Science.gov

Sample records for achieve rapid modulation

  1. Achievement of Bevalac rapid mode switching

    SciTech Connect

    Lothrop, F.; Stevenson, R.; Miller, R.; Alonso, J.

    1985-05-01

    Rapid changes of ion, intensity, beam line, and output energy between two modes have been achieved. The techniques for switching among the Bevalac's several injectors are described. Energy level limits at the output (for q/A = 1/2) are 470 to 2100 MeV/n (high power) or 50 to 1050 MeV/n (low power). Depending on specific field value differences, the total time required for a mode change is less than one minute. This mode of operation greatly improves program efficiency in interleaving medical and nuclear science programs at the Bevalac.

  2. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    PubMed Central

    Boudsocq, Marie; Danquah, Agyemang; de Zélicourt, Axel; Hirt, Heribert; Colcombet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and long-term plant stress responses. PMID:26313321

  3. Insights into Rapid Modulation of Neuroplasticity by Brain Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Woolfrey, Kevin M.; Penzes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence from cellular, electrophysiological, anatomic, and behavioral studies suggests that the remodeling of synapse structure and function is a critical component of cognition. This modulation of neuroplasticity can be achieved through the actions of numerous extracellular signals. Moreover, it is thought that it is the integration of different extracellular signals regulation of neuroplasticity that greatly influences cognitive function. One group of signals that exerts powerful effects on multiple neurologic processes is estrogens. Classically, estrogens have been described to exert their effects over a period of hours to days. However, there is now increasing evidence that estrogens can rapidly influence multiple behaviors, including those that require forebrain neural circuitry. Moreover, these effects are found in both sexes. Critically, it is now emerging that the modulation of cognition by rapid estrogenic signaling is achieved by activation of specific signaling cascades and regulation of synapse structure and function, cumulating in the rewiring of neural circuits. The importance of understanding the rapid effects of estrogens on forebrain function and circuitry is further emphasized as investigations continue to consider the potential of estrogenic-based therapies for neuropathologies. This review focuses on how estrogens can rapidly influence cognition and the emerging mechanisms that underlie these effects. We discuss the potential sources and the biosynthesis of estrogens within the brain and the consequences of rapid estrogenic-signaling on the remodeling of neural circuits. Furthermore, we argue that estrogens act via distinct signaling pathways to modulate synapse structure and function in a manner that may vary with cell type, developmental stage, and sex. Finally, we present a model in which the coordination of rapid estrogenic-signaling and activity-dependent stimuli can result in long-lasting changes in neural circuits

  4. Challenges and achievements in the therapeutic modulation of aquaporin functionality.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Eric; Golldack, André; Rothert, Monja; von Bülow, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water and solute channels have basic physiological functions throughout the human body. AQP-facilitated water permeability across cell membranes is required for rapid reabsorption of water from pre-urine in the kidneys and for sustained near isosmolar water fluxes e.g. in the brain, eyes, inner ear, and lungs. Cellular water permeability is further connected to cell motility. AQPs of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily are necessary for lipid degradation in adipocytes and glycerol uptake into the liver, as well as for skin moistening. Modulation of AQP function is desirable in several pathophysiological situations, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Sjögren's syndrome, Menière's disease, heart failure, or tumors to name a few. Attempts to design or to find effective small molecule AQP inhibitors have yielded only a few hits. Challenges reside in the high copy number of AQP proteins in the cell membranes, and spatial restrictions in the protein structure. This review gives an overview on selected physiological and pathophysiological conditions in which modulation of AQP functions appears beneficial and discusses first achievements in the search of drug-like AQP inhibitors. PMID:26277280

  5. Recent achievements in module reliability research. [amorphous Si solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    After 10 years of extensive research on crystalline-silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, the emphasis of recent reliability research has shifted to the emerging first-generation thin-film amorphous-silicon modules. These modules share much in common with their crystalline precursors, but also include many materials and processes that demand the development of reliability technologies. Key research thrusts include light-induced effects, cell corrosion, thermal diffusion, hot-spot heating, and electrical isolation of the cells from the module exterior. Research goals and recent achievements are described in each of these areas.

  6. Local modulation of steroid action: rapid control of enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Thierry D.; Cornil, Charlotte A.; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Meyer, Laurence; Mensah-Nyagan, A. Guy; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens can induce rapid, short-lived physiological and behavioral responses, in addition to their slow, but long-term, effects at the transcriptional level. To be functionally relevant, these effects should be associated with rapid modulations of estrogens concentrations. 17β-estradiol is synthesized by the enzyme aromatase, using testosterone as a substrate, but can also be degraded into catechol-estrogens via hydroxylation by the same enzyme, leading to an increase or decrease in estrogens concentration, respectively. The first evidence that aromatase activity (AA) can be rapidly modulated came from experiments performed in Japanese quail hypothalamus homogenates. This rapid modulation is triggered by calcium-dependent phosphorylations and was confirmed in other tissues and species. The mechanisms controlling the phosphorylation status, the targeted amino acid residues and the reversibility seem to vary depending of the tissues and is discussed in this review. We currently do not know whether the phosphorylation of the same amino acid affects both aromatase and/or hydroxylase activities or whether these residues are different. These processes provide a new general mechanism by which local estrogen concentration can be rapidly altered in the brain and other tissues. PMID:25852459

  7. Best Practices for Achieving High, Rapid Reading Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…

  8. A modular modulation method for achieving increases in metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Acerenza, Luis; Monzon, Pablo; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the production of overproducing strains represents a great challenge. Here, we develop a modular modulation method to determine the key steps for genetic manipulation to increase metabolite production. The method consists of three steps: (i) modularization of the metabolic network into two modules connected by linking metabolites, (ii) change in the activity of the modules using auxiliary rates producing or consuming the linking metabolites in appropriate proportions and (iii) determination of the key modules and steps to increase production. The mathematical formulation of the method in matrix form shows that it may be applied to metabolic networks of any structure and size, with reactions showing any kind of rate laws. The results are valid for any type of conservation relationships in the metabolite concentrations or interactions between modules. The activity of the module may, in principle, be changed by any large factor. The method may be applied recursively or combined with other methods devised to perform fine searches in smaller regions. In practice, it is implemented by integrating to the producer strain heterologous reactions or synthetic pathways producing or consuming the linking metabolites. The new procedure may contribute to develop metabolic engineering into a more systematic practice. PMID:25683235

  9. Achieving Electric-Acoustic Benefit with a Modulated Tone

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher A.; Bacon, Sid P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective When either real or simulated electric stimulation from a cochlear implant (CI) is combined with low-frequency acoustic stimulation (electric-acoustic stimulation [EAS]), speech intelligibility in noise can improve dramatically. We recently showed that a similar benefit to intelligibility can be observed in simulation when the low-frequency acoustic stimulation (low-pass target speech) is replaced with a tone that is modulated both in frequency with the fundamental frequency (F0) of the target talker and in amplitude with the amplitude envelope of the low-pass target speech (Brown & Bacon 2009). The goal of the current experiment was to examine the benefit of the modulated tone to intelligibility in CI patients. Design Eight CI users who had some residual acoustic hearing either in the implanted ear, the unimplanted ear, or both ears participated in this study. Target speech was combined with either multitalker babble or a single competing talker and presented to the implant. Stimulation to the acoustic region consisted of no signal, target speech, or a tone that was modulated in frequency to track the changes in the target talker’s F0 and in amplitude to track the amplitude envelope of target speech low-pass filtered at 500 Hz. Results All patients showed improvements in intelligibility over electric-only stimulation when either the tone or target speech was presented acoustically. The average improvement in intelligibility was 46 percentage points due to the tone and 55 percentage points due to target speech. Conclusions The results demonstrate that a tone carrying F0 and amplitude envelope cues of target speech can provide significant benefit to CI users and may lead to new technologies that could offer EAS benefit to many patients who would not benefit from current EAS approaches. PMID:19546806

  10. Rapid, Time-Division Multiplexed, Direct Absorption- and Wavelength Modulation-Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alexander; Witzel, Oliver; Ebert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We present a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a novel, rapid time multiplexed direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy operation mode. The new technique allows enhancing the precision and dynamic range of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer without sacrificing accuracy. The spectroscopic technique combines the benefits of absolute concentration measurements using calibration-free direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) with the enhanced noise rejection of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In this work we demonstrate for the first time a 125 Hz time division multiplexed (TDM-dTDLAS-WMS) spectroscopic scheme by alternating the modulation of a DFB-laser between a triangle-ramp (dTDLAS) and an additional 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation (WMS). The absolute concentration measurement via the dTDLAS-technique allows one to simultaneously calibrate the normalized 2f/1f-signal of the WMS-technique. A dTDLAS/WMS-spectrometer at 1.37 μm for H2O detection was built for experimental validation of the multiplexing scheme over a concentration range from 50 to 3000 ppmV (0.1 MPa, 293 K). A precision of 190 ppbV was achieved with an absorption length of 12.7 cm and an averaging time of two seconds. Our results show a five-fold improvement in precision over the entire concentration range and a significantly decreased averaging time of the spectrometer. PMID:25405508

  11. Modulating lipid dynamics and membrane fluidity to drive rapid folding of a transmembrane barrel

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Svetlana Rajkumar; Chaturvedi, Deepti; Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Lipid-protein interactions, critical for the folding, stability and function of membrane proteins, can be both of mechanical and chemical nature. Mechanical properties of lipid systems can be suitably influenced by physical factors so as to facilitate membrane protein folding. We demonstrate here that by modulating lipid dynamics transiently using heat, rapid folding of two 8-stranded transmembrane β-barrel proteins OmpX and OmpA1–171, in micelles and vesicles, can be achieved within seconds. Folding kinetics using this ‘heat shock’ method shows a dramatic ten to several hundred folds increase in refolding rate along with ~100% folding efficiency. We establish that OmpX thus folded is highly thermostable even in detergent micelles, and retains structural characteristics comparable to the protein in bilayers. PMID:23771099

  12. Cooperative Learning and Group Educational Modules: Effects on Cognitive Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)

  13. Rapid Mars transits with exhaust-modulated plasma propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Braden, Ellen; Johnson, Ivan; Hsu, Michael M.; Yang, Tien Fang

    1995-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Exhaust-Modulated Plasma Rocket are described. Four basic human and robotic mission scenarios to Mars are analyzed using numerical optimization techniques at variable specific impulse and constant power. The device is well suited for 'split-sprint' missions, allowing fast, one-way low-payload human transits of 90 to 104 days, as well as slower, 180-day, high-payload robotic precursor flights. Abort capabilities, essential for human missions, are also explored.

  14. Estradiol rapidly modulates odor responses in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Cherian, S; Wai Lam, Y; McDaniels, I; Struziak, M; Delay, R J

    2014-06-01

    In rodents, many social behaviors are driven by the sense of smell. The vomeronasal organ (VNO), part of the accessory olfactory system mediates many of these chemically driven behaviors. The VNO is heavily vascularized, and is readily accessible to circulating peptide or steroid hormones. Potentially, this allows circulating hormones to alter behavior through modulating the output of the primary sensory neurons in the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Based on this, we hypothesized that steroid hormones, in particular 17β-estradiol, would modulate activity of VSNs. In this paper, we show that the estrogen receptors, GPR30 and ERα, were present in VSNs and that estradiol may be synthesized locally in the VNO. Our results also showed that 17β-estradiol decreased responses of isolated VSNs to dilute urine, a potent natural stimulus, with respect to current amplitudes and depolarization. Further, 17β-estradiol increased the latency of the first action potential (AP) and the AP amplitude. Additionally, calcium responses to sulfated steroids (present in the low molecular weight fraction of urine) that act as ligands for apical vomeronasal receptors were decreased by 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, we show that estradiol modulates odorant responses mediated by VSNs and hence paves the way for future studies to better understand the mechanisms by which odorant mediated behavior is altered by endocrine status of the animal. PMID:24680884

  15. Experiments in DIII-D toward achieving rapid shutdown with runaway electron suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Eidietis, N. W.; Evans, T. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; James, A. N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Parks, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Wesley, J. C.; Yu, J.H.; Austin, M. E.; Baylor, Larry R; Brooks, N. H.; Izzo, V. A.; Jackson, G. L.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Wu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] toward understanding runaway electron formation and amplification during rapid discharge shutdown, as well as toward achieving complete collisional suppression of these runaway electrons via massive delivery of impurities. Runaway acceleration and amplification appear to be well explained using the zero-dimensional (0D) current quench toroidal electric field. 0D or even one-dimensional modeling using a Dreicer seed term, however, appears to be too small to explain the initial runaway seed formation. Up to 15% of the line-average electron density required for complete runaway suppression has been achieved in the middle of the current quench using optimized massive gas injection with multiple small gas valves firing simultaneously. The novel rapid shutdown techniques of massive shattered pellet injection and shell pellet injection have been demonstrated for the first time. Experiments using external magnetic perturbations to deconfine runaways have shown promising preliminary results. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3309426

  16. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  17. Solvent induced rapid modulation of micro/nano structures of metal carboxylates coordination polymers: mechanism and morphology dependent magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Shen, Zhu-Rui; Li, Yue; Han, Song-De; Hu, Tong-Liang; Zhang, Da-Shuai; Bu, Xian-He; Ruan, Wen-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Rational modulation of morphology is very important for functional coordination polymers (CPs) micro/nanostructures, and new strategies are still desired to achieve this challenging target. Herein, organic solvents have been established as the capping agents for rapid modulating the growth of metal-carboxylates CPs in organic solvent/water mixtures at ambient conditions. Co-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (pydc) CPs was studied here as the example. During the reaction, the organic solvents exhibited three types of modulation effect: anisotropic growth, anisotropic growth/formation of new crystalline phase and the formation of new crystalline phase solely, which was due to the variation of their binding ability with metal cations. The following study revealed that the binding ability was critically affected by their functional groups and molecular size. Moreover, their modulation effect could be finely tuned by changing volume ratios of solvent mixtures. Furthermore, they could be applied for modulating other metal-carboxylates CPs: Co-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic (BTC), Zn-pydc and Eu-pydc etc. Additionally, the as-prepared Co-pydc CPs showed a fascinating morphology-dependent antiferromagnetic behavior. PMID:25113225

  18. Rapid effects of estrogens on behavior: environmental modulation and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Laredo, Sarah A.; Landeros, Rosalina Villalon; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol can modulate neural activity and behavior via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Environmental cues have a major impact on the relative importance of these signaling pathways with significant consequences for behavior. First we consider how photoperiod modulates nongenomic estrogen signaling on behavior. Intriguingly, short days permit rapid effects of estrogens on aggression in both rodents and song sparrows. This highlights the importance of considering photoperiod as a variable in laboratory research. Next we review evidence for rapid effects of estradiol on ecologically-relevant behaviors including aggression, copulation, communication, and learning. We also address the impact of endocrine disruptors on estrogen signaling, such as those found in corncob bedding used in rodent research. Finally, we examine the biochemical mechanisms that may mediate rapid estrogen action on behavior in males and females. A common theme across these topics is that the effects of estrogens on social behaviors vary across different environmental conditions. PMID:24685383

  19. Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements.

    PubMed

    Weyand, P G; Sternlight, D B; Bellizzi, M J; Wright, S

    2000-11-01

    We twice tested the hypothesis that top running speeds are determined by the amount of force applied to the ground rather than how rapidly limbs are repositioned in the air. First, we compared the mechanics of 33 subjects of different sprinting abilities running at their top speeds on a level treadmill. Second, we compared the mechanics of declined (-6 degrees ) and inclined (+9 degrees ) top-speed treadmill running in five subjects. For both tests, we used a treadmill-mounted force plate to measure the time between stance periods of the same foot (swing time, t(sw)) and the force applied to the running surface at top speed. To obtain the force relevant for speed, the force applied normal to the ground was divided by the weight of the body (W(b)) and averaged over the period of foot-ground contact (F(avge)/W(b)). The top speeds of the 33 subjects who completed the level treadmill protocol spanned a 1.8-fold range from 6.2 to 11.1 m/s. Among these subjects, the regression of F(avge)/W(b) on top speed indicated that this force was 1.26 times greater for a runner with a top speed of 11.1 vs. 6.2 m/s. In contrast, the time taken to swing the limb into position for the next step (t(sw)) did not vary (P = 0.18). Declined and inclined top speeds differed by 1.4-fold (9.96+/-0.3 vs. 7.10+/-0.3 m/s, respectively), with the faster declined top speeds being achieved with mass-specific support forces that were 1.3 times greater (2.30+/- 0.06 vs. 1.76+/-0.04 F(avge)/ W(b)) and minimum t(sw) that were similar (+8%). We conclude that human runners reach faster top speeds not by repositioning their limbs more rapidly in the air, but by applying greater support forces to the ground. PMID:11053354

  20. Attentional awakening: gradual modulation of temporal attention in rapid serial visual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Atsunori; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    Orienting attention to a point in time facilitates processing of an item within rapidly changing surroundings. We used a one-target RSVP task to look for differences in accuracy in reporting a target related to when the target temporally appeared in the sequence. The results show that observers correctly report a target early in the sequence less frequently than later in the sequence. Previous RSVP studies predicted equivalently accurate performances for one target wherever it appeared in the sequence. We named this new phenomenon attentional awakening, which reflects a gradual modulation of temporal attention in a rapid sequence. PMID:17106706

  1. From synapse to behavior: rapid modulation of defined neuronal types with engineered GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Peer; Goetz, Thomas; Leppä, Elli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Renzi, Massimiliano; Swinny, Jerome D; Vekovischeva, Olga Y; Sieghart, Werner; Somogyi, Peter; Korpi, Esa R; Farrant, Mark; Wisden, William

    2007-01-01

    In mammals, identifying the contribution of specific neurons or networks to behavior is a key challenge. Here we describe an approach that facilitates this process by enabling the rapid modulation of synaptic inhibition in defined cell populations. Binding of zolpidem, a systemically active allosteric modulator that enhances the function of the GABAA receptor, requires a phenylalanine residue (Phe77) in the γ2 subunit. Mice in which this residue is changed to isoleucine are insensitive to zolpidem. By Cre recombinase-induced swapping of the γ2 subunit (that is, exchanging Ile77 for Phe77), zolpidem sensitivity can be restored to GABAA receptors in chosen cell types. We demonstrate the power of this method in the cerebellum, where zolpidem rapidly induces significant motor deficits when Purkinje cells are made uniquely sensitive to its action. This combined molecular and pharmacological technique has demonstrable advantages over targeted cell ablation and will be invaluable for investigating many neuronal circuits. PMID:17572671

  2. From synapse to behavior: rapid modulation of defined neuronal types with engineered GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Peer; Goetz, Thomas; Leppä, Elli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Renzi, Massimiliano; Swinny, Jerome D; Vekovischeva, Olga Y; Sieghart, Werner; Somogyi, Peter; Korpi, Esa R; Farrant, Mark; Wisden, William

    2007-07-01

    In mammals, identifying the contribution of specific neurons or networks to behavior is a key challenge. Here we describe an approach that facilitates this process by enabling the rapid modulation of synaptic inhibition in defined cell populations. Binding of zolpidem, a systemically active allosteric modulator that enhances the function of the GABAA receptor, requires a phenylalanine residue (Phe77) in the gamma2 subunit. Mice in which this residue is changed to isoleucine are insensitive to zolpidem. By Cre recombinase-induced swapping of the gamma2 subunit (that is, exchanging Ile77 for Phe77), zolpidem sensitivity can be restored to GABAA receptors in chosen cell types. We demonstrate the power of this method in the cerebellum, where zolpidem rapidly induces significant motor deficits when Purkinje cells are made uniquely sensitive to its action. This combined molecular and pharmacological technique has demonstrable advantages over targeted cell ablation and will be invaluable for investigating many neuronal circuits. PMID:17572671

  3. Rapid tenderisation of lamb M. longissimus with very fast chilling depends on rapidly achieving sub-zero temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Robin; Rosenvold, Katja; North, Michael; Kemp, Robert; Warner, Robyn; Geesink, Geert

    2012-09-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether variations within the defined temperature-by-time profile for very fast chilling (VFC), might explain variations in tenderness found with VFC. Loins from 32 lambs were subjected to one of five cooling regimes; defined by the average temperature between the meat surface and centre reached at a specific time post mortem. These were: -0.3 °C at 22 h (Control), 2.6 °C at 1.5 h (Fast(supra-zero)), 0.7 °C at 5.5 h (Slow(supra-zero)), -1.6 °C at 1.5 h (Fast(sub-zero)) and -2.3 °C at 5.5 h (Slow(sub-zero)), respectively. Shear force values considered very tender by consumers (less than 50 N, MIRINZ tenderometer) were found 2 days post mortem in Fast(sub-zero) loins only. Both time and temperature at the end of the cooling period contributed to variations in shear force. To achieve low shear force, the loins needed to be cooled to less than 0 °C at 1.5 h post mortem. PMID:22551870

  4. Feeding status and serotonin rapidly and reversibly modulate a Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensory circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Michael Y.; Komatsu, Hidetoshi; Fukuto, Hana S.; Dionne, Heather M.; Hart, Anne C.

