Lengua, L J; Sadowski, C A
This article is a response to T. M. Achenbach and L. Dumenci's (2001) commentary concerning L. J. Lengua, C. A. Sadowski, W. N. Friedrich, and J. Fisher's (2001) article proposing an alternative scoring approach for the Child Behavior Checklist. The authors note that T. M. Achenbach and L. Dumenci do not comment on the stated goals of the alternative scoring approach and focus on a limited set of the results to make their argument. Although the original and proposed scoring approaches operate similarly, important differences suggest that the proposed scoring approach is promising for use in specific instances, including identifying distinct etiologies, developmental course, and co-occurrence of specific syndromes. The importance of combining rational and empirical approaches in articulating conceptual definitions and developing measures of child psychopathology is discussed. PMID:11550736
Lindhiem, Oliver; Dozier, Mary
Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between child behavior problems and caregiver commitment to their child in a group of young foster children. Method: The sample consisted of 102 caregiver-child dyads from the greater Baltimore area. Child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL; Achenbach, T. M. (1991).…
Myers, Carl L.
Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…
Pandolfi, Vincent; Magyar, Caroline I.; Dill, Charles A.
Validity studies of measures for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) for use with preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lacking. The Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (CBCL; Achenbach and Rescorla, Manual for the ASEBA Preschool Forms & Profiles. VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families,…
Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Weisz, John; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank
This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the "Child Behavior Checklist" (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. Effect sizes for gender were less than or equal to 0.01,…
... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...
Benner, Gregory J.; Uhing, Brad M.; Pierce, Corey D.; Beaudoin, Kathleen M.; Ralston, Nicole C.; Mooney, Paul
We sought to extend instrument validation research for the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) (Walker & Severson, 1990) using convergent validation techniques. Associations between Critical Events, Adaptive Behavior, and Maladaptive Behavior indices of the SSBD were examined in relation to syndrome, broadband, and total scores of…
... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...
Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor
The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption. PMID:24818433
The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement
Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung, Patrick W. L.
Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically…
... Children about September 11th Talking to Kids about War and Terrorism Tantrums: Behavior Problems Tantrums Podcast Teen ... Video Games Back to top W Walking Safety Water and Pool Safety Welcome to Your Child: Development ...
Anonas, Maria Roberta L.; Alampay, Liane Peña
This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls’ externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes. PMID:26752797
Takeuchi, Hidemi; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Okuyama, Yuka; Wada, Jun
We report a case of a 20-year-old man presenting with acute painful blue fingers. All physical findings, including an Allen test, were normal, and systematic symptoms frequently seen in collagen diseases were absent. Although we performed a wide variety of investigations including medical imaging, no specific abnormal findings were observed. Skin biopsy pathology was an important reference. The patient's symptoms gradually improved and were completely resolved without specific treatment. Based on the clinical presentation and course, we gave a diagnosis of Achenbach's syndrome, developed in a young male. Achenbach's syndrome is rare, but still may be encountered in clinical practice. The symptoms can be startling to the patient, eliciting fear of something terrible when, in fact, the syndrome is relatively benign and has a good prognosis. Recognising this disease quickly after presentation helps to eliminate the anxiety of the patient, as well as reducing excessively invasive investigations. We present a case report to enlighten Achenbach's syndrome. PMID:27090544
... age. Development can be uneven, too, with a child's social development lagging behind his intellectual growth, or vice versa. ... members, and others. They may interfere with the child's intellectual development. They may be forbidden by law, ethics, religion, ...
Hawk, Brandi N.; McCall, Robert B.
Behavior problems reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) were studied in 316 children adopted from social-emotionally depriving Russian institutions as a function of age at adoption (18-month cutoff), age at assessment (6-11 and 12-18 years), and gender. Children adopted after 18 months had higher problem…
Myers, Carl L.; Bour, Jennifer L.; Sidebottom, Kristina J.; Murphy, Sara B.; Hakman, Melissa
Broad-band or multidimensional behavior-rating scales are common tools for evaluating children. Two popular behavior-rating scales, the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), have undergone downward extensions so that the…
Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.
Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…
Rescorla, Leslie; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Begovac, Ivan; Chahed, Myriam; Drugli, May Britt; Emerich, Deisy Ribas; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Haider, Mariam; Hansson, Kjell; Hewitt, Nohelia; Jaimes, Stefanny; Larsson, Bo; Maggiolini, Alfio; Markovic, Jasminka; Mitrovic, Dragan; Moreira, Paulo; Oliveira, Joao Tiago; Olsson, Martin; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Petot, Djaouida; Pisa, Cecilia; Pomalima, Rolando; da Rocha; Marina Monzani; Rudan, Vlasta; Sekulic, Slobodan; Shahini, Mimoza; de Mattos Silvares, Edwiges Ferreira; Szirovicza, Lajos; Valverde, Jose; Vera, Luis Anderssen; Villa, Maria Clara; Viola, Laura; Woo, Bernadine S. C.; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing
Objective: To build on Achenbach, Rescorla, and Ivanova (2012) by (a) reporting new international findings for parent, teacher, and self-ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report, and Teacher's Report Form; (b) testing the fit of syndrome models to new data from 17 societies, including previously underrepresented regions; (c)…
Hornbuckle, Suzanne R.
Various factors influence the developmental course of the behaviorally inhibited child. These factors include reciprocating, contextual factors, such as the child's own traits, the environment, the maternal characteristics, and the environment. Behaviorally inhibited children show physiological and behavioral signs of fear and anxiety when…
Baer, Julie; Schreck, Meghan; Rettew, David C.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ayer, Lynsay; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Kuny-Slock, Ana V.; Hudziak, James J.
We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5–18 years old (54% male; mean age=10.8) were evaluated. Regression equations were used to test models of the main and interactive effects of temperament and maternal parenting behavior on the Social Problems and Social Competence Subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children ages 4 to 18. Higher levels of child Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower levels of Persistence were significantly associated with poorer social functioning. When accounting for child temperament, neither maternal parenting nor the interaction between maternal parenting and child temperament were significantly associated with social functioning. However, the interaction between maternal positive involvement and harm avoidance trended toward significance, such that at higher levels of harm avoidance, more extreme levels of maternal positive involvement were related to lower levels of social functioning. Further research on the interplay between child temperament and parenting across different stages of development is warranted. PMID:26085784
Friedrich, William N.
This paper on the behavioral manifestations of child sexual abuse first reviews previous research concerning child variables, parent/family variables, sexual abuse in combination with other maltreatment, and physiological outcomes. Criteria for future research are offered and specific research needs in the areas of developmental progression,…
Evans, Robert C.; And Others
Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…
Senn, Milton J. E.; Solnit, Albert J.
Intended for the pediatrician and general practitioner, the text presents methods of dealing with problems in child and family behavior. Areas covered include developmental theory, pregnancy, pediatric evaluation, therapeutic management, paramedical support in pediatric practice, and special problems. Also discussed are five age groups: the…
Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy
Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…
Janssens, Jan M. A. M.
Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…
Gambrill, E D
The range of factors identified as related to child maltreatment has expanded over the years. The literature clearly calls for an ecological approach in which individual, family, community, and societal factors are considered. The behavioral literature to date reflects an unevenness in terms of acceptance of such an approach. Studies are also uneven concerning the faithfulness with which hallmarks of a behavioral approach have been applied. These include individually tailored assessment and intervention based on empirical data and planning for generalization and maintenance. Most intervention programs do attend to positive as well as negative parent behaviors. Little attention is devoted to environmental characteristics, such as poverty level incomes and impoverished social support systems that may contribute to maltreatment. Lack of comprehensive assessment and intervention programs is no doubt responsible for the modest changes described in many reports. Behavioral studies suffer from uncritical acceptance of the term "abuse" or "at risk" in a number of ways, one of which is a failure to clearly describe the nature of the alleged maltreatment and the immediate situational context. Another is in the assumption that one particular factor is responsible for the maltreatment, such as ineffective parenting skills. Too often a label identifies only one characteristic of a person, ignoring other attributes and related factors. Like all deviant labels, the poor and minority groups are more likely to receive negative labels (Newberger et al., 1976). Investigaters have not taken advantage of relevant literature in the area of child welfare. Familiarity with this material would be helpful in avoiding myths in the field to which many have fallen prey, such as the myth of classlessness of child maltreatment. Acceptance of this myth interferes with the development of programs that deal with difficult environmental problems. Reports suggest that a behavioral approach is
Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…
Evans, I M
Argues that behavioral principles have been translated into practice with children too literally and that a more integrative framework is required to guide assessment and treatment. The framework advocated is Staats's (1996) psychological behaviorism. This is a consistently behavioristic, positivist paradigm, using multilevel theory to emphasize the integration of social learning, developmental, and personality principles. Psychological behaviorism thus allows for a much more expansive approach than has typically been the case within child behavior therapy. Given the complexity of this perspective, I selected four broad tenets of the theory and suggested their implications for clinical contexts. The further translation from clinical models to specific clinical practices is quite difficult but may yield more flexible and substitutable practices than do unidimensional treatment outcome studies. Of special importance, the principles demonstrate how children themselves can retain the central focus of child behavioral assessment and modification. Specific practices still need to be constructed according to an understanding of the multiple sources of influence on children as well as the culture of childhood itself. PMID:10587900
The current study examined the link between parents' experience of violence victimization and child outcomes, in 197 mother-child dyads recruited from low-income urban neighborhoods. At recruitment (when children were between 6 and 18 months old), demographic factors, child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, mothers' psychosocial functioning, and mothers' history of violence victimization were assessed. Child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, and mothers' psychosocial functioning were assessed again at age 4. Mothers' history of victimization as children (but not as adults) uniquely predicted child behavior problems at age 4. Three classes of possible mediators were examined: demographics, maternal psychosocial functioning, and mother-child interactions. Of these, only mother psychological aggression toward child met preliminary criteria for mediation; it partially mediated the link between mother childhood victimization and child behavioral outcomes. Maternal depressive symptoms and young age at child's birth independently predicted child behavior problems, but did not act as mediators. Mothers' early experiences with violence victimization appear to exert an important influence on child behavioral outcomes; this influence appears to be mediated, in part, by mothers' psychological aggression toward their children. PMID:17535128
Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C
The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children. PMID:22659077
Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Browne, Dillon T.
The present study explores the bidirectional associations between parental behavior and child externalizing behavior in the context of two intervening variables: child's personality as a moderator of the effect of parental behavior on later child behavior; and parental self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of child behavior on later parental…
Houlihan, Daniel; And Others
This review of behavioral conceptualizations and approaches to the treatment of child noncompliance includes discussion of behavioral definitions, methods of assessment, types of behavioral interventions, generalization of treatment effects, future research directions, and potential ethical concerns. (Author/JDD)
Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline
Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient. PMID:26715180
Lau, Anna S.; Valeri, Sylvia M.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Weisz, John R.
Purpose: We evaluated the hypothesis that abusive parents' reports may exaggerate rates of child behavior problems in a clinical sample. Method: The association between parental ratings of behavior problems and independent observations of child behaviors was examined in a sample of 205 clinic-referred families, 58 of which had a reported history…
Using a large, contemporary U.S. dataset, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Supplement, this paper explores the relationship between maternal shift work and the behavioral outcomes of children aged 4 to 10. Special attention was given to subgroups of children (e.g., based on family type, family income, and mother’s occupation and working hours) and the patterns of parental work schedules and work hours. Regression results suggest that maternal shift work may contribute to more behavioral problems. Of all children whose mothers worked non-day shifts, the strongest associations were found for children who lived in single-mother or low-income families, whose mothers worked in cashier or service occupations, and whose mothers worked non-day shifts full-time. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21666886
Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen
A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…
Butler, Ashley M.; Brestan, Elizabeth V.; Eyberg, Sheila M.
