard U correction (DFT+U). The present calculations show that the defect anatase support binds Pd4 cluster more strongly than that of rutile titania due to the existence of Ti3+ in anatase titania. Consequently, the binding energies of adsorbed species such as acetylene and ethylene on Pd4 cluster become weaker on anatase supported catalysts compared to the rutile supported Pd4 cluster. Anatase catalyst has higher selectivity of acetylene hydrogenation than rutile catalyst. On the one hand, the activation energies of ethylene formation are similar on the two catalysts, while they vary a lot on ethyl formation. The rutile supported Pd catalyst with lower activation energy is preferable for further hydrogenation. On the other hand, the relatively weak adsorption energy of ethylene is gained on anatase surface, which means it is easier for ethylene desorption, hence getting higher selectivity. For further understanding, the energy decomposition method and micro-kinetic analysis are also introduced.

  1. On the effect of varying constraints in the quantum mechanics only modeling of enzymatic reactions: the case of acetylene hydratase.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rong-Zhen; Thiel, Walter

    2013-04-18

    Quantum mechanics only (QM-only) studies of enzymatic reactions employ a coordinate-locking scheme, in which certain key atoms at the periphery of the chosen cluster model are fixed to their crystal structure positions. We report a case study on acetylene hydratase to assess the uncertainties introduced by this scheme. Random displacements of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 Å were applied at the ten terminal atoms fixed in the chosen 116-atom cluster model to generate sets of ten distorted structures for each given displacement. The relevant stationary points were reoptimized under these modified constraints to determine the variations of the computed energies and geometries induced by the displacements of the fixed atoms. Displacements of 0.1 Å cause a relatively minor perturbation that can be accommodated during geometry optimization, resulting in rather small changes in key bond distances and relative energies (typically of the order of 0.01 Å and 1 kcal/mol), whereas displacements of 0.2 Å lead to larger fluctuations (typically twice as high) and may sometimes even cause convergence to different local minima during geometry optimization. A literature survey indicates that protein crystal structures with a resolution higher than 2.0 Å are normally associated with a coordinate error of less than 0.1 Å for the backbone atoms. Judging from the present results for acetylene hydratase, such uncertainties seem tolerable in the design of QM-only models with more than 100 atoms, which are flexible enough to adapt during geometry optimization and thus keep the associate uncertainties in the computed energies and bond distances at tolerable levels (around 1 kcal/mol and 0.01 Å, respectively). On the other hand, crystal structures with significantly lower resolution should be used with great caution when setting up QM-only models because the resulting uncertainties in the computational results may become larger than acceptable. The present conclusions are mostly based on systematic DFT(B3LYP) calculations with a medium-size basis set. Test calculations on selected structures confirm that similar results are obtained for larger basis sets, different functionals (?B97X, BMK, M06), and upon including solvation and zero-point corrections, even though the fluctuations in the computed relative energies become somewhat larger in some cases. PMID:23517056

  2. Bioassay-directed isolation and identification of phytotoxic and fungitoxic acetylenes from Conyza canadensis.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Sonia C N; Cantrell, Charles L; Duke, Stephen O; Wedge, David E; Nandula, Vijay K; Moraes, Rita M; Cerdeira, Antonio L

    2012-06-13

    Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist syn. (horseweed) is a problematic and invasive weed with reported allelopathic properties. To identify the phytotoxic constituents of the aerial parts, a systematic bioactivity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract was performed. Three active enyne derivatives, (2Z,8Z)-matricaria acid methyl ester, (4Z,8Z)-matricaria lactone, and (4Z)-lachnophyllum lactone, were identified. The lactones inhibited growth of the monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) at 1 mg mL(-1), while the (2Z,8Z)-matricaria acid methyl ester was less active. In a dose-response screening of the lactones for growth inhibitory activity against Lemna paucicostata , (4Z)-lachnophyllum lactone was the most active with an IC50 of 104 ?M, while the (4Z,8Z)-matricaria lactone was less active (IC50 of 220 ?M). In a fungal direct bioautography assay, the two lactones at 10 and 100 ?g/spot inhibited growth of the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum acutatum , Colletotrichum fragariae , and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides . In a dose-response screening of the lactones against six different plant pathogenic fungi, (4Z,8Z)-matricaria lactone was more active than the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin on Col. acutatum , Col. fragariae , and Col. gloeosporioides at 30 ?M and about as active as the commercial fungicide captan against Col. gloeosporioides , while (4Z)-lachnophyllum lactone was less active. PMID:22612410

  3. Infection on a chip: a microscale platform for simple and sensitive cell-based virus assays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Warrick, Jay W; Haubert, Kathryn; Beebe, David J; Yin, John

    2009-06-01

    The plaque assay has long served as the "gold standard" to measure virus infectivity and test antiviral drugs, but the assay is labor-intensive, lacks sensitivity, uses excessive reagents, and is hard to automate. Recent modification of the assay to exploit flow-enhanced virus spread with quantitative imaging has increased its sensitivity. Here we performed flow-enhanced infection assays in microscale channels, employing passive fluid pumping to inoculate cell monolayers with virus and drive infection spread. Our test of an antiviral drug (5-fluorouracil) against vesicular stomatitis virus infections of BHK cell monolayers yielded a two-fold improvement in sensitivity, relative to the standard assay based on plaque counting. The reduction in scale, simplified fluid handling, image-based quantification, and higher assay sensitivity will enable infection measurements for high-throughput drug screening, sero-conversion testing, and patient-specific diagnosis of viral infections. PMID:19142734

  4. The highly abundant urinary metabolite urobilin interferes with the bicinchoninic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Sampson, D L; Chng, Y L; Upton, Z; Hurst, C P; Parker, A W; Parker, T J

    2013-11-01

    Estimation of total protein concentration is an essential step in any protein- or peptide-centric analysis pipeline. This study demonstrates that urobilin, a breakdown product of heme and a major constituent of urine, interferes considerably with the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. This interference is probably due to the propensity of urobilin to reduce cupric ions (Cu(2+)) to cuprous ions (Cu(1+)), thus mimicking the reduction of copper by proteins, which the assay was designed to do. In addition, it is demonstrated that the Bradford assay is more resistant to the influence of urobilin and other small molecules. As such, urobilin has a strong confounding effect on the estimate of total protein concentrations obtained by BCA assay and thus this assay should not be used for urinary protein quantification. It is recommended that the Bradford assay be used instead. PMID:23911526

  5. The effects of intra-row spacing on nitrogen accumulation and fixation in nodulating and non-nodulating soybeans 

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Alfred Nels

    1979-01-01

    on nitrogen fixation under different plant densities of the field bean (Vicia faba). Acetylene reduction rates increased until a peak of 42 pmoles/plant/h occurred 2 during pod set under a population density of 7 plants/m . A density 2 of 200 plants... were separated into leaflets, stems plus petioles, and pads. Also, the acetylene reduction assay was conducted and nodule fresh weight was determined on the nodulating isoline. Root density determinations were conducted in the field by burying glass...

  6. Copper dependence of the biotin switch assay: modified assay for measuring cellular and blood nitrosated proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xunde; Kettenhofen, Nicholas J; Shiva, Sruti; Hogg, Neil; Gladwin, Mark T

    2008-04-01

    Studies have shown that modification of critical cysteine residues in proteins leads to the regulation of protein function. These modifications include disulfide bond formation, glutathionylation, sulfenic and sulfinic acid formation, and S-nitrosation. The biotin switch assay was developed to specifically detect protein S-nitrosation (S. R. Jaffrey et al., Nat. Cell Biol. 3:193-197; 2001). In this assay, proteins are denatured with SDS in the presence of methyl methane thiosulfonate (MMTS) to block free thiols. After acetone precipitation or Sephadex G25 separation to remove excess MMTS, HPDP-biotin and 1 mM ascorbate are added to reduce the S-nitrosothiol bonds and label the reduced thiols with biotin. The proteins are then separated by nonreducing SDS PAGE and detected using either streptavidin-HRP or anti-biotin-HRP conjugate. Our examination of this labeling scheme has revealed that the extent of labeling depends on the buffer composition and, importantly, on the choice of metal-ion chelator (DTPA vs EDTA). Unexpectedly, using purified S-nitrosated albumin, we have found that "contaminating" copper is required for the ascorbate-dependent degradation of S-nitrosothiol; this is consistent with the fact that ascorbate itself does not rapidly reduce S-nitrosothiols. Removal of copper from buffers by DTPA and other copper chelators preserves approximately 90% of the S-nitrosothiol, whereas the inclusion of copper and ascorbate completely eliminates the S-nitrosothiol in the preparation and increases the specific biotin labeling. These biotin switch experiments were confirmed using triiodide-based and copper-based reductive chemiluminescence. Additional modifications of the assay using N-ethylmaleimide for thiol blockade, ferricyanide pretreatment to stabilize S-nitrosated hemoglobin, and cyanine dye labeling instead of biotin are presented for the measurement of cellular and blood S-nitrosothiols. These results indicate that degradation of S-nitrosothiol in the standard biotin switch assay is metal-ion dependent and that experimental variability in S-nitrosothiol yields using this assay occurs secondary to the inclusion of metal-ion chelators in reagents and variable metal-ion contamination of buffers and labware. The addition of copper to ascorbate allows for a simple assay modification that dramatically increases sensitivity while maintaining specificity. PMID:18211831

  7. Analysis of the seed oil of Heisteria silvanii (Olacaceae)--a rich source of a novel C18 acetylenic fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, V; Tomberg, W; Hartmann, R; Aichholz, R

    1997-11-01

    Besides some usual fatty acids (FA), two conjugated ene-yne acetylenic FA [trans-10-heptadecen-8-ynoic acid (pyrulic acid) (7.4%), and trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (ximenynic acid) (3.5%)], a novel ene-yne-ene acetylenic FA [cis-7, trans-11-octadecadiene-9-ynoic acid (heisteric acid) (22.6%)], and 9,10-epoxystearic acid (0.6%) could be identified in the seed oil of Heisteria silvanii (Olacaceae). Two further conjugated acetylenic FA [9,11-octadecadiynoic acid (0.1%) and 13-octadecene-9,11-diynoic acid (0.4%)] were identified tentatively by their mass spectra. The FA mixture has been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of their methyl ester and 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. The structure of heisteric acid was elucidated after isolation via preparative silver ion thin-layer chromatography and by various spectroscopic methods [ultraviolet; infrared; 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); 1H-1H and 1H-13C correlation spectroscopy]. To determine the position of the conjugated ene-yne-ene system, the NMR spectra were also measured after addition of the lanthanide shift reagent Resolve-Al EuFOD. Furthermore, the triyglyceride mixture was analyzed by high-temperature GC and high-temperature GC coupled with negative chemical ionization MS. A glass capillary column coated with a methoxy-terminated 50%-diphenyl-50%-dimethylpolysiloxane was used for the separation of the triacylglycerol (TAG) species. No evidence of decomposition of the TAG species containing conjugated ene-yne-ene FA was observed. Twenty-six species of the separated TAG were identified by means of their abundant quasi molecular ion [M - H]- and their corresponding carboxylate anions [RCOO]- of the fatty acids, respectively. The major molecular species of the TAG were found to be 16:0/18:1/18:1, 16:0/18:1/18:3 (heisteric acid), 17:2 (pyrulic acid)/18:1/18:1, 18:1/18:1/18:3 (heisteric acid). The TAG containing acetylenic FA showed an unexpected increase of the retention time in comparison to the TAG containing usual FA, thus making the prediction of the elution order of lipid samples containing acetylenic FA difficult. PMID:9397405

  8. New catalytic reaction of elemental sulfur with acetylenes by the action of cobalt complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Selimov, F.A.; Khafizov, V.R.; Khalilov, L.M.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1986-11-20

    The authors report that the reaction of 1-hexyne with CS/sub 2/ taken in 3:1 mole ratio by the action of a catalyst prepared by the reduction of Co(2-ethylhexanoate)/sub 2/ by triethylaluminum in the presence of absolute DMSO (Co:Al:DMSO = 1:3:10-20) in absolute toluene solution at 150/sup 0/C for 6 h gives a 1:1 mixture of stereoisomeric 1,2-dithia-3,6-dibutyl-3,5-cyclohexadienes in about 40% total yield. By analogy, 1-hexyne and S/sub 8/ (S/sub ..cap alpha../-cyclooctasulfane) give 40% disulfides, 15% 2,4-dibutylthiophene, and about 45% of a mixture of 1,3,4- and 1,3,5-tributylbenzenes in 45% total yield identified by comparison with authentic samples.

  9. Reactivity of free radical intermediates that form spontaneously during molecular chlorine action on acetylene and vinyl monomers at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, D. A.; Volodina, V. A.; Mikhailov, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, ESR, UV, VIS and IR spectroscopy, as well as chromatography, calorimetry, and elemental analysis were employed to show the spontaneous formation of free radicals under low-temperature action of molecular chlorine on acetylene monomer p-diethynylbenzene and on vinyl monomer acrylamide. These radicals are able to initiate a chain reaction of polymerization of monomers at low temperatures. This reaction results in a completely soluble polymer with a 25% yield, while an insoluble cross-linked polymer has been obtained during polymerization of p-diethynylbenzene initiated by other means. For example, under radiolysis by 1000 kGy the soluble fraction of obtained polymer was ?1%, while the overall yield was ?10%. p-Diethynylbenzene polymerizes at temperatures close to the melting temperature of chlorine (170 K). Polymerization of acrylamide takes place in the temperature range of 180-210 K with a ?10% yield of polymer. The low-temperature chlorination of a 20% solution of acrylamide in glycerol enables a twofold increase of the polymer yield and a tenfold decrease of the chlorine content in it.

  10. Temperature and pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reactions of NH2 radicals with acetylene and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Brobst, W. D.; Stief, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute rate constants for the reaction between the NH2 free radical and acetylene and ethylene is measured experimentally using a flash photolysis technique. The constant is considered to be a function of temperature and pressure. At each temperature level of the experiment, the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants were assumed to be independent of flash intensity. The results of the experiment indicate that the bimolecular rate constant for the NH2 + C2H2 reaction increases with pressure at 373 K and 459 K but not at lower temperatures. Results near the pressure limit conform to an Arrhenius expression of 1.11 (+ or -) 0.36 x 10 to the -13th over the temperature range from 241 to 459 K. For the reaction NH2 + C2H4, a smaller rate of increase in the bimolecular rate constant was observed over the temperature range 250-465 K. The implications of these results for current theoretical models of NH2 + C2H2 (or H4) reactions in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  11. Complete determination of the photoionization dynamics of a polyatomic molecule. I. Experimental photoelectron angular distributions from A~ 1Au acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockett, Paul; King, Adrian K.; Powis, Ivan; Reid, Katharine L.

    2007-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectra from rotationally selected ÃAu1 state acetylene have been recorded using velocity-map imaging. Several Renner-Teller split vibrational bands have been observed and assigned, showing good agreement with previous zero kinetic energy photoelectron (ZEKE) work [S. T. Pratt, P. M. Dehmer, and J. L. Dehmer, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6233 (1993); S.-J. Tang, Y.-C. Chou, J. J.-M. Lin, and Y.-C. Hsu, ibid. 125, 133201 (2006).] The extracted photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) corresponding to these bands show a strong dependence on the vibronic angular momentum projection quantum number K+. Subbands with odd K+ show PADs with maximum intensity along the polarization vector of the ionizing laser beam, while those with even K+ show PADs with maximum intensity perpendicular to this direction. Velocity-map images recorded at low photoelectron energies approach rotational resolution of the ion, and the evolution of the PADs with increasing rotational level prepared in the ÃAu1 state indicates the potential of a "complete" determination of the photoionization dynamics of the ÃAu1 state. This is further investigated in the following paper.