    2004-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates synaptic efficacy in the nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, many behaviors are regulated by 5-HT levels, which are in turn regulated by the presence or absence of food. Here, we show that both food and 5-HT signaling modulate chemosensory avoidance response of octanol in C. elegans, and that this modulation is both rapid and reversible. Sensitivity to octanol is decreased when animals are off food or when 5-HT levels are decreased; conversely, sensitivity is increased when animals are on food or have increased 5-HT signaling. Laser microsurgery and behavioral experiments reveal that sensory input from different subsets of octanol-sensing neurons is selectively used, depending on stimulus strength, feeding status, and 5-HT levels. 5-HT directly targets at least one pair of sensory neurons, and 5-HT signaling requires the G protein GPA-11. Glutamatergic signaling is required for response to octanol, and the GLR-1 glutamate receptor plays an important role in behavioral response off food but not on food. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT modulation of neuronal activity via G protein signaling underlies behavioral plasticity by rapidly altering the functional circuitry of a chemosensory circuit.

  5. Rapid replication and facile modulation of subwavelength antireflective polymer film using injection nanomolding and optical property of multilayer coatings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput process for nanotexturing subwavelength structures with high uniformity using the polycarbonate (PC) is realized via injection nanomolding. The process enables the precise control of nanohole array (NHA) surface topography (nanohole depth, diameter, and periodicity) over large areas thereby presenting a highly versatile platform for fabricating substrates with user-defined, functional performance. Specifically, the optical property of the PC substrates were systematically characterized and tuned through the modulation of the depths of NHA. The aspect ratio submicron holes can be easily modulated and experimentally proven by simply adjusting the molding temperature. The nanotextured depths were reliably fabricated in the range of 200 to 400 nm with a period of approximately 700 nm. The fabricated PC films can reduce the reflectivity from an original bare film of 10.2% and 8.9% to 1.4% and 2.1% with 400-nm depth of nanoholes at the wavelength of 400 and 550 nm, respectively. Compared with conventional moth-like nanostructures with nanopillar arrays with heights adjustable only by an etching process, this paper proposes a facile route with submicron holes to achieve a similar antireflective function, with a significantly reduced time and facile height modulation capability. Furthermore, the effects of multilayer coatings of dielectric and metallic layers on the nanomolded NHA have been performed and potential sensing application is explored. PMID:24088185

  6. Rapid replication and facile modulation of subwavelength antireflective polymer film using injection nanomolding and optical property of multilayer coatings.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Peng, Cheng-Chang; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2013-01-01

    A rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput process for nanotexturing subwavelength structures with high uniformity using the polycarbonate (PC) is realized via injection nanomolding. The process enables the precise control of nanohole array (NHA) surface topography (nanohole depth, diameter, and periodicity) over large areas thereby presenting a highly versatile platform for fabricating substrates with user-defined, functional performance. Specifically, the optical property of the PC substrates were systematically characterized and tuned through the modulation of the depths of NHA. The aspect ratio submicron holes can be easily modulated and experimentally proven by simply adjusting the molding temperature. The nanotextured depths were reliably fabricated in the range of 200 to 400 nm with a period of approximately 700 nm. The fabricated PC films can reduce the reflectivity from an original bare film of 10.2% and 8.9% to 1.4% and 2.1% with 400-nm depth of nanoholes at the wavelength of 400 and 550 nm, respectively. Compared with conventional moth-like nanostructures with nanopillar arrays with heights adjustable only by an etching process, this paper proposes a facile route with submicron holes to achieve a similar antireflective function, with a significantly reduced time and facile height modulation capability. Furthermore, the effects of multilayer coatings of dielectric and metallic layers on the nanomolded NHA have been performed and potential sensing application is explored. PMID:24088185

  7. Rapid replication and facile modulation of subwavelength antireflective polymer film using injection nanomolding and optical property of multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Peng, Cheng-Chang; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2013-10-01

    A rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput process for nanotexturing subwavelength structures with high uniformity using the polycarbonate (PC) is realized via injection nanomolding. The process enables the precise control of nanohole array (NHA) surface topography (nanohole depth, diameter, and periodicity) over large areas thereby presenting a highly versatile platform for fabricating substrates with user-defined, functional performance. Specifically, the optical property of the PC substrates were systematically characterized and tuned through the modulation of the depths of NHA. The aspect ratio submicron holes can be easily modulated and experimentally proven by simply adjusting the molding temperature. The nanotextured depths were reliably fabricated in the range of 200 to 400 nm with a period of approximately 700 nm. The fabricated PC films can reduce the reflectivity from an original bare film of 10.2% and 8.9% to 1.4% and 2.1% with 400-nm depth of nanoholes at the wavelength of 400 and 550 nm, respectively. Compared with conventional moth-like nanostructures with nanopillar arrays with heights adjustable only by an etching process, this paper proposes a facile route with submicron holes to achieve a similar antireflective function, with a significantly reduced time and facile height modulation capability. Furthermore, the effects of multilayer coatings of dielectric and metallic layers on the nanomolded NHA have been performed and potential sensing application is explored.

  8. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  9. Assessment of the Optimal Stimulus Pattern to Achieve Rapid Dorsal Hippocampal Kindling in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Fatemeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Babapour, Vahab

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although hippocampus is the most famous brain area involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal kindling (HK) develops very slowly. Hence, rapid kindling is usually preferred to the traditional kindling and it is widely used. In this article we aimed at finding the optimal stimulus pattern, which yields the fastest HK rate. Methods: Stimulus patterns with different duration (2, 3, 5 and 10 s) and inter-train interval (ITI) (5, 10 and 30 min) as well as number of trains in 24 h (8 and 12) were exerted to rats’ dorsal hippocampus. The stimuli were continued until appearance of 3 consecutive generalized seizures or maximum 7 days stimulations. Results: While the protocol with train duration of 10 s and ITI of 30 min caused the fastest kindling rate and the most growth of afterdischarges, the protocol with train duration of 5 s and ITI of 5 min was the most time-consuming protocol among protocols tested. Discussion: Rapid HK develops with a time course of days compared to weeks in traditional kindling. Train duration and inter-train interval are key factors for rapid HK. Among the patterns, 12 trains/24h of 50Hz monophasic square wave with 10 s duration and 30 min interval between trains, is the best stimulus pattern for eliciting rapid dorsal HK. PMID:27307955

  10. Estradiol rapidly modulates spinogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus: Involvement of kinase networks.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Yasushi; Munetomo, Arisa; Mukai, Hideo; Ikeda, Muneki; Sato, Rei; Hatanaka, Yusuke; Murakami, Gen; Komatsuzaki, Yoshimasa; Kimoto, Tetsuya; Kawato, Suguru

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Estradiol (E2) is locally synthesized within the hippocampus and the gonads. Rapid modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by E2 is essential for synaptic regulation. The molecular mechanisms of modulation through the synaptic estrogen receptor (ER) and its downstream signaling, however, are largely unknown in the dentate gyrus (DG). We investigated the E2-induced modulation of dendritic spines in male adult rat hippocampal slices by imaging Lucifer Yellow-injected DG granule cells. Treatments with 1 nM E2 increased the density of spines by approximately 1.4-fold within 2h. Spine head diameter analysis showed that the density of middle-head spines (0.4-0.5 μm) was significantly increased. The E2-induced spine density increase was suppressed by blocking Erk MAPK, PKA, PKC and LIMK. These suppressive effects by kinase inhibitors are not non-specific ones because the GSK-3β antagonist did not inhibit E2-induced spine increase. The ER antagonist ICI 182,780 also blocked the E2-induced spine increase. Taken together, these results suggest that E2 rapidly increases the density of spines through kinase networks that are driven by synaptic ER. PMID:26122288

  11. GOCE rapid science orbits: Achieving sub-dm orbit precision with minimal latency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ijssel, Jose; Visser, Pieter N. A. M.; van Helleputte, Tom; Bock, Heike

    For the GOCE satellite a Rapid Science Orbit (RSO) chain has been implemented to produce daily orbits with a 1-day latency and an accuracy of around 10 cm, in order to support satellite operations. The RSO will be used as input for external calibration and geodetic preprocessing of the gradiometer data and for quick-look gravity field modeling. The RSO chain provides as a baseline two orbit products, a reduced-dynamic and a kinematic solution. The reduced-dynamic RSO solution is computed using the NASA/GSFC GEODYN s/w package and is based on a triple differenced approach, using ionospheric-free GPS phase measurements along with rapid GPS orbits provided by the International GNSS Service. The kinematic RSO solution is computed using the DLR GHOST s/w package, and is based on a zero differenced approach, using rapid GPS orbits and clocks computed by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe. An overview of both RSO POD strategies will be presented, together with results obtained using about one year of GOCE data. Special attention will be given to the handling of the clock behaviour of the GOCE GPS receiver, which is not steered to GPS time and can show large drifts of up to 10 msec. In addition, the estimated non-gravitational accelerations resulting from the RSO computations will be compared with the gradiometer common-mode accelerations, during different modes of the drag-free control system.

  12. Becoming a Great Teacher of Reading: Achieving High Rapid Reading Gains with Powerful, Differentiated Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Literacy expert Marie Carbo pairs identifying each learner's unique reading style with a wide range of differentiated strategies to help all learners experience greater reading success. Using these research-based methods, both novice and experienced teachers can increase reading achievement with all learners, including those who are at-risk,…

  13. Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

  14. Nanocomposite Architecture for Rapid, Spectrally-Selective Electrochromic Modulation of Solar Transmittance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwook; Ong, Gary K; Wang, Yang; LeBlanc, Gabriel; Williams, Teresa E; Mattox, Tracy M; Helms, Brett A; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-08-12

    Two active electrochromic materials, vacancy-doped tungsten oxide (WO(3-x)) nanocrystals and amorphous niobium oxide (NbOx) glass are arranged into a mesostructured architecture. In a strategy applicable across electrochemical applications, the critical dimensions and interfacial connections in the nanocomposite are designed to optimize pathways for electrochemical charging and discharging. The result is an unprecedented optical range for modulation of visible and near-infrared solar radiation with rapid switching kinetics that indicate the WO(3-x) nanocrystal framework effectively pumps charge out of the normally sluggish NbOx glass. The material is durable for at least 2000 electrochemical cycles. PMID:26189324

  15. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  16. Rapid Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribble, Adam; Alali, Sanaz; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its composition, both structural and functional. For example, the polarimetry-derived metric of linear retardance (birefringence) is dependent on tissue structural organization (anisotropy) and can be used to diagnose myocardial infarct; circular birefringence (optical rotation) can measure glucose concentrations. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. To derive this 4x4 matrix it is necessary to observe how a tissue interacts with different polarizations. A well-suited approach for tissue polarimetry is to use photoelastic modulators (PEMs), which dynamically modulate the polarization of light. Previously, we have demonstrated a rapid time-gated Stokes imaging system that is capable of characterizing the state of polarized light (the Stokes vector) over a large field, after interacting with any turbid media. This was accomplished by synchronizing CCD camera acquisition times relative to two PEMs using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Here, we extend this technology to four PEMs, yielding a polarimetry system that is capable of rapidly measuring the complete sample Mueller matrix over a large field of view, with no moving parts and no beam steering. We describe the calibration procedure and evaluate the accuracy of the measurements. Results are shown for tissue-mimicking phantoms, as well as initial biological samples.

  17. Estradiol rapidly modulates synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons: Involvement of kinase networks.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Hojo, Yasushi; Kojima, Hiroki; Ikeda, Muneki; Hotta, Keisuke; Sato, Rei; Ooishi, Yuuki; Yoshiya, Miyuki; Chung, Bon-Chu; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kawato, Suguru

    2015-09-24

    Estradiol (E2) is locally synthesized within the hippocampus in addition to the gonads. Rapid modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by E2 is essential for synaptic regulation. Molecular mechanisms of modulation through synaptic estrogen receptor (ER) and its downstream signaling, however, have been still unknown. We investigated induction of LTP by the presence of E2 upon weak theta burst stimulation (weak-TBS) in CA1 region of adult male hippocampus. Since only weak-TBS did not induce full-LTP, weak-TBS was sub-threshold stimulation. We observed LTP induction by the presence of E2, after incubation of hippocampal slices with 10nM E2 for 30 min, upon weak-TBS. This E2-induced LTP was blocked by ICI, an ER antagonist. This E2-LTP induction was inhibited by blocking Erk MAPK, PKA, PKC, PI3K, NR2B and CaMKII, individually, suggesting that Erk MAPK, PKA, PKC, PI3K and CaMKII may be involved in downstream signaling for activation of NMDA receptors. Interestingly, dihydrotestosterone suppressed the E2-LTP. We also investigated rapid changes of dendritic spines (=postsynapses) in response to E2, using hippocampal slices from adult male rats. We found 1nM E2 increased the density of spines by approximately 1.3-fold within 2h by imaging Lucifer Yellow-injected CA1 pyramidal neurons. The E2-induced spine increase was blocked by ICI. The increase in spines was suppressed by blocking PI3K, Erk MAPK, p38 MAPK, PKA, PKC, LIMK, CaMKII or calcineurin, individually. On the other hand, blocking JNK did not inhibit the E2-induced spine increase. Taken together, these results suggest that E2 rapidly induced LTP and also increased the spine density through kinase networks that are driven by synaptic ER. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID:25595055

  18. A Rapid Method to Achieve Aero-Engine Blade Form Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces. PMID:26039420

  19. A rapid method to achieve aero-engine blade form detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces. PMID:26039420

  20. Rapid, simple, and cost-effective treatments to achieve long-term hydrophilic PDMS surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmilä, Samu; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V.; Kreutzer, Joose; Kallio, Pasi

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple, and cost-effective treatments for producing biocompatible and long-term hydrophilic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces identified in an experimental study investigating 39 treatments in all. The wetting of the surfaces was monitored during six months. Changes in surface morphology and chemical composition were also analyzed. Some of the treatments are presented here for the first time, while for earlier presented treatments the selection of investigated parameters was wider and the observation period for the surface wetting longer. The PDMS surfaces were modified by surface activation, physisorption, and synthesis of both “grafting to” and “grafting from” polymer brushes. In surface activation, the PDMS sample was exposed to oxygen plasma, with several combinations of exposure time and RF power. In the physisorption and synthesis of polymer brushes, three commercially available and biocompatible chemicals were used: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Thirty-three of the 39 treatments rendered the PDMS hydrophilic, and in 12 cases the hydrophilicity lasted at least six months. Seven of these long-term hydrophilic coatings supported a contact angle of 30° or less. Three of the long-lasting hydrophilic coatings required only minutes to prepare.

  1. Rapid Modulation of Axon Initial Segment Length Influences Repetitive Spike Firing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Mark D.; Dumitrescu, Adna S.; Kruijssen, Dennis L.H.; Taylor, Samuel E.; Grubb, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neurons implement a variety of plasticity mechanisms to alter their function over timescales ranging from seconds to days. One powerful means of controlling excitability is to directly modulate the site of spike initiation, the axon initial segment (AIS). However, all plastic structural AIS changes reported thus far have been slow, involving days of neuronal activity perturbation. Here, we show that AIS plasticity can be induced much more rapidly. Just 3 hr of elevated activity significantly shortened the AIS of dentate granule cells in a calcineurin-dependent manner. The functional effects of rapid AIS shortening were offset by dephosphorylation of voltage-gated sodium channels, another calcineurin-dependent mechanism. However, pharmacological separation of these phenomena revealed a significant relationship between AIS length and repetitive firing. The AIS can therefore undergo a rapid form of structural change over timescales that enable interactions with other forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the dynamic control of neuronal excitability. PMID:26526995

  2. A growth factor-induced, spatially organizing cytoskeletal module enables rapid and persistent fibroblast migration

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katrin; Vilela, Marco; Jeon, Noo Li; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pertz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Summary Directional migration requires robust front/back polarity. We find that fibroblasts treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and pre-polarized by plating on a fibronectin line substrate, exhibit persistent migration for hours. This does not occur in the absence of PDGF, or on uniformly-coated fibronectin substrates. Persistent migration arises from establishment of two functional modules at cell front and back. At the front, formation of a zone containing podosome-like structures (PLS), dynamically correlates with low RhoA and myosin activity, and absence of a contractile lamella. At the back, myosin contractility specifically controls tail retraction with minimal crosstalk to the front module. The PLS zone is maintained in a dynamic steady state that preserves size and position relative to the cell front, allowing for long term coordination of front and back modules. We propose that front/back uncoupling achieved by the PLS zone is crucial for persistent migration in absence of directional cues. PMID:25268172

  3. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) vs. conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for {sup 18}F-FDG-PET-guided dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer: A planning study

    SciTech Connect

    Teoh, May; Beveridge, Sabeena; Wood, Katie; Whitaker, Stephen; Adams, Elizabeth; Rickard, Donna; Jordan, Tom; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H.

    2013-04-01

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET)–guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer may potentially improve local control. We evaluated the feasibility of this approach using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and compared these plans with fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) focal dose escalation plans. Materials and methods: An initial study of 20 patients compared RapidArc with fixed-field IMRT using standard dose prescriptions. From this cohort, 10 were included in a dose escalation planning study. Dose escalation was applied to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET–positive regions in the primary tumor at dose levels of 5% (DL1), 10% (DL2), and 15% (DL3) above standard radical dose (65 Gy in 30 fractions). Fixed-field IMRT and double-arc RapidArc plans were generated for each dataset. Dose-volume histograms were used for plan evaluation and comparison. The Paddick conformity index (CI{sub Paddick}) and monitor units (MU) for each plan were recorded and compared. Both IMRT and RapidArc produced clinically acceptable plans and achieved planning objectives for target volumes. Dose conformity was significantly better in the RapidArc plans, with lower CI{sub Paddick} scores in both primary (PTV1) and elective (PTV2) planning target volumes (largest difference in PTV1 at DL3; 0.81 ± 0.03 [RapidArc] vs. 0.77 ± 0.07 [IMRT], p = 0.04). Maximum dose constraints for spinal cord and brainstem were not exceeded in both RapidArc and IMRT plans, but mean doses were higher with RapidArc (by 2.7 ± 1 Gy for spinal cord and 1.9 ± 1 Gy for brainstem). Contralateral parotid mean dose was lower with RapidArc, which was statistically significant at DL1 (29.0 vs. 29.9 Gy, p = 0.01) and DL2 (29.3 vs. 30.3 Gy, p = 0.03). MU were reduced by 39.8–49.2% with RapidArc (largest difference at DL3, 641 ± 94 vs. 1261 ± 118, p < 0.01). {sup 18}F-FDG-PET–guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer is feasible with Rapid

  4. Noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging using a low-coherence interferometer with rapid detection of phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Tang, Hongchun; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    A photoacoustic tomography imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with rapid detection of phase modulation was designed, fabricated, and tested for biologic imaging. A noncontact probing technique was applied to improve the practicability of the system. The technique is experimentally verified by the image of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within a mouse ear flap (pinna) in vivo. The system's axial and lateral resolutions are evaluated at 45 and ~15 μm, respectively. The system's imaging depth is 1mm in a special phantom. The results show that the system has the feasibility to be used as a photoacoustic tomography imaging method, and it may provide a kind of possibility of noncontact real-time PAT.