This study examined the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) "discrepancy hypothesis", which asserts that a discrepancy in score elevations on the ECBI Intensity and Problem Scales is related to problematic parenting styles. The Intensity Scale measures the frequency of child disruptive behavior, and the Problem Scale measures parent perception…
Gouma, Panagiota; Mallis, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis; Gouveris, Haralambos; Armenakis, Nikolaos; Naxakis, Stephanos
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common condition affecting children and a well-known cause of conductive hearing loss that can potentially lead to speech development disorders. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated the influence of OME on development of attention disorders or social adaptation and acceptance. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the behavioral trends of children with OME based on the Achenbach test. A group of 117 patients with episodes of OME at the age of 4-5 was compared with a control group according to the Achenbach system of evaluation, by application of the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL). Patients suffering from OME had more anxiety/depression related disorders and attention disorders as compared with the control group. The psychological effect of OME in children of ages 6-8 is evident with anxiety and depression disorders being especially prominent among these patients. PMID:20665042
Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira
In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…
Xavier, Rodrigo Nunes; Kanter, Jonathan William; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz
This paper aimed to highlight the process of therapist direct contingent responding to shape client behavior in two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy (CBAT) cases using transitional probabilities. The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) was used to code client behaviors and the Multidimensional System for Coding Behaviors in…
Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; Robinson-O’Brien, Ramona
Objective To compare parent and child report of parental weight-related behaviors and examine their respective associations with child's weight-related outcomes. Methods Seventy-three parent–child dyads completed self-administered surveys that assessed parent and child report of parental direct weight-related behaviors (comments to child about weight, encourage child to diet) and indirect behaviors (dieting, comments about own weight/appearance). Outcome variables included child's body dissatisfaction, weight concerns, and dieting. Results Considerable disagreement (21–30%) was found between parent and child report of parental weight-related behaviors. Both the parent and child report of direct parental behaviors were associated with child's outcomes. Child report of parental indirect behaviors was more consistently associated with child's outcomes than parent report. Conclusion Parent weight-related behaviors, both direct and indirect, are positively associated with child's weight-related attitudes and behaviors. PMID:18304997
Carrillo, Sonia; And Others
This study examined children's play interaction styles with unfamiliar peers; used mother-child and father-child dyadic qualities independently to predict children's social behavior; determined the relationship between children's individual behaviors and peer dyadic characteristics; and compared mother-child and father-child interactions on both…
Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Kovacs, Maria
Background: Despite findings that parent depression increases children's risk for internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about other factors that combine with parent depression to contribute to behavior problems. Methods: As part of a longitudinal, interdisciplinary study on childhood-onset depression (COD), we examined the…
Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S
Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues. PMID:27328098
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian
Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…
Morrissey, Taryn W.
Nationally, 15% of children younger than 5 years regularly attend more than 1 child-care arrangement. An association between arrangement multiplicity and children's behavior problems has been identified, but previous research may be susceptible to measurement or omitted variable bias. This study used within-child fixed effects models to examine…
Barnes, Brendon R.; Mathee, Angela; Shafritz, Lonna B.; Krieger, Laurie; Zimicki, Susan
Indoor air pollution has been causally linked to acute lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5. The aim of this study was to identify target behaviors for a behavioral intervention to reduce child exposure to indoor air pollution by attempting to answer two research questions: Which behaviors are protective of child respiratory…
Garner, Pamela W.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Southam-Gerrow, Michael
We examined associations of maternal and child emotional discourse and child emotion knowledge with children's behavioral competence. Eighty-five upper middle-income, mostly White preschoolers and mothers completed a home-based bookreading task to assess discourse about emotions. Children's anger perception bias and emotion situation knowledge…
Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.
Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…
Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.
African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…
Forehand, Rex; And Others
Subjects were 18 mothers and their clinic-referred children. A stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that two maternal behaviors, beta commands and total rewards, displayed in the clinic were the best predictors of child compliance in the home. (Author)
Stirling, John; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa
Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant behavior problems including emotional instability, depression, and a tendency to be aggressive or violent with others. Troublesome behaviors may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has changed or the child has been in foster care placement. Neurobiological research has shown that early abuse results in an altered physiological response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent socialization. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's altered responses, formulate more effective coping strategies, and mobilize available community resources. PMID:18762538
Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.
Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26–57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Results Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators’ attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children’s behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. Conclusions High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features. PMID:26527856
Veira, Yvette; Finger, Brent; Eiden, Rina D.; Colder, Craig R.
Objective Studies examining the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child behavior problems have yielded mixed results, suggesting a need to identify additional mediating and moderating influences. We hypothesized that the relation between PCE and behavior problems at kindergarten would be mediated/moderated by child exposure to violence; and that maternal warmth/sensitivity and harshness would moderate the association between violence exposure and behavior problems. Methods Participants consisted of 216 (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-cocaine exposed (NCE) mother-child dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of PCE. Results Results yielded no direct or mediated/moderated association between PCE and child behavior problems, and no significant interaction effects between PCE and parenting quality. However, higher exposure to violence in kindergarten was significantly associated with higher child behavior problems. This association was moderated by maternal warmth/sensitivity and harshness. High maternal warmth/sensitivity buffered the association between violence exposure and behavior problems while high maternal harshness exacerbated this association. Conclusion This study highlights the role of violence exposure in the development of behavior problems among high-risk children, and emphasizes the significance of parenting quality in buffering or exacerbating this risk among these children. Implications for prevention include targeting the potential role of maternal warmth/sensitivity as a protective influence among children exposed to violence. PMID:25313345
Costanzo, Philip R.; Siegel, Alexander W.
Gives an overview of the 10 research articles in this issue. Notes that all studies in this issue examine child behavior from a perspective that views behavior as mediated by social context, challenging the logical positivism of conventional experimentation. (MM)
Tempel, Ashley B.; Wagner, Stephanie M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.
Empirical examination of components of behavioral parent training programs is necessary to inform treatment effectiveness and efficiency; however, comprehensive research on many components is lacking. The current study examined two parenting components utilized in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy by investigating the effects of behavioral…
Liew, Jeffrey; Johnson, Audrea Y.; Smith, Tracy R.; Thoemmes, Felix
Research Findings: Parental expressivity, child physiological regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia suppression), child behavioral regulation, and child adjustment outcomes were examined in 45 children (M age = 4.32 years, SD = 1.30) and their parents. With the exception of child adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing…
Achenbach, Thomas M.
Reports standardization of the Child Behavior Checklist for boys aged 6-11. Analysis of CBCLs of disturbed boys yielded behavior problem scales labeled schizoid, depressed, uncommunicative, obsessive-compulsive, somatic complaints, social withdrawal, hyperactive, aggressive, and delinquent. Second-order factors are Internalizing and Externalizing.…
Park, Kyung Ja; Honig, Alice Sterling
This study examined (1) the effects of onset of timing for early nonparental care patterns on later child development, and (2) the effects of length of daily enrollment in care on later cognitive attainment and socioemotional behaviors. Preschool teachers rated 105 middle-class children on the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) and the…
Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil
Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. PMID:26188424
Frame, C; Matson, J L; Sonis, W A; Fialkov, M J; Kazdin, A E
The present study evaluated behavioral treatment of symptoms of depression in a 10 yr-old boy. Diagnosis of the child's depression was made on the basis of DSM-III criteria. Information was obtained from separate interviews with the child and mother and from multiple assessment instruments. Ratings from several sources (mother, psychiatrist, psychologist and staff) confirmed the diagnosis. Four behaviors that characterized the child's depression were selected for intervention and included inappropriate body position, lact of eye contact, poor speech and bland affect. Treatment, evaluated in a multiple-baseline design across symptoms, consisted of the combination of instructions, modeling, role-playing and feedback. Results indicated that behaviors characteristic of childhood depression could be reliably identified and effectively treated by behavioral techniques. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-week follow-up assessment. PMID:7142416
Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.
This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…
Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula
This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…
Wei, Chiaying; Kendall, Philip C.
The current study examined the relationship between child-reported parenting behaviors and children’s anxiety, depressive, and externalizing symptoms. Youth ages 7 – 14 (N = 175; 52.6% male) and their parents seeking treatment for child anxiety were evaluated. The parenting behaviors that were measured separately included father’s and mother’s acceptance, psychological control, and firm/behavioral control. Children’s symptoms were assessed using diagnostic interviews, self-reports, parent-reports, and teacher-reports. Independent t-tests revealed that children diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder perceived higher parental control than children without an anxiety disorder. Results from regression analyses indicated that child-reported maternal acceptance was associated with lower symptoms of child anxiety, depression, and externalizing behavior, whereas psychological control predicted higher symptoms. Further, child-reported depressive symptoms moderated the relationship between maternal psychological control and children’s anxiety, such that the relationship was weaker for anxious children with more depressive symptoms. The current findings support that children’s perception of parenting behavior is associated with anxiety, and children’s depressive symptoms moderate this relationship. PMID:25061257
Cahill, L T; Kaminer, R K; Johnson, P G
There is growing interest in the neurologic, behavioral, and cognitive effects of child abuse and neglect. This article explores the literature on the short and long term sequelae of physically and sexually abused and neglected children, along with controversies generated by the studies themselves. Recommendations are made for swift and ongoing intervention in cases of child abuse to protect young victims from potentially devastating effects. PMID:10553206
Rekers, George A.; And Others
This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child who had been psychologically evaluated as manifesting "childhood cross-gender identity." Reinforcement control over cross-gender behavior was demonstrated by identifying some behavioral treatment conditions under which feminine behaviors could be…
Sroufe, L A; Stuecher, H U; Stutzer, W
Physiological, cognitive, and emotional factors were examined throughout the treatment of a psychotic child. Heart rate, latency and accuracy in task performance, behavioral indices of stress (e.g., muscular tension, facial expression), and frequency of autistic mannerisms were measured concurrently. Both contemporaneous relationships and patterns of change suggested that autistic behaviors were organized and psychologically meaningful. Self-stimulation, conflict, and negativism (deliberate erroneous performance) occurred predictably, were intimately related, and were associated with specific patterns of heart-rate change. The changing function of self-stimulation across treatment and the centrality of negativism in this child's disturbance were discussed. PMID:24198177
Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Arnold, David H; Baker, Courtney N
The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers' (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children's behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents' own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757
Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.
The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents’ own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757
Jackson, Aurora P; Preston, Kathleen S J; Franke, Todd M
Two waves of data from a sample of 89 poor and near-poor single black mothers and their preschool children were used to study the influences of parenting stress, physical discipline practices, and nonresident fathers' relations with their children on behavior problems in kindergarten. The results indicate that higher levels of parent stress, more frequent spanking, and less frequent father-child contact at time 1 were associated with increased teacher-reported behavior problems at time 2. In addition, more frequent contact between nonresident biological fathers and their children moderated the negative effect of harsh discipline by mothers on subsequent child behavior problems. Specifically, when contact with the father was low, maternal spanking resulted in elevated levels of behavior problems; with average contact, this negative effect of spanking was muted; and with high contact, spanking was not associated with increased behavior problems in kindergarten. The implications of these findings for future research and policy are discussed. PMID:22031813
Lanning, Kenneth V.