  12. Quantum-chemical approach to determining the high potency of clorgyline as an irreversible acetylenic monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Pavlin, Matic; Mavri, Janez; Repi?, Matej; Vianello, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Density functional theory calculations were employed to investigate the nature of chemical bond formation between the flavin co-factor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) and its irreversible acetylenic inhibitor clorgyline in its terminally deprotonated anionic form. Since MAOs regulate the level of neurotransmitters in living cells, this reaction is pharmacologically relevant for treating depression and other mood disorders. The results revealed that this pathway is associated with the activation free energy of ?G act (#) = 17.4 kcal mol(-1), which, together with our previous results, suggests that clorgyline is intrinsically a more effective MAO inhibitor than antiparkinsonian drugs rasagiline and selegiline considering the preferred MAO isoforms in each case, thus displaying a trend in agreement with experimental data. The reaction is facilitated by the pronounced electrophilic character of the flavin moiety, due to its ability to efficiently accommodate excess negative charge from the approaching anionic inhibitor through resonance effect. The investigated mechanism was additionally validated by the inspection of the geometry of the flavin moiety in the formed adduct, which exhibit distortion from planarity consistent with experimental observations. These results offer valuable insight for mechanistic studies on other flavoenzymes and for the design of new antidepressants and antiparkinsonian drugs. PMID:23546802

  13. Time-Resolved Rotational Energy Transfer and Spectral Line Broadening in Acetylene. a High Resolution Raman Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, J. L.; Martinez, R. Z.; Bermejo, D.

    2010-06-01

    The quasi-cw stimulated Raman technique is a powerful tool for the determination of collisional broadening and line-mixing parameters, which bear a very direct relationship with the rotational energy transfer rate constants matrix at the state-to-state level. Indeed, the broadening coefficients and the analysis of line-mixing profiles, frequently combined with a rate-law analysis, have provided a wealth of information on collision physics for many gas systems throughout the years. We report on new high resolution measurements of the broadening coefficients on the Q-branch of the ?_2 band of acetylene. Furthermore, last year at this meeting, we reported on a new technique for the determination of state-to-state rotational energy transfer rate constants. based on a time-resolved double-resonance Raman-Raman scheme. It uses the quasi-continuous stimulated Raman-loss technique for the probe stage. Through a systematic recording of the time evolution of rotational populations from a single initially pupulated J level, it allows the direct determination of most elements of the rate-constant matrix without resorting to fitting or scaling laws. The comparison of the results obtained from from the high resolution spectroscopic approach with those from the time-resolved dynamics experiment provides insight into the collision mechanisms and some of the assumptions or simplifications usually made in rate-law analysis.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of olivine LiFePO 4 prepared by a carbothermal reduction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-ping Liu; Zhi-xing Wang; Xin-hai Li; Hua-jun Guo; Wen-jie Peng; Yun-he Zhang; Qi-yang Hu

    2008-01-01

    LiFePO4\\/C composite cathode material was prepared by carbothermal reduction method, which uses NH4H2PO4, Li2CO3 and cheap Fe2O3 as starting materials, acetylene black and glucose as carbon sources. The precursor of LiFePO4\\/C was characterized by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the LiFePO4\\/C is olivine-type phase, and the addition of the carbon

  15. Assay and kinetics of arginase.

    PubMed

    Garganta, C L; Bond, J S

    1986-05-01

    A sensitive colorimetric assay for arginase was developed. Urea produced by arginase was hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease, the ammonia was converted to indophenol, and the absorbance was measured at 570 nm. The assay is useful with low concentrations of arginase (0.5 munit or less than 1 ng rat liver arginase) and with a wide range of arginine concentrations (50 microM to 12.5 mM). Michaelis-Menten kinetics and a Km for arginine of 1.7 mM were obtained for Mn2+-activated rat liver arginase; the unactivated enzyme did not display linear behavior on double-reciprocal plots. The kinetic data for unactivated arginase indicated either negative cooperativity or two types of active sites on the arginase tetramer with different affinities for arginine. The new assay is particularly well suited for kinetic studies of activated and unactivated arginase. PMID:3728959

  16. Quantitative assay for algal chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Sjoblad, R D; Chet, I; Mitchell, R

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative capillary assay is described for measuring chemoreception in the neritic and littoral unicellular alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. Lucite chemotaxis plates were used in the assay with 3-microliter capillaries. A Coulter Counter was employed to determine algal cell numbers. D. tertiolecta is attracted to ammonium ion with a maximum positive response at 10(-3) M. Inclusion of calcium and L-methionine in the chemotaxis medium stimulates algal chemoreception, although neither chemical is essential for motility. Attraction of the chlorophyte to ammonium is dependent on time of incubation, cell density, and pH. The optimum pH for attraction was found to be 6.25. PMID:32834

  17. Computerized semiautomated microbiological assay of folacin.

    PubMed

    Keagy, P M

    1986-01-01

    A semiautomated microbiological folacin assay system is described. A microcomputer controls sample dilutions, medium addition, turbidity determination, and data acquisition. Assay capacity is 600 tubes per day, approximately twice that of comparable manual assays. Using the automated equipment, more samples can be compared within one assay, eliminating many sources of between-assay variation in large studies. Additional advantages of this system are reduced human errors, flexibility of assay design, and multifunctional component equipment. Folacin results from chicken liver, spinach, and breakfast cereal samples show equivalent precision for manual and automated assays. PMID:3095308

  18. Biochemical Assays of Cultured Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Subpopulations of human embryonic kidney cells isolated from continuous flow electrophoresis experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas and on STS-8 have been analyzed. These analyses have included plasminogen activator assays involving indirect methodology on fibrin plated and direct methodology using chromogenic substrates. Immunological studies were performed and the conditioned media for erythropoietin activity and human granulocyte colony stimulating (HGCSF) activity was analyzed.

  19. Magnetoresistive Sensors in Biological Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Tondra

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic beads or nanoparticles can be used as ``labels'' in biochemical assays by attaching the beads to the biospecies of interest using a bio-specific attachment. Once the labels are attached, they can be used to manipulate, capture, and detect the species to be analyzed. Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors may be used to detect and count these labels, and thus make an

  20. Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , warm, and windy season, between January and May, localized epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occurPolymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance in Remote Areas, Niger Fati reference laboratory for meningitis in Niger used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to enhance

  1. Assay for parathyroid hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nissenson, R.A.; Teitelbaum, A.P.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents methods used to identify and quantify parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in kidney and bone. Experimental details are provided for the preparation of radioiodinated PTH, purification of labeled PTH, and PTH binding assays using renal plasma membranes and cultured cells from embryonic chick bone cells.

  2. Recent advances in enzyme assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Goddard; Jean-Louis Reymond

    2004-01-01

    Enzyme assays for high-throughput screening and enzyme engineering, which are often based on derivatives of coumarin, nitrophenol, fluorescein, nitrobenzofurazane or rhodamine dyes, can be divided into two categories: those that depend on labelled substrates, and those that depend on sensing the reactions of unmodified substrates. Labelled substrates include, for example, fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates that generate a reporter molecule by

  3. Problems with the PTH assays.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Delanaye, Pierre; Nyssen, Laurent; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2015-05-01

    Even if the first assay for parathyroid hormone (PTH) was published in the early 1960s, its determination remains a challenge even today. Indeed, in the circulation, PTH is present in its active form (PTH 1-84), but many PTH fragments can also be present. These fragments accumulate when renal function declines and are recognized, at different extents, by the 2nd generation ("intact") PTH assays that are widely used in the clinical laboratories. Some assays, called "3rd generation PTH" do not recognize these fragments, but are not available everywhere. Hence, different problems are also linked with PTH determination. Among them, one can cite the lack of a reference method, the lack of standardization of the assays and, sometimes, the lack of consistent reference range. We can also point out stability problems and a large intra-individual variation. A workgroup is working on these problems under the auspices of the IFCC and we hope that some of these problems will be resolved in the next years. In this article, we will discuss all the possible issues of PTH determination. PMID:25916762

  4. Establishing Assay Cutoffs for HLA Antibody Screening of Apheresis Donors

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Danielle M.; Norris, Philip J.; Endres, Robert O.; Pandey, Suchitra; Kleinman, Steven H.; Wright, David; Sun, Yu; Busch, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related deaths. Donor HLA antibodies have been implicated in TRALI cases. Blood centers are implementing TRALI risk reduction strategies based on HLA antibody screening of some subpopulations of ever-pregnant apheresis platelet donors. However, if screening assay cutoffs are too sensitive, donation loss may adversely impact blood availability. STUDY DESIGN Pregnancy history and HLA antibody screening and single antigen bead (SAB) data from blood donors in the REDS-II Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study (LAPS) were evaluated for correlations between assay screening values, HLA antibody titer, and number of HLA antigen specificities. The probabilities of matching a cognate antigen in a recipient were calculated and examined in association with total number of specificities observed and screening values. The relative impact of imposing various screening assay cutoffs or pregnancy stratification was examined in relation to detection of HLA antibody reactive donations and loss of donors and donations. RESULTS We provide evidence that higher HLA Ab screening assay values are associated with maintaining higher screening signals upon dilution and an increased breadth of specificities compared with lower screening values; the latter correlated with an increased risk of a cognate antigen match in potential recipients. Depending upon the TRALI risk reduction strategy used, the potential loss of donations ranged between 0.9 and 6.0%. CONCLUSION This analysis should enable blood centers to decide upon a TRALI risk reduction strategy for apheresis platelets that is consistent with how much donation loss the blood center can tolerate. PMID:21332726

  5. Broad base biological assay using liquid based detection assays

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F; Albala, J; Colston, B; Langlois, R; Venkateswaren, K

    2000-10-31

    The release of a biological agent by terrorists represents a serious threat to the safety of US citizens. At present there are over 50 pathogens and toxins on various agency threat lists. Most of these pathogens are rarely seen by public health personnel so the ability to rapidly identify their infection is limited. Since many pathogenic infections have symptomatic delays as long as several days, effective treatment is often compromised. This translates into two major deficiencies in our ability to counter biological terrorism (1) the lack of any credible technology to rapidly detect and identify all the pathogens or toxins on current threat lists and (2) the lack of a credible means to rapidly diagnose thousands of potential victims. In this SI we are developing a rapid, flexible, inexpensive, high throughput, and deeply multiplex-capable biological assay technology. The technology, which we call the Liquid Array (LA), utilizes optical encoding of small diameter beads which serve as the templates for biological capture assays. Once exposed to a fluid sample these beads can be identified and probed for target pathogens at rates of several thousand beads per second. Since each bead can be separately identified, one can perform parallel assays by assigning a different assay to each bead in the encoded set. The goal for this development is a detection technology capable of simultaneously identifying 100s of different bioagents and/or of rapidly diagnosing several thousand individuals. We are pursuing this research in three thrusts. In the first we are exploring the fundamental interactions of the beads with proteins and nucleic acids in complex mixtures. This will provide us with a complete understanding of the limits of the technology with respect to throughput and complex environment. A major spin-off of this activity is in the rapidly emerging field of proteomics where we may be able to rapidly assess the interactions responsible for cell metabolism, structural organization, and DNA replication and repair. Understanding the complexities of these interactions is a fundamental step towards comprehending key aspects of disease biochemistry. This past year, using the LA technology, we were able to confirm the dynamics of a well characterized three protein, bacterial DNA repair mechanism--UvrABC. Next fiscal year we will begin studying the less characterized mammalian homologous recombinational DNA repair pathway examining the protein/protein and protein/DNA interactions of RAD51B/C. In the second thrust, we are looking at a model human disease state to assess the application of the LA in highly parallel and rapid medical diagnostics. In collaboration with researchers at UCSF and the California Department of Public Health we are developing a multiplex assay for the determination of Herpes-8 exposure (a cancer inducing virus) in aids patients. We have successfully demonstrated a 8-plex assay and will extend to 20-plex in the near future. In a parallel effort we will develop an 18-plex assay for detecting antibodies to all vaccine-preventable childhood viral infections. Finally we are developing a concept that would utilize the bead assay in the simplest possible form. After microbead capture of the biomarker sample and a fluorescent reporter in solution, the beads are trapped on an ordered dipstick array. The color of each bead is used to identify the biomarker, while the fluorescent reporter measures its concentration. This concept, MIDS, would enable widespread use of the technology by reducing the capital investment required while greatly simplifying its operation and maintenance.

  6. A DFT study on the mechanisms for the cycloaddition reactions between 1-aza-2-azoniaallene cations and acetylenes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-mei; Li, Zhi-ming; Wang, Quan-rui; Tao, Feng-gang

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of cycloaddition reactions between 1-aza-2-azoniaallene cations 1 and acetylenes 2 have been investigated using the global electrophilicity and nucleophilicity of the corresponding reactants as global reactivity indexes defined within the conceptual density functional theory. The reactivity and regioselectivity of these reactions were predicted by analysis of the energies, geometries, and electronic nature of the transition state structures. The theoretical results revealed that the reaction features a tandem process: an ionic 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to produce the cycloadducts 3?H-pyrazolium salts 3 followed by a [1,2]-shift affording the thermodynamically more stable adducts 4 or 5. The mechanism of the cycloaddition reactions can be described as an asynchronous concerted pathway with reverse electron demand. The model reaction has also been investigated at the QCISD/6-31++G(d,p) and CCSD(T)/6-31++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) levels as well as by the DFT. The polarizable continuum model, at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory, was used to study solvent effects on all the studied reactions. In solvent dichloromethane, all the initial cycloadducts 3 were obtained via direct ionic process as the result of the solvent effect. The consecutive [1,2]-shift reaction, in which intermediates 3 are rearranged to the five-membered heterocycles 4/5, is proved to be a kinetically controlled reaction, and the regioselectivity can be modulated by varying the migrant. The LOL function and RDG function based on localized electron analysis were used to analysis the covalent bond and noncovalent interactions in order to unravel the mechanism of the title reactions. PMID:22810049

  7. IGF-I assays: current assay methodologies and their limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Clemmons

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of growth hormone (GH) is dependent upon accurate measurement of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)\\u000a concentrations since serum IGF-I assays have been found to be useful as a screening tests for the presence of growth hormone\\u000a deficiency (GHD) in children and in both children and adults they have been found very useful in establishing the diagnosis\\u000a of

  8. Nerve-growth-factor-dependent neurite outgrowth assay; a research model for chemotherapy-induced neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Geldof

    1995-01-01

    The rat clonal pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 can be induced to display neurite outgrowth upon induction with nerve growth factor (NGF). This NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth assay looks a promising model for research on toxic neuropathies. Using this assay we demonstrated that cisplatin caused a dose-dependent reduction of NGF-dependent neurite formation. Increasing doses of NGF, however, proved to exert protective activity

  9. A convenient new route to piperidines, pyrrolizidines, indolizidines, and quinolizidines by cyclization of acetylenic sulfones with beta and gamma-chloroamines. Enantioselective total synthesis of indolizidines (-)-167B, (-)-209D, (-)-209B, and (-)-207A.

    PubMed

    Back, T G; Nakajima, K

    2000-07-28

    The methyl esters of (L)-phenylalanine and (L)-methionine underwent conjugate additions via their free amino groups to 1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)hexyne, followed by intramolecular acylation of the corresponding enamide anions and tautomerization to afford 2-benzyl-5-n-butyl-3-hydroxy-4-(p-toluenesulfonyl)pyrrole and 5-n-butyl-3-hydroxy-2-(2-methylthioethyl)-4-(p-toluenesulfonyl)pyr role, respectively. The conjugate additions of a series of acyclic and cyclic secondary beta- and gamma-chloroamines to acetylenic sulfones proceeded similarly under mild conditions. The resulting adducts were deprotonated with LDA in THF at -78 degrees C, and the resulting sulfone-stabilized carbanions underwent intramolecular alkylation to afford cyclic enamine sulfones. Thus, acyclic gamma-chloroalkyl-benzylamines afforded the corresponding 2- or 2,6-disubstituted piperidines, while 2-(chloromethyl)pyrrolidines, 2-(2-chloroethyl)pyrrolidines, 2-(chloromethyl)piperidines, and 2-(2-chloroethyl)piperidines produced the corresponding 3-substituted pyrrolizidines, 5- or 3-substituted indolizidines, and 4-substituted quinolizidines, respectively. 8-Methyl-5-substituted indolizidines were also prepared from the appropriate methyl-substituted chloroamine precursor. Enantioselective syntheses were achieved by employing chiral chloroamines derived from amino acids or other enantiopure precursors. Further transformations of several of the products provided concise syntheses of four dendrobatid alkaloids. Thus, reduction of (8aS)-5-n-propyl-6-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-delta5,6-indolizidine with sodium cyanoborohydride in trifluoroacetic acid, followed by reductive desulfonylation, afforded (-)-indolizidine 167B. The corresponding 5-n-hexyl derivative similarly produced (-)-indolizidine 209D, while (-)-(8R, 8aS)-8-methyl-5-n-pentyl-6-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-delta5,6-indo lizidine furnished (-)-indolizidine 209B. Finally, the similar reduction and debenzylation of (-)-(8R,8aS)-5-(2-benzyloxyethyl)-8-methyl-6-(p-toluenesulfo nyl)-delta5,6-indolizidine produced the corresponding 5-hydroxyethyl indolizidine. This was subjected to chlorination of the alcohol group with thionyl chloride and substitution with a higher order allyl cuprate reagent to afford (-)-indolizidine 207A. PMID:10959857

  10. Dehydrogenase activity of forest soils depends on the assay used

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszek, Kazimierz; D?uga, Joanna; Socha, Jaros?aw

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenases are exclusively intracellular enzymes, which play an important role in the initial stages of oxidation of soil organic matter. One of the most frequently used methods to estimate dehydrogenase activity in soil is based on the use of triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an artificial electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of dehydrogenases of forest soils with varied physicochemical properties using different triphenyltetrazolium chloride assays. The determination was carried out using the original procedure by Casida et al., a modification of the procedure which involves the use of Ca(OH)2 instead of CaCO3, the Thalmann method, and the assay by Casida et al. without addition of buffer or any salt. Soil dehydrogenase activity depended on the assay used. Dehydrogenase determined by the Casida et al. method without addition of buffer or any salt correlated with the pH values of soils. The autoclaved strongly acidic samples of control soils showed high concentrations of triphenylformazan, probably due to chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride. There is, therefore, a need for a sterilization method other than autoclaving, ie a process that results in significant changes in soil properties, thus helping to increase the chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

  11. Rotational spectrum of a weakly bound dimer of formaldehyde and acetylene: Identification and characterization of a bridged planar form involving two nonlinear hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. W.; Legon, A. C.