  5. The Impact of Attendance and Student Characteristics on Academic Achievement: Findings from an Undergraduate Business Management Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    The article provides an empirical investigation into the impact of attendance and student characteristics on academic achievement in higher education. It is based on a study of 127 students who completed coursework for a taught undergraduate business management module at London Metropolitan University between 2003/4 and 2005/6. The article…

  6. Nogo-A controls structural plasticity at dendritic spines by rapidly modulating actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Yves; Fricke, Steffen; Kramer, Stella; Iobbi, Cristina; Wierenga, Corette J; Schwab, Martin E; Korte, Martin; Zagrebelsky, Marta

    2016-06-01

    Nogo-A and its receptors have been shown to control synaptic plasticity, including negatively regulating long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cortex and hippocampus at a fast time scale and restraining experience-dependent turnover of dendritic spines over days. However, the molecular mechanisms and the precise time course mediating these actions of Nogo-A are largely unexplored. Here we show that Nogo-A signaling in the adult nervous system rapidly modulates the spine actin cytoskeleton within minutes to control structural plasticity at dendritic spines of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Indeed, acute Nogo-A loss-of-function transiently increases F-actin stability and results in an increase in dendritic spine density and length. In addition, Nogo-A acutely restricts AMPAR insertion and mEPSC amplitude at hippocampal synaptic sites. These data indicate a crucial function of Nogo-A in modulating the very tight balance between plasticity and stability of the neuronal circuitry underlying learning processes and the ability to store long-term information in the mature CNS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26748478

  7. Positive AMPA receptor modulation rapidly stimulates BDNF release and increases dendritic mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Jourdi, Hussam; Hsu, Yu-Tien; Zhou, Miou; Qin, Qingyu; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2009-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulates local dendritic mRNA translation and is involved in formation and consolidation of memory. 2H,3H,6aH-pyrrolidino[2'',1''-3',2']1,3-oxazino[6',5'-5,4]-benzo[e]1,4-dioxan-10-one (CX614), one of the best-studied positive AMPA receptor modulators (also known as ampakines), increases BDNF mRNA and protein and facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) induction. Several other ampakines also improve performance in various behavioral and learning tasks. Since local dendritic protein synthesis has been implicated in LTP stabilization and in memory consolidation, this study investigated whether CX614 could influence synaptic plasticity by upregulating dendritic protein translation. CX614 treatment of primary neuronal cultures and acute hippocampal slices rapidly activated the translation machinery and increased local dendritic protein synthesis. CX614-induced activation of translation was blocked by K252a [(9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid methyl ester], CNQX, APV, and TTX, and was inhibited in the presence of an extracellular BDNF scavenger, TrkB-Fc. The acute effect of CX614 on translation was mediated by increased BDNF release as demonstrated with a BDNF scavenging assay using TrkB-Fc during CX614 treatment of cultured primary neurons and was blocked by nifedipine, ryanodine, and lack of extracellular Ca(2+) in acute hippocampal slices. Finally, CX614, like BDNF, rapidly increased dendritic translation of an exogenous translation reporter. Together, our results demonstrate that positive modulation of AMPA receptors rapidly stimulates dendritic translation, an effect mediated by BDNF secretion and TrkB receptor activation. They also suggest that increased BDNF secretion and stimulation of local protein synthesis contribute to the effects of ampakines on synaptic plasticity. PMID:19587275

  8. Social Context Rapidly Modulates the Influence of Auditory Feedback on Avian Vocal Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Brainard, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory feedback is important for the learning and control of a variety of behaviors. Vocal motor production in songbirds is a powerful model system to study sensory influences on behavior because the learning, maintenance, and control of song are critically dependent on auditory feedback. Based on previous behavioral and neural experiments, it has been hypothesized that songs produced in isolation [undirected (UD) song] represent a form of vocal practice, whereas songs produced to females during courtship interactions [female-directed (FD) song] represent a form of vocal performance. According to this “practice versus performance” framework, auditory feedback should be more influential when birds engage in vocal practice than when they engage in vocal performance. To directly test this hypothesis, we used a computerized system to perturb auditory feedback at precise locations during the songs of Bengalese finches and compared the degree to which feedback perturbations caused song interruptions as well as changes to the sequencing and timing of syllables between interleaved renditions of UD and FD song. We found that feedback perturbation caused fewer song interruptions and smaller changes to syllable timing during FD song than during UD song. These data show that changes in the social context in which song is produced rapidly modulate the influence of auditory feedback on song control in a manner consistent with the practice versus performance framework. More generally, they indicate that, for song, as for other motor skills including human speech, the influence of sensory feedback on activity within vocal premotor circuitry can be dynamically modulated. PMID:19692513

  9. Cacna1c (Cav1.2) Modulates Electroencephalographic Rhythm and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deependra; Dedic, Nina; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Voulé, Stephanie; Deussing, Jan M.; Kimura, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The CACNA1C gene encodes the alpha 1C (α1C) subunit of the Cav1.2 voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel (LTCC). Some of the other voltage-dependent calcium channels, e.g., P-/Q-type, Cav2.1; N-type, Cav2.2; E-/R-type, Cav2.3; and T-type, Cav3.3 have been implicated in sleep modulation. However, the contribution of LTCCs to sleep remains largely unknown. Based on recent genome-wide association studies, CACNA1C emerged as one of potential candidate genes associated with both sleep and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, most patients with mental illnesses have sleep problems and vice versa. Design: To investigate an impact of Cav1.2 on sleep-wake behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, polysomnography was performed in heterozygous Cacna1c (HET) knockout mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates under baseline and challenging conditions (acute sleep deprivation and restraint stress). Measurements and Results: HET mice displayed significantly lower EEG spectral power than WT mice across high frequency ranges (beta to gamma) during wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although HET mice spent slightly more time asleep in the dark period, daily amounts of sleep did not differ between the two genotypes. However, recovery sleep after exposure to both types of challenging stress conditions differed markedly; HET mice exhibited reduced REM sleep recovery responses compared to WT mice. Conclusions: These results suggest the involvement of Cacna1c (Cav1.2) in fast electroencephalogram oscillations and REM sleep regulatory processes. Lower spectral gamma activity, slightly increased sleep demands, and altered REM sleep responses found in heterozygous Cacna1c knockout mice may rather resemble a sleep phenotype observed in schizophrenia patients. Citation: Kumar D, Dedic N, FLachskamm C, Voulé S, Deussing JM, Kimura M. Cacna1c (Cav1.2) modulates electroencephalographic rhythm and rapid eye movement sleep recovery. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1371–1380. PMID

  10. ROTATIONALLY MODULATED g-MODES IN THE RAPIDLY ROTATING {delta} SCUTI STAR RASALHAGUE ({alpha} OPHIUCHI)

    SciTech Connect

    Monnier, J. D.; Che, X.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Zhao, M.; Kallinger, T.; Matthews, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    2010-12-10

    Despite a century of remarkable progress in understanding stellar interiors, we know surprisingly little about the inner workings of stars spinning near their critical limit. New interferometric imaging of these so-called rapid rotators combined with breakthroughs in asteroseismology promise to lift this veil and probe the strongly latitude-dependent photospheric characteristics and even reveal the internal angular momentum distribution of these luminous objects. Here, we report the first high-precision photometry on the low-amplitude {delta} Scuti variable star Rasalhague ({alpha} Oph, A5IV, 2.18 M{sub sun}, {omega}/{omega}{sub c}{approx}0.88) based on 30 continuous days of monitoring using the MOST satellite. We have identified 57 {+-} 1 distinct pulsation modes above a stochastic granulation spectrum with a cutoff of {approx}26 cycles day{sup -1}. Remarkably, we have also discovered that the fast rotation period of 14.5 hr modulates low-frequency modes (1-10 day periods) that we identify as a rich family of g-modes (|m| up to 7). The spacing of the g-modes is surprisingly linear considering Coriolis forces are expected to strongly distort the mode spectrum, suggesting we are seeing prograde 'equatorial Kelvin' waves (modes l = m). We emphasize the unique aspects of Rasalhague motivating future detailed asteroseismic modeling-a source with a precisely measured parallax distance, photospheric oblateness, latitude temperature structure, and whose low-mass companion provides an astrometric orbit for precise mass determinations.

  11. PDO modulation of ENSO effect on tropical cyclone rapid intensification in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xidong; Liu, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) modulates the effect of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropical cyclone rapid intensification (RI) in the western North Pacific. The analysis shows that the interannual relationship between ENSO and annual RI number in warm PDO phases is strong and statistically significant. In cold PDO phases, however, there is no significant correlation between ENSO and RI on the interannual timescale. The enhancement of the interannual ENSO-RI relationship in warm PDO phases is mainly attributable to the change of the environmental vertical wind shear. The PDO in warm (cold) phases can strengthen (weaken) an El Niño event to increase (reduce) the effects of the warm pool of water over the equatorial Pacific in typhoon season by local diabatic heating. El Niño events are accompanied by the stronger Walker circulation in the equatorial Pacific in the warm PDO phase than in the cold PDO phase. In contrast, the Walker circulation pattern and amplitude associated with La Niña events is less affected by the alternate PDO phase. This tends to make the atmospheric response to ENSO stronger (weaker) in warm (cold) PDO phase, and so is the atmospheric teleconnection of ENSO. Our results indicate that the stratification of ENSO-based statistical RI forecast by the PDO can greatly improve the accuracy of statistical RI predictions.

  12. Modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization with a warm rapidly rotating half-wave plate on the Atacama B-Mode Search instrument.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, A; Essinger-Hileman, T; Appel, J W; Gallardo, P; Irwin, K D; Jarosik, N; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization using a rapidly rotating, half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search. After demodulating the time-ordered-data (TOD), we find a significant reduction of atmospheric fluctuations. The demodulated TOD is stable on time scales of 500-1000 s, corresponding to frequencies of 1-2 mHz. This facilitates recovery of cosmological information at large angular scales, which are typically available only from balloon-borne or satellite experiments. This technique also achieves a sensitive measurement of celestial polarization without differencing the TOD of paired detectors sensitive to two orthogonal linear polarizations. This is the first demonstration of the ability to remove atmospheric contamination at these levels from a ground-based platform using a rapidly rotating HWP. PMID:24593374

  13. Modulation of host immunity by HIV may be partly achieved through usurping host autonomic functions.

    PubMed

    Yun, A Joon; Lee, Patrick Y; Bazar, Kimberly A

    2004-01-01

    Modulation of host immunity has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. HIV is believed to influence host immunity through a variety of mechanisms including direct effects on host T cell survival, indirect effects on cytokine profile through modulation of immune cells, and modulation of endocrine functions that affect immunity such as steroids. We hypothesize that HIV infection may also alter host immunity through modulation of host sympatho-vagal balance. Specifically, we propose that HIV drives autonomic balance towards sympathetic bias, which can contribute to a T helper (Th)2 type immunity. A variety of paraviral syndromes associated with HIV infection such as QT prolongation, cachexia, cardiomyopathy, and lipodystrophy are consistent with evidence of autonomic dysfunction. Immunomodulatory effects of autonomic dysfunction toward Th2 bias are presented. A plausible mechanism by which HIV can influence autonomic balance through hypothalamic manipulation is offered. Shift to Th2 dominance is associated with HIV disease progression and can be viewed as a viral adaptation to promote its own survival. Autonomic remodeling by HIV may exemplify this phenomenon. Our hypothesis has implications for treatment of HIV and its associated syndromes. PMID:15236804

  14. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. N.; Goodrich, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 (+ or -) 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 (+ or -) 0.7, -0.4 (+ or -) 0.3, and 76 (+ or -) 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on (Delta)p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc.

  15. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for space station freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W. )

    1991-03-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 {plus minus} 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 {plus minus} 0.7, {minus}0.4 {plus minus} 0.3, and 76 {plus minus} 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on {Delta}p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc. 13 refs.

  16. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for space station freedom. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 {plus_minus} 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 {plus_minus} 0.7, {minus}0.4 {plus_minus} 0.3, and 76 {plus_minus} 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on {Delta}p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc. 13 refs.

  17. Rotationally Modulated g-modes in the Rapidly Rotating δ Scuti Star Rasalhague (α Ophiuchi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J. D.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Che, X.; Zhao, M.; Kallinger, T.; Matthews, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    2010-12-01

    Despite a century of remarkable progress in understanding stellar interiors, we know surprisingly little about the inner workings of stars spinning near their critical limit. New interferometric imaging of these so-called rapid rotators combined with breakthroughs in asteroseismology promise to lift this veil and probe the strongly latitude-dependent photospheric characteristics and even reveal the internal angular momentum distribution of these luminous objects. Here, we report the first high-precision photometry on the low-amplitude δ Scuti variable star Rasalhague (α Oph, A5IV, 2.18 Msun, {ω}/{ω_c}˜ 0.88) based on 30 continuous days of monitoring using the MOST satellite. We have identified 57 ± 1 distinct pulsation modes above a stochastic granulation spectrum with a cutoff of ~26 cycles day-1. Remarkably, we have also discovered that the fast rotation period of 14.5 hr modulates low-frequency modes (1-10 day periods) that we identify as a rich family of g-modes (|m| up to 7). The spacing of the g-modes is surprisingly linear considering Coriolis forces are expected to strongly distort the mode spectrum, suggesting we are seeing prograde "equatorial Kelvin" waves (modes ell = m). We emphasize the unique aspects of Rasalhague motivating future detailed asteroseismic modeling—a source with a precisely measured parallax distance, photospheric oblateness, latitude temperature structure, and whose low-mass companion provides an astrometric orbit for precise mass determinations. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission operated by Dynacon, Inc., the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia, with assistance from the University of Vienna, Austria.

  18. Combustion Module-2 Achieved Scientific Success on Shuttle Mission STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The familiar teardrop shape of a candle is caused by hot, spent air rising and cool fresh air flowing behind it. This type of airflow obscures many of the fundamental processes of combustion and is an impediment to our understanding and modeling of key combustion controls used for manufacturing, transportation, fire safety, and pollution. Conducting experiments in the microgravity environment onboard the space shuttles eliminates these impediments. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) and its three experiments successfully flew on STS-107/Columbia in the SPACEHAB module and provided the answers for many research questions. However, this research also opened up new questions. The CM-2 facility was the largest and most complex pressurized system ever flown by NASA and was a precursor to the Glenn Fluids and Combustion Facility planned to fly on the International Space Station. CM-2 operated three combustion experiments: Laminar Soot Processes (LSP), Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number (SOFBALL), and Water Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist). Although Columbia's mission ended in tragedy with the loss of her crew and much data, most of the CM-2 results were sent to the ground team during the mission.

  19. Capacity achieving nonbinary LDPC coded non-uniform shaping modulation for adaptive optical communications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changyu; Zou, Ding; Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-08-01

    A mutual information inspired nonbinary coded modulation design with non-uniform shaping is proposed. Instead of traditional power of two signal constellation sizes, we design 5-QAM, 7-QAM and 9-QAM constellations, which can be used in adaptive optical networks. The non-uniform shaping and LDPC code rate are jointly considered in the design, which results in a better performance scheme for the same SNR values. The matched nonbinary (NB) LDPC code is used for this scheme, which further improves the coding gain and the overall performance. We analyze both coding performance and system SNR performance. We show that the proposed NB LDPC-coded 9-QAM has more than 2dB gain in symbol SNR compared to traditional LDPC-coded star-8-QAM. On the other hand, the proposed NB LDPC-coded 5-QAM and 7-QAM have even better performance than LDPC-coded QPSK. PMID:27505775

  20. Estrogen receptor KO mice study on rapid modulation of spines and long-term depression in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Gen; Hojo, Yasushi; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Mukai, Hideo; Chambon, Pierre; Nakajima, Kohei; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kimoto, Tetsuya; Kawato, Suguru

    2015-09-24

    Rapid modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity through synaptic estrogen receptors is an essential topic. We analyzed estradiol-induced modulation of CA1 dendritic spines using adult male ERαKO and ERβKO mice. A 2h treatment of estradiol particularly increased the density of middle-head spines (diameter 0.3-0.4 µm) in wild type mouse hippocampal slices. The enhancement of spinogenesis was completely suppressed by MAP kinase inhibitor. Estradiol-induced increase in middle-head spines was observed in ERβKO mice (which express ERα), but not in ERαKO, indicating that ERα is necessary for the spinogenesis. Direct observation of the dynamic estradiol-induced enhancing effect on rapid spinogenesis was performed using time-lapse imaging of spines in hippocampal live slices from yellow fluorescent protein expressed mice. Both appearance and disappearance of spines occurred, and the number of newly appeared spines was significantly greater than that of disappeared spines, resulting in the net increase of the spine density within 2h. As another type of synaptic modulation, we observed that estradiol rapidly enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced long-term depression (LTD) in CA1 of the wild type mouse hippocampus. In contrast, estradiol did not enhance NMDA-LTD in ERαKO mice, indicating the involvement of ERα in the estrogen signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID:25498865

  1. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    surrogate model, which captures the relationships between input variables and responses into regression equations. Depending on the dimensionality of the problem and the fidelity of the code for which a surrogate model is being created, the initial DOE can itself be computationally prohibitive to run. Cokriging, a modeling approach from the field of geostatistics, provides a desirable compromise between computational expense and fidelity. To do this, cokriging leverages a large body of data generated by a low fidelity analysis, combines it with a smaller set of data from a higher fidelity analysis, and creates a kriging surrogate model with prediction fidelity approaching that of the higher fidelity analysis. When integrated into a multidisciplinary environment, a disciplinary analysis module employing cokriging can raise the analysis fidelity without drastically impacting the expense of design iterations. This is demonstrated through the creation of an aerodynamics analysis module in NASA s OpenMDAO framework. Aerodynamic analyses including Missile DATCOM, APAS, and USM3D are leveraged to create high fidelity aerodynamics decks for parametric vehicle geometries, which are created in NASA s Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). Several trade studies are performed to examine the achieved level of model fidelity, and the overall impact to vehicle design is quantified.