This booklet provides a behavioral analysis of child molesters. The terms child molesters and pedophiles are defined and distinctions are drawn between the two. The second section develops a law enforcement typology differing from those of mental health professionals, focusing on pre-arrest behavior or pre-identification behavior of child…
Satyanarayana, Veena A.; Lukose, Ammu; Srinivasan, K.
Maternal mental health research is a public health priority due to its impact on both maternal and child health. Despite the growing number of empirical studies in this area, particularly from developing countries, there is a paucity of synthetic review articles. Therefore, attempting to synthesize the existing literature in this area seems relevant to appraise the readers of the field's progress and to infer directions for future research. The present review aims to provide an overview of the literature on maternal mental health and its association with birth outcomes and child behavior. Specifically, the literature on mental health during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and its influence on birth outcomes and child behavior have been reviewed. Further, a conceptual and methodological evaluation of the existing literature has been provided to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest directions for future research. PMID:22303046
Kendall, Philip C., Ed.
Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…
Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane; Han, Wen-Jui
This study investigates the link between the frequency of family breakfasts and dinners and child academic and behavioral outcomes in a panel sample of 21,400 children aged 5-15. It complements previous work by examining younger and older children separately and by using information on a large number of controls and rigorous analytic methods to…
Storm, Heidi A.; Ridley-Johnson, Robyn
Maternal separation anxiety influences maternal behavior, attitudes about employment, and employment decisions made by mothers. This study examined the relationship between maternal separation anxiety and the number of hours a child was in substitute care. The sample consisted of 44 mothers and their children who ranged in age from 12 to 41 months…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004
The Child Development and Behavior Branch (CDBB), within the Center for Research for Mothers and Children, has grown in the past four years from supporting five programs to supporting seven, with a concomitant increase in the number of grants of more than 50 percent, and a corresponding increase of more than 87 percent in overall funding. During…
Kress, Gerard C., Jr.; Ehrlichs, Melvin A.
In a preclinical course in pediatric dentistry, 76 students were taught child behavior management through role playing of 7-10 common management situations. Pre- and postcourse measures of student confidence found that, although older students were more confident, all gained significantly from the training. Other student characteristics were also…
Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Jenkins, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra
A transactional model was used to examine the reciprocal relationship between maternal negativity and child externalizing behavior over three time points. Data were collected from 1,479 children and their mothers every two years, as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Children were 10-11 years old at Time 1,…
Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…
Chiu, Angela W.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Har, Kim; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Background: Few studies have examined the link between child-therapist alliance and outcome in manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children diagnosed with anxiety disorders. This study sought to clarify the nature and strength of this relation. Methods: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child…
Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others
Studies tested the hypothesis that patterns in parents' perceptions of their children's behavior toward them will correlate significantly with patterns in parents' reports of their children's personality attributes and psychopathology. A low-income (LI) sample was drawn from participants in a longitudinal study of mother-child interaction and…
Abulaban, Ahmad A; Algahtani, Hussein A; Alharthi, Ashraf
A 12-year-old Saudi girl, known case of T-cell leukemia with CNS relapse. She was diagnosed 2 years ago. Multiple cycles of chemotherapy had been used (Fludarabine, Cytarabine, Methotrexate, Cyclosporine, and Mercaptopurine). She was admitted electively for cord blood transplantation. Afterward, she developed visual, and behavioral change followed by seizure. PMID:24739415
Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter
This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year observations).…
Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.
Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…
Mindrila, Diana L.
To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…
Frenn, Marilyn; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Felzer, Holly; Zhang, Jiannan
PURPOSE.: The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacies of parent- and/or child-focused online interventions and variables correlated with child body mass index percentile change. DESIGN AND METHODS.: A feasibility and cluster randomized controlled pilot study was used. RESULTS.: Recruitment was more effective at parent-teacher conferences compared with when materials were sent home with fifth- to eighth-grade culturally diverse students. Retention was 90% for students and 62-74% for parents. Authoritative parent feeding behaviors were associated with lower child body mass index. A larger study is warranted. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.: Online approaches may provide a feasible option for childhood obesity prevention and amelioration. PMID:23289456
Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S.; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han
Purpose This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child’s behavior during the first dental visit. Methods Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children’s Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. Results 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (P<.001) and less caries (P<.001) compared to children with authoritarian and permissive parents. Children attending daycare exhibited more positive behavior compared to children who did not (P<.001). Patients with private dental insurance exhibited more positive behavior (P>.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Conclusions Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit. PMID:25685975
Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil
The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…
Thomson, Carolyn L.; Cooper, Margaret L.
This study on behavior modification training examined the effect of frequent feedback to reinforce a teacher's attending to appropriate child behaviors. Two Head Start teachers were selected as subjects. Baseline observations, training, and posttest observations were made of both teachers. Training involved feedback to the teachers every 10…
McHale, James P.; Neugebauer, Alyson
Examined the effectiveness of parental reports of their preschool children's social adaptation outside the home as an indicator of children's behavior. Parent responses on the Child Adaptive Behavior Inventory, which assesses both competencies and difficulties with adaptation, were compared to evaluations by trained observers. Parents were found…
Isaacs, C D
Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse. Burgess (1978) believes that conceptual problems exist because abuse falls along a continuum of parent-child relationships--a continuum that at one end might include verbal punishment (e.g., threats, ridicule) or milder forms of physical punishment (e.g., slap on the hand, spanking), and at the other end include extreme forms of physical punishment that exceed community mores (for example, hitting a child with a closed fist, scalding a child in hot water, torturing or killing a child). Thus, the question-- where does discipline stop and abuse begin?-- faces every researcher who must operationally define abuse. Identifying the consequences of abuse in a child's development is another area of inquiry that remains untreated. Most of the literature is filled with the subjective impressions of professionals speculating that abused children become the juvenile delinquents and the child abusers of the future; however, as yet no longitudinal studies have been conducted that compare the developmental outcomes of abused and non-abused children from early childhood to later adulthood. What if there were no differences? How might this influence our approaches to the treatment of abuse? Answers to these and other questions will take years of study. Increased awareness of the problem of child abuse has led to greater efforts to remediate the problem. Treatment efforts with abusive families are still in the initial stages, but, undoubtedly, information from these early programs can be the
2 kinds of parental beliefs: endorsed rearing philosophy (authoritative-authoritarian dimension) and affective attitude toward child (positive-negative affect dimension) were examined in 20 normal and 36 depressed mothers as long-term predictors of their rearing behaviors and interaction patterns with their children, and of their ratings of child externalizing problems (Achenbach CBCL). The beliefs were measured when the children were toddlers (Time 1), and maternal behaviors 2-3 years later (Time 2). Mothers' endorsement of the belief in authoritative parenting predicted their frequent avoidance of prohibitive interventions. It also predicted maternal autonomy-granting to the child (more compliant and liberal responses to child-initiated control interventions). Endorsed child-rearing philosophy was a relatively more important predictor of behavior for normal mothers, and affective attitude toward child for the behavior of depressed mothers. Both actual child noncompliance and parental beliefs predicted mothers' ratings of externalizing problems in their children. The former was relatively more important for normal and latter for depressed mothers. PMID:2083506
Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ), which are hypothesized to change the course of antisocial behavior from childhood into the adult years. Results show an association between physical child abuse and early antisocial behavior. Early antisocial behavior predicts antisocial behavior in adolescence, and that, in turn, predicts antisocial behavior in adulthood. Child IQ moderated the relationship between child physical abuse and antisocial behavior in childhood. However, no other moderation effects were observed. Limitations and implications for future research and prevention are discussed. PMID:22929340
Blazei, Ryan W.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
The effect of father's presence in the home on the child's antisocial behavior is studied to determine whether the father's presence may moderate the relationship between father and child antisociality. Results suggest that the presence of the father appears to provide some environmental influence that leads to increased child antisocial behavior.
Rothbaum, Fred; Pott, Martha
This metaanalysis examined different parental variables in order to determine which best predict children's externalizing behavior. Also examined were other variables that may influence the association of parenting and externalizing, such as type of child behavior, gender of parent and child, and age of child. Parental variables included in the…
Schmitz, Mark F.
Examines relationships between trajectories of child hyperactivity and antisocial behavior symptoms for African Americans, European Americans, and Hispanics. Overall, child hyperactivity mediated the effects of family environment on child antisocial behavior, but with key racial differences. Results indicate the importance of conceptualizing…
Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak
The criminological literature has a long tradition of emphasizing the socialization effects that parents have on children. By contrast, evidence from behavioral genetics research gives precedence to child effects on parental management techniques over parental effects on children's outcomes. Considering these diverging lines of scholarship and literature, the current study explores a novel hypothesis that child effects on parenting may be conditioned by the level of the disadvantage of the neighborhood in which the child's family resides. By using measures of perceived parenting as dependent variables, the researchers analyze data on 733 same-sex sibling pairs derived from the Add Health study by taking advantage of the DeFries-Fulker analytical technique. The results show that in adequate neighborhoods, between 43% and 55% of the variance in the measures of perceived parenting is due to genetic factors, whereas shared environmental effects are negligible. In disadvantaged neighborhoods, genetic effects are negligible, whereas shared environmental influences account for between 34% and 57% of the variance in perceived parenting. These results offer partial support for the contextualized gene-environment correlation, which provides initial evidence that although both parental socialization effects and child effects exist, these effects can be modified by the context. PMID:25891272
Marshall, D B; English, D J; Stewart, A J
This study examines some possible effects of the presence and quality of parent-child interaction of fathers and father figures on the behavior of young children in a sample of families reported to child protective services. Whereas the presence or absence of a father or father figure seemed to make little difference in child behavioral problems at age 4, lower levels of aggression and depression were observed for children by age 6 if an adult male in some form of father-like relationship was present in the child's life. When controlling for mother's ethnicity, child's gender, the number of referrals to child protective services, and the presence of domestic violence, the direct effect of a father/father figure was no longer significant but remained in the multivariate models as a significant interaction term. PMID:11675812
Gushurst, Colette A
Although researchers in psychology and the social sciences will need to continue to identify the behavioral consequences of abuse and treatment strategies, pediatricians may still be the first line professionals to suspect and intercept victims. Remember that, especially in cases where there have been threats or falsification of illness, it is wise to enlist integrated multidisciplinary services to ensure the safety of the child before confronting any potential perpetrators. Physicians have become better trained to be more vigilant in detecting signs of physical abuse, but it seems that psychologic and sexual maltreatment may cause more long-term problems but are more difficult to detect. Although a book by Everett and Gallop is written for mental health professionals, the chapters on why a history of childhood trauma is often missed, recognizing signs and symptoms, and asking about abuse, are all helpful for pediatricians and other health care professionals. In certain situations, physicians should attempt to talk to children privately, so that those who are old enough might have an opportunity to relate events that are traumatic, and so that abusive parents will not have an opportunity to interrupt, instill additional fear in the child, or abruptly change providers. Children need someone to ask them directly about their experiences and act on any suspicions. Asking once may not be enough, because a frightened child may initially deny physical or sexual abuse, but be ready to tell at another time. A vocal adult survivor of Munchausen syndrome by proxy and severe physical abuse explains: The dilemma is how to be loved and accepted. Even once a child recognizes that it is wrong, victims may be afraid to speak up for fear of anger and more abuse at the hand of the abuser. By the time I reached eleven, I was angry enough at what my mother had gotten away with, I would have been more truthful. It would have been a relief to have someone else voice their own suspicions
Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Pascuzzo, Katherine
The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal relation between early school-age measures of maternal psychosocial distress, quality of mother-child interactions, and child attachment behavior, and behavior problem profiles in middle childhood using a multi-informant design. Participants were 243 French-speaking mother-child dyads (122 girls) who were part of an ongoing longitudinal project. Maternal psychosocial distress was assessed when children were between 4 and 6 years of age. Mother-child interactive quality and attachment patterns were observed at age 6 during a laboratory visit. At age 8.5, externalizing and internalizing problems were assessed using mother and child reports. Results show that maternal psychosocial distress predicted later social adaptation reported by the child through the mediation of mother-child interactions. Analyses also revealed that higher maternal psychosocial distress and controlling attachment patterns, either of the punitive or caregiving type, significantly predicted membership in both child internalizing and externalizing clinical problem groups. Lower mother-child interactive quality, male gender, and child ambivalent attachment were also predictors of externalizing clinical problems. PMID:23748336
Martinez, Estella A.