    1988-06-01

    Pulsed-nozzle, Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy has been used to observe and measure the rotational spectra of the following five isotopomers of a weakly bound dimer formed between formaldehyde and acetylene: (H2CO,HCCH), (H2CO,DCCD), (H2CO,HCCD), (H2CO,DCCH), and (D2CO,HCCH). Rotational constants Av, Bv, Cv, and centrifugal distortion constants ?J, ?JK, and ?J have been determined for the ground state (v=0) for all species and for a vibrationally excited state (v=1) for the first two. The values for the v=0 state in (H2CO,HCCH) are: A0=30 400.567(3) MHz, B0=2355.8304(3) MHz, C0=2180.3335(5) MHz, ?J =13.159(8) kHz, ?JK =-311.4(2) kHz, and ?J =1.526(5) kHz. A detailed analysis of the rotational constants leads to the conclusion that the dimer has an unusual, bridged planar geometry, with the two subunits bound through two nonlinear hydrogen bonds. One bond has acetylene as the proton donor and the oxygen atom of formaldehyde as the acceptor while in the other a formaldehyde proton interacts with the acetylene ? bond. The geometry is characterized by the following distances and angles: r=3.86(2) Å is the distance from the C atom of H2CO to the center of C?C, ?=80.3(16)° is the angle made by the C2 axis of H2CO with r while ?=40.1(17)° is the corresponding angle made by the acetylene axis. The hydrogen bond distances are r(O???H)=2.39 Å and r(center???H)=3.12 Å. The vibrationally excited state has been identified with a motion involving the torsional oscillation of the H2CO subunit about its C2 axis. A relatively high barrier to this motion at 90° to the molecular plane is postulated.

  12. Time-dependent density-functional study of the alignment-dependent ionization of acetylene and ethylene by strong laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russakoff, Arthur; Bubin, Sergiy; Xie, Xinhua; Erattupuzha, Sonia; Kitzler, Markus; Varga, Kálmán

    2015-02-01

    The alignment-dependent ionization of acetylene and ethylene in short laser pulses is investigated in the framework of the time-dependent density-functional theory coupled with Ehrenfest dynamics. The molecular alignment is found to have a substantial effect on the total ionization. Bond stretching is shown to cause an increase of the ionization efficiency, i.e., enhanced ionization, in qualitative agreement with previous theoretical investigations. It is also demonstrated that the enhanced ionization mechanism greatly enhances the ionization from the inner valence orbitals, and the ionization of the inner orbitals is primarily due to their extended weakly bound density tails.

  13. Influence of chlorine coordination number on the catalytic mechanism of ruthenium chloride catalysts in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Han, You; Sun, Mengxia; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jinli

    2015-03-28

    The catalytic mechanism of Ru-based catalysts in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction has been investigated via the density functional theory (DFT) method. To study the effect of the chlorine coordination number on the catalytic mechanism, Ru3Cl9, Ru3Cl7, Ru5Cl7, Ru3Cl3 and Ru3 clusters were chosen as the catalytic models. Our results show that the energy barrier for acetylene hydrochlorination on Ru3Cl9 was as high as 1.51 eV at 458 K. When the chlorine coordination number decreased, the energy barriers on Ru3Cl7, Ru5Cl7, Ru3Cl3 and Ru3 were 1.29, 0.89, 1.01 and 1.42 eV, respectively. On Ru3Cl9, the H and Cl atoms of HCl were simultaneously added to C2H2 to form C2H3Cl, while the reaction was divided into two steps on Ru3Cl7, Ru3Cl3 and Ru3 clusters. The first step was the addition of H atom of HCl to C2H2 to form C2H3?, and the second step was the addition of Cl atom to C2H3? to form C2H3Cl. The step involving the addition of Cl was the rate-controlling step during the whole reaction. On Ru5Cl7 cluster, there was an additional step before the steps involving the addition of H and Cl: the transfer of H atom from HCl to Ru atom. This step was the rate-controlling step during the reaction of acetylene hydrochlorination on Ru5Cl7 and its energy barrier was the lowest among all the above-mentioned catalytic models. Therefore, the Ru5Cl7 cluster played the most predominant role in acetylene hydrochlorination with the largest reaction rate constant kTST of 10(3). PMID:25712403

  14. Assaying PTEN catalysis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Laura; Leslie, Nicholas R

    2015-05-01

    PTEN is a major tumour suppressor protein and a regulator of numerous diverse biological processes. It has an evolutionarily conserved role as a phosphoinositide lipid phosphatase, regulating the PI3K signalling pathway, but also has catalytic phosphatase activity against protein substrates, although the significance of this latter activity is less well understood. Unlike many tumour suppressors, even modest changes in PTEN activity can have strong effects on phenotypes, including tumour formation. Due to this recognised functional significance, several experimental platforms have been developed to assay the catalytic activity of PTEN against different substrates and are being applied to understand this cellular substrate diversity and the regulation of PTEN. Here we present and discuss methods to assay the phosphatase activity of PTEN in vitro. PMID:25461809

  15. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  16. In Vivo Rodent Micronucleus Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Hayashi

    Genotoxicity plays an important role for the safety evaluation of chemicals. Chromosomal aberration is one of two major end\\u000a points of genotoxicity. The rodent haematopoietic cell micronucleus assay is most widely used as an in vivo test to evaluate\\u000a structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. The historical aspects of the development of the in vivo micronucleus test,\\u000a the mechanism of micronucleus

  17. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for monitoring adenosine 5'-monophosphate production.

    PubMed

    First, Eric A

    2015-08-15

    A number of biologically important enzymes release adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a product, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterases, ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like ligases, DNA ligases, coenzyme A (CoA) ligases, polyA deadenylases, and ribonucleases. In contrast to the abundance of assays available for monitoring the conversion of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to ADP, there are relatively few assays for monitoring the conversion of ATP (or cAMP) to AMP. In this article, we describe a homogeneous assay that continuously monitors the production of AMP. Specifically, we have coupled the conversion of AMP to inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) (by AMP deaminase) to the oxidation of IMP (by IMP dehydrogenase). This results in the reduction of oxidized nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH), allowing AMP formation to be monitored by the change in the absorbance at 340nm. Changes in AMP concentrations of 5?M or more can be reliably detected. The ease of use and relatively low expense make the AMP assay suitable for both high-throughput screening and kinetic analyses. PMID:25957126

  18. The MTT assays of bovine retinal pericytes and human microvascular endothelial cells on DLC and Si-DLC-coated TCPS.

    PubMed

    Okpalugo, T I T; McKenna, E; Magee, A C; McLaughlin, J; Brown, N M D

    2004-11-01

    MTT (Tetrazolium)-assay suggests that diamond-like carbon (DLC) and silicon-doped DLC (Si-DLC) films obtained under appropriate deposition parameters are not toxic to bovine retinal pericytes, and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC). The observed frequency distributions of the optical density (OD) values indicative of cell viability are near Gaussian-normal distribution. One-way ANOVA indicates that at 0.05 levels the population means are not significantly different for the coated and control samples. The observed OD values depend on the cell line (cell growth/metabolic rate), possibly cell cycle stage, the deposition parameters-bias voltage, ion energy, pressure, argon precleaning, and the dopant. For colored thin films like DLC with room temperature photoconductivity and photoelectric effects, it is important to account for the OD contribution from the coating itself. MTT assay, not surprisingly, seems not to be highly sensitive to interfacial cellular interaction resulting from the change in the film's nanostructure, because the tetrazolium metabolism is mainly intracellular and not interfacial. The thin films were synthesized by 13.56 MHz RF-PECVD using argon and acetylene as source gases, with tetramethylsilane (TMS) vapor introduced for silicon doping. This study could be relevant to biomedical application of the films in the eye, peri-vascular, vascular compartments, and for cell-tissue engineering. PMID:15376188

  19. ProteoStatTM Protein Aggregation Assay

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    ProteoStatTM Protein Aggregation Assay Biochemical assays for monitoring protein aggregates often:EffectivelineardynamicrangeforantibodyaggregatedetectionusingtheEnzo LifeSciencesProteoStatTMdetectionreagentcomparedwithThioflavinT:Rabbitanti-goat IgG(4.26mg- wellmicroplate.Aggregationwasmonitoredforseveralweeksatroomtemperature.TheEnzo

  20. L2 Model reduction and variance reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Tjärnström; Lennart Ljung

    2002-01-01

    In this contribution we examine certain variance properties of model reduction. The focus is on L2 model reduction, but some general results are also presented. These general results can be used to analyze various other model reduction schemes. The models we study are finite impulse response (FIR) and output error (OE) models. We compare the variance of two estimated models.

  1. Enhanced sensitivity growth hormone (GH) chemiluminescence assay reveals lower postglucose nadir GH concentrations in men than women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Chapman; M. L. Hartman; M. Straume; M. L. Johnson; J. D. Veldhuisups

    1994-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modifications,were,made,to a commercially,available,human,(h) GH chemiluminescence assay (Nichols Luma Tag hGH assay), which im- proved,its sensitivity,to,0.002 fig\\/L. The,results,of,this,assay,had,a high,correlation,with,those,of,the,Nichols,hGH,immunoradiometric assay,(IRMA; r = 0.91; P < 0.001). The,addition,of recombinant,hGH- binding,protein,(0.1-10 nmol\\/L),to,standards,and,serum,samples caused,a dose-responsive,reduction,in measured,GH in both,the,chemi- luminescence,assay,and,the,IRMA; at physiological,concentrations,of hGH-binding protein, a lo-20% reduction was observed. Fifteen nor- mal,young,adults,(nine,men,and,six,women),underwent,a standard 100-g oral glucose tolerance test, and plasma GH was measured from

  2. Technology platforms for pharmacogenomic diagnostic assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter H. Koch

    2004-01-01

    Rapid advances in the understanding of genomic variation affecting drug responses, and the development of multiplex assay technologies, are converging to form the basis for new in vitro diagnostic assays. These molecular diagnostic assays are expected to guide the therapeutic treatment of many diseases, by informing physicians about molecular subtypes of disease that require differential treatment, which drug has the

  3. Measurement of Rotational State-To Relaxation Coefficients by Raman-Raman Double Resonance. Application to Self-Collisions in Acetylene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, J. L.; Martinez, R. Z.; Bermejo, D.

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a technique for the measurement of state-to-state rotational relaxation rates due to collisions in the gas phase. A single J state of the v_{2}=1 vibrational level of acetylene is populated by a Stimulated Raman process. After a variable delay of a few ns we record high resolution (˜ 0.003 cm^{-1}) spectra of the Q-branch of the v_{2}=2? v_{2}=1 transition by a second Stimulated Raman process. The relative intensities of the lines of this Q-branch, recorded as a function of the the initially pumped J level and the number of collisions between the pump and probe stages (delay × pressure product), allows us to obtain a set of state-to-state energy transfer coefficients by fitting the evolution of the observed populations to that predicted by a master equation with adjustable coefficients. The experimental details and first results for odd-J levels of acetylene at 150 K will be presented.

  4. Comparison of established and emerging biodosimetry assays.

    PubMed

    Rothkamm, K; Beinke, C; Romm, H; Badie, C; Balagurunathan, Y; Barnard, S; Bernard, N; Boulay-Greene, H; Brengues, M; De Amicis, A; De Sanctis, S; Greither, R; Herodin, F; Jones, A; Kabacik, S; Knie, T; Kulka, U; Lista, F; Martigne, P; Missel, A; Moquet, J; Oestreicher, U; Peinnequin, A; Poyot, T; Roessler, U; Scherthan, H; Terbrueggen, B; Thierens, H; Valente, M; Vral, A; Zenhausern, F; Meineke, V; Braselmann, H; Abend, M

    2013-08-01

    Rapid biodosimetry tools are required to assist with triage in the case of a large-scale radiation incident. Here, we aimed to determine the dose-assessment accuracy of the well-established dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in comparison to the emerging ?-H2AX foci and gene expression assays for triage mode biodosimetry and radiation injury assessment. Coded blood samples exposed to 10 X-ray doses (240 kVp, 1 Gy/min) of up to 6.4 Gy were sent to participants for dose estimation. Report times were documented for each laboratory and assay. The mean absolute difference (MAD) of estimated doses relative to the true doses was calculated. We also merged doses into binary dose categories of clinical relevance and examined accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the assays. Dose estimates were reported by the first laboratories within 0.3-0.4 days of receipt of samples for the ?-H2AX and gene expression assays compared to 2.4 and 4 days for the DCA and CBMN assays, respectively. Irrespective of the assay we found a 2.5-4-fold variation of interlaboratory accuracy per assay and lowest MAD values for the DCA assay (0.16 Gy) followed by CBMN (0.34 Gy), gene expression (0.34 Gy) and ?-H2AX (0.45 Gy) foci assay. Binary categories of dose estimates could be discriminated with equal efficiency for all assays, but at doses ?1.5 Gy a 10% decrease in efficiency was observed for the foci assay, which was still comparable to the CBMN assay. In conclusion, the DCA has been confirmed as the gold standard biodosimetry method, but in situations where speed and throughput are more important than ultimate accuracy, the emerging rapid molecular assays have the potential to become useful triage tools. PMID:23862692

  5. Heparin assay and protamine titration.

    PubMed

    Anido, G; Freeman, D J

    1981-10-01

    By utilizing the fact that heparin and protamine sulfate directly neutralize each other, it is possible to quickly detect excess levels of protamine (anti-heparin activity) by back-titrating a plasma specimen with predetermined amounts of heparin. The approach suggested allows for the simultaneous definition of low levels of heparin, and incorporates an equally rapid and accurate measurement of high heparin concentrations. The methodology presented employs heparin assays using the "Protopath" technic. The concept appears to be applicable to other test systems currently designed to monitor heparin activity. PMID:7293964

  6. Interferon-gamma release assays.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Robert; Daley, Charles L

    2014-06-01

    Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should be targeted toward individuals and groups with high risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB). Low-risk populations should not be screened. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) perform as well or better than the tuberculin skin test in most targeted populations. IGRAs are preferred for bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated populations. A positive IGRA in a person at low risk for TB exposure should be confirmed with a repeat test or another method before recommending LTBI treatment. The choice of which IGRA to use is generally based on the costs and feasibility of performing the test. PMID:24856531

  7. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Caldwell, J.T.; Medvick, P.A.; Kunz, W.E.; Hastings, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  9. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  10. Assay of potentially contaminated propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; Williams, H.E. III [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Scott, W.S. [Savanna Army Depot Activity (United States)

    1995-02-01

    One of the decontamination and decommissioning projects within DOD is demilitarization of an aging stockpile of munitions. A large portion of the stockpile contains depleted uranium (DU) as an armor piercing core and so these munitions must be assayed for the presence of uranium in other components. The assay method must be fast and preferably easy to implement. Presence of DU is indicated by its alpha decay. The alpha particles in turn produce ions in the ambient air. If a significant fraction of these ions can escape the quantity of propellant, the ions can be detected instead of the alpha particles. As a test of the feasibility of detecting alpha emissions from DU somewhere within a cartridge of propellant, the transmission of ions through layers of real propellant was measured. The propellant is in the form of graphite-coated cylindrical pellets. A 105nun cartridge was modified for use as a pellet chamber. A check source served as an ion source. The ion detector consisted of a grid held at 300V coupled to an ammeter. Results confirm that this is a promising technique for testing the propellant for the presence of DU quickly yet with sensitivity.