  2. A high frequency resonance in the responses of retinal ganglion cells to rapidly modulated stimuli: a computer model.

    PubMed

    Miller, J A; Denning, K S; George, J S; Marshak, D W; Kenyon, G T

    2006-01-01

    Brisk Y-type ganglion cells in the cat retina exhibit a high frequency resonance (HFR) in their responses to large, rapidly modulated stimuli. We used a computer model to test whether negative feedback mediated by axon-bearing amacrine cells onto ganglion cells could account for the experimentally observed properties of HFRs. Temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs) recorded from model ganglion cells exhibited HFR peaks whose amplitude, width, and locations were qualitatively consistent with experimental data. Moreover, the wide spatial distribution of axon-mediated feedback accounted for the observed increase in HFR amplitude with stimulus size. Model phase plots were qualitatively similar to those recorded from Y ganglion cells, including an anomalous phase advance that in our model coincided with the amplification of low-order harmonics that overlapped the HFR peak. When axon-mediated feedback in the model was directed primarily to bipolar cells, whose synaptic output was graded, or else when the model was replaced with a simple cascade of linear filters, it was possible to produce large HFR peaks but the region of anomalous phase advance was always eliminated, suggesting the critical involvement of strongly non-linear feedback loops. To investigate whether HFRs might contribute to visual processing, we simulated high frequency ocular tremor by rapidly modulating a naturalistic image. Visual signals riding on top of the imposed jitter conveyed an enhanced representation of large objects. We conclude that by amplifying responses to ocular tremor, HFRs may selectively enhance the processing of large image features. PMID:17020633

  3. Selective Modulation of Histaminergic Inputs on Projection Neurons of Cerebellum Rapidly Promotes Motor Coordination via HCN Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhuang, Qian-Xing; Li, Bin; Wu, Guan-Yi; Yung, Wing-Ho; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Insights into function of central histaminergic system, a general modulator originating from the hypothalamus for whole brain activity, in motor control are critical for understanding the mechanism underlying somatic-nonsomatic integration. Here, we show a novel selective role of histamine in the cerebellar nuclei, the final integrative center and output of the cerebellum. Histamine depolarizes projection neurons but not interneurons in the cerebellar nuclei via the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels coupled to histamine H2 receptors, which are exclusively expressed on glutamatergic and glycinergic projection neurons. Furthermore, blockage of HCN channels to block endogenous histaminergic afferent inputs in the cerebellar nuclei significantly attenuates motor balance and coordination. Therefore, through directly and quickly modulation on projection neurons but not interneurons in the cerebellar nuclei, central histaminergic system may act as a critical biasing force to not only promptly regulate ongoing movement but also realize a rapid integration of somatic and nonsomatic response. PMID:25633097

  4. A Survey of Hardware and Software Technologies for the Rapid Development of Multimedia Instructional Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Nanda

    2008-01-01

    A survey of hardware and software technologies was conducted to identify suitable technologies for the development of instructional modules representing various instructional approaches. The approaches modeled were short PowerPoint presentations, chalk-and-talk type of lectures and software tutorials. The survey focused on identifying application…

  5. Rapid wide-field Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts.

    PubMed

    Alali, Sanaz; Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, I Alex

    2016-03-01

    A new polarimetry method is demonstrated to image the entire Mueller matrix of a turbid sample using four photoelastic modulators (PEMs) and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, with no moving parts. Accurate wide-field imaging is enabled with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) optical gating technique and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) that optimizes imaging times. This technique accurately and rapidly measured the Mueller matrices of air, polarization elements, and turbid phantoms. The system should prove advantageous for Mueller matrix analysis of turbid samples (e.g., biological tissues) over large fields of view, in less than a second. PMID:26974110

  6. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-15

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ∼15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT.

  7. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ˜15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT.

  8. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ∼15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT. PMID:25933886

  9. Rapid determination of Faraday rotation in optical glasses by means of secondary Faraday modulator.

    PubMed

    Sofronie, M; Elisa, M; Sava, B A; Boroica, L; Valeanu, M; Kuncser, V

    2015-05-01

    A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided. PMID:26026534

  10. Priming from Distractors in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Is Modulated by Image Properties and Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Irina M.; Benito, Claire T.; Dux, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated distractor processing in a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task containing familiar objects, by measuring repetition priming from a priming distractor (PD) to Target 2 (T2). Priming from a visually identical PD was contrasted with priming from a PD in a different orientation from T2. We also tested the effect of…

  11. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Transformation Model for Rapid Improvement of Low Achieving Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson Duina, Angela

    2013-01-01

    New regulations attached to ARRA funding of federal School Improvement Fund grants aimed at producing rapid turnaround of low performing schools were highly criticized as unsuitable for rural schools. This mixed-methods study looked at the implementation of the School Improvement Fund Transformation Model in two rural Maine high schools during the…

  12. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy. PMID:23959505

  13. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Frequency and force modulation atomic force microscopy: low-impact tapping-mode imaging without bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2007-07-01

    Since the 1980s, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has rapidly developed into a versatile, high-resolution characterization technique, available in a variety of imaging modes. Within intermittent-contact tapping-mode, imaging bistability and sample mechanical damage continue to be two of the most important challenges faced daily by AFM users. Recently, a new double-control-loop tapping-mode imaging algorithm (frequency and amplitude modulation AFM, FAM-AFM) was proposed and evaluated within numerical simulations, demonstrating a reduction in the repulsive tip sample forces and the absence of bistability. This article presents a much simpler algorithm, frequency and force modulation AFM (FFM-AFM), which requires only a single control loop and offers the same benefits as FAM-AFM. The concept is applied to calculate the cross-sectional scan of a carbon nanotube sample resting on a silicon surface, which is then compared to a previously reported image obtained in conventional amplitude-modulation tapping-mode, shown to be in agreement with the experimental result.

  14. Dosimetric difference amongst 3 techniques: TomoTherapy, sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc radiotherapy in the treatment of late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Francis Kar-ho Yip, Celia Wai-yi; Cheung, Frankie Chun-hung; Leung, Alex Kwok-cheung; Chau, Ricky Ming-chun; Ngan, Roger Kai-cheong

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the dosimetric difference amongst TomoTherapy, sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc radiotherapy in the treatment of late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten patients with late-stage (Stage III or IV) NPC treated with TomoTherapy or IMRT were selected for the study. Treatment plans with these 3 techniques were devised according to departmental protocol. Dosimetric parameters for organ at risk and treatment targets were compared between TomoTherapy and IMRT, TomoTherapy and RapidArc, and IMRT and RapidArc. Comparison amongst the techniques was done by statistical tests on the dosimetric parameters, total monitor unit (MU), and expected delivery time. All 3 techniques achieved similar target dose coverage. TomoTherapy achieved significantly lower doses in lens and mandible amongst the techniques. It also achieved significantly better dose conformity to the treatment targets. RapidArc achieved significantly lower dose to the eye and normal tissue, lower total MU, and less delivery time. The dosimetric advantages of the 3 techniques were identified in the treatment of late-stage NPC. This may serve as a guideline for selection of the proper technique for different clinical cases.

  15. From social behavior to neural circuitry: steroid hormones rapidly modulate advertisement calling via a vocal pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Bass, Andrew H

    2006-09-01

    Across vertebrates, androgens are rapidly elevated within minutes in response to aggressive or reproductive stimuli, yet it is unclear what the causal relationship is between fast androgen elevation and the ongoing (minute-by-minute) expression of behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that rapid increases in plasma steroid levels induce similarly rapid increases in both vocal behavior and the neurophysiological output of a central pattern generator that governs vocal behavior. In Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta), males call to attract females to their nesting sites, and both males and females vocalize in aggressive interactions. Previous field experiments with males showed that simulated territorial challenges produce rapid and concurrent elevations in ongoing calling behavior and circulating levels of the teleost-specific androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT), but not the glucocorticoid cortisol. The current field experiments showed that non-invasive (food) delivery of 11kT, but not cortisol, induced an elevation within 10 min in the ongoing calling behavior of males. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that intramuscular injections of either 11kT or cortisol, but neither testosterone nor 17-beta-estradiol, induced increases within 5 min in the output of the vocal pattern generator in males, whereas only cortisol had similarly fast effects in females. The field behavioral results support predictions generated by the challenge hypothesis and also parallel the 11kT-dependent modulation of the vocal pattern generator in males. The cortisol effect on the vocal pattern generator in both sexes predicts that glucocorticoids regulate vocalizations in non-advertisement contexts. Together, these experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that surges in circulating steroid levels play a causal role in shaping rapid changes in social behavior (vocalizations) through non-genomic-like actions on neural (vocal motor) circuits that directly encode behavioral

  16. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  17. Phase space modulation method for EPID-based Monte Carlo dosimetry of IMRT and RapidArc plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Avery; Townson, Reid; Bush, Karl; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2010-11-01

    Quality assurance for IMRT and VMAT require 3D evaluation of the dose distributions from the treatment planning system as compared to the distributions reconstructed from signals acquired during the plan delivery. This study presents the results of the dose reconstruction based on a novel method of Monte Carlo (MC) phase space modulation. Typically, in MC dose calculations the linear accelerator (linac) is modelled for each field in the plan and a phase space file (PSF) containing all relevant particle information is written for each field. Particles from the PSFs are then used in the dose calculation. This study investigates a method of omitting the modelling of the linac in cases where the treatment has been measured by an electronic portal imaging device. In this method each portal image is deconvolved using an empirically fit scatter kernel to obtain the primary photon fluence. The Phase Space Modulation (PSM) method consists of simulating the linac just once to create a large PSF for an open field and then modulating it using the delivered primary particle fluence. Reconstructed dose distributions in phantoms were produced using MC and the modulated PSFs. The kernel derived for this method accurately reproduced the dose distributions for 3×3, 10×10, and 15×15 cm2 field sizes (mean relative dose-difference along the beam central axis is under 1%). The method has been applied to IMRT pre-treatment verification of 10 patients (including one RapidArcTM case), mean dose in the structures of interest agreed with that calculated by MC directly within 1%, and 95% of the voxels passed 2%/2mm criteria.

  18. RapidArc radiotherapy planning for prostate cancer: Single-arc and double-arc techniques vs. intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, Henry C.K.; Lee, Michael C.H.; Hung, Wai-Man; Yau, Tsz-Kok; Lee, Anne W.M.

    2012-04-01

    RapidArc is a novel technique using arc radiotherapy aiming to achieve intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-quality radiotherapy plans with shorter treatment time. This study compared the dosimetric quality and treatment efficiency of single-arc (SA) vs. double-arc (DA) and IMRT in the treatment of prostate cancer. Fourteen patients were included in the analysis. The planning target volume (PTV), which contained the prostate gland and proximal seminal vesicles, received 76 Gy in 38 fractions. Seven-field IMRT, SA, and DA plans were generated for each patient. Dosimetric quality in terms of the minimum PTV dose, PTV hotspot, inhomogeneity, and conformity index; and sparing of rectum, bladder, and femoral heads as measured by V70, V-40, and V20 (% of volume receiving >70 Gy, 40 Gy, and 20 Gy, respectively), treatment efficiency as assessed by monitor units (MU) and treatment time were compared. All plan objectives were met satisfactorily by all techniques. DA achieved the best dosimetric quality with the highest minimum PTV dose, lowest hotspot, and the best homogeneity and conformity. It was also more efficient than IMRT. SA achieved the highest treatment efficiency with the lowest MU and shortest treatment time. The mean treatment time for a 2-Gy fraction was 4.80 min, 2.78 min, and 1.30 min for IMRT, DA, and SA, respectively. However, SA also resulted in the highest rectal dose. DA could improve target volume coverage and reduce treatment time and MU while maintaining equivalent normal tissue sparing when compared with IMRT. SA achieved the greatest treatment efficiency but with the highest rectal dose, which was nonetheless within tolerable limits. For busy units with high patient throughput, SA could be an acceptable option.

  19. Spiny Mice Modulate Eumelanin to Pheomelanin Ratio to Achieve Cryptic Coloration in “Evolution Canyon,” Israel

    PubMed Central

    Singaravelan, Natarajan; Pavlicek, Tomas; Beharav, Alex; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-01-01

    ratio on the ES than on the AS. Conclusion/Significance It appears that rodents adaptively modulate eumelanin and pheomelanin contents to achieve cryptic coloration in contrasting habitats even at a microscale. PMID:20090935

  20. Holographic polymer networks formed in liquid crystal phase modulators via a He-Ne laser to achieve ultra-fast optical response.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chun-Yu; Hsu, Che-Ju; Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao; Sheu, Chia-Rong

    2016-04-01

    The holographic polymer network formed in liquid crystal (LC) phase modulators via a He-Ne laser in this study demonstrates ultra-fast optically response and low light scattering. These advantages are mainly caused by the small LC domains and uniform polymer network when processing LC cells via holographic exposure to a He-Ne laser. The use of this method to fabricate LC cells as phase modulators results in a decay time of 49 μs under 2π phase modulation at room temperature. The predicted fast optical response can be achieved when operating devices at high temperatures. PMID:27137042

  1. Intra-arrest Hypothermia: Both Cold Liquid Ventilation with Perfluorocarbons and Cold Intravenous Saline Rapidly Achieve Hypothermia, but Only Cold Liquid Ventilation Improves Resumption of Spontaneous Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Riter, Henry G.; Brooks, Leonard A.; Pretorius, Andrew M.; Ackermann, Laynez W.; Kerber, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapid intra-arrest induction of hypothermia using total liquid ventilation (TLV) with cold perfluorocarbons improves resuscitation outcome from ventricular fibrillation (VF). Cold saline intravenous infusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a simpler method of inducing hypothermia. We compared these 2 methods of rapid hypothermia induction for cardiac resuscitation. Methods Three groups of swine were studied: cold preoxygenated TLV (TLV, n=8), cold intravenous saline infusion (S, n=8), and control (C, n=8). VF was electrically induced. Beginning at 8 minutes of VF, TLV and S animals received 3 minutes of cold TLV or rapid cold saline infusion. After 11 minutes of VF, all groups received standard air ventilation and closed chest massage. Defibrillation was attempted after 3 minutes of CPR (14 minutes of VF). The end point was resumption of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results Pulmonary arterial (PA) temperature decreased after 1 minute of CPR from 37.2°C to 32.2°C in S and from 37.1°C to 34.8°C in TLV (S or TLV vs. C p<0.0001). Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was higher in TLV than S animals during the initial 3 minutes of CPR. Arterial pO2 was higher in the preoxygenated TLV animals. ROSC was achieved in 7 of 8 TLV, 2 of 8 S, and 1 of 8 C (TLV vs. C, p=0.03). Conclusions Moderate hypothermia was achieved rapidly during VF and CPR using both cold saline infusion and cold TLV, but ROSC was higher than control only in cold TLV animals, probably due to better CPP and pO2. The method by which hypothermia is achieved influences ROSC. PMID:19249149

  2. Modulation of local Ca2+ release sites by rapid fluid puffing in rat atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sun-Hee; Risius, Tim; Morad, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Atrial myocytes that lack t-tubules appear to have two functionally separate sarcoplasmic Ca2+ stores: a peripheral store associated with plasmalemmal L-type calcium channels and a central store with no apparent proximity to L-type calcium channels. Here we describe a set of calcium sparks and waves that are triggered by puffing of pressurized (200-400 mmH2O) bathing solutions onto resting isolated rat atrial myocytes. Puffing of pressurized (200 mmH2O) solutions, identical to those bathing the myocytes from distances of approximately 150 microm onto the surface of a single myocyte triggered or enhanced spontaneously occurring peripheral sparks by five- to six-fold and central Ca2+ sparks by two- to three-fold, without altering the unitary spark properties. Exposure to higher pressure flows (400 mmH2O) often triggered longitudinally spreading Ca2+ waves. These results suggest that pressurized flows may directly modulate Ca2+ signaling of atrial myocytes by activating the intracellular Ca2+ release sites. PMID:17087992

  3. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the spine treated with RapidArc volumetric-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Chargari, Cyrus; Falk, Alexander Tuan; Khodri, Mustapha; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy for epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) using volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT). A 48-year-old woman was referred for curative irradiation of a vertebral EHE after failure of surgery. A comparison between VMAT and conventional conformal tridimensional (3D) dosimetry was performed and potential advantage of VMAT for sparing critical organs from irradiation's side effects was discussed. The total delivered dose on the planning target volume was 54 Gy in 27 fractions. The patient was finally treated with VMAT. The tolerance was excellent. There was no acute toxicity, including no increase in pain. With a follow-up of 18 months, no delayed toxicity was reported. The clinical response consisted of a decrease in the dorsal pain. The D{sub max} for the spinal cord was reduced from 55 Gy (3D-radiotherapy [RT]) (which would be an unacceptable dose to the spine because of the risk of myelopathy) to 42.8 Gy (VMAT), which remains below the recommended dose threshold (45 Gy). The dose delivered to 20% of organ volume (D{sub 20}) was reduced from 47 Gy (3D-RT) to 3 Gy (VMAT) for the spinal cord. The study shows that VMAT allows the delivery of curative treatment for vertebral EHEs because of critical organ sparing.

  4. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  5. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  6. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8–14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  7. The Effect of Educational Modules Strategy on the Direct and Postponed Study's Achievement of Seventh Primary Grade Students in Science, in Comparison with the Conventional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alelaimat, Abeer Rashed; Ghoneem, Khowla Abd Al Raheem

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at revealing the effect of educational modules strategy on the direct and postponed study's achievement of seventh primary grade students in science, in comparison with the conventional approach. The sample of the study consists of (174) male and female students randomly chosen from schools in the city of Mafraq, students are…

  8. Rapid adaptation of phytoplankters to geothermal waters is achieved by single mutations: were extreme environments 'Noah's Arks' for photosynthesizers during the Neoproterozoic 'snowball Earth'?

    PubMed

    Costas, Eduardo; Flores-Moya, Antonio; López-Rodas, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal waters often support remarkable communities of microalgae and cyanobacteria apparently living at the extreme limits of their tolerance. Little is known about the mechanisms allowing adaptation of mesophilic phytoplankters to such extreme conditions, but recent studies are challenging many preconceived notions about this. The aim of this study was to analyse mechanisms allowing adaptation of mesophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria to stressful geothermal waters. To distinguish between the pre-selective or post-selective origin of adaptation processes allowing the proliferation of mesophilic phytoplankters in geothermal waters, several Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis were performed with the microalga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, both isolated from nonextreme waters. Geothermal waters from seven places in Italy and five icebound places at Los Andes in Argentina were used as selective agents. Physiological adaptation was achieved in the least toxic waters. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal for the experimental organisms. This adaptation was achieved as consequence of single mutations at one locus. It was hypothesized that a similar mechanism of rapid genetic adaptation could explain the survival of photosynthetic life during the Neoproterozoic 'snowball Earth,' where geothermal refuges such as those studied could have been 'Noah's Arks' for microalgae and cyanobacteria. PMID:18803596

  9. [Prolonged remission achieved by using bevacizumab plus paclitaxel therapy combined with sequential radiotherapy for a rapidly growing chest wall recurrence of triple negative breast cancer - a case report].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Masahiro; Fujii, Kazuhiro; Kiso, Marina; Takeyama, Osamu; Kan, Shugen; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with right triple negative breast cancer (cT1cN1M0, stage I ) and underwent right modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection, showed recurrent disease in the right parasternal lymph node 4 years after the operation. Computed tomography (CT) revealed rapid growth of the tumor along with pain, accompanied by the destruction of the sternal bone. Five cycles of bevacizumab plus paclitaxel (BEV+wPTX) treatment (10 mg/kg of bevacizumab on days 1 and 15 plus 90 mg/m² of paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks)achieved remarkable tumor regression. Parasternal irradiation (30 Gy/15 Fr) followed by oral capecitabine treatment (600 mg b. i. d; 3 week administration followed by a week of rest) as maintenance therapy showed complete tumor regression and helped to achieve good quality of life (QOL) without any unfavorable symptoms at the 2-year follow-up, although the estimated progression free survival of this treatment is about 6 months. As BEV+wPTX had a high response rate for recurrent breast cancer, its combination with sequential radiotherapy could provide a favorable local control rate and good QOL for patients with rapidly growing, solitary, recurrent breast cancers. PMID:25596684

  10. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a.