The study provides evidence of a broad range of difference in child-rearing practices among 47 Chicanas, living in a midwestern city of approximately 250,000, during a structured teaching task with their kindergarten-aged children. Maternal behaviors were observed/measured during two 5-minute observations of a mother teaching her child to make a…
This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
Yates, Tuppett M; Dodds, Michele F; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron
Previous research suggests an association between partner violence and child behavior problems. However, methodological shortcomings have precluded the formation of directional conclusions. These limitations include failure to control for the effects of child physical abuse and general life stress, employment of nonrepresentative samples from battered women's shelters, and reliance on a single contemporaneous reporter, usually the mother, for information on both independent and dependent measures. This study used prospective, longitudinal data (N = 155) and multiple informants to examine the relation between maternal reports of partner violence in the homeand teacher- and youth-report ratings of concurrent and prospective child behavior problems. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to control for the effects of child physical abuse, child physical neglect, socioeconomic status, child cognitive ability, and life stress. The contribution of partner violence to child behavior problems was confirmed for boys' (n = 81) externalizing problems and girls' (n = 74) internalizing problems. Child developmental status at the time of exposure further influenced these relations. For boys, behavior problems in middle childhood were most strongly related to contemporaneous partner violence, whereas behavior problems among both boys and girls at age 16 were most strongly related to partner violence exposure during the preschool years. PMID:12848442
Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie
Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…
Torres, Nuno; Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Figueiredo, Mafalda; Vaughn, Brian E.
Research Findings: Data from a national sample of Portuguese preschool centers were used to examine the relationship between age of start and number of hours in child care and levels of externalizing and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were both parents and teachers of 543 children (mean age = 4.5 years, 50.6% girls). Children started…
Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…
Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.
We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…
Cormier, Eileen; Elder, Jennifer Harrison
Dietary treatment of children with behavioral disorders has had wide public appeal and been a source of controversy since the 1920's. Yet, to date, there is little empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of dietary restrictions in treating child psychiatric disorders, in particular, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, the purpose of this article is (a) to provide historical background information regarding dietary treatment in children with behavioral disorders, (b) review the evidence-based literature for common dietary interventions, (c) discuss limitations in the research, including challenges inherent in conducting well-controlled dietary studies, and (d) provide recommendations regarding how nurses in primary care settings can assist families in making informed decisions. PMID:17542236
Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin
This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior and couple relationship satisfaction at child age 2 years each accounting for a significant portion of the variance in child problem behavior at age 3. Couple relationship satisfaction directly predicted child behavior problems over time. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:20433599
Joesch, Jutta M.
Examined how the price of child care affects welfare recipients' paid work behavior according to past studies. Analyzed the relationship between child care prices and hours of paid work for recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The complex nature of AFDC child care regulations is taken into account in the context of a…
Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Kemp, Christine J.; Albrecht, Erin C.
Predictable patterns in early parent-child interactions may help lay the foundation for how children learn to self-regulate. The present study examined contingencies between maternal teaching and directives and child compliance in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5 and whether they predicted children's behavioral regulation and…
Epstein, Leonard H.; And Others
Overweight preadolescents and parents from (N=76) families were assigned to behavioral treatment groups: parent-child target, child target, or nonspecific target. Percent overweight changes at the end of eight-month treatment and follow-up were equivalent for children in all groups, but parents in the parent-child group lost more weight during…
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2009
The Child Development & Behavior (CDB) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) seeks to improve the health and well-being of individuals from infancy through early adulthood by supporting research into healthy growth and development, including all aspects of child development. The study of typical child…
Bae, Hyo; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Lavigne, John V.
Background: Most research on the relation between parenting behaviors and child outcomes has not focused on cross-ethnic variation in these relations. Objective: This study examined if ethnicity moderates associations between parenting, child agency/persistence, and child academic achievement and social competence. Design: Participants included…
Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike
Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…
Kazdin, A E
The acceptability of alternative treatments for deviant child behavior was evaluated in two experiments. In each experiment, clinical cases were described to undergraduate students along with four different treatments in a Replicated Latin Square Design. The treatments included reinforcement of incomparible behavior, time out from reinforcement, drug therapy, and electric shock and the treatments were described as they were appliedto children with problem behaviors. Experiment 1 developed an assessment device to evaluate treatment acceptability and examined whether treatments were rated as differentially acceptable. Experiment 2 replicated the first experiment and examined whether the severity of the presenting clinical problem influenced ratings of acceptability. The results indicated that treatments were sharply distinguished in overall acceptability. Reinforcement of incompatible behavior was more acceptable than other treatments which followed, in order, time out from reinforcement, drug therapy, and electric shock. Case severity influenced acceptability of alternative treatments with all treatments being rated as more acceptable with more severe cases. However, the strength of case severity was relatively small in relation to the different treatment conditions themselves which accounted for large portions of variance. PMID:7380752
Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p < .0001. Cumulative demographic and psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p < .05. Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children. PMID:25424401
Rusby, Julie C; Metzler, Carol W; Sanders, Matthew R; Crowley, Ryann
Play tasks that use standardized procedures and materials are a practical way to assess parenting skills, child behaviors, and the ways in which parents and children interact. We describe a systematic process for developing the parent-child play task (PCPT) to assess mother-child interactions for a randomized controlled trial of a video-based parenting program. Participants were 307 mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children who presented oppositional and disruptive behavior challenges. The validity of the PCPT was investigated by testing (a) the extent to which the tasks elicited the specific parent and child behaviors of interest, (b) the consistency of individuals' behavior across the play tasks, and (c) the concurrent associations of the PCPT-observed child behaviors and mother reports of child behavior. The different tasks elicited the mother and child behaviors that they were designed to elicit. Behavior consistency across tasks for individual mothers and children was fair to good, with the exception of 2 task-specific behaviors. Mother's guidance (provision of instructions to foster a skill) during the teaching task and children's interruptions while mother was busy during the questionnaire task were highly task specific. Modest associations were found between observed children's noncompliance and inappropriate behaviors and mother-reported conduct problems and oppositional behaviors. Implications for clinical and research assessments are discussed. PMID:25689090
Rusby, Julie C.; Metzler, Carol W.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Crowley, Ryann
Play tasks that use standardized procedures and materials are a practical way to assess parenting skills, child behaviors, and the ways in which parents and children interact. We describe a systematic process for developing the Parent–Child Play Task (PCPT) to assess mother–child interactions for a randomized controlled trial on a video-based parenting program. Participants are 307 mothers and their 3-through 6-year-old children who present oppositional and disruptive behavior challenges. The validity of the PCPT was investigated by testing (a) the extent to which the tasks elicit the specific parent and child behaviors of interest, (b) the consistency of individuals’ behavior across the play tasks, and (c) the concurrent associations of the PCPT observed child behaviors and mother reports of child behavior. The different tasks elicited the mother and child behaviors that they were designed to elicit. Behavior consistency across tasks for individual mothers and children was fair to good, with the exception of two task-specific behaviors. Mothers’ guidance (provision of instructions to foster a skill) during the teaching task and children’s interruptions while mother was busy during the questionnaire task were highly task specific. Modest associations were found between observed children’s noncompliance and inappropriate behaviors, and mother-reported conduct problems and oppositional behaviors. Implications for clinical and research assessments are discussed. PMID:25689090
Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden
Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development. PMID:26518599
Runyon, Melissa K; Deblinger, Esther; Ryan, Erika E; Thakkar-Kolar, Reena
This article reviews and summarizes the extant literature regarding child physical abuse (CPA). Literature is summarized that describes the wide range of short- and long-term effects of CPA on children as well as the documented characteristics of parents/caregivers who engage in physically abusive parenting practices. Although the reviewed research documents that interventions geared only toward the parent have been found to produce significant improvements with respect to parenting abilities, parent-child interactions, and children's behavior problems, there is a paucity of research examining the efficacy of interventions developed specifically to target the child's emotional and behavioral difficulties. Based on the few studies that have shown emotional and behavioral gains for children who have participated in treatment, an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approach is proposed here to address the complex issues presented by both parent and child in CPA cases. The direct participation of the child in treatment also may improve our ability to target posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms as well as anger control and dysfunctional abuse attributions in the children themselves. Implications for practice, public policy, and research are also addressed. PMID:15006297
Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne
This research investigated whether father involvement in infancy may reduce or exacerbate the well-established adverse effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on behavior problems in childhood. In a community sample (N = 350), the authors found that fathers' self-reported parenting styles interacted with the amount of time fathers spent caring for their infants to moderate the longitudinal effect of maternal depression during the child's infancy on children's internalizing, but not externalizing, behaviors. Low to medium amounts of high-warmth father involvement and high amounts of medium- or high-control father involvement at this time were associated with lower child internalizing behaviors. Paternal depression during a child's infancy exacerbated the effect of maternal depression, but this moderating effect was limited to depressed fathers spending medium to high amounts of time caring for their infants. Results emphasize the moderating role fathers may play in reducing or exacerbating the adverse long-term effects of maternal depression during a child's infancy on later child behavior problems. PMID:15598163
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel
Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive role of some behavioral and emotional characteristics of adolescents who perpetrate CPV. A total of 1,072 adolescents (601 girls) filled out measures of CPV, proactive and reactive aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse at Time 1, and measures of CPV 6 months later. The results showed that CPV was predicted by proactive, but not by reactive, aggression. This finding supports an instrumental role for CPV, which should be understood in the context of permissibility and lack of limits within the family. Depression and substance abuse also predicted the increase of CPV over time. Moreover, there were no sex differences in the prevalence of physical CPV, but verbal CPV was more predominant among girls. Although there were sex differences in some of the risk factors for CPV, the predictive model linking these risks to CPV was similar for boys and girls. Findings of this study suggest a psychological profile that combines internalizing problems and an instrumental use of violence in adolescents who perpetrate CPV. These characteristics are important for interventions. PMID:22935948
Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Kemp, Christine J.; Albrecht, Erin C.