  11. Optimization and Validation of the TZM-bl Assay for Standardized Assessments of Neutralizing Antibodies Against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Bailer, Robert T; Turk, Ellen; Lin, Chen-li; Bilska, Miroslawa; Greene, Kelli M.; Gao, Hongmei; Todd, Christopher A.; Ozaki, Daniel A.; Seaman, Michael S.; Mascola, John R.; Montefiori, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The TZM-bl assay measures antibody-mediated neutralization of HIV-1 as a function of reductions in HIV-1 Tat-regulated firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene expression after a single round of infection with Env-pseudotyped viruses. This assay has become the main endpoint neutralization assay used for the assessment of preclinical and clinical trial samples by a growing number of laboratories worldwide. Here we present the results of the formal optimization and validation of the TZM-bl assay, performed in compliance with Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines. The assay was evaluated for specificity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantitation, linearity, range and robustness. The validated manual TZM-bl assay was also adapted, optimized and qualified to an automated 384-well format. PMID:24291345

  12. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA®).

    PubMed

    Evenson, Donald P

    2013-01-01

    The SCSA(®) is the pioneering assay for the detection of damaged sperm DNA and altered proteins in sperm nuclei via flow cytometry of acridine orange (AO) stained sperm. The SCSA(®) is considered to be the most precise and repeatable test providing very unique, dual parameter data (red vs. green fluorescence) on a 1,024 × 1,024 channel scale, not only on DNA fragmentation but also on abnormal sperm characterized by lack of normal exchange of histones to protamines. Raw semen/sperm aliquots or purified sperm can be flash frozen, placed in a box with dry ice and shipped by overnight courier to an experienced SCSA(®) lab. The samples are individually thawed, prepared, and analyzed in ?10 min. Of significance, data on 5,000 individual sperm are recorded on a 1,024 × 1,024 dot plot of green (native DNA) and red (broken DNA) fluorescence. Repeat measurements have virtually identical dot plot patterns demonstrating that the low pH treatment that opens up the DNA strands at the sites of breaks and staining by acridine orange (AO) are highly precise and repeatable (CVs of 1-3%) and the same between fresh and frozen samples. SCSAsoft(®) software transforms the X-Y data to total DNA stainability versus red/red + green fluoresence (DFI) providing a more accurate determination of % DFI as well as the more sensitive value of standard deviation of DFI (SD DFI) as demonstrated by animal fertility and dose-response toxicology studies. The current established clinical threshold is 25% DFI for placing a man into a statistical probability of the following: (a) longer time to natural pregnancy, (b) low odds of IUI pregnancy, (c) more miscarriages, or (d) no pregnancy. Changes in lifestyle as well as medical intervention can lower the %DFI to increase the probability of natural pregnancy. Couples of men with >25% DFI are counseled to try ICSI and when in the >50% range may consider TESE/ICSI. The SCSA(®) simultaneously determines the % of sperm with high DNA stainability (%HDS) related to retained nuclear histones consistent with immature sperm; high HDS values are predictive of pregnancy failure.The SCSA(®) is considered to be the most technician friendly, time- and cost-efficient, precise and repeatable DNA fragmentation assay, with the most data and the only fragmentation assay with an accepted clinical threshold for placing a man at risk for infertility. SCSA(®) data are more predictive of male factor infertility than classical semen analyses. PMID:22992911

  13. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of “Antioxidant Power”: The FRAP Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris F. F. Benzie; J. J. Strain

    1996-01-01

    A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing “antioxidant power.” Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions

  14. Steroid Assays in Paediatric Endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330

  15. Matrix effects of TRU (transuranic) assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1990-08-01

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of {sup 239}Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene tilde{{A}} 1Au—{tilde{X}} {^1? _g^+} transition. I. Method for calculating polyatomic linear—bent vibrational intensity factors and evaluation of calculated intensities for the gerade vibrational modes in acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. Barratt

    2014-10-01

    Franck-Condon vibrational overlap integrals for the tilde{A} {^1A_u}—{tilde{X}} {^1? _g^+} transition in acetylene have been calculated in full dimension in the harmonic normal mode basis. The calculation uses the method of generating functions first developed for polyatomic Franck-Condon factors by Sharp and Rosenstock [J. Chem. Phys. 41(11), 3453-3463 (1964)], and previously applied to acetylene by Watson [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 207(2), 276-284 (2001)] in a reduced-dimension calculation. Because the transition involves a large change in the equilibrium geometry of the electronic states, two different types of corrections to the coordinate transformation are considered to first order: corrections for axis-switching between the Cartesian molecular frames and corrections for the curvilinear nature of the normal modes at large amplitude. The angular factor in the wavefunction for the out-of-plane component of the trans bending mode, ? _4^' ' }, is treated as a rotation, which results in an Eckart constraint on the polar coordinates of the bending modes. To simplify the calculation, the other degenerate bending mode, ? _5^' ' }, is integrated in the Cartesian basis and later transformed to the constrained polar coordinate basis, restoring the conventional v and l quantum numbers. An updated tilde{A}-state harmonic force field obtained recently in the R. W. Field research group is evaluated. The results for transitions involving the gerade vibrational modes are in qualitative agreement with experiment. Calculated results for transitions involving ungerade modes are presented in Paper II of this series [G. B. Park, J. H. Baraban, and R. W. Field, "Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene tilde{A} {^1A_u}—{tilde{X}} {^1? _g^+} transition. II. Vibrational overlap factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade modes," J. Chem. Phys. 141, 134305 (2014)].

  17. Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene A? (1)A(u)-X? (1)?(g)(+) transition. I. Method for calculating polyatomic linear-bent vibrational intensity factors and evaluation of calculated intensities for the gerade vibrational modes in acetylene.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt

    2014-10-01

    Franck-Condon vibrational overlap integrals for the A? Au1-X? 1?g+ transition in acetylene have been calculated in full dimension in the harmonic normal mode basis. The calculation uses the method of generating functions first developed for polyatomic Franck-Condon factors by Sharp and Rosenstock [J. Chem. Phys. 41(11), 3453-3463 (1964)], and previously applied to acetylene by Watson [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 207(2), 276-284 (2001)] in a reduced-dimension calculation. Because the transition involves a large change in the equilibrium geometry of the electronic states, two different types of corrections to the coordinate transformation are considered to first order: corrections for axis-switching between the Cartesian molecular frames and corrections for the curvilinear nature of the normal modes at large amplitude. The angular factor in the wavefunction for the out-of-plane component of the trans bending mode, ?4(?), is treated as a rotation, which results in an Eckart constraint on the polar coordinates of the bending modes. To simplify the calculation, the other degenerate bending mode, ?5(?), is integrated in the Cartesian basis and later transformed to the constrained polar coordinate basis, restoring the conventional v and l quantum numbers. An updated A?-state harmonic force field obtained recently in the R. W. Field research group is evaluated. The results for transitions involving the gerade vibrational modes are in qualitative agreement with experiment. Calculated results for transitions involving ungerade modes are presented in Paper II of this series [G. B. Park, J. H. Baraban, and R. W. Field, "Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene A? Au1-X? 1?g+ transition. II. Vibrational overlap factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade modes," J. Chem. Phys. 141, 134305 (2014)]. PMID:25296803

  18. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  19. Immunometric Assay Interference: Incidence and Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Bjerner; Kjell Nustad; Lars F. Norum; Kari Hauge Olsen; Ole P. Børmer

    2002-01-01

    Background: The primary aim of the study was to reduce interference in an in-house two-site, two-step immunometric assay. Methods: In the running laboratory routine, 11 261 samples were tested with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assay with bovine immunoglobulin but no mu- rine immunoglobulins in the buffer, in parallel to our routine CEA assay, using 15 mg\\/L heat-treated nonspe- cific murine

  20. Improvement in the specificity of assays for detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Weare, J A; Robertson, E F; Madsen, G; Hu, R; Decker, R H

    1991-01-01

    Reducing agents dramatically alter the specificity of competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). A specificity improvement was demonstrated with a new assay which utilizes microparticle membrane capture and chemiluminescence detection as well as a current radioimmunoassay procedure (Corab: Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). The effect was most noticeable with elevated negative and weakly reactive samples. In both systems, reductants increased separation of a negative population (n = 160) from assay cutoffs. With a selected population (n = 307), inclusion of reductant eliminated apparent anti-HBc activity in 54 of 81 samples in the 30 to 70% inhibition range. Reductant-stable anti-HBc samples were strongly associated with the presence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (21 of 27). The association persisted below the detection limits of current assays to 0.3 to 0.4 Paul Ehrlich Institute units per ml. Only 1 of 54 reduction-sensitive borderline samples was confirmed to be positive for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. The modified procedures had unchanged or slightly improved sensitivity for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-associated anti-HBc activity. Although IgM anti-HBc detection was reduced from four- to eightfold in the presence of reductants, sensitivities remained at least twofold greater than tha of an enzyme immunoassay (Corzyme M; Abbott) designed to detect acute-phase levels of IgM anti-HBc. The use of reducing agents should significantly improve the reliability of anti-HBc testing, especially near assay cutoffs. PMID:2037678

  1. Particle-induced artifacts in the MTT and LDH viability assays

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Amara L.; Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro testing is a common first step in assessing combustion generated and engineered nanoparticle related health hazards. Commercially available viability assays are frequently used to compare the toxicity of different particle types and to generate dose response data. Nanoparticles, well known for having large surface areas and chemically active surfaces, may interfere with viability assays, producing a false assessment of toxicity and making it difficult to compare toxicity data. The objective of this study is to measure the extent of particle interference in two common viability assays, the MTT reduction and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Diesel particles, activated carbon, flame soot, oxidized flame soot, and titanium dioxide particles are assessed for interactions with the MTT and LDH assay under cell-free conditions. Diesel particles, at concentrations as low as 0.05 ?g/ml, reduce MTT. Other particle types reduce MTT only at a concentration of 50 ?g/ml and higher. The activated carbon, soot, and oxidized soot particles bind LDH to varying extents, reducing the concentration measured in the LDH assay. The interfering effects of the particles explain in part the different toxicities measured in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o). We conclude that valid particle toxicity assessments can only be assured after first performing controls to verify that the particles under investigation do not interfere with a specific assay at the expected concentrations. PMID:22799765

  2. 233U Assay A Neutron NDA System

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.C.; Lucero, A.J.; Pierce, L.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of highly enriched {sup 233}U material presents some unique challenges. Techniques which apply to the assay of materials of Pu or enriched {sup 235}U do not convert easily over to the assay of {sup 233}U. A specialized neutron assay device is being fabricated to exploit the singles neutron signal, the weak correlated neutron signal, and an active correlated signal. These pieces of information when combined with {gamma} ray isotopics information should give a good overall determination of {sup 233}U material now stored in bldg. 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Pearls and pitfalls in factor inhibitor assays.

    PubMed

    Adcock, D M; Favaloro, E J

    2015-05-01

    The proper performance and interpretation of factor inhibitor assays is a critical role for the hemostasis laboratory. Both false-positive and false-negative inhibitor assays may be reported, leading to serious patient mismanagement. Knowledge and recognition of common causes of both false-positive and negative-results can aid in the identification of these potential pitfalls. Safeguards to reporting accurate factor inhibitor assays include initial characterization of the sample, using the Nijmegen modification, properly performing and interpreting an incubated mixing test in conjunction, and performing two dilutions for each dependent dilution in the factor inhibitor assay. PMID:25976961

  4. The energy separation between the classical and nonclassical isomers of protonated acetylene - An extensive study in one- and n-particle space saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindh, Roland; Rice, Julia E.; Lee, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    The energy separation between the classical and nonclassical forms of protonated acetylene has been reinvestigated in light of the recent experimentally deduced lower bound to this value of 6.0 kcal/mol. The objective of the present study is to use state-of-the-art ab initio quantum mechanical methods to establish this energy difference to within chemical accuracy (i.e., about 1 kcal/mol). The one-particle basis sets include up to g-type functions and the electron correlation methods include single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD), the CCSD(T) extension, multireference configuration interaction, and the averaged coupled-pair functional methods. A correction for zero-point vibrational energies has also been included, yielding a best estimate for the energy difference between the classical and nonclassical forms of 3.7 + or - 1.3 kcal/mol.

  5. Regioselective hydrolysis of ketenimines derived from NH-acids and acetylenic esters in the presence of tert -butyl isocyanide under neutral conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farough Nasiri; Samiyeh Yosefdad

    2008-01-01

    The regioselective hydrolysis of ketenimines derived from NH-acids, such as 2,2,2-trichloro-N-phenylacetamide or ethyl-2-anilino-2-oxoacetates and acetylenic esters in the presence of tert-butyl isocyanide in a THF\\/H2O system (1\\/1) without any catalysis leads to a diastereomeric mixture of dialkyl 2-[(tert-butylamino)carbonyl]-3-[(2,2,2-trichloroacetyl)anilino]succinates and dialkyl 2-[(tert-butylamino)carbonyl]-3-[2-ethoxy-2-oxoacetyl)anilino]-succinates in good yields. Dynamic NMR effects were observed in the\\u000a 13C NMR spectra of diethyl 2-[(tert-butylamino)carbonyl]-3-[(2,2,2-trichloroacetyl)anilino]succinate as a result

  6. Identification of nine acetylenic fatty acids, 9-hydroxystearic acid and 9,10-epoxystearic acid in the seed oil of Jodina rhombifolia hook et arn. (Santalaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Spitzer; S. A. de L. Bordignon; E. P. Schenkel; F. Marx

    1994-01-01

    In addition to some usual fatty acids, the seed oil ofJodina rhombifolia (Santalaceae) contains nine acetylenic fatty acids [9-octadecynoic acid (stearolic acid) (1.1%),trans-10-heptadecen-8-ynoic acid (pyrulic acid) (20.1%), 7-hydroxy-trans-10-heptadecen-8-ynoic acid (2.3%),trans-10,16-heptadecadien-8-ynoic acid (0.7%), 7-hydroxy-trans-10,16-heptadecadien-8-ynoic acid (0.1%),trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (ximenynic acid) (20.3%), 8-hydroxy-trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (12.2%),trans-11,17-octadecadien-9-ynoic acid (1.5%), 8-hydroxy-trans-11,17-octadecadien-9-ynoic acid (1.3%), 9-hydroxystearic acid (<0.1%) and 9,10-epoxystearic acid (0.7%)]. The fatty acids\\u000a have been analyzed

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy from the A-tilde 1Au state of acetylene: The bending vibrations of C2H + 2 X 2Pi u

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, S. T.; Dehmer, P. M.; Dehmer, J. L.

    1991-11-01

    Photoelectron spectra are reported for one-photon resonant, two-photon ionization of acetylene via a number of vibronic levels of the à 1Au state. Because the à 1Au state is trans bent and the X 2?u ground state of the ion is linear, ionization from the à 1Au levels produces a long progression in the trans-bending vibration of the ion. The X 2?u state is split by the Renner-Teller interaction along the trans-bending coordinate; the analysis of the photoelectron spectra allows the determination of the Renner-Teller parameters and leads to reassignments of the cis and trans-bending vibrations in earlier photoelectron studies.