    PubMed

    Seredynski, Aurore L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2015-09-23

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER-mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. Significance statement: The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  11. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a

    PubMed Central

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER–mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  12. Rapid dopaminergic and GABAergic modulation of calcium and voltage transients in dendrites of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Liang; Antic, Srdjan D

    2012-01-01

    The physiological responses of dendrites to dopaminergic inputs are poorly understood and controversial. We applied dopamine on one dendritic branch while simultaneously monitoring action potentials (APs) from multiple dendrites using either calcium-sensitive dye, voltage-sensitive dye or both. Dopaminergic suppression of dendritic calcium transients was rapid (<0.5 s) and restricted to the site of dopamine application. Voltage waveforms of backpropagating APs were minimally altered in the same dendrites where dopamine was confirmed to cause large suppression of calcium signals, as determined by dual voltage and calcium imaging. The dopamine effects on dendritic calcium transients were fully mimicked by D1 agonists, partially reduced by D1 antagonist and completely insensitive to protein kinase blockade; consistent with a membrane delimited mechanism. This dopamine effect was unaltered in the presence of L-, R- and T-type calcium channel blockers. The somatic excitability (i.e. AP firing) was not affected by strong dopaminergic stimulation of dendrites. Dopamine and GABA were then sequentially applied on the same dendrite. In contrast to dopamine, the pulses of GABA prohibited AP backpropagation distally from the application site, even in neurons with natural Cl− concentration (patch pipette removed). Thus, the neocortex employs at least two distinct mechanisms (dopamine and GABA) for rapid modulation of dendritic calcium influx. The spatio-temporal pattern of dendritic calcium suppression described in this paper is expected to occur during phasic dopaminergic signalling, when midbrain dopaminergic neurons generate a transient (0.5 s) burst of APs in response to a salient event. PMID:22641784

  13. Estrous cycle variations in GABAA receptor phosphorylation enable rapid modulation by anabolic androgenic steroids in the medial preoptic area

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, JG; Porter, DM; Onakomaiya, MM; Penatti, CAA; Vithlani, M; Moss, SJ; Clark, AS; Henderson, LP

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic testosterone derivatives that are used for ergogenic purposes, alter neurotransmission and behaviors mediated by GABAA receptors. Some of these effects may reflect direct and rapid action of these synthetic steroids at the receptor. The ability of other natural allosteric steroid modulators to alter GABAA receptor-mediated currents is dependent upon the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex. Here we show that phosphorylation of the GABAA receptor complex immunoprecipitated by β2/β3 subunit-specific antibodies from the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the mouse varies across the estrous cycle; with levels being significantly lower in estrus. Acute exposure to the AAS, 17α-testosterone (17α-MeT), had no effect on the amplitude or kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the mPOA of estrous mice when phosphorylation was low, but increased the amplitude of these currents from mice in diestrus, when it was high. Inclusion of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin, in the recording pipette eliminated the ability of 17α-MeT to enhance currents from diestrous animals, suggesting that PKC-receptor phosphorylation is critical for the allosteric modulation elicited by AAS during this phase. In addition, a single injection of 17α-MeT was found to impair an mPOA-mediated behavior (nest-building) in diestrus, but not in estrus. PKC is known to target specific serine residues in the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor. Although phosphorylation of these β3 serine residues showed a similar profile across the cycle, as did phosphoserine in mPOA lysates immunoprecipitated with β2/β3 antibody (lower in estrus than in diestrus or proestrus), the differences were not significant. These data suggest that the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex regulates both the ability of AAS to modulate receptor function in the mPOA and the expression of a simple mPOA-dependent behavior through PKC-dependent mechanism

  14. A role for acoustic distortion in novel rapid frequency modulation behaviour in free-flying male mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Simões, Patrício M V; Ingham, Robert A; Gibson, Gabriella; Russell, Ian J

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new stereotypical acoustic behaviour by male mosquitoes in response to the fundamental frequency of female flight tones during mating sequences. This male-specific free-flight behaviour consists of phonotactic flight beginning with a steep increase in wing-beat frequency (WBF) followed by rapid frequency modulation (RFM) of WBF in the lead up to copula formation. Male RFM behaviour involves remarkably fast changes in WBF and can be elicited without acoustic feedback or physical presence of the female. RFM features are highly consistent, even in response to artificial tones that do not carry the multi-harmonic components of natural female flight tones. Comparison between audiograms of the robust RFM behaviour and the electrical responses of the auditory Johnston's organ (JO) reveals that the male JO is tuned not to the female WBF per se but, remarkably, to the difference between the male and female WBFs. This difference is generated in the JO responses as a result of intermodulation distortion products (DPs) caused by non-linear interaction between male-female flight tones in the vibrations of the antenna. We propose that male mosquitoes rely on their own flight tones in making use of DPs to acoustically detect, locate and orientate towards flying females. We argue that the previously documented flight-tone harmonic convergence of flying male and female mosquitoes could be a consequence of WBF adjustments so that DPs generated through flight-tone interaction fall within the optimal frequency ranges for JO detection. PMID:27122548

  15. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Tobler, Mark A; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Flint, Stephan D; Barkley, Anne E; Ryel, Ronald J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) and the resultant decrease in epidermal UV transmittance (TUV ) are primary protective mechanisms employed by plants against potentially damaging solar UV radiation and are critical components of the overall acclimation response of plants to changing solar UV environments. Whether plants can adjust this UV sunscreen protection in response to rapid changes in UV, as occurs on a diurnal basis, is largely unexplored. Here, we use a combination of approaches to demonstrate that plants can modulate their UV-screening properties within minutes to hours, and these changes are driven, in part, by UV radiation. For the cultivated species Abelmoschus esculentus, large (30-50%) and reversible changes in TUV occurred on a diurnal basis, and these adjustments were associated with changes in the concentrations of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds and several quercetin glycosides. Similar results were found for two other species (Vicia faba and Solanum lycopersicum), but no such changes were detected in Zea mays. These findings reveal a much more dynamic UV-protection mechanism than previously recognized, raise important questions concerning the costs and benefits of UV-protection strategies in plants and have practical implications for employing UV to enhance crop vigor and quality in controlled environments. PMID:26177782

  16. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  17. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments. PMID:26361094

  18. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration of B2 may provide the

  19. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Stockslager, Max A.; Samuels, Brian C.; Allingham, R. Rand; Klesmith, Zoe A.; Schwaner, Stephen A.; Forest, Craig R.; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP) and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation. PMID:26771837

  20. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    PubMed

    Stockslager, Max A; Samuels, Brian C; Allingham, R Rand; Klesmith, Zoe A; Schwaner, Stephen A; Forest, Craig R; Ethier, C Ross

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP) and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation. PMID:26771837

  1. The minimization of inter-module interface for the achievement of reliability of multi-version software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I.; Zelenkov, P.; Ognerubov, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows that the use of the modular principle for the stage of technical designing of multi-version software is connected to the optimization process of the structure and interaction of its components. The new problem definition of the designing of the multi-version, modular structure of software, which provides the minimization of inter-module interface, is presented. This problem definition allows us to create the multi-version set of components which are used in software in the predefined sequences as well as in the random sequences. Simultaneously, the set of versions matches the predefined conditions, providing the maximum reliability for personal computers and the minimal values of the attributes of the inter-module interface.

  2. Rapid thermal annealing and modulation-doping effects on InAs/GaAs quantum dots photoluminescence dependence on excitation power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaâbani, W.; Melliti, A.; Maaref, M. A.; Testelin, C.; Lemaître, A.

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of p-doped and annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated by photoluminescence (PL) as a function of temperature and excitation power density (Pexc). At low-T, PL spectra of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and p-modulation doped QDs show an energy blueshift and redshift, respectively. A superlinear dependence of integrated PL intensity on Pexc at high-T was found only for undoped QD. The superlinearity was suppressed by modulation-doping and RTA effects. A linear dependence of IPL at all temperatures and a decrease of the carrier-carrier Coulomb interaction at high-T was found after RTA.

  3. Bunch stabilization using rf phase modulation in the intense pulse neutron source (IPNS) rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dooling, J. C.; Brumwell, F. R.; McMichael, G. E.

    1999-12-03

    Phase modulation (PM) is used to increase the current limit in the IPNS RCS. A device referred to as a scrambler introduces a small oscillating phase between the two RCS rf cavities at approximately twice the synchrotron frequency, f{sub s}. The modulation introduced by the scrambler generates longitudinal oscillations in the bunch at 2f{sub s}. Modulations in the bunch are also observed transversely indicating a coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion. Comparing PM with amplitude modulation (AM), coupling to the beam is roughly equivalent at 2f{sub s}.

  4. Bunch stabilization using rf phase modulation in the Intense Pulse Neutron Source (IPNS) Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS).

    SciTech Connect

    Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; McMichael, G. E.

    1999-09-01

    Phase modulation (PM) is used to increase the current limit in the IPNS RCS. A device referred to as a scrambler introduces a small oscillating phase between the two RCS rf cavities at approximately twice the synchrotrons frequency, f{sub s}. The modulation introduced by the scrambler generates longitudinal oscillations in the bunch at 2f{sub s}. Modulations in the bunch are also observed transversely indicating a coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion. Comparing PM with amplitude modulation (AM), coupling to the beam is roughly equivalent at 2f{sub s}.

  5. On the performances of Intensity Modulated Protons, RapidArc and Helical Tomotherapy for selected paediatric cases

    PubMed Central

    Fogliata, Antonella; Yartsev, Slav; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Wyttenbach, Rolf; Bauman, Glenn; Cozzi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Background To evaluate the performance of three different advanced treatment techniques on a group of complex paediatric cancer cases. Methods CT images and volumes of interest of five patients were used to design plans for Helical Tomotherapy (HT), RapidArc (RA) and Intensity Modulated Proton therapy (IMP). The tumour types were: extraosseous, intrathoracic Ewing Sarcoma; mediastinal Rhabdomyosarcoma; metastastis of base of skull with bone, para-nasal and left eye infiltration from Nephroblastoma of right kidney; metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma of the anus; Wilm's tumour of the left kidney with multiple liver metastases. Cases were selected for their complexity regardless the treatment intent and stage. Prescribed doses ranged from 18 to 53.2 Gy, with four cases planned using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost strategy. Results were analysed in terms of dose distributions and dose volume histograms. Results For all patients, IMP plans lead to superior sparing of organs at risk and normal healthy tissue, where in particular the integral dose is halved with respect to photon techniques. In terms of conformity and of spillage of high doses outside targets (external index (EI)), all three techniques were comparable; CI90% ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 and EI from 0 to 5%. Concerning target homogeneity, IMP showed a variance (D5%–D95%) measured on the inner target volume (highest dose prescription) ranging from 5.9 to 13.3%, RA from 5.3 to 11.8%, and HT from 4.0 to 12.2%. The range of minimum significant dose to the same target was: (72.2%, 89.9%) for IMP, (86.7%, 94.1%) for RA, and (79.4%, 94.8%) for HT. Similarly, for maximum significant doses: (103.8%, 109.4%) for IMP, (103.2%, 107.4%) for RA, and (102.4%, 117.2%) for HT. Treatment times (beam-on time) ranged from 123 to 129 s for RA and from 146 to 387 s for HT. Conclusion Five complex pediatric cases were selected as representative examples to compare three advanced radiation delivery techniques. While differences were noted

  6. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  7. High-Performance and Omnidirectional Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Modules Achieved by 3D Geometry Design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongliang; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Zhang, Hanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Che, Jianfei; Li, Dongdong

    2015-11-01

    High-performance thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells are achieved by combining macroscale 3D tubular substrates and nanoscaled 3D cone-like antireflective films. The tubular geometry delivers a series of advantages for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics, such as omnidirectional performance, easier encapsulation, decreased wind resistance, and easy integration with a second device inside the glass tube. PMID:26418573

  8. Identifying the relationship between feedback provided in computer-assisted instructional modules, science self-efficacy, and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazingo, Diann Etsuko

    Feedback has been identified as a key variable in developing academic self-efficacy. The types of feedback can vary from a traditional, objectivist approach that focuses on minimizing learner errors to a more constructivist approach, focusing on facilitating understanding. The influx of computer-based courses, whether online or through a series of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) modules require that the current research of effective feedback techniques in the classroom be extended to computer environments in order to impact their instructional design. In this study, exposure to different types of feedback during a chemistry CAI module was studied in relation to science self-efficacy (SSE) and performance on an objective-driven assessment (ODA) of the chemistry concepts covered in the unit. The quantitative analysis consisted of two separate ANCOVAs on the dependent variables, using pretest as the covariate and group as the fixed factor. No significant differences were found for either variable between the three groups on adjusted posttest means for the ODA and SSE measures (.95F(2, 106) = 1.311, p = 0.274 and .95F(2, 106) = 1.080, p = 0.344, respectively). However, a mixed methods approach yielded valuable qualitative insights into why only one overall quantitative effect was observed. These findings are discussed in relation to the need to further refine the instruments and methods used in order to more fully explore the possibility that type of feedback might play a role in developing SSE, and consequently, improve academic performance in science. Future research building on this study may reveal significance that could impact instructional design practices for developing online and computer-based instruction.

  9. Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

    2009-06-01

    As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

  10. Dosimetric and clinical toxicity comparison of critical organ preservation with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and RapidArc for the treatment of locally advanced cancer of the pancreatic head

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Wang, R.; Jiang, S.; Yue, J.; Liu, T.; Dou, X.; Zhu, K.; Feng, R.; Xu, X.; Chen, D.; Yin, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared dosimetry and clinical toxicity for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt), and RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, U.S.A.) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (lapcc). We hypothesized that the technique with better sparing of organs at risk (oars) and better target dose distributions could lead to decreased clinical toxicity. Methods The study analyzed 280 patients with lapcc who had undergone radiotherapy. The dosimetry comparison was performed using 20 of those patients. Dose–volume histograms for the target volume and the oars were compared. The clinical toxicity comparison used the 280 patients who received radiation with 3D-crt, imrt, or RapidArc. Results Compared with 3D-crt, RapidArc and imrt both achieved a better conformal index, homogeneity index, V95%, and V110%. Compared with 3D-crt or imrt, RapidArc reduced the V10, V20, and mean dose to duodenum, the V20 of the right kidney, and the liver mean dose. Compared with 3D-crt, RapidArc reduced the V35, and V45 of duodenum, the mean dose to small bowel, and the V15 of right kidney. The incidences of grades 3 and 4 diarrhea (p = 0.037) and anorexia (p = 0.042) were lower with RapidArc than with 3D-crt, and the incidences of grades 3 and 4 diarrhea (p = 0.027) were lower with RapidArc than with imrt. Conclusions Compared with 3D-crt or imrt, RapidArc showed better sparing of oars, especially duodenum, small bowel, and right kidney. Also, fewer acute grades 3 and 4 gastrointestinal toxicities were seen with RapidArc than with 3D-crt or imrt. A technique with better sparing of oars and better target dose distributions could result in decreased clinical toxicities during radiation treatment for lapcc. PMID:26966412

  11. Simple combination of oxidants with zero-valent-iron (ZVI) achieved very rapid and highly efficient removal of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Yang, Zhe; Dong, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaohong; Ren, Qidong; Lv, Xiaofang; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This study, for the first time, demonstrated a continuously accelerated Fe(0) corrosion driven by common oxidants (i.e., NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2) and thereby the rapid and efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) under the experimental conditions of jar tests and column running. ZVI simply coupled with NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in almost complete As(V) removal within only 10 min with 1000 μg/L of initial As(V) at initial pH of 7.5(±0.1) and liquid solid ratio of 200:1. Simultaneous removal of 200 μg/L of initial Cd(II) and Hg(II) to 2.4-4.4 μg/L for Cd(II) and to 4.0-5.0 μg/L for Hg(II) were achieved within 30 min. No deterioration of HM removal was observed during the ten recycles of jar tests. The ZVI columns activated by 0.1 mM of oxidants had stably treated 40,200 (NaClO), 20,295 (KMnO4) and 40,200 (H2O2) bed volumes (BV) of HM-contaminated drinking water, but with no any indication of As breakthrough (<10 μg/L) even at short empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8.0 min. The high efficiency of HMs removal from both the jar tests and column running implied a continuous and stable activation (overcoming of iron passivation) of Fe(0) surface by the oxidants. Via the proper increase in oxidant dosing, the ZVI/oxidant combination was applicable to treat highly As(V)-contaminated wastewater. During Fe(0) surface corrosion accelerated by oxidants, a large amount of fresh and reactive iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were continuously generated, which were responsible for the rapid and efficient removal of HMs through multiple mechanisms including adsorption and co-precipitation. A steady state of Fe(0) surface activation and HM removal enabled this simply coupled system to remove HMs with high speed, efficiency and perdurability. PMID:26575476

  12. Toward Infection-Resistant Surfaces: Achieving High Antimicrobial Peptide Potency by Modulating the Functionality of Polymer Brush and Peptide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Lo, Joey C Y; Mei, Yan; Haney, Evan F; Siren, Erika; Kalathottukaren, Manu Thomas; Hancock, Robert E W; Lange, Dirk; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-12-30

    Bacterial infection associated with indwelling medical devices and implants is a major clinical issue, and the prevention or treatment of such infections is challenging. Antimicrobial coatings offer a significant step toward addressing this important clinical problem. Antimicrobial coatings based on tethered antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on hydrophilic polymer brushes have been shown to be one of the most promising strategies to avoid bacterial colonization and have demonstrated broad spectrum activity. Optimal combinations of the functionality of the polymer-brush-tethered AMPs are essential to maintaining long-term AMP activity on the surface. However, there is limited knowledge currently available on this topic. Here we report the development of potent antimicrobial coatings on implant surfaces by elucidating the roles of polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure on the overall antimicrobial activity of the coatings. We screened several combinations of polymer brush coatings and AMPs constructed on nanoparticles, titanium surfaces, and quartz slides on their antimicrobial activity and bacterial adhesion against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Highly efficient killing of planktonic bacteria by the antimicrobial coatings on nanoparticle surfaces, as well as potent killing of adhered bacteria in the case of coatings on titanium surfaces, was observed. Remarkably, the antimicrobial activity of AMP-conjugated brush coatings demonstrated a clear dependence on the polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure, and optimization of these parameters is critical to achieving infection-resistant surfaces. By analyzing the interaction of polymer-brush-tethered AMPs with model lipid membranes using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we determined that the polymer brush chemistry has an influence on the extent of secondary structure change of tethered peptides before and after interaction with biomembranes. The peptide structure also has an influence on the density

  13. The use of RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy to deliver stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy to intracranial and extracranial targets

    SciTech Connect

    Roa, Dante E.; Schiffner, Daniel C.; Zhang Juying; Dietrich, Salam N.; Kuo, Jeffrey V.; Wong, Jason; Ramsinghani, Nilam S.; Al-Ghazi, Muthana S.A.L.

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-three targets in 16 patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) were analyzed in terms of dosimetric homogeneity, target conformity, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, monitor unit (MU) usage, and beam-on time per fraction using RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs. multifield sliding-window intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients underwent computed tomography simulation with site-specific immobilization. Magnetic resonance imaging fusion and optical tracking were incorporated as clinically indicated. Treatment planning was performed using Eclipse v8.6 to generate sliding-window IMRT and 1-arc and 2-arc RapidArc plans. Dosimetric parameters used for target analysis were RTOG conformity index (CI{sub RTOG}), homogeneity index (HI{sub RTOG}), inverse Paddick Conformity Index (PCI), D{sub mean} and D5-D95. OAR sparing was analyzed in terms of D{sub max} and D{sub mean}. Treatment delivery was evaluated based on measured beam-on times delivered on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator and recorded MU values. Dosimetric conformity, homogeneity, and OAR sparing were comparable between IMRT, 1-arc RapidArc and 2-arc RapidArc plans. Mean beam-on times {+-} SD for IMRT and 1-arc and 2-arc treatments were 10.5 {+-} 7.3, 2.6 {+-} 1.6, and 3.0 {+-} 1.1 minutes, respectively. Mean MUs were 3041, 1774, and 1676 for IMRT, 1-, and 2-arc plans, respectively. Although dosimetric conformity, homogeneity, and OAR sparing were similar between these techniques, SRS and SBRT fractions treated with RapidArc were delivered with substantially less beam-on time and fewer MUs than IMRT. The rapid delivery of SRS and SBRT with RapidArc improved workflow on the linac with these otherwise time-consuming treatments and limited the potential for intrafraction organ and patient motion, which can cause significant dosimetric errors. These clinically important advantages make image-guided RapidArc useful in the delivery

  14. Limits on Achievable Dimensional and Photon Efficiencies with Intensity-Modulation and Photon-Counting Due to Non-Ideal Photon-Counter Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.; Farr, William; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    An ideal intensity-modulated photon-counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies (PIEs). However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes. We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.