Predictable patterns in early parent-child interactions may help lay the foundation for how children learn to self-regulate. The present study examined contingencies between maternal teaching and directives and child compliance in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5 and whether they predicted children’s behavioral regulation and dysregulation (inhibitory control and externalizing behaviors) as rated by mothers, fathers, and teachers at a 4-month follow-up (N = 100). The predictive utility of mother- and child-initiated contingencies was also compared to that of frequencies of individual mother and child behaviors. Structural equation models revealed that a higher probability that maternal directives were followed by child compliance predicted better child behavioral regulation, whereas the reverse pattern and the overall frequency of maternal directives did not. For teaching, stronger mother- and child-initiated contingencies and the overall frequency of maternal teaching all showed evidence for predicting better behavioral regulation. Findings depended on which caregiver was rating child outcomes. We conclude that dyadic measures are useful for understanding how parent-child interactions impact children’s burgeoning regulatory abilities in early childhood. PMID:23645973
Shek, Daniel T. L.
Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perceived parent-child relational qualities (parental trust of the child, child's trust of parents, child's readiness to communicate with parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), parental behavioral control (including indicators of…
Vick Whittaker, Jessica E.; Jones Harden, Brenda
Results from a study of 100 Head Start children and their teachers suggested that teacher-child relationship quality was associated with children's classroom behaviors. Specifically, teacher-child conflict was strongly related to children's externalizing behaviors. Based on these findings, we present recommendations for the development of policies…
Ramos, Michelle C.; Guerin, Diana Wright; Gottfried, Allen W.; Bathurst, Kay; Olvier, Pamella H.
Child temperament was examined as a moderator of the link between family conflict and child behavior problems. Temperament assessed in early childhood was used to predict the relation between family conflict and externalizing behavior problems measured during the early elementary school years. For children with difficult temperament, a strong…
Griffin, Gene; Martinovich, Zoran; Gawron, Tim; Lyons, John S.
Objectives: To determine whether traumatic experiences of children entering the child welfare system have an impact on their risk behaviors and whether these behaviors are moderated by children's strengths. Method: The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services administered the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) measure to…
Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.
Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…
Linares, L. Oriana; Heeren, Timothy; Bronfman, Elisa
Structural equation modeling was used to examine how maternal distress mediated the link between exposure to community violence (CV) and development of early child behavior problems. Findings indicated that direct CV-early child behavior problems path diminished when maternal distress was included in the model, after controlling for maternal SES…
Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
This study addresses itself to the development of a valid method for identifying a high-risk group of preschool children. The design used is longitudinal and attempts to relate early child and parent behavior patterns to various outcome measures as the child grows older. This paper reports the behavior patterns of a group of two-year-olds and how…
Gregory, Alice M.; Cousins, Jennifer C.; Forbes, Erika E.; Trubnick, Laura; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.
Objective: The Child Behavior Checklist is sometimes used to assess sleep disturbance despite not having been validated for this purpose. This study examined associations between the Child Behavior Checklist sleep items and other measures of sleep. Method: Participants were 122 youth (61% female, aged 7 through 17 years) with anxiety disorders…
Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.
Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…
Winters, Georgia M; Jeglic, Elizabeth L
Recent high profile cases of child sexual abuse have increased interest in the grooming behaviors of child molesters and why these offenders are not identified sooner. This study examined one possible explanation-the hindsight bias. Five hundred and twenty-six undergraduates were randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes and asked to rate the likelihood the person in the story is a child molester. Results supported the presence of the hindsight bias, with participants who were given outcome information overestimating the likelihood they would have predicted that the person was a child molester. Also, participants were able to recognize sexual grooming behaviors when the potential child molester was a relative and nonrelative. Findings indicated that sexual grooming behaviors may be more easily identified than previously proposed, but individuals greatly overestimate the likelihood they would have predicted a person was a child molester once they are given outcome information. PMID:26789256
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. PMID:20840234
Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera
Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625
Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M
Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style. PMID:12056110
THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE WHETHER AN INSERVICE PROGRAM WHICH STRESSES THE STUDY BY A TEACHER OF A SINGLE SOCIALLY UNACCEPTED CHILD LEADS TO A DESIRABLE CHANGE IN THE ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, AND CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR OF THE TEACHER. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONSISTED OF 46 CLASSROOM TEACHERS IN 6 COUNTIES, WITH ONE UNACCEPTED CHILD IN EACH OF THE…
Momper, Sandra L.; Jackson, Aurora P.
Using data from a sample of 150 Native American mothers of a child 6 to 15 years old, this study examined the relations between and among mothers' gambling, parenting in the home environment, social supports, and child behavior problems. Respondents were recruited from a tribal casino on a Great Lakes Indian reservation. Results indicate that…
O'Connor, Erin E.; Dearing, Eric; Collins, Brian A.
The present study examined associations between the quality of teacher-child relationships and behavior problems among elementary school students using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a study of 1,364 children from birth through adolescence. There were two main findings. First, high-quality teacher-child…
Short-Meyerson, Katherine; Sandrin, Susannah; Edwards, Chris
Gender is a critical social factor influencing how children view the world from very early childhood. Additionally, during the early elementary years, parents can have a significant influence on their child's behaviors and dispositions in fields such as science. This study examined the influence of parent gender and child gender on 2nd- and…
Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.
The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…
McCrae, Julie S.
Child welfare agencies are required to provide services that ensure that children receive adequate mental health care. This study provides a comprehensive view of the emotional and behavioral problems of children who are referred to child welfare services, using nationally representative data. Bivariate analyses compare rates by child…
Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.
In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…
Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Klemencic, Nora; Corbett, Michael
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for children. Prior research has implicated both child behavioral attributes and parent supervisory patterns as risk factors. The present study assessed interactions between these two risk factors and determined whether supervision moderates the relation between child attributes and injury.…
Lench, Heather C.; Levine, Linda J.; Whalen, Carol K.
Objective: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed childhood disorder associated with parent--child conflict and parental stress. This investigation explored whether parents' interpretation of symptomatic behavior predicted negative interactions with and perceptions of their child. Method: We recruited parents…
Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya; Wong, Maria S.
Parental depressive symptomatology has consistently been linked to child maladjustment, but these effects are not universal. This investigation examined the role of child temperament as a moderator of the effects of parental depression on behavior problems in five-year-old children. Parents reported on their own depressive symptoms, and both…
Marlowe, Mike; Disney, Gayle; Wilson, Kayce Jo
Torey Hayden's style of classroom management in her nonfiction book "One Child" was examined. "One Child" unfolds within the space of a special education classroom for children with severe behavioral impairments and focuses on Sheila, a troubled 6-year-old, who has tied a 3-year-old boy to a tree and critically burned him. Each technique Hayden…
Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Dumenci, Levent; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Weintraub, Sheila; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei J.
There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses,…
Whittaker, Jessica E. Vick; Jones Harden, Brenda
This study explored the association between teacher-child relationship quality and Head Start children's externalizing behaviors. We also investigated the associations among teacher, student, and classroom characteristics and teacher-child relationship quality. Data were gathered from 100 Head Start children and their teachers. Teacher-child…
Secure mother-child attachment has been found to be an important factor in the healthy emotional development of children and has been shown to have effects on child, adolescent, and adult behavior. Previous research has primarily focused on attachment in children who are typically developing. However, little research has been conducted in…
Post, Phyllis B.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Penn, Saundra L.
The purpose of this article is to provide specific guidelines for child-centered play therapists to set behavioral outcome goals to effectively work with families and to meet the demands for accountability in the managed care environment. The child-centered play therapy orientation is the most widely practiced approach among play therapists who…
Garbacz, Lauren L.; Zychinski, Kristen E.; Feuer, Rachel M.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; Budd, Karen S.
Problem behaviors in preschool-aged children negatively affect teacher-child relationships and children's skill development. In this clinical replication of an initial study, we implemented Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), a teacher-delivered, universal intervention designed for early childhood settings. The initial study evaluated…
Smagner, John P.; Sullivan, Meredith H.
Objective: Whether parents could be taught to use behavior-analytic child-management skills. Method: Eleven parents typically labeled as difficult to train participated in one of two experimental parent-training programs at child-welfare agencies within the city of Chicago. Four classes of desirable parenting skills were recorded by observers…
Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim
This study examined maternal beliefs about the functions of memory sharing and the relations between these beliefs and mother-child reminiscing behaviors in a cross-cultural context. Sixty-three European American and 47 Chinese mothers completed an open-ended questionnaire concerning their beliefs about the functions of parent-child memory…
Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia
We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…
Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.
Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel
Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary…
Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia
We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner characteristics that related to this involvement. Results suggested that maternal depressive symptoms related to child internalizing and externalizing problems when accounting for contextual risk factors. Importantly, these symptoms mediated the link between life stress and child behavior problems. Mother-reported partner child care interacted with maternal depressive symptoms for internalizing, not externalizing, problems. Specifically, depressive symptoms related less strongly to internalizing problems at higher levels of partner child care than at lower levels. Participants with younger partners, co-residing partners, and in longer romantic relationships reported higher partner child care involvement. Results are discussed considering implications for future research and interventions for mothers, their children, and their partners. PMID:24339474
Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura
Objective Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers’ appetitive traits. Method Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3–5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Results Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001), but parental Monitoring was not. Parental Pressuring was significantly associated with greater child Satiety responsiveness (p <.001), while parental Prompting was not. Parental Instrumental and Emotional feeding were both associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001). All relationships were independent of child BMI z-score. Discussion Prospective data are needed to determine whether the parent–child feeding relationships identified here promote, or protect against, the development of eating pathology in children. However, our results suggest that cross-sectional associations depend on the style (e.g., authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. PMID:24976396
Slatcher, Richard B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.
Negative emotionality is linked to unfavorable life outcomes, but studies have yet to examine negative emotionality of parents and children as predictors of children’s problem behaviors and negative emotion word use in everyday life. This study used a novel naturalistic recording device called the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to investigate the separate and interactive influences of parent and child negative emotionality on daily child behaviors in a sample of 35 preschool-aged children over two time points separated by one year. Fathers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s whining at Time 1; mothers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s negative emotion word use at Time 1 and increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2. Parents’ ratings of child negative emotionality also were associated with increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2, and child negative emotionality moderated the association between mothers’ negative emotionality and children’s arguing/fighting. Further, children with mothers high in negative emotionality displayed higher levels of problem behaviors when their mothers self-reported low levels of positive emotional expressiveness and/or high levels of negative emotional expressiveness. These findings offer preliminary evidence linking parent and child negative emotionality to everyday child behaviors, and suggest that emotional expressiveness may play a key role in moderating the links between maternal negative emotionality and child behavioral problems. PMID:22390707
Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc
Youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high rates of emotional and behavior problems. The Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF) is one of the few tools developed to assess these problems in this population. It consists of a 10-item Social Competence section and a 66-item Problem Behavior section. The goal of…
Control of environments in which problem behaviors in mother-child interactions take place appears necessary if reliable measurement of those behaviors is to result. Investigation of situational variables should advance the behavior modification technology in general. One methodological approach towards such control is presented. It focuses on…
Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy
This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…
Merrell, Kenneth W.