  8. Full dimensional Franck-Condon factors for the acetylene A? (1)Au-X? (1)?(g)(+) transition. II. Vibrational overlap factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade modes.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Baraban, Joshua H; Field, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    A full-dimensional Franck-Condon calculation has been applied to the A? (1)Au-X? 1?g+ transition in acetylene in the harmonic normal mode basis. Details of the calculation are discussed in Part I of this series. To our knowledge, this is the first full-dimensional Franck-Condon calculation on a tetra-atomic molecule undergoing a linear-to-bent geometry change. In the current work, the vibrational intensity factors for levels involving excitation in ungerade vibrational modes are evaluated. Because the Franck-Condon integral accumulates away from the linear geometry, we have been able to treat the out-of-plane component of trans bend (?4('')) in the linear X? state in the rotational part of the problem, restoring the ? Euler angle and the a-axis Eckart conditions. A consequence of the Eckart conditions is that the out-of-plane component of ?4('') does not participate in the vibrational overlap integral. This affects the structure of the coordinate transformation and the symmetry of the vibrational wavefunctions used in the overlap integral, and results in propensity rules involving the bending modes of the X? state that were not previously understood. We explain the origin of some of the unexpected propensities observed in IR-UV laser-induced fluorescence spectra, and we calculate emission intensities from bending levels of the A? state into bending levels of the X? state, using normal bending mode and local bending mode basis sets. Our calculations also reveal Franck-Condon propensities for the Cartesian components of the cis bend (?5('')), and we predict that the best A?-state vibrational levels for populating X?-state levels with large amplitude bending motion localized in a single C-H bond (the acetylene?vinylidene isomerization coordinate) involve a high degree of excitation in ?6(') (cis-bend). Mode ?4(') (torsion) populates levels with large amplitude counter-rotational motion of the two hydrogen atoms. PMID:25296804

  9. An improved respiratory syncytial virus neutralization assay based on the detection of green fluorescent protein expression and automated plaque counting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Virus neutralizing antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are considered important correlates of protection for vaccine evaluation. The established plaque reduction assay is time consuming, labor intensive and highly variable. Methods Here, a neutralization assay based on a modified RSV strain expressing the green fluorescent protein in combination with automated detection and quantification of plaques is described. Results The fluorescence plaque reduction assay in microplate format requires only two days to complete and is simple and reproducible. A good correlation between visual and automated counting methods to determine RSV neutralizing serum antibody titers was observed. Conclusions The developed virus neutralization assay is suitable for high-throughput testing and can be used for both animal studies and (large scale) vaccine clinical trials. PMID:23114196

  10. The Ames Salmonella\\/microsome mutagenicity assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristien Mortelmans; Errol Zeiger

    2000-01-01

    The Ames Salmonella\\/microsome mutagenicity assay (Salmonella test; Ames test) is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances that can produce genetic damage that leads to gene mutations. The test employs several histidine dependent Salmonella strains each carrying different mutations in various genes in the histidine operon. These mutations act as hot

  11. Strategic petroleum reserve crude oil assays

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This booklet provides background information on the purchase of crude oils for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), procedures used to assess quality of the stored petroleum, and methods used in generating assays of the various streams which may be sold. Current assays of the eight SPR crude oil streams are included.

  12. MCNP variance reduction overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code.

  13. MCNP variance reduction overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Hendricks; T. Booth

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes\\u000a are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP\\u000a as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code.

  14. Paper disk assay for glycosaminoglycan sulfotransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Sugahara, K.; Ishii, T.; Yamashina, I.

    1987-11-01

    A method is described for the assay of sulfotransferases, which transfer sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to glycosaminoglycan acceptors. Following the sulfation reactions, the (/sup 35/S)sulfate-labeled products are precipitated and then separated from a sulfate donor ((/sup 35/S)PAPS) and its degradation products by a paper disk method, and then the radioactivity remaining on the paper disk is subsequently determined by liquid scintillation counting. The rapidity and simplicity of the method are advantageous for multiple assays and have allowed us to establish assay conditions for serum sulfotransferases which introduce sulfate at position 6 of the internal N-acetylgalactosamine units of chondroitin, position 2 (amino group) of the glucosamine units of heparan sulfate and sugar units of keratan sulfate, respectively. The assay method will be applicable with modification to the assay of other glycosaminoglycan sulfotransferases and glycoprotein sulfotransferases.

  15. Assay of plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Morris, J F; Peacock, M

    1976-11-01

    A radio-competitive protein-binding assay for 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD3) is described using diluted plasma from patients with vitamin D deficient osteomalacia as the binding protein. The 25-OHD3 is extracted from plasma with ethanol and assayed directly without further purification. An incubation of two hours is used to give suitable binding. The lower detection limit of the assay is approximately 23 pg, the intra-assay coefficient of variation is 5.4% and the inter-assay variation 15%. Tth a mean of 26.9 mug/l. Levels of plasma 25-OHD3 are undetectable in patients with vitamin D deficient osteomalacia and greater than 110 mug/l in patients taking large doses of vitamin D2. PMID:975590

  16. Fluorometric assay for red blood cell antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, A.B.; Lambermont, M.; Strosberg, A.D.; Wybran, J.

    1981-03-01

    A fluorometric assay is described for the detection of red blood cell antibodies. The assay reveals as little as 600 molecules of bound, fluoroesceinated rabbit anti-human IgG antibodies per erythrocyte. Eleven patients with possible autoimmune erythrocyte disorder and negative direct antiglobulin test were studied by the fluorometric assay. The outcome of the fluorometric assay was compared with that of the human allogeneic rosette test. Results obtained by the two methods were in complete agreement. Five of the patients were shown to possess unexpectedly high levels of erythrocyte-bound IgG in spite of a negative, direct antiglobulin test. These findings and the validity of the fluorometric assay are discussed.

  17. Hydroxyethyl disulfide as an efficient metabolic assay for cell viability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Donglan; Ward, Kathleen M.; Prendergast, George C.; Ayene, Iraimoudi S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell viability assays have a variety of well known practical and technical limitations. All the available approaches have disadvantages, such as non-linearity, high background and cumbersome protocols. Several commonly used tetrazolium chemicals rely upon generation of a colored formazan product formed by mitochondrial reduction of these compounds via phenazine methosulfate (PMS). However, sensitivity is inherently limited because their reduction relies on mitochondrial bioreduction and cellular transport of PMS, as well as accessibility to tetrazolium chemicals. In this study, we identify hydroxethyldisulfide (HEDS) as an inexpensive probe that can measure cellular metabolic activity without the need of PMS. In tissue culture medium, HEDS accurately quantitated metabolically active live cells in a linear manner superior to tetrazolium based and other assays. Cell toxicity produced by chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, etoposide), oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, acetaminophen), toxins (Phenyl arsine oxide, arsenite) or ionizing radiation was rapidly determined by the HEDS assay. We found that HEDS was superior to other commonly used assays for cell viability determinations in its solubility, membrane permeability, and intracellular conversion to a metabolic reporter that is readily transported into the extracellular medium. Our findings establish the use of HEDS in a simple, rapid and low cost assay to accurately quantify viable cells. PMID:22321380

  18. Human somatic mutation assays as biomarkers of carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, P.J.E.; Smith, M.T. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Hooper, K. (California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes four assays that detect somatic gene mutations in humans: the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase assay, the glycophorin A assay, the HLA-A assay, and the sickle cell hemoglobin assay. Somatic gene mutations can be considered a biomarker of carcinogenesis, and assays for somatic mutation may assist epidemiologists in studies that attempt to identify factors associated with increased risks of cancer. Practical aspects of the use of these assays are discussed.

  19. Optimizing parallel reduction operations

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    A parallel program consists of sets of concurrent and sequential tasks. Often, a reduction (such as array sum) sequentially combines values produced by a parallel computation. Because reductions occur so frequently in otherwise parallel programs, they are good candidates for optimization. Since reductions may introduce dependencies, most languages separate computation and reduction. The Sisal functional language is unique in that reduction is a natural consequence of loop expressions; the parallelism is implicit in the language. Unfortunately, the original language supports only seven reduction operations. To generalize these expressions, the Sisal 90 definition adds user-defined reductions at the language level. Applicable optimizations depend upon the mathematical properties of the reduction. Compilation and execution speed, synchronization overhead, memory use and maximum size influence the final implementation. This paper (1) Defines reduction syntax and compares with traditional concurrent methods; (2) Defines classes of reduction operations; (3) Develops analysis of classes for optimized concurrency; (4) Incorporates reductions into Sisal 1.2 and Sisal 90; (5) Evaluates performance and size of the implementations.

  20. An organometallic intermediate during alkyne reduction by nitrogenase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-In; Igarashi, Robert Y; Laryukhin, Mikhail; Doan, Peter E; Dos Santos, Patricia C; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Hoffman, Brian M

    2004-08-11

    Nitrogenase is the metalloenzyme that catalyzes the nucleotide-dependent reduction of N(2), as well as reduction of a variety of other triply bonded substrates, including the alkyne, acetylene. Substitution of the alpha-70(Val) residue in the nitrogenase MoFe protein by alanine expands the range of substrates to include short-chain alkynes not reduced by the unaltered protein. Rapid freezing of the alpha-70(Ala) nitrogenase MoFe protein during reduction of the alkyne propargyl alcohol (HC triple bond CH(2)OH; PA) traps an S = (1)/(2) intermediate state of the active-site metal cluster, the FeMo-cofactor. We have combined CW and pulsed (13)C ENDOR (electron-nuclear double resonance) with two quantitative 35 GHz (1,2)H ENDOR techniques, Mims pulsed ENDOR and the newly devised "stochastic field-modulated" ENDOR, to study this intermediate prepared with isotopically substituted ((13)C, (1,2)H) propargyl alcohol in H(2)O and D(2)O buffers. These measurements allow the first description of a trapped nitrogenase reduction intermediate. The S = (1)/(2) turnover intermediate generated during the reduction of PA contains the 3-carbon chain of PA and exhibits resolved (1,2)H ENDOR signals from three protons, two strongly coupled (H(a)) and one weakly coupled (H(b)); H(a)(c) originates as the C3 proton of PA, while H(a)(s) and H(b) are solvent-derived. The two H(a) protons have identical hyperfine tensors, despite having different origins. The equality of the (H(a)(s), H(a)(c)) hyperfine tensors strongly constrains proposals for the structure of the cluster-bound reduced PA. Through consideration of model structures found in the Cambridge Structural Database, we propose that the intermediate contains a novel bio-organometallic complex in which a reduction product of propargyl alcohol binds as a metalla-cyclopropane ring to a single Fe atom of the Fe-S face of the FeMo-cofactor that is composed of Fe atoms 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the two most attractive structures, one singly reduced at C3 (4), the other being the doubly reduced allyl alcohol product (6), we tentatively favor 6 because of the "natural" assignment it affords for H(b). PMID:15291559

  1. A luminometric assay for peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Effects of fasting and streptozotocin-diabetes on peroxisomal beta-oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Osmundsen, H; Brodal, B; Hovik, R

    1989-01-01

    1. A luminometric assay for acyl-CoA oxidase activity is described. The assay uses the luminol/microperoxidase system to monitor continuously acyl-CoA-dependent generation of H2O2. The assay is rapid, convenient, and lends itself to automation with an LKB 1251 luminometer. The assay is extremely sensitive, requiring at the most 10 micrograms of liver-homogenate protein per assay. 2. The assay can also be used to measure other oxidases, e.g. glycollate oxidase (EC 1.1.3.15), D-aspartate oxidase (EC 1.4.3.1) and urate oxidase (EC 1.7.3.3), the only modification being substitution of substrates to appropriate concentration. 3. With rat liver homogenates, spectrophotometrically measured rates of palmitoyl-CoA-dependent NAD+ reduction and acyl-CoA oxidase activity [Hryb & Hogg (1979) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 87, 1200-1206] was generally found in good agreement with luminometrically measured acyl-CoA oxidase activity. 4. With liver homogenates from streptozotocin-diabetic rats, however, rates of palmitoyl-CoA-dependent NAD+ reduction were consistently lower than the corresponding acyl-CoA oxidase activity. This difference was most marked with respect to luminometrically assayed acyl-CoA oxidase activity. PMID:2775184

  2. Development of a novel vaccinia-neutralization assay based on reporter-gene expression.

    PubMed

    Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R; Bleckwenn, Nicole A; Shiloach, Joseph; Taffs, Rolf; Merchlinsky, Michael; Eller, Nancy; Mikolajczyk, Malgorzata G; Clanton, David J; Monath, Thomas; Weltzin, Richard A; Scott, Dorothy E; Golding, Hana

    2003-08-01

    In anticipation of large-scale smallpox vaccination, clinical trials of new vaccine candidates with improved safety profiles, and new vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) products, there is an immediate need to develop new assays to measure vaccinia-specific immune responses. The classical assay to measure vaccinia neutralization, the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), is slow, labor intensive, and difficult to validate and transfer. Here we describe the development of a novel vaccinia-neutralization assay based on the expression of a reporter gene, beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal). Using a previously constructed vaccinia-beta-Gal recombinant virus, vSC56, we developed a neutralization assay that is rapid, sensitive, and reproducible. The readout is automated. We show that the neutralizing titers, ID(50), for several VIG products measured by our assay were similar to those obtained by PRNTs. A new Food and Drug Administration VIG standard was established for distribution to other laboratories. The new assay will serve as an important tool both for preclinical and clinical trials of new smallpox vaccines and for evaluation of therapeutic agents to treat vaccine-associated adverse reactions. PMID:12870127

  3. Nondestructive assay confirmatory assessment experiments: mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.

    1980-04-30

    The confirmatory assessment experiments demonstrate traceable nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of plutonium in mixed oxide powder using commercially available spontaneous-fission assay systems. The experiments illustrate two major concepts: the production of calibration materials using calorimetric assay, and the use of paired measurements for measurement assurance. Two batches of well-characterized mixed oxide powder were used to establish the random and systematic error components. The major components of an NDA measurement assurance technique to establish and maintain traceability are identified and their functions are demonstrated. 20 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  5. Rotational spectroscopy of the first excited state of the acetylenic C–H stretch of 3-fluoropropyne performed by infrared-Fourier transform microwave–microwave triple-resonance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin O. Douglass; Frances S. Rees; Richard D. Suenram; Brooks H. Pate; Igor Leonov

    2005-01-01

    The rotational spectra of 3-fluoropropyne in the ground and first excited acetylenic C–H stretch vibrational state have been measured. The pure rotational spectrum of the normal species and the 13C isotopomers were measured using FTMW-cwMW double-resonance spectroscopy based on the Autler–Townes (AC Stark) effect. The lineshape properties of this measurement make it possible to determine the transition strength, ?J-selection rules,

  6. Study of Zeeman anticrossing spectra of the à 1A u state of the acetylene molecule (C 2H 2) by Fourier transform: product ? vib V? and isomerization barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Dupré

    1995-01-01

    We present new results concerning 17 Zeeman anticrossing spectra obtained by the excitation of 17 rotational levels (K?=0), 1, N?=0,1,2) belonging to different vibrational levels of the Ã1Au state of gas phase acetylene (HCCH). The vibrational levels studied are mainly a progression of the ??3 mode, (??3 is the CCH trans-bending mode of the trans-bent excited state) with ??3=0–4. The

  7. Base-assisted intramolecular 6-acetoxypyranone-acetylene [5+2] cycloaddition. Synthesis and reactivity of novel oxa-tricyclo[5.3.1.0 1,5]undecenones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Celanire; Frederic Marlin; Jack E. Baldwin; Robert M. Adlington

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of 3,11-dioxatricyclo[5.3.1.01,5]undeca-5,9-dien-8-ones is reported from suitable 5-substituted furfuryl alcohols bearing an acetylenic side-chain. Successive peracid-mediated oxidative rearrangement of furan carbinols and base-assisted intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition afforded oxygen-bridged tricyclo-undecane derivatives. Stereoselective transformations of cycloadducts are also discussed.

  8. Developmental Toxicity Assays Using the Drosophila Model

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Matthew D.; Montgomery, Sara L.; Prince, Lisa; Vorojeikina, Daria

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) has long been a premier model for developmental biologists and geneticists. The utility of Drosophila for toxicology studies has only recently gained broader recognition as a tool to elaborate molecular genetic mechanisms of toxic substances. In this article two practical applications of Drosophila for developmental toxicity assays are described. The first assay takes advantage of newly developed methods to render the fly embryo accessible to small molecules, toxicants and drugs. The second assay engages straightforward exposures to developing larvae and easy to score outcomes of adult development. With the extensive collections of flies that are publicly available and the ease with which to create transgenic flies, these two assays have a unique power for identifying and characterizing molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways specific to the mode of action of a number of toxicants and drugs. PMID:24789363

  9. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7250 Erythropoietin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7250 Erythropoietin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7250 Erythropoietin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  12. BIOMARKER ASSAYS IN NIPPLE APIRATE FLUID

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The noninvasive technique of nipple aspiration as a potential source of biomarkers of breast cancer risk was evaluated. The feasibility of performing mutagenesis assays, amplifying DNA and performing protein electrophoresis on nipple aspirate fluid was explored. ...