  15. Rapid Cerebral Hemodynamic Modulation during Set Shifting: Evidence of Time-Locked Associations with Cognitive Control in Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuepbach, Daniel; Huizinga, Mariette; Duschek, Stefan; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Hell, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Set shifting provokes specific alterations of cerebral hemodynamics in basal cerebral arteries. However, no gender differences have been reported. In the following functional transcranial Doppler study, we introduced cerebral hemodynamic modulation to the aspects of set shifting during Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Twenty-one subjects…

  16. Rapid prototyping, astronaut training, and experiment control and supervision: distributed virtual worlds for COLUMBUS, the European Space Laboratory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen

    2002-02-01

    In 2004, the European COLUMBUS Module is to be attached to the International Space Station. On the way to the successful planning, deployment and operation of the module, computer generated and animated models are being used to optimize performance. Under contract of the German Space Agency DLR, it has become IRF's task to provide a Projective Virtual Reality System to provide a virtual world built after the planned layout of the COLUMBUS module let astronauts and experimentators practice operational procedures and the handling of experiments. The key features of the system currently being realized comprise the possibility for distributed multi-user access to the virtual lab and the visualization of real-world experiment data. Through the capabilities to share the virtual world, cooperative operations can be practiced easily, but also trainers and trainees can work together more effectively sharing the virtual environment. The capability to visualize real-world data will be used to introduce measured data of experiments into the virtual world online in order to realistically interact with the science-reference model hardware: The user's actions in the virtual world are translated into corresponding changes of the inputs of the science reference model hardware; the measured data is than in turn fed back into the virtual world. During the operation of COLUMBUS, the capabilities for distributed access and the capabilities to visualize measured data through the use of metaphors and augmentations of the virtual world may be used to provide virtual access to the COLUMBUS module, e.g. via Internet. Currently, finishing touches are being put to the system. In November 2001 the virtual world shall be operational, so that besides the design and the key ideas, first experimental results can be presented.

  17. SU-E-T-212: Influence of the Modulation Index On Daily Quality Assurance in Rapid Arc Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Wessels, C; Dumas, J-L; Francois, P; Mazal, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: At our Institute some measured parameters for daily quality assurance (DQA) of dynamic arc therapy plans showed an unexpected behavior, therefore an investigation of the influence of the magnitude of modulation was conducted. Methods: In our clinical practice all DQAs of dynamic arc therapy plans are measured and analyzed prior to treatments using commercial software. For this study these plans were additionally exported to our in-house software written in MATLAB.The developed software extracted the leaf position, gantry angle, cumulative meterset weight of each control point (CP) and the total number of Monitor Units (MU) of each arc. Based on this information we calculated the leaf travel distance, irradiated segment area, number of MUs and dose rate for each CP. These data allowed us to calculate the modulation indexes (MI) of the plans, applying five different definitions of MI. The results were then correlated to the results of our DQA measurements.To validate the software, additional plans of known MIs were created and analyzed. For confirmation, the calculated parameters were compared to the segmented treatment table (STT) coming from the treatment planning system. Results: All calculated CP-parameters matched the STT by 99% or better. For linac 1, the comparison of the MI evaluation and the DQA results showed a slight tendency: 91.3% failed DQA plans had a MI lower than the average value. For this definition we consider that the lower the MI the higher the modulation. The results of the linac 2 present no significant relevance due to the low sample sizes for each DQA software. Conclusion: Available data and given definitions of the modulation index do not bring conclusive results; one cannot find a clear and distinct correlation with the failure of the DQA. The ongoing analysis with an increased sample size might lead to another conclusion.

  18. Expert System Shells for Rapid Clinical Decision Support Module Development: An ESTA Demonstration of a Simple Rule-Based System for the Diagnosis of Vaginal Discharge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study demonstrates the feasibility of using expert system shells for rapid clinical decision support module development. Methods A readily available expert system shell was used to build a simple rule-based system for the crude diagnosis of vaginal discharge. Pictures and 'canned text explanations' are extensively used throughout the program to enhance its intuitiveness and educational dimension. All the steps involved in developing the system are documented. Results The system runs under Microsoft Windows and is available as a free download at http://healthcybermap.org/vagdisch.zip (the distribution archive includes both the program's executable and the commented knowledge base source as a text document). The limitations of the demonstration system, such as the lack of provisions for assessing uncertainty or various degrees of severity of a sign or symptom, are discussed in detail. Ways of improving the system, such as porting it to the Web and packaging it as an app for smartphones and tablets, are also presented. Conclusions An easy-to-use expert system shell enables clinicians to rapidly become their own 'knowledge engineers' and develop concise evidence-based decision support modules of simple to moderate complexity, targeting clinical practitioners, medical and nursing students, as well as patients, their lay carers and the general public (where appropriate). In the spirit of the social Web, it is hoped that an online repository can be created to peer review, share and re-use knowledge base modules covering various clinical problems and algorithms, as a service to the clinical community. PMID:23346475

  19. Simultaneous measurements of velocity, temperature, and pressure using rapid CW wavelength-modulation laser-induced fluorescence of OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. Y.; Battles, B. E.; Hanson, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The beam from a rapid-tuning single-frequency laser was used to probe the R1(7) and R1(11) A2Sigma(+) - X2Pi(0,0) line pair of OH at a 45-deg incident angle in a combustion-driven, supersonic free jet. Absorption line shapes were recorded in spatially resolved, single-point fluorescence. The Doppler shift, intensity ratio, and collisional broadening of the measured line pair were used to determine velocity, temperature, and pressure. The repetition rate of the measurement was 3 kHz.

  20. Automatic exposure control in multichannel CT with tube current modulation to achieve a constant level of image noise: Experimental assessment on pediatric phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Brisse, Herve J.; Madec, Ludovic; Gaboriaud, Genevieve; Lemoine, Thomas; Savignoni, Alexia; Neuenschwander, Sylvia; Aubert, Bernard; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-15

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) systems have been developed by computed tomography (CT) manufacturers to improve the consistency of image quality among patients and to control the absorbed dose. Since a multichannel helical CT scan may easily increase individual radiation doses, this technical improvement is of special interest in children who are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation, but little information is currently available regarding the precise performance of these systems on small patients. Our objective was to assess an AEC system on pediatric dose phantoms by studying the impact of phantom transmission and acquisition parameters on tube current modulation, on the resulting absorbed dose and on image quality. We used a four-channel CT scan working with a patient-size and z-axis-based AEC system designed to achieve a constant noise within the reconstructed images by automatically adjusting the tube current during acquisition. The study was performed with six cylindrical poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) phantoms of variable diameters (10-32 cm) and one 5 years of age equivalent pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. After a single scan projection radiograph (SPR), helical acquisitions were performed and images were reconstructed with a standard convolution kernel. Tube current modulation was studied with variable SPR settings (tube angle, mA, kVp) and helical parameters (6-20 HU noise indices, 80-140 kVp tube potential, 0.8-4 s. tube rotation time, 5-20 mm x-ray beam thickness, 0.75-1.5 pitch, 1.25-10 mm image thickness, variable acquisition, and reconstruction fields of view). CT dose indices (CTDIvol) were measured, and the image quality criterion used was the standard deviation of the CT number measured in reconstructed images of PMMA material. Observed tube current levels were compared to the expected values from Brooks and Di Chiro's [R.A. Brooks and G.D. Chiro, Med. Phys. 3, 237-240 (1976)] model and calculated values (product of a reference value

  1. Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Emberson, Lauren L; Richards, John E; Aslin, Richard N

    2015-08-01

    Recent theoretical work emphasizes the role of expectation in neural processing, shifting the focus from feed-forward cortical hierarchies to models that include extensive feedback (e.g., predictive coding). Empirical support for expectation-related feedback is compelling but restricted to adult humans and nonhuman animals. Given the considerable differences in neural organization, connectivity, and efficiency between infant and adult brains, it is a crucial yet open question whether expectation-related feedback is an inherent property of the cortex (i.e., operational early in development) or whether expectation-related feedback develops with extensive experience and neural maturation. To determine whether infants' expectations about future sensory input modulate their sensory cortices without the confounds of stimulus novelty or repetition suppression, we used a cross-modal (audiovisual) omission paradigm and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex. We show that the occipital cortex of 6-month-old infants exhibits the signature of expectation-based feedback. Crucially, we found that this region does not respond to auditory stimuli if they are not predictive of a visual event. Overall, these findings suggest that the young infant's brain is already capable of some rudimentary form of expectation-based feedback. PMID:26195772

  2. Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Emberson, Lauren L.; Richards, John E.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical work emphasizes the role of expectation in neural processing, shifting the focus from feed-forward cortical hierarchies to models that include extensive feedback (e.g., predictive coding). Empirical support for expectation-related feedback is compelling but restricted to adult humans and nonhuman animals. Given the considerable differences in neural organization, connectivity, and efficiency between infant and adult brains, it is a crucial yet open question whether expectation-related feedback is an inherent property of the cortex (i.e., operational early in development) or whether expectation-related feedback develops with extensive experience and neural maturation. To determine whether infants’ expectations about future sensory input modulate their sensory cortices without the confounds of stimulus novelty or repetition suppression, we used a cross-modal (audiovisual) omission paradigm and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex. We show that the occipital cortex of 6-month-old infants exhibits the signature of expectation-based feedback. Crucially, we found that this region does not respond to auditory stimuli if they are not predictive of a visual event. Overall, these findings suggest that the young infant’s brain is already capable of some rudimentary form of expectation-based feedback. PMID:26195772

  3. Building a Rapid Learning Health Care System for Oncology: Why CancerLinQ Collects Identifiable Health Information to Achieve Its Vision.

    PubMed

    Shah, Alaap; Stewart, Andrew K; Kolacevski, Andrej; Michels, Dina; Miller, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The ever-increasing volume of scientific discoveries, clinical knowledge, novel diagnostic tools, and treatment options juxtaposed with rising costs in health care challenge physicians to identify, prioritize, and use new information rapidly to deliver efficient and high-quality care to a growing and aging patient population. CancerLinQ, a rapid learning health care system in oncology, is an initiative of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and its Institute for Quality that addresses these challenges by collecting information from the electronic health records of large numbers of patients with cancer. CancerLinQ is first and foremost a quality measurement and reporting system through which oncologists can harness the depth and power of their patients' clinical records and other data to assess, monitor, and improve the care they deliver. However, in light of privacy and security concerns with regard to collection, use, and disclosure of patient information, this article addresses the need to collect protected health information as defined under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 to drive rapid learning through CancerLinQ. PMID:26755519

  4. Dosimetric Impact of Using the Acuros XB Algorithm for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and RapidArc Planning in Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Monica W.K.; Leung, Lucullus H.T.; Yu, Peter K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric implications for the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc (RA) of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) due to the use of the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm versus the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). Methods and Materials: Nine-field sliding window IMRT and triple-arc RA plans produced for 12 patients with NPC using AAA were recalculated using AXB. The dose distributions to multiple planning target volumes (PTVs) with different prescribed doses and critical organs were compared. The PTVs were separated into components in bone, air, and tissue. The change of doses by AXB due to air and bone, and the variation of the amount of dose changes with number of fields was also studied using simple geometric phantoms. Results: Using AXB instead of AAA, the averaged mean dose to PTV{sub 70} (70 Gy was prescribed to PTV{sub 70}) was found to be 0.9% and 1.2% lower for IMRT and RA, respectively. It was approximately 1% lower in tissue, 2% lower in bone, and 1% higher in air. The averaged minimum dose to PTV{sub 70} in bone was approximately 4% lower for both IMRT and RA, whereas it was approximately 1.5% lower for PTV{sub 70} in tissue. The decrease in target doses estimated by AXB was mostly contributed from the presence of bone, less from tissue, and none from air. A similar trend was observed for PTV{sub 60} (60 Gy was prescribed to PTV{sub 60}). The doses to most serial organs were found to be 1% to 3% lower and to other organs 4% to 10% lower for both techniques. Conclusions: The use of the AXB algorithm is highly recommended for IMRT and RapidArc planning for NPC cases.

  5. T3 rapidly modulates TSHβ mRNA stability and translational rate in the pituitary of hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Goulart-Silva, Francemilson; de Souza, Paula Bargi; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2011-01-30

    Whereas it is well known that T3 inhibits TSHβ gene transcription, its effects on TSHβ mRNA stability and translation have been poorly investigated. This study examined these possibilities, by evaluating the TSHβ transcripts poly(A) tail length, translational rate and binding to cytoskeleton, in pituitaries of thyroidectomized and sham-operated rats treated with T3 or saline, and killed 30 min thereafter. The hypothyroidism induced an increase of TSHβ transcript poly(A) tail, as well as of its content in ribosomes and attachment to cytoskeleton. The hypothyroid rats acutely treated with T3 exhibited a reduction of TSHβ mRNA poly(A) tail length and recruitment to ribosomes, indicating that this treatment decreased the stability and translation rate of TSHβ mRNA. Nevertheless, acute T3 administration to sham-operated rats provoked an increase of TSHβ transcripts binding to ribosomes. These data add new insight to an important role of T3 in rapidly regulating TSH gene expression at posttranscriptional level. PMID:21078364

  6. Sub-Doppler Spectra of Infrared Hyperfine Transitions of Nitric Oxide Using a Pulse Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser: Rapid Passage, Free Induction Decay and the AC Stark Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Kelly, James F.; Blake, Thomas A.; Langford, Nigel

    2012-05-07

    Using a low power, rapid (nsec) pulse-modulated quantum cascade (QC) laser, collective coherent effects in the 5 {micro}m spectrum of nitric oxide have been demonstrated by the observation of sub-Doppler hyperfine splitting and also Autler-Townes splitting of Doppler broadened lines. For nitrous oxide, experiments and model calculations have demonstrated that two main effects occur with ulsemodulated (chirped) quantum cascade lasers: free induction decay signals, and signals induced by rapid passage during the laser chirp. In the open shell molecule, NO, in which both {Lambda}-doubling splitting and hyperfine structure occur, laser field-induced coupling between the hyperfine levels of the two {Lambda}-doublet components can induce a large AC Stark effect. This may be observed as sub-Doppler structure, field-induced splittings, or Autler-Townes splitting of a Doppler broadened line. These represent an extension of the types of behaviour observed in the closed shell molecule nitrous oxide, using the same apparatus, when probed with an 8 {micro}m QC laser.

  7. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-08-15

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep-wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally. PMID:24860176

  8. Determination of the rate of rapid lipid transfer induced by poly(ethylene glycol) using the SLM Fourier transform phase and modulation spectrofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Burgess, S W; Wu, J R; Swift, K; Lentz, B R

    1991-06-01

    Rate constants were determined for the transfer of the fluorescent lipid probe 1-palmitoyl-2-[[2-[4-(6-phenyl-trans-1,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenyl]ethyl] oxy]carbonyl]-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPHpPC) between large, unilamellar extrusion vesicles composed either of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or of DPPC mixed with a small amount (0.5 mol%) of lyso phosphatidylcholine (Lyso PC). Transfer of the lipid probe in the presence of varying concentrations of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was monitored using the SLM 48000-MHF Multi-Harmonic Fourier Transform phase and modulation spectrofluorometer to collect multifrequency phase and modulation fluorescence data sets on a subsecond time scale. The unique ability of this instrument to yield accurate fluorescence lifetime data on this time scale allowed transfer to be detected in terms of a time-dependent change in the fluorescent lifetime distribution associated with the lipid-like DPHpPC probe. This probe demonstrates two short fluoresence decay times (ca. 1.1-1.4 and 4.3-4.8 ns) in a probe-rich environment but a single long lifetime (ca. 7 ns) in a probe-poor environment. A simple two-state model for initial lipid transfer was used to analyze the multifrequency data sets collected over a 4-s time frame to obtain the time rate of change of the concentrations of donor and acceptor probe populations following rapid mixing of vesicles with PEG. The ability to measure fluorescence lifetimes on this time scale has allowed us to show that the of rate of lipid transfer increased dramatically at 35% PEG in both fusing and nonfusing vesicle systems. These results are interpreted in terms of a distinct interbilayer structure associated with intimate bilayer contact induced by high and potentially fusogenic concentrations of PEG. PMID:24242960

  9. A sodium-activated potassium channel supports high-frequency firing and reduces energetic costs during rapid modulations of action potential amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Zakon, Harold H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ionic mechanisms that allow dynamic regulation of action potential (AP) amplitude as a means of regulating energetic costs of AP signaling. Weakly electric fish generate an electric organ discharge (EOD) by summing the APs of their electric organ cells (electrocytes). Some electric fish increase AP amplitude during active periods or social interactions and decrease AP amplitude when inactive, regulated by melanocortin peptide hormones. This modulates signal amplitude and conserves energy. The gymnotiform Eigenmannia virescens generates EODs at frequencies that can exceed 500 Hz, which is energetically challenging. We examined how E. virescens meets that challenge. E. virescens electrocytes exhibit a voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) with extremely rapid recovery from inactivation (τrecov = 0.3 ms) allowing complete recovery of Na+ current between APs even in fish with the highest EOD frequencies. Electrocytes also possess an inwardly rectifying K+ current and a Na+-activated K+ current (IKNa), the latter not yet identified in any gymnotiform species. In vitro application of melanocortins increases electrocyte AP amplitude and the magnitudes of all three currents, but increased IKNa is a function of enhanced Na+ influx. Numerical simulations suggest that changing INa magnitude produces corresponding changes in AP amplitude and that KNa channels increase AP energy efficiency (10–30% less Na+ influx/AP) over model cells with only voltage-gated K+ channels. These findings suggest the possibility that E. virescens reduces the energetic demands of high-frequency APs through rapidly recovering Na+ channels and the novel use of KNa channels to maximize AP amplitude at a given Na+ conductance. PMID:23324315

  10. Estrous cycle variations in GABA(A) receptor phosphorylation enable rapid modulation by anabolic androgenic steroids in the medial preoptic area.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, J G; Porter, D M; Onakomaiya, M M; Penatti, C A A; Vithlani, M; Moss, S J; Clark, A S; Henderson, L P

    2012-12-13

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic testosterone derivatives that are used for ergogenic purposes, alter neurotransmission and behaviors mediated by GABA(A) receptors. Some of these effects may reflect direct and rapid action of these synthetic steroids at the receptor. The ability of other natural allosteric steroid modulators to alter GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents is dependent upon the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex. Here we show that phosphorylation of the GABA(A) receptor complex immunoprecipitated by β(2)/β(3) subunit-specific antibodies from the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the mouse varies across the estrous cycle; with levels being significantly lower in estrus. Acute exposure to the AAS, 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MeT), had no effect on the amplitude or kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the mPOA of estrous mice when phosphorylation was low, but increased the amplitude of these currents from mice in diestrus, when it was high. Inclusion of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin, in the recording pipette eliminated the ability of 17α-MeT to enhance currents from diestrous animals, suggesting that PKC-receptor phosphorylation is critical for the allosteric modulation elicited by AAS during this phase. In addition, a single injection of 17α-MeT was found to impair an mPOA-mediated behavior (nest building) in diestrus, but not in estrus. PKC is known to target specific serine residues in the β(3) subunit of the GABA(A) receptor. Although phosphorylation of these β(3) serine residues showed a similar profile across the cycle, as did phosphoserine in mPOA lysates immunoprecipitated with β2/β3 antibody (lower in estrus than in diestrus or proestrus), the differences were not significant. These data suggest that the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex regulates both the ability of AAS to modulate receptor function in the mPOA and the expression of a simple mPOA-dependent behavior through a

  11. Dependence of Achievable Plan Quality on Treatment Technique and Planning Goal Refinement: A Head-and-Neck Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon Ruan, Dan; Lee, Steve P.; Pham, Andrew; Kupelian, Patrick; Low, Daniel A.; Steinberg, Michael; Demarco, John

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical workflow for retrospectively analyzing target and normal tissue dose–volume endpoints for various intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques; to develop technique-specific planning goals to improve plan consistency and quality when feasible. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive head-and-neck patients from our patient registry were selected and retrospectively analyzed. All IMRT plans were generated using the same dose–volume guidelines for TomoTherapy (Tomo, Accuray), TrueBeam (TB, Varian) using fixed-field IMRT (TB-IMRT) or RAPIDARC (TB-RAPIDARC), or Siemens Oncor (Siemens-IMRT, Siemens). A MATLAB-based dose–volume extraction and analysis tool was developed to export dosimetric endpoints for each patient. With a fair stratification of patient cohort, the variation of achieved dosimetric endpoints was analyzed among different treatment techniques. Upon identification of statistically significant variations, technique-specific planning goals were derived from dynamically accumulated institutional data. Results: Retrospective analysis showed that although all techniques yielded comparable target coverage, the doses to the critical structures differed. The maximum cord doses were 34.1 ± 2.6, 42.7 ± 2.1, 43.3 ± 2.0, and 45.1 ± 1.6 Gy for Tomo, TB-IMRT, TB-RAPIDARC, and Siemens-IMRT plans, respectively. Analyses of variance showed significant differences for the maximum cord doses but no significant differences for other selected structures among the investigated IMRT delivery techniques. Subsequently, a refined technique-specific dose–volume guideline for maximum cord dose was derived at a confidence level of 95%. The dosimetric plans that failed the refined technique-specific planning goals were reoptimized according to the refined constraints. We observed better cord sparing with minimal variations for the target coverage and other organ at risk sparing for the Tomo cases, and higher

  12. Rapid identification of amino acid types in proteins using phase modulated 2D HN(CACB) and 2D HN(COCACB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Abhinav; Mondal, Somnath; Chandra, Kousik; Atreya, Hanudatta S.