The article discusses the rationale and advantages of school-based parent training in child behavior management. The research literature on behavioral parent training is reviewed. Information on packaged behavioral parent training programs, as well as other resources for practitioners and parents, is provided. (Author/DB)
McKee, Laura; Colletti, Christina; Rakow, Aaron; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex
Building upon the link between inadequate parenting and child noncompliance, aggression, and oppositionality, behavioral parent training has been identified as a well-established treatment for externalizing problems in children. Much less empirical attention has been devoted to examining whether inadequate parenting and, in turn, behavioral parent training programs, have specific effects on child externalizing problems or more diffuse effects on both internalizing and externalizing problems. As an initial attempt to examine the specificity of parenting and childhood externalizing problems, this review examines prior research on the association of three parenting behaviors (parental warmth, hostility, and control) with child externalizing versus internalizing problems. Notably, findings revealed relatively little evidence for the specificity of parenting and child externalizing behaviors in the general parenting literature or in the family context of parent depression. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19122818
Yoo, Yeon Soo; Popp, Jill; Robinson, JoAnn
Objective Distress of a parent is a key influence on the quality of the child's experience in the family. We hypothesized that maternal distress would spill over into more negative views of their children's behaviors and less emotional availability in their relationships. Further, we investigated whether these cumulative experiences contributed to children's emerging narratives about mothers and family life. Method In this longitudinal study, mothers of young twin children reported their distress on three occasions in relation to: self, the marital relationship, and the family climate. Mothers also reported on their children's externalizing behavior problems. Mother-child interaction was observed focusing on maternal sensitivity and child responsivity. Children responded to story stem beginnings about challenging situations in the family and their narratives were scored for family conflict and cohesion themes. APIM methods of dyadic data analysis accounted for the inclusion of both twins in the analysis. Results Results from structural equation models supported the hypothesized cumulative experience of maternal distress on children's family life representations for both family conflict and family cohesion. Conclusion A family environment in which children are exposed to persistent maternal distress early in life may have cumulative effects, influencing how mothers interact with and view their children's behavior at later developmental stages. Moreover, exposure to repeated distress for longer periods of time may contribute to an intergenerational continuity of distress for the child that may become rooted in negative affective bias in their own view of family relationships. PMID:23568672
Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J
Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029
Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik
Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…
Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Jansen, Pauline W; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Basten, Maartje; So, Pety; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
This study examined multiple determinants of discrepancies between mother and child reports of problem behavior. In 5,414 6-year-olds, child problem behavior was assessed by self-report using the Berkeley Puppet Interview and by maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Patterns in mother-child reports were modeled using latent profile analysis. Four profiles, differing in problem level, and the direction and magnitude of mother-child discrepancies, were identified: one profile representing agreement (46%), another representing slight discrepancies (30%), and two representing higher problem levels and more discrepancies. In the latter two profiles either children (11%) or mothers (13%) reported more problems. Compared to the first profile, the second was predominantly characterized by a positive family environment, the third by child cognitive difficulties, and the fourth by harsh discipline and poor family functioning. Knowledge about specific child/family characteristics that contribute to mother-child discrepancies can help to interpret informants' reports and to make diagnostic decisions. PMID:25577034
Boutelle, Kerri N.; Cafri, Guy; Crow, Scott J.
Family based behavioral treatment for overweight and obese children includes parenting skills targeting the modification of child eating and activity change. The purpose of this study was to examine parenting skills and parent weight change as predictors of child weight change in a sample of 80 parent/child dyads who were enrolled in a family based behavioral weight loss program for childhood obesity. Eighty overweight and obese children and their parents who enrolled in treatment in two sites were included in the study. Variables included those related to parent modeling (parent BMI), home food environment, parenting (parent and child report), and demographics. Results suggested that parent BMI change was a significant predictor of child weight, in that a reduction of 1 BMI unit in the parent was associated with a 0.255 reduction in child BMI. None of the other variables were significant in the final model. This study is consistent with other research showing that parent weight change is a key contributor to child weight change in behavioral treatment for childhood obesity. Researchers and clinicians should focus on encouraging parents to lose weight to assist their overweight and obese child in weight management. PMID:22421896
Callender, Kevin A; Olson, Sheryl L; Choe, Daniel E; Sameroff, Arnold J
Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 5 ½ years old at Time 2 (T2). At T1, mothers and fathers reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions of their child's reciprocal affection and responsiveness, frequency of physical punishment, and child externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and teachers provided ratings of externalizing behavior at T2. Structural equation modeling revealed that parents' negative attributions mediated positive relations between their depressive symptoms and frequency of physical punishment for both fathers and mothers. More frequent physical punishment, in turn, predicted increased child externalizing behavior at T2. In future research, transactional mechanisms underlying effects of clinical depression on child conduct problems should be explored at multiple stages of development. For parents showing depressive symptoms, restructuring distorted perceptions about their children's behavior may be an important component of intervention programs. PMID:21947616
Wymbs, Brian T.
Prospective and experimental manipulations of child behavior have demonstrated that disruptive child behavior causes interparental discord. However, research has yet to test for mechanisms underlying this causal pathway. There is reason to suspect parent affect and parenting behavior explain child effects on interparental relations. To investigate this hypothesis, parent couples of 9- to 12-year-old boys and girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=51) and without ADHD (n=39) were randomly assigned to interact with a confederate child exhibiting “disruptive” or “typical” behavior. Parents rated their own affect as well as the quality of their partner's parenting and communication immediately following the interaction. Observers also coded the quality of parenting and communication behaviors parents exhibited during the interaction. Parents who interacted with disruptive confederates reported lower positive affect and higher negative affect than those who interacted with typical confederates. Parents were also noted by their partners and observers to parent disruptive confederates more negatively than typical confederates. Multilevel mediation models with observational coding and partner ratings both found that negative parenting explained the causal pathway between disruptive child behavior and negative communication. Exploratory analyses revealed that the strength of this pathway did not differ between parents of children with and without ADHD. Parent affect was not found to explain child effects on interparental communication. Though methodological issues limit the generalizability of these findings, results indicate that negative parenting may be one mechanism through which disruptive children cause interparental discord. PMID:21875193
Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse
Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…
Dumas, Jean E.; And Others
This study of parenting stress, child behavior, and dysphoria among 150 families found that parents of children with autism and behavior disorders reported more stress than parents of Down's syndrome or nondisabled children. Mothers of Down's syndrome children did not differ from mothers of nondisabled children on any measures. No major age or…
Coffey, Dean M.; Javier, Joyce R.; Schrager, Sheree M.
Filipinos are an understudied minority affected by significant behavioral health disparities. We evaluate evidence for the reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) in 6- to 12- year old Filipino children (N = 23). ECBI scores demonstrated high internal consistency, supporting a single-factor model (pre-intervention α =.91; post-intervention α =.95). Results document convergent validity with the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing scale at pretest (r = .54, p < .01) and posttest (r = .71, p < .001). We conclude that the ECBI is a promising tool to measure behavior problems in Filipino children. PMID:27087739
Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hermanns, Jo M A; Peetsma, Thea T D; van den Wittenboer, Godfried L H
Negative emotionality is considered to be the core of the difficult temperament concept (J. E. Bates, 1989; R. L. Shiner, 1998). In this correlational study, the authors examined whether the relations between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior (internalizing and externalizing) were partially mediated by parenting style (authoritative and authoritarian) in a community sample of 196 3-year-old children and their mothers. The authors assessed maternal perception of child negative emotionality using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (M. K. Rothbart, S. A. Ahadi, K. L. Hershey, & P. Fisher, 2001) and assessed problematic child behavior by means of maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1992). The results showed that the relations between child negative emotionality and internalizing and externalizing behaviors were partially mediated by mothers' authoritative parenting style. Moreover, when the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to decontaminate possible overlap in item content between measures assessing temperament and problematic behavior, the association between negative emotionality and internalizing behavior was fully mediated by authoritative parenting. PMID:18788324
Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.
In a sample of 107 Chinese immigrant families we examined whether cultural child-rearing beliefs moderated the association between parents' use of punitive discipline and children's behavioral adjustment. Immigrant parents and their children aged 7 to 17 years completed measures of parental discipline and child behavior problems. Parents also…
Background The purpose of this study was to extend the analysis of neighborhood effects on child behavioral outcomes in two ways: (1) by examining the geographic extent of the relationship between child behavior and neighborhood physical conditions independent of standard administrative boundaries such as census tracts or block groups and (2) by examining the relationship and geographic extent of geographic peers’ behavior and individual child behavior. Methods The study neighborhood was a low income, ethnic minority neighborhood of approximately 20,000 residents in a large city in the southwestern United States. Observational data were collected for 11,552 parcels and 1,778 face blocks in the neighborhood over a five week period. Data on child behavior problems were collected from the parents of 261 school-age children (81% African American, 14% Latino) living in the neighborhood. Spatial analysis methods were used to examine the spatial dependence of child behavior problems in relation to physical conditions in the neighborhood for areas surrounding the child’s home ranging from a radius of 50 meters to a radius of 1000 meters. Likewise, the spatial dependence of child behavior problems in relation to the behavior problems of neighborhood peers was examined for areas ranging from a radius 255 meters to a radius of 600 meters around the child’s home. Finally, we examined the joint influence of neighborhood physical conditions and geographic peers. Results Poor conditions of the physical environment of the neighborhood were related to more behavioral problems, and the geographic extent of the physical environment that mattered was an area with a radius between 400 and 800 meters surrounding the child’s home. In addition, the average level of behavior problems of neighborhood peers within 255 meters of the child’s home was also positively associated with child behavior problems. Furthermore, these effects were independent of one another. Conclusions These
Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M Matta; Kim, Youngmi
Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent's self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity's relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity's relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures. PMID:20873019
Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C
While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care. PMID:21964826
Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen
Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts. PMID:23682754
Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K
Nonresident fathers can have a significant impact on children's behavioral outcomes. Unfortunately, the impact of nonresident father involvement on the behavioral outcomes of children with child welfare involvement has received scant attention in the literature, a limitation the current study sought to address. A sample of 333 children in state custody in Illinois between the ages of six and 13 participated and were assessed using the externalizing behavior scale of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) at regular intervals throughout their time in care. Father involvement was measured through a review of case files and interviews with child welfare workers. Growth trajectories were fit to children's externalizing behavior across time and were predicted using Time 1 characteristics. Father involvement, total non-father relative involvement, and gender (girls) was associated with lower baseline externalizing behavior and the African American children in the sample experienced higher baseline externalizing behavior. However, only Time 1 father involvement predicted slope trajectories after controlling for Time 1 externalizing behavior; more father involvement was associated with lower externalizing behavior trajectories. These results suggest that even in the unique and stressful context of child welfare, father involvement can be protective regarding children's externalizing behaviors. PMID:27110849
Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866477
Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents’ appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 5 ½ years old at Time 2 (T2). At T1, mothers and fathers reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions of their child’s reciprocal affection and responsiveness, frequency of physical punishment, and child externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and teachers provided ratings of externalizing behavior at T2. Structural equation modeling revealed that parents’ negative attributions mediated positive relations between their depressive symptoms and frequency of physical punishment for both fathers and mothers. More frequent physical punishment, in turn, predicted increased child externalizing behavior at T2. In future research, transactional mechanisms underlying effects of clinical depression on child conduct problems should be explored at multiple stages of development. For parents showing depressive symptoms, restructuring distorted perceptions about their children’s behavior may be an important component of intervention programs. PMID:21947616
Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A
Child behavior in the natural environment is a subject that is relevant for many areas of social science and bio-behavioral research. However, its measurement is currently based mainly on subjective approaches such as parent questionnaires or clinical observation. This study demonstrates an objective and unobtrusive child vocal behavior measurement and monitoring approach using daylong audio recordings of children in the natural home environment. Our previous research has shown significant performance in childhood autism identification. However, there remains the question of why it works. In the previous study, the focus was more on the overall performance and data-driven modeling without regard to the meaning of underlying features. Even if a high risk of autism is predicted, specific information about child behavior that could contribute to the automated categorization was not further explored. This study attempts to clarify this issue by exploring the details of underlying features and uncovering additional behavioral information buried within the audio streams. It was found that much child vocal behavior can be measured automatically by applying signal processing and pattern recognition technologies to daylong audio recordings. By combining many such features, the model achieves an overall autism identification accuracy of 94% (N=226). Similar to many emerging non-invasive and telemonitoring technologies in health care, this approach is believed to have great potential in child development research, clinical practice and parenting. PMID:23366733
This paper discussed factors influencing behavior management of the child dental patient. Pediatric dentists are affected by changes in: (1) society; (2) marketing and media; (3) communications and technology; and (4) parenting practices. Behavior of pediatric patients reflects fewer boundaries, less discipline and self-control, and lowered behavioral expectations by parents and contemporary culture. The insurance industry, regulatory bodies, legal system, dental staff, and pediatric dentist education are other influences on behavior management. Responses of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), which could support the pediatric dentist in the changing environment, include: (1) research; (2) continuing education for staff and dentists; (3) development of Internet accessible materials for the public; (4) legislative activity; (5) partnering with pediatric medicine to develop new behavior management strategies; (6) establishment of an AAPD Council on Child Behavior; and (7) ongoing critical reassessment of behavior issues by the AAPD. PMID:15132271
Risley, Todd R.