  13. CONTROL ASSAY DEVELOPMENT: METHODOLOGY AND LABORATORY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes Control Assay Development (CAD), a data acquisition program designed to evaluate the potential applicability of various treatment processes for the control of solid, liquid, and gaseous emissions from coal conversion plants. The CAD program described could be...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the patient's circulation. These assays are quantitative clotting time procedures using the effect of heparin on activated coagulation factor X (Stuart factor) or procedures based on the neutralization of heparin by protamine sulfate (a protein that...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the patient's circulation. These assays are quantitative clotting time procedures using the effect of heparin on activated coagulation factor X (Stuart factor) or procedures based on the neutralization of heparin by protamine sulfate (a protein that...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...the patient's circulation. These assays are quantitative clotting time procedures using the effect of heparin on activated coagulation factor X (Stuart factor) or procedures based on the neutralization of heparin by protamine sulfate (a protein that...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...the patient's circulation. These assays are quantitative clotting time procedures using the effect of heparin on activated coagulation factor X (Stuart factor) or procedures based on the neutralization of heparin by protamine sulfate (a protein that...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the patient's circulation. These assays are quantitative clotting time procedures using the effect of heparin on activated coagulation factor X (Stuart factor) or procedures based on the neutralization of heparin by protamine sulfate (a protein that...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A sulfhemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents, calibrators, controls, and instrumentation used to determine the sulfhemoglobin (a compound of sulfur and hemoglobin) content of human...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A sulfhemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents, calibrators, controls, and instrumentation used to determine the sulfhemoglobin (a compound of sulfur and hemoglobin) content of human...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...or urine. This assay provides diagnostic information for the evaluation of erythrocytosis (increased total red cell mass) and anemia. (b) Classification. Class II. The special control for this device is FDA's “Document for Special Controls for...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7250 Erythropoietin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  9. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  10. Fine-tuning control on CNT diameter distribution, length and density using thermal CVD growth at atmospheric pressure: an in-depth analysis on the role of flow rate and flow duration of acetylene (C2H2) gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Nishant; Mishra, Prabhash; Harsh, Harsh; Islam, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    An optimization control has been demonstrated to obtain carbon nanotubes having specific diameter distribution, length, homogeneity, and yield during its growth by thermal chemical vapor deposition technique under atmospheric pressure. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on silicon wafer where a predeposition of iron catalyst of 2 nm thickness was made by sputtering. The growth was conducted under two variable parameters, i.e., flow rate and flow duration. Argon and hydrogen mixture was used for pretreatment of catalyst and as etching gas, and acetylene as a carbon precursor. In-depth analysis shows that increase in flow rate from 10 to 50 sccm resulted in increase in the concentration of amorphous carbon, CNTs diameter range and decrease in length, we found best result at 20 sccm flow rate of acetylene gas. On the other hand, as we varied flow duration from 6 to 14 min, with keeping flow rate of acetylene 20 sccm constant, dense homogeneous growth of horizontal CNTs network plus an increase in length and diameter range were observed. An optimization of flow rate and flow duration is presented here to obtain a selective diameter distribution and length as expected by this growth technique. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the samples' morphologies in support of the observations made.

  11. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food...7040 Adenosine triphosphate release assay. (a) Identification. An adenosine triphosphate release assay is a device that measures the...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3050 - Beta-glucan serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Beta-glucan serological assays. 866.3050 Section 866.3050 Food...866.3050 Beta-glucan serological assays. (a) Identification . Beta-glucan serological assays are devices that consist of antigens...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section...Kits and Packages § 864.7500 Whole blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section...Kits and Packages § 864.7500 Whole blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device...

  18. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

  19. Protein immobilization techniques for microfluidic assays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohyun; Herr, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic systems have shown unequivocal performance improvements over conventional bench-top assays across a range of performance metrics. For example, specific advances have been made in reagent consumption, throughput, integration of multiple assay steps, assay automation, and multiplexing capability. For heterogeneous systems, controlled immobilization of reactants is essential for reliable, sensitive detection of analytes. In most cases, protein immobilization densities are maximized, while native activity and conformation are maintained. Immobilization methods and chemistries vary significantly depending on immobilization surface, protein properties, and specific assay goals. In this review, we present trade-offs considerations for common immobilization surface materials. We overview immobilization methods and chemistries, and discuss studies exemplar of key approaches—here with a specific emphasis on immunoassays and enzymatic reactors. Recent “smart immobilization” methods including the use of light, electrochemical, thermal, and chemical stimuli to attach and detach proteins on demand with precise spatial control are highlighted. Spatially encoded protein immobilization using DNA hybridization for multiplexed assays and reversible protein immobilization surfaces for repeatable assay are introduced as immobilization methods. We also describe multifunctional surface coatings that can perform tasks that were, until recently, relegated to multiple functional coatings. We consider the microfluidics literature from 1997 to present and close with a perspective on future approaches to protein immobilization. PMID:24003344

  20. Optimization of a colorimetric assay for glycosylated human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bohney, J.P.; Feldhoff, R.C.

    1986-05-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay has been used for several years to quantitate the amount of glucose which has been non-enzymatically linked to hemoglobin and other proteins. The ketoamine-protein adduct is converted to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by mild hydrolysis with oxalic acid. Reaction of HMF with TBA yields a colored product which has an absorbance maximum at 443 nm. Several modifications of the original procedure has been published, but none permit the unambiguous quantitation of glycosylated human serum albumin (glc-HSA). Problems relate to reagent preparation and stability, the time and temperature of hydrolysis, the choice of standards, and background color corrections. The authors have found that maximum color yield occurs after hydrolysis in an autoclave for 2 h. This increases the sensitivity 3-fold and cuts the assay time in half relative to hydrolysis for 4.5 h at 100/sup 0/C. A NaBH/sub 4/ reduction of a parallel protein sample must be performed to correct for variable background color associated with different sample sources and amounts. HMF can be used as a standard, however, corrections must be made for HMF degradation. Fructose is a better standard, but HMF formation from fructose is faster than formation from glc-HSA. This may result in an underestimate of percent glycosylation. The best standard appears to be glc-HSA prepared with (/sup 3/H)glucose. It appears that with proper controls and standards the TBA assay can be used to determine actual rather than relative percent glycosylation.

  1. Neutron coincidence imaging for active and passive neutron assays

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R. J. (Robert J.); Brunson, G. S. (Glenn S.); Melton, S. G. (Sheila G.)

    2001-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity assay algorithms for {sup 240}Pu assume a point source of fission neutrons that are detected in a single detector channel. The {sup 240}Pu in real waste, however, is more likely to be distributed throughout the container in some random way. For different reasons, this leads to significant errors when using either multiplicity or simpler coincidence analyses. Reduction of these errors can be achieved using tomographic imaging. In this talk we report on our results from using neutron singles and coincidence data between tagged detector pairs to provide enhanced tomographic imaging capabilities to a crate nondestructive assay system. Only simulated passive coincidence data is examined here, although the higher signal rates from active coincidence counting hold more promise for waste management. The active coincidence approach has significantly better sensitivity than the passive and is not significantly perturbed by (alpha,n) contributions. Our study was based primarily on simulated neutron pulse trains derived from the Los Alamos SIM3D software, which were subjected to analysis using the Los Alamos CTEN-FIT and TGS-FIT software. We found significantly improved imaging capability using the coincidence and singles rate data than could be obtained using the singles rate alone.

  2. Comet Assay as an Indirect Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Neutzner, Albert; Turtschi, Stephanie; Flammer, Josef; Mozaffarieh, Maneli

    2015-01-01

    Higher eukaryotic organisms cannot live without oxygen; yet, paradoxically, oxygen can be harmful to them. The oxygen molecule is chemically relatively inert because it has two unpaired electrons located in different pi * anti-bonding orbitals. These two electrons have parallel spins, meaning they rotate in the same direction about their own axes. This is why the oxygen molecule is not very reactive. Activation of oxygen may occur by two different mechanisms; either through reduction via one electron at a time (monovalent reduction), or through the absorption of sufficient energy to reverse the spin of one of the unpaired electrons. This results in the production of reactive oxidative species (ROS). There are a number of ways in which the human body eliminates ROS in its physiological state. If ROS production exceeds the repair capacity, oxidative stress results and damages different molecules. There are many different methods by which oxidative stress can be measured. This manuscript focuses on one of the methods named cell gel electrophoresis, also known as "comet assay" which allows measurement of DNA breaks. If all factors known to cause DNA damage, other than oxidative stress are kept constant, the amount of DNA damage measured by comet assay is a good parameter of oxidative stress. The principle is simple and relies upon the fact that DNA molecules are negatively charged. An intact DNA molecule has such a large size that it does not migrate during electrophoresis. DNA breaks, however, if present result in smaller fragments which move in the electrical field towards the anode. Smaller fragments migrate faster. As the fragments have different sizes the final result of the electrophoresis is not a distinct line but rather a continuum with the shape of a comet. The system allows a quantification of the resulting "comet" and thus of the DNA breaks in the cell. PMID:26065491

  3. The effects of urbanization on Lepomis macrochirus using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Otter, Ryan R; Meier, John; Kubach, Kevin M; Lazorchak, James M; Klaine, Stephen J

    2012-10-01

    Urbanization has been linked to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in natural waterways. This study was designed to examine the impact of urbanization and a wastewater treatment plant by investigating the impact on field-collected bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Results show a significant increase in DNA strand breaks in blood cells (comet assay) linked to urbanization and a reduction in DNA strand breaks downstream of the WWTP, likely the result of dilution. A laboratory study exposing L. macrochirus to the known mutagen, methyl methanesulfonate, was performed to validate the comet assay endpoints in this species. Results of the laboratory study showed that the comet assay endpoints of tail length and tail extent moment responded in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Habitat quality assessments, along with chemical concentrations of polycyclic hydrocarbons in sediments showed that habitat quality between all sites were similar and that hydrocarbons likely contributed to the DNA strand breaks observed. PMID:22885057

  4. [Detection of viable metabolically active yeast cells using a colorimetric assay].

    PubMed

    R?zicka, F; Holá, V

    2008-02-01

    The increasing concern of yeasts able to form biofilm brings about the need for susceptibility testing of both planktonic and biofilm cells. Detection of viability or metabolic activity of yeast cells after exposure to antimicrobials plays a key role in the assessment of susceptibility testing results. Colorimetric assays based on the color change of the medium in the presence of metabolically active cells proved suitable for this purpose. In this study, the usability of a colorimetric assay with the resazurin redox indicator for monitoring the effect of yeast inoculum density on the reduction rate was tested. As correlation between the color change rate and inoculum density was observed, approximate quantification of viable cells was possible. The assay would be of relevance to antifungal susceptibility testing in both planktonic and biofilm yeasts. PMID:18318392

  5. Novel microwell-based spectrophotometric assay for determination of atorvastatin calcium in its pharmaceutical formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The formation of a colored charge-transfer (CT) complex between atorvastatin calcium (ATR-Ca) as a n-electron donor and 2, 3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as a ?-electron acceptor was investigated, for the first time. The spectral characteristics of the CT complex have been described, and the reaction mechanism has been proved by computational molecular modeling. The reaction was employed in the development of a novel microwell-based spectrophotometric assay for determination of ATR-Ca in its pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed assay was carried out in 96-microwell plates. The absorbance of the colored-CT complex was measured at 460 nm by microwell-plate absorbance reader. The optimum conditions of the reaction and the analytical procedures of the assay were established. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (0.9995) was found between the absorbance and the concentration of ATR-Ca in the range of 10-150 ?g/well. The limits of detection and quantitation were 5.3 and 15.8 ?g/well, respectively. No interference was observed from the additives that are present in the pharmaceutical formulation or from the drugs that are co-formulated with ATR-Ca in its combined formulations. The assay was successfully applied to the analysis of ATR-Ca in its pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. The assay described herein has great practical value in the routine analysis of ATR-Ca in quality control laboratories, as it has high throughput property, consumes minimum volume of organic solvent thus it offers the reduction in the exposures of the analysts to the toxic effects of organic solvents, and reduction in the analysis cost by 50-fold. Although the proposed assay was validated for ATR-Ca, however, the same methodology could be used for any electron-donating analyte for which a CT reaction can be performed. PMID:21982201

  6. Does Source Reduction Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, David

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that quantification is essential to establish the cost-effectiveness of source reduction (SR). Presents case studies of monitoring methods for seven different kinds of SR efforts: (1) packaging changes, (2) SR businesses, (3) waste exchanges, (4) individual nonresidential efforts, (5) variable garbage rates, (6) yard waste reduction, and…

  7. A novel data mining method to identify assay-specific signatures in functional genomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Derrick K; Zhai, Dongmei; Joe, Alrica L; Guidarelli, Jack W; Murarka, Abhishek; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic (FG) studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions (i.e., assays). Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) have been very useful, their application to identify assay-specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies. This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay-specific gene signatures in FG studies. Results: The proposed method (PM) is unique for several reasons. First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures. The PM develops and exploits two types of assay-specific contribution plots, which are new to the application of PCA in the FG area. The first type plots the assay-specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay-specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes. The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay-specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve. In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature. We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature. Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps. The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data – a study of classification of human tissue samples and a study of E. coli cultures with different medium formulations. Conclusion We have developed a PCA-based method that effectively identifies assay-specific signatures in ranked groups of genes from the full data set in a more efficient and simplistic procedure than current approaches. Although this work demonstrates the ability of the PM to identify assay-specific signatures in DNA microarray experiments, this approach could be useful in areas such as proteomics and metabolomics. PMID:16907975

  8. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  9. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew R.; El Yamani, Naouale; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Brunborg, Gunnar; Azqueta, Amaya

    2014-01-01

    Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardizing the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature, and voltage gradient) are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e., cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls) or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay), or photosensitiser plus light to oxidize guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites). Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period—for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial—to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation. PMID:25368630

  10. The peripubertal male rat assay as an alternative to the Hershberger castrated male rat assay for the detection of anti-androgens, oestrogens and metabolic modulators.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J; Lefevre, P A

    2000-01-01

    A range of chemicals with various levels of activity as actual or potential endocrine disrupters have been evaluated for activity in the peripubertal male rat assay. The chemicals studied included anti-androgens (vinclozolin), cyproterone acetate, flutamide, 2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), metabolic modulators (anastrazole, finasteride, ketoconazole) and oestrogens (butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), methoxychlor, bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilboestrol (DES)), the suspected anti-androgen dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and the non-oestrogen fenitrothion. Dosing extended over postnatal days (pnd) 22-35, 36-50, 36-55 and 22-35, with recovery to pnd 55 or 22-55. The endpoints studied were changes in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles and prostate. Changes in body weight and the weights of the liver and kidney were also monitored. In some experiments changes in the day of prepuce separation (PPS) were also determined. Only BBP and BPA were inactive in all the assays conducted. Changes in the weight of reproductive tissues provided a sensitive indicator of activity for the remaining chemicals with the exception of DDE, for which higher dose levels could have been used. However, none of the curtailed periods of exposure were able to detect all of the agents. Diethyl stilboestrol, and to a lesser extent DBP and DDE, delayed PPS when exposure occurred over the period pnd 22-55. A complex dependence of the day of PPS on the period of exposure and the body weight of the test animals was observed, and caution is recommended when assessing this endpoint in the presence of reductions in body weight. It is concluded that reproductive tissue weight changes in the peripubertal male have shown sensitivity to a range of biochemical modulators, oestrogens and anti-androgens, and that as such the assay warrants further evaluation. Measurement of delays in PPS may be of value in cases of large delays, but delays of 1-2 days will be difficult to interpret with confidence. The present results are discussed within the context of the sexually mature male rat assay described by O'Connor and the castrated male rat assay described by Hershberger, both of which are the subject of current international study. It is concluded that a decision on the usefulness of the peripubertal male rat assay must await the generation of further data on each of these three assays. There is an urgent need for international agreement on a list of reference endocrine disrupters and their active dose levels, with which to validate individual endocrine disruption assays and batteries of assays. PMID:10641015

  11. Chirped-Pulse Fourier-Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of the Prototypical C-H\\cdots? Interaction: the BENZENE\\cdotsACETYLENE Weakly Bound Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Nathan; Seifert, Nathan A.; Dorris, Rachel E.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CH\\cdots? bonded complex between benzene and acetylene has been measured in the 6-20 GHz range using chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The spectra for the normal isotopologue, three unique 13C substituted species, and the d_1-benzene\\cdotsHCCH species have allowed determination of the dimer structure. The spectrum is that of a symmetric top, with effective C6v symmetry, and a CH\\cdots? distance of 2.4921(1) Å. The dipole moment has been measured using the Stark effect, and is 0.438(11) D. In addition to the ground state spectrum, three additional sets of transitions corresponding to similar rotational constants have been observed, likely due to excitation of the three low energy intermolecular vibrational modes of the dimer. Analysis of these excited state transitions is in progress. Comparison of the binding energy and structure of the benzene\\cdotsHCCH dimer with other H\\cdots? complexes will be presented.