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple approach to rapidly identify amino acid types in proteins from a 2D spectrum. The method is based on the fact that 13Cβ chemical shifts of different amino acid types fall in distinct spectral regions. By evolving the 13C chemical shifts in the conventional HNCACB or HN(CO)CACB type experiment for a single specified delay period, the phase of the cross peaks of different amino acid residues are modulated depending on their 13Cβ shift values. Following this specified evolution period, the 2D HN projections of these experiments are acquired. The 13C evolution period can be chosen such that all residues belonging to a given set of amino acid types have the same phase pattern (positive or negative) facilitating their identification. This approach does not require the preparation of any additional samples, involves the analysis of 2D [15N-1H] HSQC-type spectra obtained from the routinely used triple resonance experiments with minor modifications, and is applicable to deuterated proteins. The method will be useful for quick assignment of signals that shift during ligand binding or in combination with selective labeling/unlabeling approaches for identification of amino acid types to aid the sequential assignment process.

  13. Rapid identification of amino acid types in proteins using phase modulated 2D HN(CACB) and 2D HN(COCACB).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Abhinav; Mondal, Somnath; Chandra, Kousik; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple approach to rapidly identify amino acid types in proteins from a 2D spectrum. The method is based on the fact that (13)C(β) chemical shifts of different amino acid types fall in distinct spectral regions. By evolving the (13)C chemical shifts in the conventional HNCACB or HN(CO)CACB type experiment for a single specified delay period, the phase of the cross peaks of different amino acid residues are modulated depending on their (13)C(β) shift values. Following this specified evolution period, the 2D HN projections of these experiments are acquired. The (13)C evolution period can be chosen such that all residues belonging to a given set of amino acid types have the same phase pattern (positive or negative) facilitating their identification. This approach does not require the preparation of any additional samples, involves the analysis of 2D [(15)N-(1)H] HSQC-type spectra obtained from the routinely used triple resonance experiments with minor modifications, and is applicable to deuterated proteins. The method will be useful for quick assignment of signals that shift during ligand binding or in combination with selective labeling/unlabeling approaches for identification of amino acid types to aid the sequential assignment process. PMID:27078090

  14. mGlu2 Receptor Agonism, but Not Positive Allosteric Modulation, Elicits Rapid Tolerance towards Their Primary Efficacy on Sleep Measures in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahnaou, Abdallah; Lavreysen, Hilde; Tresadern, Gary; Cid, Jose M.; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H.

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists are known to induce both cellular adaptations resulting in tolerance to therapeutic effects and withdrawal symptoms upon treatment discontinuation. Glutamate neurotransmission is an integral part of sleep-wake mechanisms, which processes have translational relevance for central activity and target engagement. Here, we investigated the efficacy and tolerance potential of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) agonist LY354740 versus mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-42153605 on sleep-wake organisation in rats. In vitro, the selectivity and potency of JNJ-42153605 were characterized. In vivo, effects on sleep measures were investigated in rats after once daily oral repeated treatment for 7 days, withdrawal and consecutive re-administration of LY354740 (1–10 mg/kg) and JNJ-42153605 (3–30 mg/kg). JNJ-42153605 showed high affinity, potency and selectivity at mGluR2. Binding site analyses and knowledge-based docking confirmed the specificity of JNJ-42153605 at the mGluR2 allosteric binding site. Acute LY354740 and JNJ-42153605 dose-dependently decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time and prolonged its onset latency. Sub chronic effects of LY354740 on REM sleep measures disappeared from day 3 onwards, whereas those of JNJ-42153605 were maintained after repeated exposure. LY354740 attenuated REM sleep homeostatic recovery, while this was preserved after JNJ-42153605 administration. JNJ-42153605 enhanced sleep continuity and efficiency, suggesting its potential as an add-on medication for impaired sleep quality during early stages of treatment. Abrupt cessation of JNJ-42153605 did not induce withdrawal phenomena and sleep disturbances, while the initial drug effect was fully reinstated after re-administration. Collectively, long-term treatment with JNJ-42153605 did not induce tolerance phenomena to its primary functional effects on sleep measures, nor adverse effects at withdrawal, while it promoted

  15. A Comparison of Course Completion, Satisfaction, Achievement, and Performance among Non-Profit Professionals Who Complete Andragogical or Pedagogical Online Learning Modules on Grant Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joe Bernard, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes among staff members of nonprofit social service agencies who participated in or completed an andragogically-facilitated or a pedagogically-conducted online learning module on foundation grant writing. The efficacy of andragogical methods is unknown and often debated due to scarce empirical…

  16. Dosimetric comparison between intensity-modulated radiotherapy and RapidArc with single arc and dual arc for malignant glioma involving the parietal lobe

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, JUN; LEI, MINGJUN; YANG, ZHEN; FU, JUN; HUO, LEI; HONG, JIDONG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the difference in treatment plan quality, monitor units (MUs) per fraction and dosimetric parameters between IMRT (intensity-modulated radiotherapy) and RapidArc with single arc (RA1) and dual arc (RA2) for malignant glioma involving the parietal lobe. Treatment plans for IMRT and RA1 and RA2 were prepared for 10 patients with malignant gliomas involving the parietal lobe. The Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test was used to compare the plan quality, monitor units and dosimetric parameters between IMRT and RA1 and RA2 through dose-volume histograms. Dnear-max (D2%) to the left lens, right lens and left optical nerve in RA1 were less compared with those in IMRT; D2% to the right lens and right optic nerve in RA2 were less compared with those in IMRT. D2% to the optic chiasma in RA2 was small compared with that in RA1. The median dose (D50%) to the right lens and right optic nerve in RA1 and RA2 was less compared with the identical parameters in IMRT, and D50% to the brain stem in RA2 was less compared with that in RA1. The volume receiving at least 45 Gy (V45) or V50 in normal brain tissue (whole brain minus the planning target volume 2; B-P) in RA1 was less compared with that in IMRT. V30, V35, V40, V45, or V50 in B-P in RA2 was less compared with that in IMRT. The MUs per fraction in RA1 and RA2 were significantly less compared with those in IMRT. All differences with a P-value<0.05 were considered to be significantly different. In conclusion, RA1 and RA2 markedly reduced the MUs per fraction, and spared partial organs at risk and B-P compared with IMRT. PMID:27330795

  17. Using a 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier with seeding light by 64-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation to achieve a 10-gbits/s upstream rate in long-reach passive optical network access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Wu, Yu-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We use a commercially available 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)--based optical network unit (ONU) to achieve 10-gbits/s upstream traffic for an optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON). This is the first time the 64--quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM format has been applied to RSOA-ONU to achieve a 75 km fiber transmission length. In the proposed LR-PON, the upstream power penalty of 5.2 dB at the bit error rate of 3.8×10-3 is measured by using a 64-QAM OFDM modulation after the 75 km fiber transmission without dispersion compensation.

  18. A Co-blended Locust Bean Gum and Polymethacrylate-NaCMC Matrix to Achieve Zero-Order Release via Hydro-Erosive Modulation.

    PubMed

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Modi, Girish; Pillay, Viness

    2015-12-01

    Locust bean gum (LBG) was blended with a cellulose/methacrylate-based interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) to assess the hydro-erosive influence of addition of a polysaccharide on the disposition and drug delivery properties inherent to IPEC matrix. The addition of LBG modulated the drug (levodopa) release characteristics of the IPEC by reducing excessive swelling and preventing bulk erosion. After 8 h in pH 4.5 dissolution medium, gravimetric analysis established that IPEC tablet matrix eroded by 30% of the initial weight due to bulk erosion while LBG-blended IPEC (LBG-b-IPEC) demonstrated surface erosion accounting to 62% of initial weight (596→226.8 mg). Mathematical modeling of the drug release data depicted a transformation from non-Fickian mechanism (IPEC matrices) to zero-order drug release pattern (LBG-b-IPEC matrices) with the linearity of release profile being close to 1 (R (2) = 0.99). Physicochemical characterizations employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) explicated that LBG interacted with IPEC by its hydrophilic groups associating with the existing water-holding bodies of IPEC to produce compact matrices. The lattice atomistic modeling elucidated that LBG acted as a linker with the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds generating a highly stabilized polysaccharide-polyelectrolytic structure which influenced the improved properties observed. PMID:25956484

  19. Addressing solar modulation and long-term uncertainties in scaling secondary cosmic rays for in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Bieber, John W.; Clem, John M.; Duldig, Marc L.; Evenson, Paul; Humble, John E.; Pyle, Roger

    2005-10-01

    Solar modulation affects the secondary cosmic rays responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide (CN) production the most at the high geomagnetic latitudes to which CN production rates are traditionally referenced. While this has long been recognized (e.g., D. Lal, B. Peters, Cosmic ray produced radioactivity on the Earth, in: K. Sitte (Ed.), Handbuch Der Physik XLVI/2, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967, pp. 551-612 and D. Lal, Theoretically expected variations in the terrestrial cosmic ray production rates of isotopes, in: G.C. Castagnoli (Ed.), Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics 95, Italian Physical Society, Varenna 1988, pp. 216-233), these variations can lead to potentially significant scaling model uncertainties that have not been addressed in detail. These uncertainties include the long-term (millennial-scale) average solar modulation level to which secondary cosmic rays should be referenced, and short-term fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity measurements used to derive published secondary cosmic ray scaling models. We have developed new scaling models for spallogenic nucleons, slow-muon capture and fast-muon interactions that specifically address these uncertainties. Our spallogenic nucleon scaling model, which includes data from portions of 5 solar cycles, explicitly incorporates a measure of solar modulation ( S), and our fast- and slow-muon scaling models (based on more limited data) account for solar modulation effects through increased uncertainties. These models improve on previously published models by better sampling the observed variability in measured cosmic ray intensities as a function of geomagnetic latitude, altitude, and solar activity. Furthermore, placing the spallogenic nucleon data in a consistent time-space framework allows for a more realistic assessment of uncertainties in our model than in earlier ones. We demonstrate here that our models reasonably account for the effects of solar modulation on measured

  20. Clinical application of RapidArc volumetric modulated arc therapy as a component in whole brain radiation therapy for poor prognostic, four or more multiple brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Heon; Choi, Jinho; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Seok Ho; Sung, Ki Hoon; Kim, Yunmi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine feasibility of RapidArc in sequential or simultaneous integrated tumor boost in whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for poor prognostic patients with four or more brain metastases. Materials and Methods Nine patients with multiple (≥4) brain metastases were analyzed. Three patients were classified as class II in recursive partitioning analysis and 6 were class III. The class III patients presented with hemiparesis, cognitive deficit, or apraxia. The ratio of tumor to whole brain volume was 0.8-7.9%. Six patients received 2-dimensional bilateral WBRT, (30 Gy/10-12 fractions), followed by sequential RapidArc tumor boost (15-30 Gy/4-10 fractions). Three patients received RapidArc WBRT with simultaneous integrated boost to tumors (48-50 Gy) in 10-20 fractions. Results The median biologically effective dose to metastatic tumors was 68.1 Gy10 and 67.2 Gy10 and the median brain volume irradiated more than 100 Gy3 were 1.9% (24 cm3) and 0.8% (13 cm3) for each group. With less than 3 minutes of treatment time, RapidArc was easily applied to the patients with poor performance status. The follow-up period was 0.3-16.5 months. Tumor responses among the 6 patients who underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging were partial and stable in 3 and 3, respectively. Overall survival at 6 and 12 months were 66.7% and 41.7%, respectively. The local progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months were 100% and 62.5%, respectively. Conclusion RapidArc as a component in whole brain radiation therapy for poor prognostic, multiple brain metastases is an effective and safe modality with easy application. PMID:22984683

  1. Highly efficient terahertz wave modulators by photo-excitation of organics/silicon bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Hyung Keun; Kang, Chul; Hwang, In-Wook; Yoon, Youngwoon; Lee, Kiejin; Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Joong Wook

    2014-07-07

    Using hybrid bilayer systems comprising a molecular organic semiconductor and silicon, we achieve optically controllable active terahertz (THz) modulators that exhibit extremely high modulation efficiencies. A modulation efficiency of 98% is achieved from thermally annealed C{sub 60}/silicon bilayers, due to the rapid photo-induced electron transfer from the excited states of the silicon onto the C{sub 60} layer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the broadband modulation of THz waves. The cut-off condition of the system that is determined by the formation of efficient charge separation by the photo-excitation is highly variable, changing the system from insulating to metallic. The phenomenon enables an extremely high modulation bandwidth and rates of electromagnetic waves of interest. The realization of near-perfect modulation efficiency in THz frequencies opens up the possibilities of utilizing active modulators for THz spectroscopy and communications.

  2. Comparative dosimetric and radiobiological assessment among a nonstandard RapidArc, standard RapidArc, classical intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 3D brachytherapy for the treatment of the vaginal vault in patients affected by gynecologic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Caivano, Rocchina; Fiorentino, Alba; Strigari, Lidia; Califano, Giorgia; Barbieri, Viviana; Sanpaolo, Piero; Castaldo, Giovanni; Benassi, Marcello; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a nonstandard RapidArc (RA) modality as alternative to high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BRT) or IMRT treatments of the vaginal vault in patients with gynecological cancer (GC). Nonstandard (with vaginal applicator) and standard (without vaginal applicator) RapidArc plans for 27 women with GC were developed to compare with HDR-BRT and IMRT. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison were performed by means of dose-volume histogram and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). In addition, the integral dose and the overall treatment times were evaluated. RA, as well as IMRT, results in a high uniform dose on PTV compared with HDR-BRT. However, the average of EUD for HDR-BRT was significantly higher than those with RA and IMRT. With respect to the OARs, standard RA was equivalent of IMRT but inferior to HDR-BRT. Furthermore, nonstandard RA was comparable with IMRT for bladder and sigmoid and better than HDR-BRT for the rectum because of a significant reduction of d{sub 2cc}, d{sub 1cc}, and d{sub max} (p < 0.01). Integral doses were always higher than HDR-BRT, although the values were very low. Delivery times were about the same and more than double for HDR-BRT compared with IMRT and RA, respectively. In conclusion, the boost of dose on vaginal vault in patients affected by GC delivered by a nonstandard RA technique was a reasonable alternative to the conventional HDR-BRT because of a reduction of delivery time and rectal dose at substantial comparable doses for the bladder and sigmoid. However HDR-BRT provides better performance in terms of PTV coverage as evidenced by a greater EUD.

  3. Rapid outer pore movements after opening in a KV1 potassium channel are revealed by TMRM fluorescence from the S3-S4 linker, and modulated by extracellular potassium.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Moninder; Horne, Andrew; Claydon, Thomas; Fedida, David

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence-based approaches provide powerful techniques to directly report structural dynamics underlying gating processes in Shaker KV channels. Here, following on from work carried out in Shaker channels, we have used voltage clamp fluorimetry for the first time to study voltage sensor motions in mammalian KV1.5 channels, by attaching TMRM fluorescent probes to substituted cysteine residues in the S3-S4 linker of KV1.5 (A397C). Compared with the Shaker channel, there are significant differences in the fluorescence signals that occur on activation of the channel. In addition to a well-understood fluorescence quenching signal associated with S4 movement, we have recorded a unique partial recovery of fluorescence after the quenching that is attributable to gating events at the outer pore mouth, that is not seen in Shaker despite significant homology between it and KV1.5 channels in the S5-P loop-S6 region. Extracellular potassium is known to modulate C-type inactivation in Shaker and KV channels at sites in the outer pore mouth, and so here we have measured the concentration-dependence of potassium effects on the fluorescence recovery signals from A397C. Elevation of extracellular K+ inhibits the rapid fluorescence recovery, with complete abolition at 99 mM K+, and an IC50 of 29 mM K+o. These experiments suggest that the rapid fluorescence recovery reflects early gating movements associated with inactivation, modulated by extracellular K+, and further support the idea that outer pore motions occur rapidly after KV1.5 channel opening and can be observed by fluorophores attached to the S3-S4 linker. PMID:19077547

  4. Module flammability research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Arnett, J. C.; Lewis, K.

    1984-03-01

    The technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules is explored. New materials of construction and module configurations to achieve increased fire resistance are investigated. The fire-resistance capability of current PV module designs is assessed. Parametric tests are performed to characterize flammability.