Timeout procedures in the home and extinction and reinforcement of incompatible behaviors in the laboratory failed to eliminate the disruptive and dangerous climbing behavior of a deviant child. Punishment with electric shock was used to eliminate this behavior in the laboratory and then in the home. The effects were reversible and were restricted to specific stimulus conditions. A less severe form of punishment was used to eliminate the child's autistic rocking. Other behaviors of the subject were continuously measured in the laboratory to determine the side effects of punishment. No suppression of other behaviors correlated with punishment was noted. However, the rate of some behaviors increased when punishment was used to eliminate deviant behaviors, but these increases were, primarily, desirable. PMID:16795157
Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.
This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…
Guttentag, Cathy; Alex, Stefany
This study examined parents' and children's affect regulation skills and constructive behavior to test whether a modeling mechanism or a parent-child interaction mechanism best accounted for children's behavior. Thirty-six married couples and their 4- to 7-year-old children participated in the study. The families were asked to play a board game…
Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie
Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a…
Averdijk, Margit; Malti, Tina; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis
This study investigated the relationship between parental separation and aggressive and internalizing behavior in a large sample of Swiss children drawn from the ongoing Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Parents retrospectively reported life events and problem behavior for the first 7 years of the child's life on a…
DiStefano, Christine A.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Mindrila, Diana L.
The purpose of this article was to examine a typology of child behavior using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Teacher Rating Scale (BASC TRS-C, 2nd edition; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The typology was compared with the solution identified from the 1992 BASC TRS-C norm dataset. Using cluster analysis, a seven-cluster solution was…
Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Rettew, David C.; Hudziak, James J.
Disorders of self-regulatory behavior are common reasons for referral to child and adolescent clinicians. Here, the authors sought to compare 2 methods of empirically based assessment of children with problems in self-regulatory behavior. Using parental reports on 2,028 children (53% boys) from a U.S. national probability sample of the Child…
Rubin, David H.; Althoff, Robert R.; Walkup, John T.; Hudziak, James J.
Withdrawn behavior (WB) relates to many developmental outcomes, including pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety, depression, psychosis, personality disorders and suicide. No study has compared the latent profiles of different informants' reports on WB. This study uses multi-informant latent class analyses (LCA) of the child behavior checklist…
Jensen, Scott A.; Grimes, Lisa K.
Though behavioral parent training has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for child behavior problems, it continues to suffer from high attrition rates. Few variables have been found to predict or decrease high attrition rates from parent training classes. The present study found 43-52% increases in attendance rates for parents whose…
Al-Hendawi, Maha; Keller, Clayton; Cloninger, Lea
The Child Behavior Checklist for children 6 to 18 (CBCL/6-18) is a widely used, standardized parent rating scale. However, few studies have tested the psychometric properties of this instrument in the Arab world despite the great need for such instruments to support the identification and education of children with emotional, behavioral, and…
Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark
Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8-9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting.…
Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark
Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh…
Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie; van de Moortele, Gaelle; Browne, Dillon T.; Kumar, Aarti
Based on longitudinal multilevel modeling and using a multi-informant strategy, this study examines trajectories of externalizing problem behavior (EPB) in childhood as predicted by parental behavior (absolute level of parenting [ALP] and parental differential treatment [PDT]), parental self-efficacy (PSE), child personality and sibling…
Mick, Eric; McGough, James; Loo, Sandra; Doyle, Alysa E.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.; Smalley, Susan; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.
Objective: A potentially useful tool for understanding the distribution and determinants of emotional dysregulation in children is a Child Behavior Checklist profile, comprising the Attention Problems, Anxious/Depressed, and Aggressive Behavior clinical subscales (CBCL-DP). The CBCL-DP indexes a heritable trait that increases susceptibility for…
Allen, Keith D.; And Others
This paper describes a dentist-implemented intervention in which brief escape from dental treatment (contingent on brief periods of cooperative behavior) was provided to manage disruptive child behavior during restorative dental treatment with four children, aged three to seven years. The procedure required no more time than traditional management…
The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices); to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight; and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated t...
Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte
We examined cultural differences in mothers' acceptance of and intent to use behavioral parenting techniques for managing disruptive child behavior, and the possible roles of parenting styles and implicit theories in explaining these cultural differences. A community sample of 117 Euro-Canadian and Chinese-immigrant mothers of boys aged 4- to…
Cho, Eunae; Allen, Tammy D.
Despite its theoretical and practical importance, behavioral consequences of work-family conflict that reside in the family domain rarely have been examined. Based on two studies, the current research investigated the relationship of work-interference-with-family (WIF) with parent-child interactive behavior (i.e., educational, recreational, and…
Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C. J.
High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the…
Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.
This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…
Huntington, Gail S.
Eighty-six mother-infant pairs were studied to determine the extent to which maternal and child variables predicted maternal involvement. The infants, ranging in age from 3-36 months, were examined on temperament and developmental status. Maternal characteristics studied were temperament, locus of control, and socioeconomic status. Criterion…
Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, Jim
We demonstrate graphical and analytical methods for multilevel (2- and 3-level) models using the analysis of observed microsocial interaction between parent-child dyads as an example. We also present multilevel path diagrams and argue that while not as compact as equations, path diagrams may communicate results better to a wider audience. The…
de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.
In this study of the multiple determinants of professional caregiving, 237 caregivers (age range: 18-56 years) from 64 Dutch child care centers were extensively observed during their interactions with the children (0-4 years) in their usual care group. The choice of potential determinants of the caregiving quality was guided by Belsky's [Belsky,…
Charlop, Marjorie H.; Sheehy, Nancy
Three hundred residents of the Pomona Valley area, near Los Angeles, were surveyed about their attitudes towards child discipline techniques. The residents were also asked to report on the punishment methods they practice with their children. Results from 102 returned questionnaires indicated that most people were moderate in their attitudes…
Low, Justin A.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Jensen, Megan
The purpose of this research was to determine whether child, parent, and teacher characteristics such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), parental depressive symptoms, the number of years of teaching experience, number of children in the classroom, and teachers' disciplinary self-efficacy predict deviations from maternal ratings in a…
Nabors, Laura; Baker-Phibbs, Christina; Burbage, Michelle
Posttraumatic stress disorder and behavioral disorders are related to problems in emotional functioning for young children. Factors related to child functioning are important to understand in order to develop interventions and assess their impact. This study examined clinician and parent reports of child functioning and behavior problems and factors related to each of these outcome variables. Results indicated that parental acceptance was inversely related to child behavior problems. Increased parental supervision of the child was related to high total problems scores. Parental acceptance was positively related to child functioning. Future research is needed to examine relations among interventions to improve parental supervision and interactions with the child and child functioning, in terms of both positive and negative behaviors. PMID:26939839
Leslie, Laurel K.; James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy; Kauten, Milena C.; Zhang, Jinjin; Aarons, Gregory
Objective To examine rates and patterns of health-risk behavior (e.g. sexuality, depression/suicidality, substance use, delinquency) among a national probability sample of youth active to the child welfare/child protective services system. Recent federal legislation, P.L. 110–351, encourages child welfare systems, Medicaid, and pediatric experts to collaborate to assure youth entering foster care receive comprehensive health examinations. Methods Analysis of baseline caregiver, caseworker and child interviews, and assessment data for a subsample (n=993) of youth, ages 11–15 years, from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability sample of children and adolescents undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect. Results Almost half of the sample (46.3%) endorsed at least one health-risk behavior. On Poisson multivariate regression modeling, factors related to higher rates of health-risk behaviors included older age, female gender, abuse history, deviant peers, limited caregiver monitoring, and poor school engagement. Conclusion Given the heightened vulnerability of this population, early screening for health-risk behaviors must be prioritized. Further research should explore specific subpopulations at risk for health-risk behaviors and possible interventions to change these youths’ trajectories. PMID:20547289
Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R.
This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent’s drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and their availability in the etiology of child maltreatment. This knowledge can be used to further tailor interventions to those conditions most likely to prevent and reduce maltreatment. PMID:25284922
Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.
Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518
Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R
This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent's drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and their availability in the etiology of child maltreatment. This knowledge can be used to further tailor interventions to those conditions most likely to prevent and reduce maltreatment. PMID:25284922
Chamberlin, Robert W.
For availability, see EC 103 546. Investigated in a study which followed 135 children from age 2 into first grade was the hypothesis that "authoritarian" styles of child rearing will lead to more home and school problems than will "accomodative" styles. (Author/IM)
Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.; Lengua, Liliana J.
Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child’s disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029
Klahr, Ashlea M; Rueter, Martha A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Burt, S Alexandra
Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of rater bias. As the presence of significant shared environmental effects has often been attributed to rater bias in the past (Baker et al. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 16:219-235, 2007; Bartels et al. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42:1351-1359, 2003, Twin Research 7:162-175, 2004; Hewitt et al. Behavior Genetics 22:293-317, 1992), it would be important to confirm that findings of shared environmental mediation persist when even examining (presumably more objective) observer-ratings of these constructs. The current study thus examined the origins of the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent acting-out behavior, as measured using both observer-ratings and various informant-reports. Participants included 1,199 adopted and non-adopted adolescents in 610 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Results indicated that parent-child conflict consistently predicts acting-out behavior in adopted adolescents, and moreover, that this association is equivalent to that in biologically-related adolescents. Most importantly, these findings did not vary across parent- and adolescent-reported or observer-ratings of parent-child conflict and acting-out behavior. Such findings argue strongly against rater bias as a primary explanation of shared environmental mediation of the association between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior. PMID:21484334
Raad, Raymond; Appelbaum, Paul S.