  12. From the Lindlar catalyst to supported ligand-modified palladium nanoparticles: selectivity patterns and accessibility constraints in the continuous-flow three-phase hydrogenation of acetylenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Vilé, Gianvito; Almora-Barrios, Neyvis; Mitchell, Sharon; López, Núria; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2014-05-12

    Site modification and isolation through selective poisoning comprise an effective strategy to enhance the selectivity of palladium catalysts in the partial hydrogenation of triple bonds in acetylenic compounds. The recent emergence of supported hybrid materials matching the stereo- and chemoselectivity of the classical Lindlar catalyst holds promise to revolutionize palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations, and will benefit from an in-depth understanding of these new materials. In this work, we compare the performance of bare, lead-poisoned, and ligand-modified palladium catalysts in the hydrogenation of diverse alkynes. Catalytic tests, conducted in a continuous-flow three-phase reactor, coupled with theoretical calculations and characterization methods, enable elucidation of the structural origins of the observed selectivity patterns. Distinctions in the catalytic performance are correlated with the relative accessibility of the active site to the organic substrate, and with the adsorption configuration and strength, depending on the ensemble size and surface potentials. This explains the role of the ligand in the colloidally prepared catalysts in promoting superior performance in the hydrogenation of terminal and internal alkynes, and short-chain alkynols. In contrast, the greater accessibility of the active surface of the Pd-Pb alloy and the absence of polar groups are shown to be favorable in the conversion of alkynes containing long aliphatic chains and/or ketone groups. These findings provide detailed insights for the advanced design of supported nanostructured catalysts. PMID:24753096

  13. CMOS-compatible synthesis of large-area, high-mobility graphene by chemical vapor deposition of acetylene on cobalt thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramón, Michael E; Gupta, Aparna; Corbet, Chris; Ferrer, Domingo A; Movva, Hema C P; Carpenter, Gary; Colombo, Luigi; Bourianoff, George; Doczy, Mark; Akinwande, Deji; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate the synthesis of large-area graphene on Co, a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal, using acetylene (C(2)H(2)) as a precursor in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-based method. Cobalt films were deposited on SiO(2)/Si, and the influence of Co film thickness on monolayer graphene growth was studied, based on the solubility of C in Co. The surface area coverage of monolayer graphene was observed to increase with decreasing Co film thickness. A thorough Raman spectroscopic analysis reveals that graphene films, grown on an optimized Co film thickness, are principally composed of monolayer graphene. Transport properties of monolayer graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of ?1600 cm(2)/V s and ?1000 cm(2)/V s, respectively, and a low trap density of ?1.2 × 10(11) cm(-2). PMID:21800895

  14. Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay in situ with Blue Tetrazolium Salt in Crabtree-Positive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Kregiel; Joanna Berlowska; Wojciech Ambroziak

    Summary A spectrophotometric method for determining succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) acti- vity assay in azide-sensitive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed. The perme- abilization of yeast cells by 0.05 % digitonin permitted to study yeast enzymatic activity in situ. The reduction of blue tetrazolium salt (BT) to blue tetrazolium formazan (BTf) was conducted in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS) as

  15. The rodent malaria lactate dehydrogenase assay provides a high throughput solution for in vivo vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hitoshi; Yokouchi, Yuki; Iyoku, Natsumi; Tachibana, Mayumi; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Torii, Motomi

    2015-08-01

    Rodent malaria is a useful model for evaluating the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates; however, labor-intensive microscopic parasite counting hampers the use of an in vivo parasite challenge in high-throughput screening. The measurement of malaria parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) activity, which is commonly used in the in vitro growth inhibition assay of Plasmodium falciparum, may be the cheapest and simplest alternative to microscopic parasite counting. However, the pLDH assay has not been applied in the in vivo rodent malaria model. Here, we showed that the pLDH assay is reliable and accurately determines parasitemia in the rodent malaria model. pLDH activity measured using a chromogenic substrate reflects the parasite number in the blood; it allows fast and easy assessment using a conventional microplate reader. To validate this approach, we synthesized recombinant PyMSP1-19 protein (rPyMSP1-19) using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system and immunized mice with rPyMSP1-19. The antisera showed specific reactivity on the surface of the Plasmodium yoelii merozoite and immunized mice were protected against a lethal P. yoelii 17 XL challenge. The pLDH assay quickly and easily demonstrated a significant reduction of the parasite numbers in the immunized mice. Accordingly, the pLDH assay proved to be an efficient alternative to rodent malaria parasite counting, and may therefore accelerate in vivo vaccine candidate screening. PMID:25701649

  16. An isothermal absorptiometric assay for viable microbes using the redox color indicator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Hattori, Daisuke; Tokunaga, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yusuke

    2013-10-15

    A simple and rapid isothermal absorptiometric assay for detection of viable microbes using the redox color indicator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) was studied. The absorbance of DCPIP decreased at 600 nm because of a redox reaction occurring between DCPIP and the surface membrane of viable microbes and was inversely proportional to the viable cell density. The redox reaction was found not only with bacteria, but also with yeast and a mixture of bacteria and yeast. In this assay, the influence of light scattering and absorption caused by microbial cells and coexisting substances in the sample was excluded by a time difference method. The assay required only 10 min for one incubation mixture, and highly repeatable results from three consecutive measurements were obtained by isothermal incubation for specific times at 30 °C using a thermostable three-cuvette-stir system. Thus, the cell density of microbial cell suspensions or growth medium was successfully determined, and a practical lower detection limit for food inspection was obtained at 10?-10? cfu/ml. Single-cell effects on DCPIP reduction were evaluated and compared between species. Consequently, this assay is expected to be a useful tool for the rapid measurement of viable microbes as a preliminary assay for the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point program. PMID:23871996

  17. GPCR assay automation for leveraging lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Cvijic, Mary Ellen; Chen, Jing; Kubala, Steve; Nolfo, Joseph; Kolodin, Garrett; Zhang, Litao

    2012-08-01

    The drug discovery process is dependent on the ability of screening efforts to identify and optimize lead compounds with therapeutic potential. Because G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) account for the most "druggable" targets, the development of high-throughput, low-cost, and high-density GPCR assays to accommodate the increasing size of compound collections is significant. In this study, we report the application of an advanced LEADseeker robotic platform equipped with customized IT solutions for rapid data transfer to reduce assay cycles times for support of GPCR panel screening. The advantages of assay throughput, format, automation design, data management flow, and data reproducibility are discussed in terms of gains in productivity for lead optimization. The GPCR robotic platform demonstrates how automation technology can leverage traditional drug discovery processes by providing consistent and reliable data packages to expedite lead optimization efforts. PMID:22505604

  18. An immunochemiluminometric assay for serum free thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Sturgess, M L; Weeks, I; Evans, P J; Mpoko, C N; Laing, I; Woodhead, J S

    1987-09-01

    An immunochemiluminometric assay has been developed for the measurement of free T4 concentrations in serum. The assay uses chemiluminescent acridinium ester labelled monoclonal antibodies which react with free T4 in the sample. A T4-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugate competes for antibody binding sites, immune-complexes containing this being isolated using an anti-immunoglobulin G antibody coupled to paramagnetic particles. Associated chemiluminescence intensity is thus dependent on the free T4 concentration. The assay distinguishes patients with primary thyroid disease from euthyroid subjects and is unaffected by abnormal binding proteins which compromise the diagnostic accuracy of radiolabelled analogue immunoassays. the test yields results which accurately reflect the clinical thyroid status of euthyroid patients with a variety of acute and chronic non-thyroid illnesses. This is again in marked contrast to the aberrant results seen using certain radiolabelled analogue procedures. PMID:3322610

  19. Flow cytometer measurement of binding assays

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, George C. (Espanola, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of measuring the result of a binding assay that does not require separation of fluorescent smaller particles is disclosed. In a competitive binding assay the smaller fluorescent particles coated with antigen compete with antigen in the sample being analyzed for available binding sites on larger particles. In a sandwich assay, the smaller, fluorescent spheres coated with antibody attach themselves to molecules containing antigen that are attached to larger spheres coated with the same antibody. The separation of unattached, fluorescent smaller particles is made unnecessary by only counting the fluorescent events triggered by the laser of a flow cytometer when the event is caused by a particle with a light scatter measurement within a certain range corresponding to the presence of larger particles.

  20. Bacillus Spore Inactivation Methods Affect Detection Assays

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jessica L.; Heroux, Karen; Kearney, John; Arasteh, Ameneh; Gostomski, Mark; Emanuel, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Detection of biological weapons is a primary concern in force protection, treaty verification, and safeguarding civilian populations against domestic terrorism. One great concern is the detection of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Assays for detection in the laboratory often employ inactivated preparations of spores or nonpathogenic simulants. This study uses several common biodetection platforms to detect B. anthracis spores that have been inactivated by two methods and compares those data to detection of spores that have not been inactivated. The data demonstrate that inactivation methods can affect the sensitivity of nucleic acid- and antibody-based assays for the detection of B. anthracis spores. These effects should be taken into consideration when comparing laboratory results to data collected and assayed during field deployment. PMID:11472945

  1. Competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, J.L. Jr.; Ringstad, J.L.; Sigel, C.W. (Wellcome Research Laboratories, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-09-01

    A competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim (PTX, 1) that makes use of a commercially available radioassay kit for methotrexate has been developed. After it is selectively extracted from plasma, PTX competes with ({sup 125}I)methotrexate for binding to dihydrofolate reductase isolated from Lactobacillus casei. Free drug is separated from bound drug by adsorption to dextran-coated charcoal. Piritrexim is measurable over a range of 0.01 to 10.0 micrograms/mL in plasma with a coefficient of variation less than 15%. The limit of sensitivity of the assay is approximately 2 ng/mL. An excellent correlation between this assay and a previously published HPLC method was found.

  2. Methods for human and murine sperm assays

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Human sperm assays in the context of an epidemiological study provide an effective means to identify agents that affect testicular function. Four assays for human sperm anomaly (counts, motility, morphology, and double-fluorescence bodies) have been successfully used for a variety of human occupational and drug-related exposures. However, more research is needed to validate the genetic implications of sperm defects induced by exposure to chemicals in vivo. The F/sub 0/ and F/sub 1/ mouse-sperm assay, especially for induced morphological defects, provides a method of screening agents that may be potentially harmful to man and provides a means to assess the antifertility effects and consequences of induced sperm defect.

  3. Microplate Assay for Colletotrichum Spore Production

    PubMed Central

    Slade, S. J.; Harris, R. F.; Smith, C. S.; Andrews, J. H.; Nordheim, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple microplate method was devised to assay spore production by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by growing the fungus on 1 ml of solid media in the wells of tissue culture plates. Growth and sporulation on microplates were compared at days 4 and 8 with growth and sporulation in 100-ml liquid batch cultures that involved 11 common media. Spore production per unit volume of medium was the same for solid and liquid forms of the media. Qualitative assessment of mycelial growth measured on microplates agreed with that of growth measured in liquid cultures. The microplate assay indicated that V8 juice was the best medium and that an organic content of about 6 mg/ml was optimal for high sporulation and low mycelium production. The assay provides a convenient, rapid, and inexpensive means of screening media for the production of fungal conidia in large numbers, to be used, for example, in biological control programs. PMID:16347310

  4. Microbiological assay of ketoconazole in shampoo.

    PubMed

    Staub, Inara; Schapoval, Elfrides E S; Bergold, Ana M

    2005-03-23

    Ketoconazole, an anti-fungal agent, is often incorporated in several pharmaceutical forms and in shampoo formulation it is known to be effective against fungal infection on the scalp. This paper describes a method to quantify ketoconazole in shampoo by comparing the cylinder plate assay and the HPLC method. The test organism used for the agar diffusion assay was Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Three different concentrations of ketoconazole were used for the diffusion assay. A mean zone diameter was obtained for each concentration. A standard curve was obtained by plotting the three values derived from the zone diameters. A prospective validation of the method showed that the method was linear (r = 0.9982), precise (R.S.D. = 2.57%) and accurate. The results obtained by the two methods were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the results obtained indicate that there is no significant difference between these two methods. PMID:15725566

  5. Assays of Transendothelial Migration in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Luscinskas, F. William

    2009-01-01

    The inflammatory response is critical for our ability to heal wounds and fight off foreign microorganisms. Uncontrolled inflammation is also at the root of most pathology. Recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation plays a defining role in the inflammatory response, and migration of leukocytes across endothelium is arguably the point of no return of the inflammatory response. Assays to study the transmigration of leukocytes have and will continue to shed light on the regulation of this vital response. Assays of transendothelial migration in vitro allow the controlled observation of this phenomenon as well as experiments to study its regulation. In this chapter we describe in vitro assays of transendothelial migration that have been used successfully in the authors’ laboratories for decades and have proven to be reproducible, reliable, and predictive of the behavior of leukocytes and endothelial cells in models of inflammation in vivo. PMID:18772016

  6. Evaluation of a novel delayed-type hypersensitivity assay to Candida albicans in adult and neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Mitchell; Hudson, Adam W; Kreeger, John; Kawabe, Thomas T; Bowman, Christopher J; Collinge, Mark

    2014-11-21

    Abstract Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is a T-cell-mediated immune response that may be used for immunotoxicity testing in non-clinical species. However, in some cases DTH assays using T-dependent antigens may be confounded by the production of antibodies to the antigen. The authors have previously modified a DTH assay, initially validated in the mouse, for use in juvenile rats to assess the effect of immunosuppressive drugs on the developing rat immune system. The assay measures footpad swelling induced by subcutaneous footpad injection of Candida albicans (C. albicans) derived-chitosan in rats previously sensitized with C. albicans. Antibodies to chitosan are not produced in this model. However, considerable inter-animal variability inherent in the footpad swelling assay can make it difficult to precisely quantify the magnitude of the immune response and inhibition by immunosuppressants, particularly if complete suppression is not observed. This report describes the development of an ex vivo assay to assess DTH in rats using interferon (IFN)-? production by splenocytes, obtained from rats sensitized with C. albicans, as the quantifiable measure of the DTH response. Adult and neonatal rats administered dexamethasone (DEX), a known immunosuppressant, exhibited immunosuppression as evidenced by a reduction in ex vivo IFN? production from splenocytes challenged with C. albicans-derived chitosan. Current data indicate that the ex vivo based DTH assay is more sensitive than the conventional footpad swelling assay due to a lower background response and the ability to detect a response as early as post-natal day (PND) 12. The ex vivo based rat DTH assay offers a highly sensitive and quantitative alternative to the footpad swelling assay for the assessment of the immunotoxic potential of drugs. The increased sensitivity of the ex vivo DTH assay may be useful for identifying smaller changes in response to immunotoxic drugs, as well as detecting responses earlier in animal development. PMID:25412622

  7. Variola Virus-Specific Diagnostic Assays: Characterization, Sensitivity, and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kondas, Ashley V.; Olson, Victoria A.; Li, Yu; Abel, Jason; Laker, Miriam; Rose, Laura; Wilkins, Kimberly; Turner, Jonathan; Kline, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A public health response relies upon rapid and reliable confirmation of disease by diagnostic assays. Here, we detail the design and validation of two variola virus-specific real-time PCR assays, since previous assays cross-reacted with newly identified cowpox viruses. The assay specificity must continually be reassessed as other closely related viruses are identified. PMID:25673790

  8. Rapid assay for insect juvenile hormone esterase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Hammock; T. C. Sparks

    1977-01-01

    A rapid new assay is proposed for analyzing insect juvenile hormone esterase activity. The assay is based on >99% of radiolabeled juvenile hormone being extracted into an isooctane phase while >99% of the juvenile hormone acid remains in the basic aqueous-methanol phase. The assay is more rapid and less expensive than conventional chromatographic assays while yielding almost identical values of

  9. Variola virus-specific diagnostic assays: characterization, sensitivity, and specificity.

    PubMed

    Kondas, Ashley V; Olson, Victoria A; Li, Yu; Abel, Jason; Laker, Miriam; Rose, Laura; Wilkins, Kimberly; Turner, Jonathan; Kline, Richard; Damon, Inger K

    2015-04-01

    A public health response relies upon rapid and reliable confirmation of disease by diagnostic assays. Here, we detail the design and validation of two variola virus-specific real-time PCR assays, since previous assays cross-reacted with newly identified cowpox viruses. The assay specificity must continually be reassessed as other closely related viruses are identified. PMID:25673790

  10. Reduction Redux of Adinkras

    E-print Network

    Gates,, S James; Stiffler, Kory

    2013-01-01

    We show performing general ``0-brane reduction'' along an arbitrary fixed direction in spacetime and applied to the starting point of minimal, off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ $=$ 1 irreducible supermultiplets, yields adinkras whose adjacency matrices are among some of the special cases proposed by Kuznetsova, Rojas, and Toppan. However, these more general reductions also can lead to `Garden Algebra' structures beyond those described in their work. It is also shown that for light-like directions, reduction to the 0-brane breaks the equality in the number of fermions and bosons for dynamical theories. This implies that light-like reductions should be done instead to the space of 1-branes or equivalently to the worldsheet.