  5. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  6. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  7. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Damien C; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib; Miralbell, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Background A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Methods Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (DMax) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, DMax was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal DMedian was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI90) parameters. Results Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V95%85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm3 *105 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. Conclusion RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk. PMID:19740429

  8. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Modulates Basal and β-Adrenergic-Stimulated Contractility by Rapid and Reversible Redox-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Vielma, Alejandra Z.; León, Luisa; Fernández, Ignacio C.; González, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosylation of several Ca2+ regulating proteins in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was recently described in the heart; however the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform and signaling pathways responsible for this modification have not been elucidated. NOS-1 activity increases inotropism, therefore, we tested whether β-adrenergic stimulation induces NOS-1-dependent S-nitrosylation of total proteins, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), SERCA2 and the L-Type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). In the isolated rat heart, isoproterenol (10 nM, 3-min) increased S-nitrosylation of total cardiac proteins (+46±14%) and RyR2 (+146±77%), without affecting S-nitrosylation of SERCA2 and LTCC. Selective NOS-1 blockade with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) and Nω-propyl-l-arginine decreased basal contractility and relaxation (−25–30%) and basal S-nitrosylation of total proteins (−25–60%), RyR2, SERCA2 and LTCC (−60–75%). NOS-1 inhibition reduced (−25–40%) the inotropic response and protein S-nitrosylation induced by isoproterenol, particularly that of RyR2 (−85±7%). Tempol, a superoxide scavenger, mimicked the effects of NOS-1 inhibition on inotropism and protein S-nitrosylation; whereas selective NOS-3 inhibitor L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithine had no effect. Inhibition of NOS-1 did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation, but reduced its oligomerization. Attenuation of contractility was abolished by PKA blockade and unaffected by guanylate cyclase inhibition. Additionally, in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, NOS-1 inhibition or removal reduced the Ca2+-transient amplitude and sarcomere shortening induced by isoproterenol or by direct PKA activation. We conclude that 1) normal cardiac performance requires basal NOS-1 activity and S-nitrosylation of the calcium-cycling machinery; 2) β-adrenergic stimulation induces rapid and reversible NOS-1 dependent, PKA and ROS-dependent, S-nitrosylation of RyR2 and other proteins, accounting for about one third of its

  9. Clinical utility of RapidArc™ radiotherapy technology

    PubMed Central

    Infusino, Erminia

    2015-01-01

    RapidArc™ is a radiation technique that delivers highly conformal dose distributions through the complete rotation (360°) and speed variation of the linear accelerator gantry. This technique, called volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques, can achieve high-target volume coverage and sparing damage to normal tissues. RapidArc delivers precise dose distribution and conformity similar to or greater than intensity-modulated radiation therapy in a short time, generally a few minutes, to which image-guided radiation therapy is added. RapidArc has become a currently used technology in many centers, which use RapidArc technology to treat a large number of patients. Large and small hospitals use it to treat the most challenging cases, but more and more frequently for the most common cancers. The clinical use of RapidArc and VMAT technology is constantly growing. At present, a limited number of clinical data are published, mostly concerning planning and feasibility studies. Clinical outcome data are increasing for a few tumor sites, even if only a little. The purpose of this work is to discuss the current status of VMAT techniques in clinical use through a review of the published data of planning systems and clinical outcomes in several tumor sites. The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, BioMed Central, and Scopus databases by searching for the keywords “RapidArc”, “Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy”, and “Intensity-modulated radiotherapy”. PMID:26648755

  10. Rapid-L Operator-Free Fast Reactor Concept Without Any Control Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Tsunoda, Hirokazu; Mishima, Kaichiro; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2003-07-15

    The 200-kW(electric) uranium-nitride-fueled lithium-cooled fast reactor concept 'RAPID-L' to achieve highly automated reactor operation has been demonstrated. RAPID-L is designed for a lunar base power system. It is one of the variants of the RAPID (Refueling by All Pins Integrated Design) fast reactor concept, which enables quick and simplified refueling. The essential feature of the RAPID concept is that the reactor core consists of an integrated fuel assembly instead of conventional fuel subassemblies. In this small-size reactor core, 2700 fuel pins are integrated and encased in a fuel cartridge. Refueling is conducted by replacing a fuel cartridge. The reactor can be operated without refueling for up to 10 yr.Unique challenges in reactivity control systems design have been addressed in the RAPID-L concept. The reactor has no control rod but involves the following innovative reactivity control systems: lithium expansion modules (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback, lithium injection modules (LIM) for inherent ultimate shutdown, and lithium release modules (LRM) for automated reactor startup. All these systems adopt {sup 6}Li as a liquid poison instead of B{sub 4}C rods. In combination with LEMs, LIMs, and LRMs, RAPID-L can be operated without an operator. This reactor concept is also applicable to the terrestrial fast reactors. In this paper, the RAPID-L reactor concept and its transient characteristics are presented.

  11. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  12. Use of a novel rapid and resource-efficient cassette dosing approach to determine the pharmacokinetics and CNS distribution of small molecule 7-transmembrane receptor allosteric modulators in rat

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Thomas M; Morrison, Ryan D; Byers, Frank W; Luo, Shuanghui; Scott Daniels, J

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to efficiently and accurately define the pharmacokinetics (PK) of large sets of small molecules in rodents have been previously described. Likewise, a variety of methods for determining brain tissue distribution (BTD) have been reported for use in the discovery of therapeutics targeting the central nervous system (CNS). Herein we describe a novel cassette approach to efficiently obtain concurrent PK and BTD data from a dose of up to five compounds in one rat over 24 h. In conjunction with fraction unbound (fu) data obtained in plasma and brain homogenate, this approach serves as an efficient means to determine compound unbound brain:unbound plasma partition coefficients (Kp,uu), thereby providing insight to compounds bearing poor permeability and/or active transporter activity impacting their permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). This integrated approach was utilized in a lead optimization effort towards the discovery of CNS-penetrant allosteric modulators of a seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptor target. Rat PK and brain distribution was rapidly obtained for 70 compounds and correlated to data obtained from in vitro assessments. Two compounds that were evaluated in cassette and discrete studies, displayed agreement in PK (compound 1: cassette CLp = 1.6 mL min−1 kg−1, discrete CLp = 1.6 mL min−1 kg−1; compound 2: cassette CLp = 11 mL min−1 kg−1, discrete CLp = 8.1 mL min−1 kg−1) and BTD (compound 1: cassette Kp = 0.11, discrete Kp = 0.09; compound 2: cassette Kp < 0.05, discrete Kp = 0.04). The resulting data were used to guide medicinal chemistry efforts and to enable the progression of optimized compounds to in vivo pharmacodynamic assessments. PMID:25505618

  13. High-Risk, Advanced-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: The Impact of Combined Escalated BEACOPP and ABVD Treatment in Patients Who Rapidly Achieve Metabolic Complete Remission on Interim FDG-PET/CT Scan.

    PubMed

    Kedmi, Meirav; Apel, Arie; Davidson, Tima; Levi, Itai; Dann, Eldad J; Polliack, Aaron; Ben-Bassat, Isaac; Nagler, Arnon; Avigdor, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The escalated BEACOPP (escBEACOPP) regimen improves the outcome of patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) but is associated with cumbersome toxicity. We analyzed the survival outcome of high-risk, advanced-stage HL patients treated with response-adapted therapy. escBEACOPP was administered for 2 cycles, and after complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) was observed on FDG-PET/CT, treatment was de-escalated to 4 cycles of ABVD. Sixty-nine patients were evaluated, of them 45 participated in the multicenter, phase II prospective study between 2001 and 2007. Sixty patients had an international prognostic score ≥3. At a median follow-up of 5.6 years, 4 patients had died, 2 of them due to advanced HL. After the initial 2 cycles of escBEACOPP, 52 (75%) patients were in CR and 17 (25%) had a PR. Progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 79 and 93%, respectively. OS was predicted from the results of early-interim FDG-PET/CT: 98% of the patients in CR and 79% of those with a PR (p = 0.015). Hematological toxicity was more frequent during the first 2 cycles of escBEACOPP than in the ABVD phase. In conclusion, this retrospective analysis indicates that combined escBEACOPP-ABVD therapy is well tolerated and efficacious in HL patients who achieve negative early-interim PET results, while a positive PET result partially identified those with a worse prognosis. PMID:26588173

  14. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  15. RAPID-L Highly Automated Fast Reactor Concept Without Any Control Rods (1) Reactor concept and plant dynamics analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Tsunoda, Hirokazu; Mishima, Kaichiro; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2002-07-01

    The 200 kWe uranium-nitride fueled lithium cooled fast reactor concept 'RAPID-L' to achieve highly automated reactor operation has been demonstrated. RAPID-L is designed for Lunar base power system. It is one of the variants of RAPID (Refueling by All Pins Integrated Design), fast reactor concept, which enable quick and simplified refueling. The essential feature of RAPID concept is that the reactor core consists of an integrated fuel assembly instead of conventional fuel subassemblies. In this small size reactor core, 2700 fuel pins are integrated altogether and encased in a fuel cartridge. Refueling is conducted by replacing a fuel cartridge. The reactor can be operated without refueling for up to 10 years. Unique challenges in reactivity control systems design have been attempted in RAPID-L concept. The reactor has no control rod, but involves the following innovative reactivity control systems: Lithium Expansion Modules (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback, Lithium Injection Modules (LIM) for inherent ultimate shutdown, and Lithium Release Modules (LRM) for automated reactor startup. All these systems adopt lithium-6 as a liquid poison instead of B{sub 4}C rods. In combination with LEMs, LIMs and LRMs, RAPID-L can be operated without operator. This is the first reactor concept ever established in the world. This reactor concept is also applicable to the terrestrial fast reactors. In this paper, RAPID-L reactor concept and its transient characteristics are presented. (authors)

  16. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. PMID:24252381

  17. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  18. Achieving the Space Vision through Government Incentives and Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gump, David P.

    2005-02-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle family must be developed and operated at much lower cost levels than current vehicles in order to win public support, while providing a higher level of safety. The Transformational Space Corporation (t/Space) is under contract to NASA show how this can be accomplished through government incentives for the development of privately-owned infrastructure that sells services to both government and commercial space customers. This markets-based approach rewards companies that focus on delivering affordable products quickly, rather than on following elaborate government-supervised processes. The architecture developed by t/Space also eliminates the need to develop heavy-lift vehicles and lunar landers, cutting in half NASA's projected cost for the first human return to the Moon.

  19. A multipurpose digital modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Sumida, Joe T.

    1989-01-01

    The theoretical basis and hardware implementation of a versatile device which uses digital signal-processing methods to achieve signal modulation are reported. The carrier-modulation process is formulated as a simple quadrature equation; a generalized description of the signal constellation to be processed is derived; the pulse-shaping scheme is explained; and the system architecture is described in detail and illustrated with diagrams. Experimental results obtained with a breadboard transmitter based on this modulation technique are presented in extensive graphs. The power spectra and eye diagrams generated for different QPSK, 8PSK, and MSK modulation schemes are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. It is suggested that this modulator could be readily implemented in VLSI and mass produced.

  20. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  1. Water-module interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  2. Water-module interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  3. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  4. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  5. Multisite light-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor PIF3 is necessary for both its rapid degradation and concomitant negative feedback modulation of photoreceptor phyB levels in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants constantly monitor informational light signals using sensory photoreceptors, which include the phytochrome (phy) family (phyA to phyE), and adjust their growth and development accordingly. Following light-induced nuclear translocation, photoactivated phy molecules bind to and induce rapid pho...

  6. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  7. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  8. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  9. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  10. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  11. Virtual environment architecture for rapid application development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Southard, David A.; Lee, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the MITRE Virtual Environment Architecture (VEA), a product of nearly two years of investigations and prototypes of virtual environment technology. This paper discusses the requirements for rapid prototyping, and an architecture we are developing to support virtual environment construction. VEA supports rapid application development by providing a variety of pre-built modules that can be reconfigured for each application session. The modules supply interfaces for several types of interactive I/O devices, in addition to large-screen or head-mounted displays.

  12. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  13. THE RABIT: A RAPID AUTOMATED BIODOSIMETRY TOOL FOR RADIOLOGICAL TRIAGE

    PubMed Central

    Garty, Guy; Chen, Youhua; Salerno, Alessio; Turner, Helen; Zhang, Jian; Lyulko, Oleksandra; Bertucci, Antonella; Xu, Yanping; Wang, Hongliang; Simaan, Nabil; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Yao, Y. Lawrence; Amundson, Sally A.; Brenner, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the recognized need for high throughput biodosimetry methods for use after large scale radiological events, a logical approach is complete automation of standard biodosimetric assays that are currently performed manually. We describe progress to date on the RABIT (Rapid Automated BIodosimetry Tool), designed to score micronuclei or γ-H2AX fluorescence in lymphocytes derived from a single drop of blood from a fingerstick. The RABIT system is designed to be completely automated, from the input of the capillary blood sample into the machine, to the output of a dose estimate. Improvements in throughput are achieved through use of a single drop of blood, optimization of the biological protocols for in-situ analysis in multi-well plates, implementation of robotic plate and liquid handling, and new developments in high-speed imaging. Automating well-established bioassays represents a promising approach to high-throughput radiation biodosimetry, both because high throughputs can be achieved, but also because the time to deployment is potentially much shorter than for a new biological assay. Here we describe the development of each of the individual modules of the RABIT system, and show preliminary data from key modules. Ongoing is system integration, followed by calibration and validation. PMID:20065685

  14. Module voltage isolation and corrosion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of recent research at JPL on two topics related to achieving long term reliability of photovoltaic modules: voltage isolation and electrochemical corrosion is presented. Special emphasis is given to similarities and differences in performance between crystalline silicon modules and amorphous silicon modules.

  15. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  16. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  10. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  11. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  12. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  13. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  14. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  15. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  18. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  19. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  20. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  1. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  2. Measuring PV module delamination

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.B.

    1980-09-22

    Delamination of the encapsulating pottant from both substrate and silicon cells in solar photovoltaic modules has been a common occurrence. While the extent of delamination is in some cases minor, there are other cases where appreciably large areas have been affected. At this time, most delaminated areas do not appear to cause electrical degradation of modules; however, keeping track of delamination growth and rate of growth is important and has been difficult. More accurate measurement of delamination has been achieved by using an acoustic digitizer to record the pattern of delamination. With the aid of a computer, software can be generated that shows the exact areas of delamination. By periodic measrement of those types of modules prone to delamination, growth rates can be documented.

  3. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  4. PyTrilinos Rapid Prototyping Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-01

    PyTrilinos provides access to selected Trilinos packages from the python scripting language. This allows interactive and dynamic creation of Trilinos objects, rapid prototyping that does not require compilation, and "gluing" Trilinos scripts to other python modules, such as plotting, etc. The currently supported packages are Epetra, EpetraExt, and NOX.

  5. Socioeconomic Background Modulates Cognition-Achievement Relationships in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Farah, Martha J.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple factors contribute to individual differences in reading ability. The two most thoroughly examined are socioeconomic status (SES) and phonological awareness (PA). Although these factors are often investigated individually, they are rarely considered together. Here we propose that SES systematically influences the relationship between PA…

  6. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  7. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  8. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  9. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  10. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  11. Recovery of Large Angular Scale CMB Polarization for Instruments Employing Variable-delay Polarization Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Marriage, T. A.; Wollack, E. J.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fixsen, D. J.; Harrington, K.; Moseley, S. H.; Rostem, K.; Switzer, E. R.; Watts, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.01. Indeed, r < 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  12. Single-exposure multiphoton fabrication of polygonized structures by an SLM-modulated Fresnel zone lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei; Li, Jiawen; Lao, Zhaoxin; Xu, Bing; Ni, Jincheng; Cai, Ze; Wu, Dong; Chu, Jiaru

    2016-03-01

    Recently, annular beams have been developed to rapidly fabricate microscope tubular structures via two-photon polymerization, but the distribution of the light field is limited to a ring pattern. Here a Fresnel lens is designed and applied to modulate the light field into a uniform quadrangle or hexagon shape with controllable diameters. By applying a spatial light modulator to load the phase information of the Fresnel lens, quadrangle and hexagon structures are achieved through single exposure of a femtosecond laser. A 3×6 array of structures is made within 9 s. Comparing with the conventional holographic processing, this method shows higher uniformity, high efficiency, better flexibility, and easy operation. The approach exhibited a promising prospect in rapidly fabricating structures such as tissue engineering scaffolds and variously shaped tubular arrays.

  13. PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Rapid Communications Rapid Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tom

    2009-09-01

    As part of a general review of Superconductor Science and Technology, we have been examining the scope for Rapid Communications (RAPs). We recognize these articles make up an important part of the journal representing the latest state-of-the-art research in superconductivity. To reflect this, we have devised a new scope for this article type: 'Rapid Communications. The journal offers open access to outstanding short articles (no longer than 5 journal pages or 4500 words including figures) reporting new and timely developments in superconductivity and its applications. These articles should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity to the readers of Superconductor Science and Technology, but are not expected to meet any requirement of 'general interest'. RAPs will be processed quickly (average receipt to online publication for RAPs is around 60 days) and are permanently free to read in the electronic journal. Authors submitting a RAP should provide reasons why the work is urgent and requires rapid publication. Each RAP will be assessed for suitability by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor before full peer review takes place.' The essential points are: They should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity and its application; They must be no longer than 5 journal pages long (approx. 4500 words); Average publication time for a Rapid Communication is 60 days; They are free to read. As mentioned in the previous publisher's announcement (2009 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 010101), each submitted Rapid Communication must come with a letter justifying why it should be prioritized over regular papers and will be pre-assessed by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor. In addition, we will work with the authors of any Rapid Communication to promote and raise the visibility of the work presented in it. We will be making further changes to the journal in the near future and we write to you accordingly. Thank you for your kind

  14. Linearized Bragg grating assisted electro-optic modulator.

    PubMed

    Khurgin, Jacob B; Morton, Paul A

    2014-12-15

    We propose a new linearized electro-optic modulator in which linearization is achieved by modulating the index of a Bragg grating reflector placed in the arm(s) of a Michelson Interferometer. This grating-assisted Michelson (GAMI) modulator can operate as either an intensity or amplitude modulator, and is shown to significantly improve the linearity of microwave photonics links. PMID:25503037

  15. Problems of rapid growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries. PMID:12336527

  16. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  17. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  18. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  19. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  20. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  1. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  2. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  3. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  4. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  5. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  6. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  7. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  8. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  9. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  10. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  11. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  12. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  13. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  14. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  15. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  16. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  17. Intensity modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Kooy, H M; Grassberger, C

    2015-07-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed "pencil beams" of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak-the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range-combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose "painting" within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the highest level of

  18. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  19. Firefighting Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  20. Thermionic modules

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  1. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  2. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  3. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and < 0.16″ in the near infrared leading to an increase of the infrared point-source sensitivity against the sky background by a factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and

  4. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  5. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  6. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution. PMID:23729251

  7. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1999-06-07

    Emerging technologies in the field of "Test & Measurement" have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW®, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past.

  8. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  9. Parabolic dish module experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    A development test model of the 8-meter Solar Brayton Parabolic Dish Module has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The test model consists of five major subsystems: Sanders ceramic honeycomb solar receiver; LaJet LEC460 solar concentrator; AiRsearch SABC MKIIIA engine, Abacus 8 kW ac inverter; and a Sanders designed and built system controller. Goals of the tests were to integrate subsystem components into a working module, demonstrate the concept, and generate 5 kWe (hybrid) and 4.7 kWe (solar only) input. All subsystem integration goals were successfully achieved, but system performance efficiency was lower than expected. Contributing causes of the lower performance efficiencies have been identified. Modifications needed to restore performance to the required levels and improve the system life cycle cost have been addressed and are the subject of this final report.

  10. 30% CPV Module Milestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Robert; Kinsey, Geoff; Nayaak, Adi; Garboushian, Vahan

    2010-10-01

    Concentrating Photovoltaics has held out the promise of low cost solar electricity for now several decades. Steady progress towards this goal in the 80's and 90's gradually produced more efficient and reliable systems. System efficiency is regarded as the largest factor in lowering the electricity cost and the relatively recent advent of the terrestrial multi-junction solar cell has pressed this race forward dramatically. CPV systems are now exhibiting impressive AC field efficiencies of 25% and more, approximately twice that of the best flat plate systems available today. Amonix inc. has just tested their latest generation multi-junction module design, achieving over 31% DC efficiency at near PVUSA test conditions. Inculcating this design into their next MegaModule is forthcoming, but the expected AC system field efficiency should be significantly higher than current 25% levels.