Behavioral genetic research is beginning to elucidate some of the genetic contributions to human behaviors—including criminal and other problematic behaviors—and their interactions with environmental influences. One of the most studied of these interactions involves low-activity alleles of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, which appear to increase the risk of antisocial behavior among males in the wake of childhood maltreatment. Some scholars have suggested that decisions about disposition of child abuse victims should be shaped by these findings, but the extent of public support for such approaches has not been assessed. In this study, a representative sample of the U.S. population (N=250) was presented with a vignette about a child physically abused by his mother, who was tested for the presence of an allele that increases the risk of future impulsive violent behavior. Participants were asked about their views regarding the child's disposition, including return to his mother, and medical or psychological treatment. Although participants thought that genetic data should be taken into account, the presence of an allele that increases risk of impulsive violent behavior did not affect views regarding the child's return to his mother. However, it did increase respondents' willingness to provide the child with medical treatment and their view of the child as dangerous to other children. The findings suggest that behavioral genetic evidence has effects on perceptions of dangerousness and tendencies to view problems as medical, but that the public is cautious about the use of genetic findings in child abuse adjudications. PMID:25060544
van Meurs, Inge; Reef, Joni; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan
The scores of 4- to 16-year-olds on a child behavior checklist made in 1983 is compared with those of their 6- to 18-year-old offsprings that were done in 2007. It is found that most forms of problem behavior in children were predicted by their parent's behavior as children and that continuity is stronger in mothers than fathers and in sons than…
Van Camp, Carole M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Goh, Han-Leong; Whitehouse, Cristina M.; Reyes, Jorge; Montgomery, Jan L.; Borrero, John C.
Objective: Behavioral parent training has been proven effective through years of research with a variety of groups. However, little research has been conducted to systematically evaluate the extent to which behavioral parent training may improve parenting skills of foster and other caregivers of dependent children. The Behavior Analysis Services…
Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.
This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6 - 7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers (Sensitivity and Control), and three in children (Task Involvement, Responsiveness, and Communicative). Children's negativity during a clean up task was coded and mothers were interviewed about their children's problem behaviors. Parenting sensitivity was associated with positive child behaviors and parenting control was associated with negative child behaviors. Maternal education was associated with greater maternal sensitivity and less control. Child gender predicted their task involvement, responsiveness, communicativeness, negativity during clean-up, and behavior problems; maternal control and sensitivity mediated some of these relations. Findings underscore heterogeneity of African American parenting and factors that promote positive parenting and children's behavioral adjustment in early childhood. PMID:20161193
Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hill, Christopher
Mothers of children with Down syndrome, autism, and mixed etiology intellectual disabilities, matched on child age, gender, and communication skills (n = 19 in each group) completed measures of their child's adaptive and problem behaviors, their own parenting stress, and positive perceptions of their child. Children with autism were rated as…
Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline
Background: Existing research suggests that there is a relationship between greater exposure to center-based child care and child behavioral problems though the mechanism for the impact is unclear. However the measure used to document child care has usually been average hours, which may be particularly unreliable in the early months when fewer…
Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra
Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency,…
Cattell-Gordon, Donna; Cattell-Gordon, David
Describes development and implementation of a home-based intensive applied behavioral analysis program based on the Lovaas method for a young child. Describes creation of the home-based program, lack of support from the child's school program, the child's progress, and the opening of a pilot school and resource center that serves seven children…
Mauro, C F; Harris, Y R
This study was an exploratory examination of the influence of mothers' teaching behaviors, strategies, and child-rearing attitudes on their children's ability to delay gratification. In an externally imposed delay of gratification situation, 30 mothers from a rural university community taught their children strategies that could help them refrain from touching a brightly wrapped present when the mothers left the room. Results showed that mothers of children who did not delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with a permissive parenting style, whereas mothers of children who did delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with an authoritative parenting style. The results of this study are discussed with respect to the development of children's self-control and self-regulatory abilities. PMID:10971908
Carlson, Matthew; Oshri, Assaf; Kwon, Josephine
Child maltreatment poses significant risk to the development of callous/unemotional traits as well as risk behaviors such as engaging in violence, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking. In the current study, the indirect pathway from child maltreatment to risk behaviors was examined via callous/unemotional traits; whereas the conscientious personality trait was tested as a moderator of this indirect pathway. Young adults and parents (N=361; Mage=19.14, SD=1.44) completed questionnaires on child maltreatment histories, callousness/unemotional traits, personality characteristics, and risk behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized direct, indirect and conditional indirect effects. Findings showed indirect links between the child maltreatment latent factor and physical fighting, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking via callous/unemotional traits. Furthermore, the conscientiousness personality type significantly buffered the connection between callous/unemotional traits and physical fighting, supporting a conditional indirect effects. Callous/unemotional traits are important factors in the underlying mechanism between child maltreatment and risk behaviors among young adults, and conscientiousness serves as a protective factor against violence. Preventive intervention programs and clinicians may benefit from focusing in addressing callous/unemotional traits among youth who report childhood maltreatment experiences as well as targeting conscientiousness as a protective factor. PMID:26233813
Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John
This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…
Strand, Paul S
Investigated the impact of a specific intervention on child cooperation. The intervention was designed to increase maternal coordination with child behavior. Mothers assigned to the experimental condition were instructed on how to modulate the specificity of directives to their preschooler as a function of the child's moment-to-moment behavior. Mothers assigned to the control condition received no such training. Degree of maternal coordination was then assessed. Child compliance during a pick-up task was also assessed. Compared to controls, experimental mothers had significantly higher scores on several measures of maternal coordination and experimental children were significantly more compliant. The relation between parental coordination and child socialization is discussed. PMID:11845652
Widom, C S
Using a prospective cohorts design, a large sample of physical and sexual abuse cases was compared to a matched control group. Overall, abused and neglected subjects had higher rates than did controls for adult criminality and arrests for violent offenses, but not for adult arrests for child abuse or neglect. Findings are discussed in the context of intergenerational transmission of violence, and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:2764070
Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Schroeder, Christine M.
Child physical abuse (CPA) is not only a highly prevalent public health problem, but it has been associated with a wide range of debilitating psychosocial sequelae that may develop during childhood and persist into adulthood. This paper outlines a treatment model, Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT), that addresses the…
Kotler, Julie S.; McMahon, Robert J.
The present study examined the impact of the Child's Game parenting intervention (Forehand & McMahon, 1981; McMahon & Forehand, 2003) on child compliance, noncompliance, and aversive behavior in 3 groups of 20 nonreferred preschool children identified as high on dimensions of anxiety/withdrawal, anger/aggression, or social competence. The impact…
Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj
Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…
Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong
Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children's gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children's sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6-12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children's gender-related behavior in China. PMID:18719986
Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong
Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children’s gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children’s sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6–12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children’s gender-related behavior in China. PMID:18719986
Roorda, Debora L; Verschueren, Karine; Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Colpin, Hilde
In this short-term longitudinal study, transactional links between teacher-child relationships and behavioral adjustment were investigated in a sample of preschool boys (N=175) at risk for developing externalizing problems. Teachers (N=175) reported about the quality of the teacher-child relationship (i.e., Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency) and about children's behavioral adjustment (i.e., Externalizing Behavior, Internalizing Behavior, and Prosocial Behavior) at three occasions within one school year. Cross-lagged path-analytic models showed positive bidirectional associations between Conflict and both Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior from Time 1 to Time 2, but not from Time 2 to Time 3. In addition, there was a transactional sequence with more Conflict at Time 1 leading to less Prosocial Behavior at Time 2 which, in turn, predicted more Conflict at Time 3. Closeness was reciprocally and positively related to Prosocial Behavior over time, and was positively and unidirectionally predicted by Internalizing Behavior. Dependency showed positive reciprocal links with Internalizing Behavior over time, and negatively and unidirectionally predicted Prosocial Behavior. These findings suggest that interventions may be most effective if they adjust their focus and strategy depending on children's specific behavioral and relational needs. PMID:25267171
Prinzie, Peter; van der Sluis, Cathy M; de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja
Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, children rated their externalizing behavior. Mediational analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects. Higher levels of Extraversion and lower levels of Benevolence were related directly to higher levels of child externalizing behavior. Higher levels of paternal authoritative parenting and lower levels of maternal overreactivity were related to lower scores on externalizing behavior. In addition, the relation between Benevolence, Emotional Stability, and externalizing behavior was partially mediated by parental overreactivity. Conscientiousness had an indirect effect on externalizing behavior through paternal authoritative parenting. Relations were not moderated by child gender. This study is of theoretical interest because the results demonstrate that parenting is a mediating mechanism that accounts for associations between personality and externalizing behavior. PMID:20545815
Maddoux, John A; Liu, Fuqin; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Paulson, Rene; Binder, Brenda K; Fredland, Nina; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi
Partner violence is associated with numerous negative consequences for victims, especially poor mental health. Children who are exposed to partner violence are more likely to have behavior problems. Nevertheless, research on the relationship between severity of abuse, maternal mental health functioning following partner violence, and child behavior problems is limited. We explored the direct and indirect effects on the child's behavioral functioning of severity of maternal abuse and maternal mental health functioning following abuse. A sample of 300 mothers was recruited when they sought assistance for abuse for the first time at shelters for abused women or at the district attorney's office. Severity of abuse, mothers' mental health functioning, and child behavioral functioning were measured by maternal self-report at entry into the study and 4 months later. In SEM analysis, at both entry and 4 months, severity of abuse had a direct effect on maternal mental health functioning, which in turn had a direct effect on child behavioral functioning. The path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning also was significant but became non- significant once maternal mental health functioning was added to the equation, indicating that the path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning was indirect and occurred as a result of the mother's mental health functioning, which remained directly linked to child behavioral problems. Intergenerational interventions are needed to address both maternal mental health and child behavioral functioning when a mother reports partner violence and is experiencing mental health problems. PMID:26694769
Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann
The current study examined how individual differences in maternal temperament and child problem behaviors correlate with observed maternal positivity and negativity toward the child. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers reported their own temperament (surgency, orienting sensitivity, effortful control and negative affect) and their children's problem behaviors. Maternal behavior was videotaped in a set of structured interaction tasks with the child during a lab visit. Results indicated that children's problem behaviors were related to less maternal positivity and more negativity. In addition, observed maternal negativity was associated with less maternal effortful control and more negative affect. In contrast, maternal temperament was unrelated to observed maternal positivity toward the child. Furthermore, maternal temperament was related to mothers' positivity and negativity but only for children high in problem behaviors. The findings implicate that child problem behaviors may interact with maternal temperament in explaining variance in caregiving positivity and negativity. PMID:25089066
Hauser, Claire T.; Kover, Sara T.; Abbeduto, Leonard
The purpose of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationshipsnetres behavioral functioning of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability. Children with FXS commonly demonstrate challenging behavior related to anxiety, attention, and aggression, whereas mothers of children with FXS have been identified as susceptible to mental health disorders due to their status as genetic carriers of the FXS premutation, as well as the environmental stressors of raising children with special needs. The longitudinal design of this study builds upon prior work that established a concurrent relationship among these factors in families of children with other intellectual disorders. Findings indicated that maternal mental health status was not significantly related to changes in levels of child challenging behavior, child challenging behavior was related to changes in maternal depression over time, and heightened levels of child challenging behavior was related to increased feelings of maternal closeness toward the child over time. The unexpected nature of the result regarding maternal closeness provides new and more complex hypotheses about how mothers of special needs children demonstrate adaptation and resilience. The findings have implications for maternal and familial mental health treatment as well as future research. PMID:24984053
Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng
Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors. PMID:20132462
Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa
A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. PMID:26990176
Stoutimore, Michael R.; Williams, Catherine E.; Neff, Bryon; Foster, Margie
Abuse, neglect, or both often result in removing children from their homes and placing them in foster care. As a result of these experiences, many children learn unhealthy behaviors. These "behavioral challenges" often lead to a cycle of multiple placement disruptions and progressively more restrictive placements. The philosophy, science, and…