  11. Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of developing or exacerbating lymphedema. This position paper provides information to assist the person with or ... discuss your personal strategies for risk reduction. This paper differentiates people with a confirmed diagnosis of lymphedema ...

  12. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-print Network

    Adler, J.

    REDUCTION OF WATER CONSUMPTION John Adler The Munters Corporation Ft. Myers, Florida Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination...

  13. AMD NOX REDUCTION IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first phase of a potentially multi-phase project aimed at identifying scientific methodologies that will lead to the development of innnovative analytical tools supporting the analysis of control strategy effectiveness, namely. accountabilty. Significant reductions i...

  14. A versatile electrowetting-based digital microfluidic platform for quantitative homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergauwe, Nicolas; Witters, Daan; Ceyssens, Frederik; Vermeir, Steven; Verbruggen, Bert; Puers, Robert; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) lab-on-a-chip systems have already proven their potential within a broad range of bio-assays. Nevertheless, research on the analytical performance of those systems is limited, yet crucial for a further breakthrough in the diagnostic field. Therefore, this paper presents the intrinsic possibilities of an EWOD lab-on-a-chip as a versatile platform for homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays with high analytical performance. Both droplet dispensing and splitting cause variations in droplet size, thereby directly influencing the assay's performance. The extent to which they influence the performance is assessed by a theoretical sensitivity analysis, which allows the definition of a basic framework for the reduction of droplet size variability. Taking advantage of the optimized droplet manipulations, both homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays are implemented in the EWOD lab-on-a-chip to demonstrate the analytical capabilities and versatility of the device. A fully on-chip enzymatic assay is realized with high analytical performance. It demonstrates the promising capabilities of an EWOD lab-on-a-chip in food-related and medical applications, such as nutritional and blood analyses. Further, a magnetic bio-assay for IgE detection using superparamagnetic nanoparticles is presented whereby the nanoparticles are used as solid carriers during the bio-assay. Crucial elements are the precise manipulation of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles with respect to dispensing and separation. Although the principle of using nano-carriers is demonstrated for protein detection, it can be easily extended to a broader range of bio-related applications like DNA sensing. In heterogeneous bio-assays the chip surface is actively involved during the execution of the bio-assay. Through immobilization of specific biological compounds like DNA, proteins and cells a reactive chip surface is realized, which enhances the bio-assay performance. To demonstrate this potential, on-chip adhesion islands are fabricated to immobilize MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Viability studies are performed to assess the functionalization efficiency.

  15. Quantization of Singular Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, L.; Cushman, R.; Hamilton, M.; ?niatycki, J.

    This paper creates a theory of quantization of singularly reduced systems. We compare our results with those obtained by quantizing algebraically reduced systems. In the case of a Kähler polarization, we show that quantization of a singularly reduced system commutes with reduction, thus generalizing results of Sternberg and Guillemin. We illustrate our theory by treating an example of Arms, Gotay and Jennings where algebraic and singular reduction at the zero level of the momentum mapping differ. In spite of this, their quantizations agree.

  16. Respiration and nitrogen fixation in nodulated roots of soya bean and pea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. D. Dixon; Y. M. Berlier; P. A. Lespinat

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide evolution and nitrogenase activity, measured either as hydrogen evolution (under argon 80%, oxygen 20%) or as the reduction of acetylene to ethylene, were assayed over the same time period by a direct mass-spectrometric method. When carbon dioxide evolution was used to estimate carbohydrate consumption, the results agreed with other work on whole plants. The RQ values

  17. Tropical leguminous species for acid soils: studies on plant form and growth 

    E-print Network

    Tilki, Fahrettin

    1996-01-01

    edulis had the highest crown volume (>Ioo M3 ) after A. mangium. Inga edulis, P. idiopodum, L coruscans and P. macroloba failed to form straight single stems. The results of acetylene reduction assay at Site 4 showed that L edulis, A. mangium, Albizia...

  18. Isolation, partial characterization, and the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on micro-propagated sugarcane in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sajjad Mirza; Waseem Ahmad; Farooq Latif; Jacqueline Haurat; Rene Bally; Philippe Normand; Kauser A. Malik

    2001-01-01

    We report the isolation of nitrogen fixing, phytohormone producing bacteria from sugarcane and their beneficial effects on the growth of micropropagated sugarcane plantlets. Detection of the nitrogen fixing bacteria by ARA-based MPN (acetylene reduction assay-based most probable number) method indicated the presence of up to 106 bacteria per gram dry weight of stem and 107 bacteria per gram dry weight

  19. EVIDENCE THAT CARBON DIOXIDE ENRICHMENT ALLEVIATES UREIDE-INDUCED DECLINE OF NODULE NITROGENASE ACTIVITY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypothesis that elevated [CO2] alleviates the inhibition of N2 fixation by ureides was tested by comparing the short-term responses of acetylene reduction assay (ARA), ureide accumulation and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) levels to the application of ureide to the nutrient solution of h...

  20. Ecological aspects of nitrogen fixation by Purshia tridentata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Dalton; Donald B. Zobel

    1977-01-01

    This study examines several aspects of nitrogen fixation by Purshia tridentata (Pursh) D.C., a rosaceous shrub widespread in the Central Oregon pumice region, especially as an understory species in Pinus ponderosa and Pinus contorta forests. Acetylene reduction was used to assay nodule activity in both field and greenhouse plants. The maximum rates were observed at 20°C, although summer soil temperatures

  1. Dinitrogen (C 2 H 2 ) fixation in relation to nitrogen fertilization of grey alder [ Alnus incana (L.) Moench.] plantations in a peat bog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rytter; A. S. Arveby; U. Granhall

    1991-01-01

    Nitrogenase activity was measured in young grey alder plantations in a peat bog in central Sweden. The stands were treated in three ways: (1) daily irrigation during the growing season with a complete nutrient solution, including N; (2) application of bark ash or wood ash before planting; and (3) fertilization every second year with solid PK fertilizers. Acetylene reduction assays

  2. A convenient fluorescent assay for vertebrate collagenases.

    PubMed

    Bond, M D; Auld, D S; Lobb, R R

    1986-06-01

    A versatile, convenient assay for vertebrate collagenases has been developed using the fluorescent peptide substrate dansyl-Pro-Gln-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-D-Arg. This sequence resembles that of collagen at the site of cleavage but includes modifications designed to eliminate nonspecific hydrolysis by contaminating peptidases. Both human skin fibroblast and bovine corneal cell collagenases cleave the substrate specifically at the Gly-Ile bond. Plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase B, and bacterial collagenase do not cleave the substrate. Elastase and angiotensin converting enzyme display 20- and 400-fold less activity than the vertebrate collagenases, respectively, and cleave the peptide at different positions. The assay is performed by incubating a 5- to 25-microliters aliquot of trypsin-activated sample with an equal volume of 2 mM substrate overnight at 33 degrees C and pH 7.5. Thin-layer chromatography then separates the fluorescent product from the substrate in less than 20 min and allows the detection of subnanogram levels of collagenase. The assay is applicable to the screening of large numbers of samples under different conditions of pH and ionic strength and is readily adaptable for use in a variety of collagenase-dependent systems, such as assays for collagenase activating and/or inducing factors. PMID:3014920

  3. Original article Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    enteritidis is recognised as a frequent and important pathogen for poultry and has been isolated from broilerOriginal article Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a Salmonella enteritidis antigen obtained from a clinical isolate of Salmonella enteritidis, were compared with those obtained with the gm

  4. Comparative investigation of various cellulase assay procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Canevascini; Catherine Gattlen

    1981-01-01

    The cellulolytic activity of crude enzyme preparations from different cellulolytic fungi (namely Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium solani, Sporotrichum pulverulentum, Sporotrichum thermophile) was assayed comparatively with several common analytical procedures described in the literature. The investigation was carried out with the objective of evaluating, with raw culture filtrates, the different cellulase tests in relation to their specificity for endo- and

  5. Saliva assays in clinical and research biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Lac

    2001-01-01

    This paper is an update of the current knowledges about saliva components whose assays are of biological interest and have been validated. It begins by a recall of saliva physiology: role, flow rate, main components and their mode of entry into saliva. Infectious agents and their markers are not reviewed. Peptidic molecules (catecholamines, short hormonal peptides), lipids, minerals (Na, K,

  6. Multiplexed single-molecule assay for

    E-print Network

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    -antidigoxigenin Biotin Streptavidin Biotin-PEG Primer Increasing extension Flow force Conical lens Field stop Flow cell NA 0.45 BS L4L3 M1 L2 L1 CCD Iris Diffuser L6 L5 M2 Microscope a b c Figure 1 | Single-molecule assay

  7. Benzodiazepine Synthesis and Rapid Toxicity Assay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, James T.; Boriraj, Grit

    2010-01-01

    A second-year organic chemistry laboratory experiment to introduce students to general concepts of medicinal chemistry is described. Within a single three-hour time window, students experience the synthesis of a biologically active small molecule and the assaying of its biological toxicity. Benzodiazepine rings are commonly found in antidepressant…

  8. Analysis of Gold Ores by Fire Assay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Kristy M.; Phillips, David N.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Students of an Applied Chemistry degree course carried out a fire-assay exercise. The analysis showed that the technique was a worthwhile quantitative analytical technique and covered interesting theory including acid-base and redox chemistry and other concepts such as inquarting and cupelling.

  9. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF CHOLINESTERASE ASSAY MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twelve wildlife toxicology laboratories participated in an interlaboratory survey of cholinesterase (ChE) assays to determine comparability of absolute ChE values and estimates of ChE inhibition from organophosphorus insecticide-dosed birds and to examine the type and consistency...

  10. Transient Expression Assays for Quantifying Signaling Output

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    Chapter 16 Transient Expression Assays for Quantifying Signaling Output Yajie Niu and Jen Sheen Abstract The protoplast transient expression system has become a powerful and popular tool for studying the output of various signaling pathways. Key words: Arabidopsis, Mesophyll protoplast, Transient expression

  11. BIOLOGICAL ASSAY METHODS FOR MOSQUITO REPELLENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three biological assay procedures for repellents are currently documented in the literature: (1) ASTM E951-94 "Laboratory Testing of Non-Commercial Repellant Formulations on the Skin." (2) ASTM E939-94 "Field Testing Topical Applications of Compounds as Repellents for Medically Important and Pest A...

  12. Rapid assays for environmental and biological monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Szurdoki; L. Jaeger; A. Harris; H. Kido; I. Wengatz; M. H. Goodrow; A. Székács; M. Wortberg; J. Zheng; D. W. Stoutamire; J. R. Sanborn; S. D. Gilman; A. D. Jones; S. J. Gee; P. V. Choudary; B. D. Hammock

    1996-01-01

    Rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and selective enzyme?linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) now are utilized in environmental science. In this laboratory, many ELISAs have been developed for pesticides and other toxic substances and also for their metabolites. Compounds for which ELISAs have recently been devised include insecticides (organophosphates, carbaryl, pyrethroids, and fenoxycarb), herbicides (s?triazines, arylureas, triclopyr, and bromacil), fungicides (myclobutanil), TCDD, and metabolites

  13. Summarizing FLARE assay images in colon carcinogenesis 

    E-print Network

    Leyk Williams, Malgorzata

    2006-04-12

    on data from a FLARE assay experiment, which examines cells from the duodenum and the colon to see if there is a difference in the risk of cancer due to corn or ?sh oil diets. Treatments of the oxidizing agent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), DSS...

  14. A Rapid and Quantitative Recombinase Activity Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present here a comparison between the recombinase systems FLP-FRT and Cre-loxP. A transient excision based dual luciferase expression assay is used for its rapid and repeatable nature. The detection system was designed within an intron to remove the remaining recombinase recognition site and no...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN 'IN VITRO' NEUROTOXICITY ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this research project was to investigate the possibility of developing the neurotoxic esterase (NTE) assay into a totally in vitro system to enable neurotoxicity assessment to be carried out rapidly on large numbers of compounds. The purified enzyme was to be immobiliz...

  16. A radiometric assay for HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, L.J.; Dayton, B.D.; Moore, M.L.; Shu, A.Y.; Heys, J.R.; Meek, T.D. (Smith Kline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, PA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    A rapid, high-throughput radiometric assay for HIV-1 protease has been developed using ion-exchange chromatography performed in 96-well filtration plates. The assay monitors the activity of the HIV-1 protease on the radiolabeled form of a heptapeptide substrate, (tyrosyl-3,5-3H)Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Pro-Val-Val-NH2, which is based on the p17-p24 cleavage site found in the viral polyprotein substrate Pr55gag. Specific cleavage of this uncharged heptapeptide substrate by HIV-1 protease releases the anionic product (tyrosyl-3,5-3H)Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr, which is retained upon minicolumns of the anion-exchange resin AG1-X8. Protease activity is determined from the recovery of this radiolabeled product following elution with formic acid. This facile and highly sensitive assay may be utilized for steady-state kinetic analysis of the protease, for measurements of enzyme activity during its purification, and as a routine assay for the evaluation of protease inhibitors from natural product or synthetic sources.

  17. Whole worm glycerol assay Reagents needed

    E-print Network

    Lamitina, Todd

    Whole worm glycerol assay Reagents needed: 1. Dry Ice 2. Mortar and pestles 3. 1N Perchloric acid-biopharm) Protocol 1. Wash worms off plates w/ M9 (make sure osmolarity matches that of plate) 2. Wash twice 3. Resuspend worm pellet in 10 ml M9 and allow worms to evacuate bacteria for 15 minutes. 4. While worms

  18. Optical Assay for Biotechnology and Clinical Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Moczko; Michael Cauchi; Claire Turner; Igor Meglinski; Sergey Piletsky

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an optical diagnostic as- say consisting of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes combined with multivariate data analysis for quantitative and qualitative examination of biological and clinical samples. The per- formance of the assay is based on the analysis of spectrum of the selected fluorescent dyes with the operational principle similar to electronic nose and

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL SCREENING ASSAY FOR TYLOSIN IN POLLEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tylosin residues have been isolated from pollen samples by adsorption on acidic solid-phase extraction cartridges, with subsequent determination using a disk-diffusion microbiological assay. While not providing identification of individual antibiotics present, the presence of a zone of inhibition pr...

  20. Summarizing FLARE assay images in colon carcinogenesis

    E-print Network

    Leyk Williams, Malgorzata

    2006-04-12

    on data from a FLARE assay experiment, which examines cells from the duodenum and the colon to see if there is a difference in the risk of cancer due to corn or ?sh oil diets. Treatments of the oxidizing agent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), DSS...